12 of 14: George Peabody (1795-1869): A-Z Handbook…, By Franklin Parker & Betty J. Parker, bfparker@frontiernet.net

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12 of 14: George Peabody (1795-1869): A-Z Handbook of the Massachusetts-Born Merchant in the South, London-Based Banker, and Philanthropist’s Life, Influence, and Related People, Places, Events, and Institutions. ©2007, By Franklin Parker & Betty J. Parker, bfparker@frontiernet.net

This work updates and expands Franklin Parker, George Peabody, A Biography (Nashville, Tenn.: Vanderbilt Univ. Press, ©1971, revised with illustrations ©1995), and the authors’ related George Peabody publications. Note: To read on your computer Franklin Parker’s out-of-print George Peabody, A Biography, 1995, as a free Google E-book copy and paste on your browser: http://books.google.com/books?id=OPIbk-ZPnF4C&pg=PP1&lpg=PR4&dq=Franklin+Parker,+George+Peabody,+a+Biography&output=html&sig=6R8ZoKwN1B36wtCSePijnLaYJS8

Background: Why these 1 to 14 blogs on George Peabody? The authors attended George Peabody College for Teachers, Nashville (renamed Peabody College of Vanderbilt Univ. July 1, 1979). Franklin Parker’s doctoral dissertation, “George Peabody, Founder of Modern Philanthropy,” 1956, has been an ongoing research and writing interest for over 50 years. The authors’ intent is to perpetuate public memory of him.

George Peabody, now largely forgotten by scholars and the public, was significant as: 1-a Massachusetts-born merchant in the U.S. South, beginning as junior partner in Riggs, Peabody & Co. (1814-29); then head of Peabody, Riggs & Co. (1829-43), importing dry goods and other commodities worldwide for sale to U.S. wholesalers. He transformed himself from merchant into: 2-a London-based merchant-banker, George Peabody & Co. (1838-64), which helped finance the B&O RR, the 2nd Mexican War Loan, the Atlantic Cable, and by choosing Junius Spencer Morgan (1813-90) as partner Oct. 1, 1854, was a root of the JP Morgan international banking firm.

Merchant-turned-banker George Peabody finally became: 3-the best known U.S. philanthropist of the 1850s-60s, founding the Peabody Homes of London for the working poor; founder in the U.S. of 7 Peabody Libraries and Lecture Halls; the Peabody Conservatory of Music, Baltimore; three Peabody Museums at Harvard (Anthropology), Yale (Paleontology), and the Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA (maritime history); and founder of the Peabody Education Fund for the South (1867-1914), a model for all later larger U.S. funds and foundations.

Two tributes to George Peabody:

Historian John Steele Gordon called George Peabody the “Most Underrated Philanthropist…. Peabody is unjustly forgotten today, but his unprecedented generosity was greatly appreciated in his time.” Ref.: American Heritage. Vol. 50, No. 3 (May-June 1999), pp. 68-69.

“The Peabody Fund, established in 1867 by George Peabody to assist southern education, is often credited with being the first foundation….” Ref.: Reader’s Companion to American History, ed. by Eric Foner and John A. Garraty (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1991). Internet: http://HistoryChannel.com/

End of Background. HTML symbols are intended for blogging (ignore). This 12 of 14 blogs covers entries from: Whittier, J.G. 2. to References: Books… “Maryland Resolution to George Peabody.”

Whittier, J.G. 2-Georgetown, Mass.: Mother’s Birthplace. Georgetown, Mass., is 28 miles northeast of Boston, not far from GP’s birthplace of Danvers (renamed Peabody since April 13, 1868), Mass. GP’s mother, Judith (née Dodge) Peabody (1770-1830) was born there when it was called Rowley, Mass. GP’s sister Judith Dodge (Peabody) Russell Daniels (1799-1879) lived in Georgetown, Mass., with her first husband, Jeremiah Russell, a lawyer. They married in 1831. Jeremiah Russell died May 2, 1860, in debt and with his affairs in disarray. GP took over Jeremiah Russell’s debts (about $16,000) and, because Jeremiah Russell had handled family legal affairs, GP asked his Vt.-born friend, sometime agent, and fellow London resident genealogist Horatio Gates Somerby (1805-72), then visiting the U.S., to go over Jeremiah Russell’s books. Sister Judith, a widow for two years (1860-62), married her second husband, Robert Shillaber Daniels (b.1791). Ref.: Ibid.

Whittier, J.G. 3-Split in the Congregation. GP used sister Judith’s home on Main St. in Georgetown as his home while in Mass. during his second U.S. visit (May 1, 1866 to May 1, 1867). During this visit GP decided to build a Memorial Church in Georgetown in memory of his and his sister Judith’s mother. GP had this Memorial Church built because a split had occurred in the orthodox Congregational Church in Georgetown, Mass., in which Judith was a member and in which their mother had been a member. Some 85 parishioners differed with the pastor, the Rev. Charles Beecher (1815-1900), over doctrine. On Jan. 17, 1864, the dissenters formed a separate congregation, met in a small chapel, and had little money to build another church. Ref.: Ibid. See: persons named.

Whittier, J.G. 4-Sister Suggested Memorial Church. Judith sympathized with the dissenters, wrote her brother GP about what had occurred, and suggested that he might like to build a church in Georgetown in honor of their mother. Thus in May 1866, soon after he arrived in NYC from London (May 1, 1866), GP had a site selected and named a building committee (consisting of Judith’s son and GP’s nephew, George Peabody Russell [1835-1909], and a family friend, George J. Tenney). Ground was broken on June 19, 1866. The cornerstone was laid on Sept. 19, 1866. Ref.: Ibid.

Whittier, J.G. 5-GP’s April 18, 1867, Speech. GP was to return to London May l, 1867. Georgetown citizens chose April 18, 1867, to bid him farewell. He asked particularly that schoolchildren be present. That afternoon, following introductions, GP said: “This reception is gratifying…. Here, since the earliest days of New England, my maternal ancestors lived and died. More of my family connections live here now than any other place. More than sixty years ago, I distinctly remember, a promised visit to Rowley was one of my brightest anticipations. Here my mother was born, she whom I loved so much, whose memory I revere. Here she passed her childhood and therefore these scenes are to me consecrated ground.” Ref.: Ibid.

Whittier, J.G. 6-GP’s April 18, 1867, Speech Cont’d.: “The church will soon be completed which will preserve my mother’s name. While I have the most kindly feelings for all religious societies in this town, I will place this church under that affiliation in which she worshipped [Orthodox Congregational]…. It is now and has always been my belief that nothing is as depreciating as unkindly feelings in matters of religious differences. In our country all religious denominations and political parties may enjoy their beliefs. The church and library now being built, I hope, will be an influence in this direction.” Ref.: Ibid.

Whittier, J.G. 7-GP’s April 18, 1867, Speech Cont’d.: “Religion and education should go hand in hand. The library and the church should assist each other in the great work of teaching men mortal and immortal things, of life here and life hereafter. No education is complete which does not extend to eternity. The buildings envisioned here, I earnestly pray, will fulfill this mission.” “Now I turn to the children…. On you I rely for success in what I am attempting to do. The management of the church and library will in time fall to you. I pray that you use it as an instrument of great good…. Farewell.” Ref.: Ibid.

Whittier, J.G. 8-GP’s Restrictions Read at Dedication. The Peabody Memorial Church, Georgetown, Mass., was dedicated Jan. 8, 1868. After the invocation and scripture reading, the Rev. George W. Campbell of Bradford, Mass., read poet John Greenleaf Whittier’s specially written poem entitled “Memorial Hymn.” His poem was followed by the sermon. GP, Oct. 18, 1867, in London, sent a letter to be read. Judith (née Peabody) Daniels’ son George Peabody Russell read GP’s letter: “…In the building of this church my sister and I desire two things, to consecrate the memory of our mother and to build a house of worship to Almighty God in the Orthodox Congregational faith to which she belonged.” “We convey this building to you subject to four conditions: that it always be called ‘The Memorial Church’ in memory of our mother; that it exclude political and other subjects not in keeping with its religious purposes; that the minister shall be chosen from the Orthodox Congregational Church; and that tablets be installed to commemorate our mother and your former pastor…..” Ref.: Ibid.

Whittier, J.G. 9-Whittier Objected. When he learned of GP’s restriction, that the church “exclude political and other subjects not in keeping with its religious purposes,” Whittier objected. A New York Independent article entitled “A Marred Memorial,” stated that the poem would never have been written nor the poet’s name lent to the occasion had Whittier known of this restriction. Whittier published a similar statement in the Boston Daily Evening Transcript stating that he wrote the “Memorial Hymn” for the sole purpose of paying a brother’s and sister’s tribute to their mother. He thought this tribute was beautiful but had since learned with surprise and sorrow of GP’s restrictions. Thus the matter ended. In 1866, GP gave $30,000 for a Peabody Institute Library in Georgetown, Mass. His well-intended Memorial Church gift in Georgetown, Mass., to honor his mother (cost $70,000), was among his lesser known and less appreciated gifts. Ref.: Ibid.

Whittier, J.G. 10-Career. John Greenleaf Whittier was born in Haverhill, Mass.; was a Quaker, abolitionist, fighter for peace, temperance, and woman’s suffrage. He served in the Mass. legislature (1834-35). After the Civil War he turned from politics completely to poetry. His “The Barefoot Boy” is a perennial favorite. “Snowbound” is his most famous poem. Ref.: Ibid.

Wiesbaden, Germany. From Wiesbaden, Germany, early 1863, GP wrote his nephew Othniel Charles Marsh (1831-99), then specializing in vertebrate paleontology at the Univ. of Berlin, to meet him in Hamburg in mid-May 1863. Marsh talked about developments in paleontology and the need for an endowed museum to find and reconstruct the antecedents and cultural history of man. Marsh influenced his uncle’s later founding of three Peabody museums at Harvard and Yale universities, Oct. 8 and 22, 1866, $150,000 each; and at Salem, Mass., Feb. 26, 1867, $140,000. See: Marsh, Othniel Charles. Science: GP’s Gifts to Science and Science Education.

Wilcocks, Charlotte Manigault (1821-75), was a Philadelphia belle who, after her parents died (father Samuel Wilcocks, death year unknown; mother Harriet Manigault Wilcocks died 1835 when Charlotte was 14), lived with her uncle Joseph Reed Ingersoll (1786-1868), successful Penn. lawyer and statesman; member of the Penn. Legislature and the U.S. Congress; and U.S. Minister to Britain during 1852-53. In London GP gave public dinners to introduce Minister Ingersoll, his wife, and his niece on Oct. 12, 1852 and May 18, 1853. GP also attended the opera and some social functions with Miss Wilcocks, causing press speculation about a romance and possible wedding. In a May 3, 1853, letter to Washington, D.C., business friend William Wilson Corcoran, GP dismissed press reports of a possible romance with Miss Wilcocks: “I have now arrived at an age [58] that throws aside all thoughts of marriage [although] I think her [Miss Wilcocks] a very fine woman.” See: Ingersoll, Joseph Reed. Romance and GP.

Wilcoxon, Hardy C. (1921-96), was a GPCFT faculty member from 1966 and PCofVU Acting Dean during 1979-80 until the appointment of first PCofVU Dean Willis D. Hawley (b. 1938) during Oct. 15, 1980-89; succeeded by second PCofVU Dean James William Pellegrino (b. 1947) during 1992-Aug. 1998; succeeded by third PCofVU Dean Camilla Persson Benbow (b. 1956) from Aug. 1998. H.C. Wilcoxon, who attended the Univ. of Arkansas (B.A., 1947; M.A., 1948) and Yale Univ. (Ph.D., 1951), retired in 1986 to his native Ark. For details of PCofVU’s six predecessor colleges and their nineteen chief administrators, See: PCofVU, history of. Conkin, Peabody College, index.

Wilkes, the Trent Affair, and GP

Wilkes, Charles (1798-1877). 1-Illegal Seizure. On Nov. 8, 1861, Capt. Charles Wilkes of the Union warship San Jacinto illegally stopped the British mail packet Trent in the West Indies Bahama Channel and forcibly removed four Confederate emissaries on their way to seek recognition, arms, and credit from Britain and France. Taken into custody were James Murray Mason (1798-1871) of Va. and his male secretary, bound for Britain, and John Slidell (1793-1871) from La. and his male secretary, bound for France. See: Trent Affair.

Wilkes, Charles. 2-Furor over the Trent Affair. The seizure of Mason, Slidell, and their secretaries, and their incarceration in Boston Harbor’s Fort Warren prison created a furor in Britain and France and exultation in the U.S. North. Angry recriminations over the Trent affair lasted well into 1862, making GP, his advisors, and trustees in London, postpone to March 12, 1862 announcement of the Peabody Donation Fund, a $2.5 million (total) gift for model housing for London’s working poor. Ref.: Ibid.

Wilkes, Charles. 3-British-built Confederate Raiders. British upper and middle classes favored the Confederacy, whose Southern cotton was essential for British textile manufacture. Also, the Confederacy, without a navy, sent secret agents to buy British-built ships, which were then outfitted as Confederate warships. The British-built Confederate Alabama, for example, sunk 64 Union ships. Years later (1872), in international arbitration over the Alabama Claims, Britain paid the U.S. $15.5 million indemnity. Ref.: Ibid.

Wilkes, Charles. 4-GP-Trent Involvement. The seriousness of the Trent affair and other British-U.S. provocations worried GP and his advisors. Would the British government, press, and public reject his London housing gift? Britain demanded release of the four prisoners and an explanation. U.S. jingoism calmed. Pres. Lincoln’s cabinet met Dec. 26, 1861, and disavowed Capt. Wilkes’s action as unauthorized. The four Confederates were released on Jan. 1, 1862. Ref.: Ibid.

Wilkes, Charles. 5-GP-Trent Involvement Cont’d. Confederate emissary John Slidell’s secretary was George Eustice (1828-72), both from La. George Eustice was married to Louise Morris Corcoran (1838-67), the only daughter of GP’s longtime business associate William Wilson Corcoran (1798-1888) of Washington, D.C. She was a favorite of GP, who had entertained Corcoran and his daughter, sometimes the daughter alone, on European trips. Ref.: Ibid.

Wilkes, Charles. 6- GP-Trent Involvement Cont’d. Another GP-Trent connection occurred when the Trent officer in charge of the mail, identified as Capt. Richard Williams, was asked at a dinner to explain what happened on the Trent. His version, published in the Liverpool Daily Post, Jan. 8, 1862, was that when the San Jacinto‘s Lt. Fairfax demanded to take Mason and Slidell into custody, they appeared before him with Slidell’s daughter clinging to her father. When Lt. Fairfax tried to separate father and daughter, she slapped his face. The Daily Post article added that there was a contradiction to Capt. Williams’ version from a Member of Parliament who “had the contradiction from George Peabody, the well known banker and merchant.” Ref.: Liverpool Daily Post, Jan. 8, 1862, p. 5, c. 1-2.

Wilkes, Charles. 7-Hanckel Affair. The article added information from a Mr. Allen S. Kanckel (his last name was, in fact, Hanckel), who claimed to have witnessed the Trent incident. He told the editor that Slidell’s daughter did not slap Lt. Fairfax but “put her hand twice on his face to keep him back.” The article ended with: “Mr. Kanckel adds, that Mr. Peabody, uninvited, called on Mrs. Slidell, and behaved ungentlemanly.” The editor sent GP the news article along with Allen S. Hanckel’s calling card. Hanckel wrote GP that the Daily Post editor had made a mistake, that it had been GP’s partner, Junius Spencer Morgan (1813-90), who had burst uninvited into Mrs. Slidell’s room. Hanckel added with an implied threat, “I shall certainly call upon you and hope to receive an explanation.” Mr. Hanckel’s visit did not materialize. The Trent affair had stirred many passions. Ref.: Ibid.

Wilkes, Charles. 8-Career. Born in NYC, Charles Wilkes entered the merchant service, was appointed a midshipman (1818), surveyed Narragansett Bay (1832-33), headed the Navy Dept. of Charts and Instruments (1833), and commanded a scientific flotilla of six ships which did research in the South Pacific and in the Antarctic. In the Antarctic, Wilkes Land is named for him. He also explored the Pacific Northwest waters, encircled the globe, and wrote Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition, five volumes and an atlas (1844) and edited other scientific works on the expedition (1844-74). After the Trent Affair, the Civil War’s most serious foreign affairs crisis, he was made commodore in charge of operations against Confederate raiders in the West Indies (1862), but was recalled June 1863, and was court-martialed for disobedience and insubordination (1864). He was finally made rear admiral on the retired list (1866). Ref.: Wallace and Gillespie, II, p. 913, footnote 14.

Willard, Ashbel P. (1820-60), was governor of Indiana with whom GP spent the night of April 7, 1857, during GP’s Sept. 15, 1856, to Aug. 19, 1857, U.S. visit. Born in Oneida County, N.Y, a graduate of Hamilton College (1842), he studied law, moved to Mich., Texas, Ky., and to New Albany, Ind., where he practiced law, served in the Ind. House of Representatives (1850-51), was Ind. lt. governor, and governor during 1857-60. Ref.: Sobel and Raimo, eds., p. 403. See: Visits to the U.S. by GP.

PEF Trustees First Meeting, Willard’s Hotel, Washington, D.C.

Willard’s Hotel, Washington, D.C. 1-PEF Founding Meeting, Feb. 8, 1867. Ten of the 16 PEF trustees first met in an upper room of Willard’s Hotel, Washington, D.C., Feb. 8, 1867, to hear PEF trustee Pres. Robert Charles Winthrop (1809-94) read GP’s Feb. 7, 1867, founding letter. A contemporary account, basis of later versions, stated: “Ceremonies were held in [trustee] Mr. [William Maxwell] Evart’s room, and were very impressive. The distinguished party knelt in prayer delivered by [Ohio Episcopal] Bishop [Charles Pettit] McIlvaine [1799-1873],” also a trustee. See: Congressional Gold Medal and Resolutions of Praise for GP. PEF.

Willard’s Hotel. 2-J.L.M. Curry’s Account. J.L.M. Curry’s later (1898) description of that scene: “Mr. Peabody addressed his Letter of Gift to sixteen gentlemen on the 8th of February, 1867, ten of whom were assembled in a little upper chamber of Willard’s Hotel at Washington. Mr. Winthrop communicated the letter constituting them and their associates Trustees. Deeply sensible of the honor conferred, and of the responsibility and magnitude of the Trust, and realizing their dependence on the guidance and blessing of God, whose favor had been invoked by Bishop McIlvaine [a trustee], they received their credentials and the securities from the hands of Mr. Peabody himself, accepted the obligations prescribed, and inaugurated the work committed to them.” Ref.: Ibid.

Willard’s Hotel. 3-GPCFT Pres. B.R. Payne’s 1916 Account. GPCFT Pres. Bruce Ryburn Payne’s (1874-1937) Feb. 18, 1916, Founders Day speech described that first PEF trustee meeting dramatically: “There stand several governors of states both North and South; senators of the United States, Ulysses Grant and Admiral Farragut. Mr. Winthrop is called to take the chair. Mr. Peabody rises to read his deed of gift. They kneel in a circle of prayer, the Puritan of New England [R.C. Winthrop], the pioneer of the West, the financier of the metropolis [GP], and the defeated veteran of the Confederacy. [On] bended knee they dedicate this great gift. They consecrate themselves to its wise expenditure. In that act, not quite two years after Appomattox, is the first guarantee of a reunited country.” Ref.: Ibid. See: persons named.

Willard’s Hotel. 4-U.S. Pres. Andrew Johnson Called on GP, Feb. 9, 1867. On Feb. 9, 1867, Pres. Andrew Johnson (1808-75, 17th U.S. president during 1865-69), his secretary, Col. William George Moore (1829-93), and three others, called on GP at his Willard’s Hotel rooms. With GP at the time were a-PEF trustee Pres. Robert Charles Winthrop, b-trustee Charles Pettit McIlvaine (1799-1873, Episcopal Bishop of Ohio), c-trustee William Aiken (1806-87, former S.C. governor); d- GP’s business friend Samuel Wetmore (1813?-85), e-his wife, and f-their son; g-GP’s nephew George Peabody Russell (1835-1909), h-George Washington Riggs (1813-81), and three others. Ref.: Ibid. See: persons named.

Willard’s Hotel. 5-U.S. Pres. Andrew Johnson Called on GP, Feb. 9, 1867 Cont’d. Pres. Johnson took GP by the hand (GP was age 72 and often ill) and said that he thought he would find GP alone, that he called simply as a private citizen to thank GP for his PEF gift to aid public education in the South, that he thought the gift would do much to unite the country, that he was glad to have a man like GP representing the U.S. in England. Pres. Johnson invited GP to visit him in the White House. With emotion, GP thanked Pres. Johnson. He said that this meeting was one of the greatest honors of his life, that he knew the president’s political course would be in the country’s best interest, that England from the Queen downward felt goodwill toward the U.S., that he thought in a few years the country would rise above its divisions to become happier and more powerful. Ref.: Ibid.

Willard’s Hotel. 6-Pres. Johnson’s Impeachment Concern. Pres. Johnson faced hostile radical Republicans in Congress bent on impeaching him for his conciliatory policy toward the former Confederate states. To avoid impeachment, Pres. Johnson’s political advisor, Francis Preston Blair, Sr. (1791-1876), advised a complete cabinet change: GP as Treasury Secty., Mass. Gov. John Albion Andrew (1818-67) as Secty. of State, Ohio Gov. Jacob Dolson Cox (1828-1900) as Interior Secty., U.S. Sen. Edgar Cowan (1815-85) of Penn. as Atty.-Gen., Adm. D.G. Farragut (1801-70) as Navy Secty., Gen. U.S. Grant (1822-85) as Secty. of War, and Horace Greeley (1811-72) as Postmaster Gen. Ref.: Ibid.

Willard’s Hotel. 7-GP at the White House. On April 25, 1867, before his May 1, 1867, departure for London, GP called on Pres. Johnson in the Blue Room of the White House and they spoke of the work of the PEF. With GP were B&O RR. Pres. John Work Garrett (1820-84) and the 18-year-old son of Samuel Wetmore, William Boerum Wetmore (b. Dec. 7, 1849). GP told Pres. Johnson of young Wetmore’s interest in being admitted to West Point and Pres. Johnson said he would do what he could for the young man. Ref.: Ibid. See: persons named.

Williams, Richard, was the British officer in charge of the mail on the British steamer Trent when it was stopped at the West Indies, Bahama Channel, Nov. 8, 1861, by Capt. Charles Wilkes (1798-1877) of the Union warship San Jacinto. For Trent officer Richard Williams’ account of the incident published in the Liverpool Daily Post, Jan. 8, 1862, and its effect on GP, together with sources, See: Trent Affair. Wilkes, Charles (above).

Pallbearer of GP’s Remains, Portland, Me., Feb. 1, 1870

Willis, William (1794-1870), was the prominent Portland, Me., lawyer, state senator, Portland, Me., mayor (1857), civic leader, historian, and businessman who, then age 76, a year older than the deceased GP, was a pallbearer of GP’s remains, Feb. 1, 1870, the day they were taken from Portland by train to Peabody, Mass. William Willis’s diary comments on the Portland reception of GP’s remains. William Willis was born in Haverhill, Mass., moved to Portland, Me, with his father in 1803 at age nine, was later the law partner in Portland of William Pitt Fessenden (1806-69), was (without seeking office) a prominent candidate for governor of Me., was proudest of his historical work, Guide Book for Portland and Vicinity… (Portland, Me.: B. Thurston & J.F. Richardson, 1859). He also compiled “Smith and Deane’s Journals, with Historical Notes.” His prominent law partner, William Pitt Fessenden, was a state senator, a U.S. House member (1841-43), and U.S. senator (1854-69, except for June 1864 to March 1865, when he was Pres. A. Lincoln’s Treasury Secty.). Ref.: (William Willis obituary): Daily Eastern Argus (Portland, Me.), Feb. 18, 1870. For extracts of his diary commenting on the Portland, Me., reception of GP’s remains, see Death and Funeral, GP’s.

Willis’s Rooms,, King St., St. James’s, London, was a suite of fashionable meeting rooms designed by Robert Mylne (1765) and named after its first proprietor, William Almack (an anagram of a Mr. Macall or McCaul). At his death (1781), Almack’s was left to his niece, Mrs. Willis. As “Willis’s Rooms” the restaurant with its meeting rooms was popular in GP’s 32 years in London (1837-69) and lasted to 1890. In 1904 a new London social club adopted the name of Almack’s. GP’s much publicized July 4, 1851, dinner and dance, held in connection with the Great Exhibition of 1851, was at Willis’s Rooms with the Duke of Wellington as guest of honor. Ref.: “Almack’s,” Vol. I, p. 711. . “Almack’s Assembly Rooms,” p. 20. See: “Almack’s Assembly Rooms.” Dinners, GP’s, London.

GP’s Wills

Wills, GP’s. 1- Oct. 1827 Will. Three known GP wills were made in Oct. 1827, April 24, 1832, and Sept. 9, 1869. In his first known will dated Oct. 1827 before leaving on his first buying trip to Europe on Nov. 1, 1827, GP left: a-Mother: House and lot valued at $2,000 and Annuity (of $500) worth at maturity $10,000. b-Judith Dodge Peabody (oldest sister, 1799-1879): Cash and stock, $10,000. c-Mary Gaines Peabody (younger sister, 1807-34): bond of her husband Caleb Marsh, $1,500, and cash in bank, $8,500. d-Sophronia Phelps Peabody (sister, b.1809), $10,000. e-Jeremiah Dodge Peabody (younger brother, 1805-77), $10,000. f-Thomas Peabody (younger brother, 1801-35), $15,000. g-George Peabody (son of older brother David Peabody, 1815-32), $15,000. h-Sophronia Peabody (cousin, daughter of GP’s paternal uncle John Peabody [1768-d. before 1826], $2,000. i-Charity: Orphaline Female School, Baltimore, $2,000. Baltimore General Dispensary, $2,000. Total 1827 estate, $85,000. Ref.: GP’s wills are in the Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass. See: persons named.

Wills, GP’s. 2-April 24, 1832, Will. GP’s second known will of April 24, 1832, made before his third buying trip to Europe, kept the proportioned amounts in his 1827 will except that his mother had died. a-Oldest brother David Peabody was given $7,000 for the first time, b-younger brother Thomas Peabody was also given $7,000 (with the same proviso for David and Thomas that the amounts could not be attached by creditors). New additions in GP’s 1832 will were: c-$2,000 for the infant school of Baltimore; d-$2,000 to Adolphus William Peabody (b. 1814), son of paternal uncle John Peabody, 1768-1827); e-$5,000 to South Parish, Danvers (renamed Peabody, April 13, 1868), Mass. for education; f-$2,000 to George Peabody Tiffany (son of Osmond Capron Tiffany, 1794-1851, intimate Baltimore merchant-friend); and g-$20,000 to Baltimore’s Mayor and City Council to invest in education ($27,000 for education). Total 1832 estate, over $135,000. Ref.: Ibid. See: persons named.

Wills, GP’s. 3-Sept. 9, 1869, Last Will. GP’s last known will of Sept. 9, 1869, requested burial in Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Mass. a-He left $11,000 (£2,200) to his office clerk Henry West or his wife Louise West; b-$5,000 (£1,000) to office clerk Thomas Perman or his wife Annette Emma Perman or to her child; $25,000 (£5,000) each to the British executors of his estate, c-Curtis M. Lampson (1806-85) and d-Charles Reed (1819-81); $5,000 (£1,000) each to the U.S. executors of his estate, e-Robert Singleton Peabody (1837-1904) and f-Charles W. Chandler (d. 1882); additional amounts to the g-Peabody Donation Fund of London for model apartments for the working poor; and to a h-Peabody Family trust, variously estimated from $1.5 million to $4 million. Ref.: Ibid. GP’s wills are in the Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass. See: Death and funeral, GP’s. Persons named.

Wilson, John Morrillyon (1783-1868). 1-Contacted by Thurlow Weed. Thurlow Weed (1797-1882), influential N.Y. state political leader and founder and editor of the Albany, N.Y. Evening Journal, was in London in Nov. 1861 as Pres. Abraham Lincoln’s emissary to explain the Union cause and to urge Britain’s neutrality in the U.S. Civil War. Weed spoke to GP on the origins and issues of the Civil War and asked GP’s help in meeting British leaders. GP arranged for Weed’s introduction to his friend Sir James Emerson Tennent (1791-1869), MP for Belfast, Ireland. At Tennent’s house Weed met and explained the Union side to such leaders as 1-Maj. Gen. John Wilson [believed to be John Morrillyon Wilson], 2-Lord Clarence Edward Paget (1811-95), 3-Foreign Secty. John Russell (1792-1878), 4-MP William W. Torrens, and others. Ref.: Wilson, XXI, pp. 588-589. See: persons named.

Wilson, J.M. 2-Career. J.M. Wilson was born in Whitchurch, Yorkshire, served in the Royal Navy (1798-1803), was wounded, for which he received a medal. He entered the British Army (1804), served in the War of 1812, won awards for bravery, was aide-camp to Maj. Gen. Riall, in Grenada, West Indies, was commandant, Chelsea Hospital, London [home for retired soldiers, built by Christopher Wren], from 1855, and died there. Ref.: Ibid.

GP & the Clothworkers’ Co., London

Wilson, Josiah. (1793 or 94-1862). 1-Master of The Clothworkers’ Co., London, July 2, 1862. Josiah Wilson was the Master of The Clothworkers’ Co., one of London’s ancient guilds, which gave GP his first honor in England, granting him honorary membership on July 2, 1862. This honor came some three months after press announcement of GP’s March 12, 1862, letter founding the Peabody Donation Fund for building model apartments for London’s working poor (total gift $2.5 million). See: Clothworkers’ Co. of London.

Wilson, Josiah. 2-First of GP’s British Honors. Britons, from the Queen downward, were surprised by GP’s gift of housing. They were surprised that an American in their midst would give, for such a cause, in such a large amount, to a city and country not his own. This honor of membership in the medieval guild of the Clothworkers’ Co. came eight days before GP was made a Freeman of the City of London on July 10, 1862. Other honors followed. Ref.: Ibid.

Wilson, Josiah. 3-Colorful Ceremony. GP, accompanied by longtime business friend Curtis Miranda Lampson (1806-85), was present when Alderman of the City of London, Sir John Musgrove (1793-1881), moved “that the Freedom and Livery of the Company be presented to George Peabody, Esq.” City of London Alderman John Humphery (d. 1863) seconded the motion, which carried unanimously. Josiah Wilson, Master of the Company, then referred to eminent men on whom the same honor had been earlier bestowed: Sir Robert Peel (1788-1850) and Queen Victoria’s husband Albert of Saxe-Co-burg-Gotha (Prince Albert, 1819-61). Ref.: Ibid.

Wilson, Josiah. 4-GP’s Speech. After the oath of a Freeman was administered, GP said: “I thank the honorable Company of Clothworkers’. This ancient company is well known in my country. My own countryman and friend, Robert C. Winthrop [1809-94] is a descendant of a past Master of this Company.” GP then spoke about the progress his trustees were making on building model homes for London’s working poor. GP was escorted through the Great Hall and the building and sat down with many guests for a large banquet. Ref.: Ibid.

Wilson, Philip Whitwell (1875-1956), was a journalist and former member of the British House of Commons. He wrote George Peabody, Esq., An Interpretation (Nashville: George Peabody College for Teachers, 1926), in connection with the fiftieth anniversary of GPCFT, Nashville, in 1925. P.W. Wilson’s biography was a carefully crafted work although not based on original sources. For other GP biographies, see Chapple, William Dismore. Hanaford, Phebe Ann. Hidy, Muriel Emmie. Parker, Franklin. Peabody, George, Biographies of.

GP’s Service in the War of 1812

Winder, William Henry (1775-1824). 1-Military Commander, War of 1812. William Henry Winder was military commander in the Georgetown, D.C., and Washington, D.C. area during the War of 1812 when GP served briefly as a private who drilled and trained but saw no action. W.H. Winder, born in Somerset County, Md., was a Univ. of Penn. graduate, a Baltimore lawyer, a Lt. Col. at the outbreak of the War of 1812 (March), a Brigadier Gen. (March 1813), and resumed law practice (June 1815). See: War of 1812.

Winder, W.H. 2-GP, Young Soldier. GP, then age 18, served 11 days as a private connected with Fort Warburton, Md. (July 15-26, 1813). There he first met older established merchant Elisha Riggs, Sr. (1779-1853), who took him as junior partner in Riggs, Peabody & Co. (1814-29), and John Pendleton Kennedy (1795-1870), original PIB planner, trustee. and GP’s longtime friend and advisor. GP also served Oct. 5-7, 1814, while visiting Newburyport, Mass., in Capt. Joseph T. Pike’s Co., Col. Merrill’s Regiment (three days), or a total of 14 days. Ref.: Ibid.

Winder, W.H. 3-War of 1812 Veteran’s Land Bounty. Years later, during his Sept. 1856-Aug. 1857 U.S. visit, GP visited longtime business associate and friend William Wilson Corcoran (1798-1888) in Washington, D.C., Feb. 14-23, 1857. With the help of Corcoran’s colleague, Anthony Hyde, a justice of the peace, GP prepared affidavits to apply for a land bounty provided War of 1812 veterans by Act of Congress, March 3, 1855. GP’s application requested the land bounty as a memento and not for profit. Ref.: Ibid.

GPCFT, Nashville

Windrow, John Edwin (1899-1984). 1-GPCFT Administrator. John Edwin Windrow was for nearly 60 years during 1923-84 a student, faculty member, and administrator under six GPCFT presidents. He was born on a farm in Eagleville, Tenn., was instructor of returned World War I veterans at Middle Tenn. State Normal College, Murfreesboro; taught at Clarksville High School, Tenn.; was high school teacher-principal-coach, Tullahoma, Tenn.; and studied at GPCFT (B.A., 1923-24; M.A., 1925; and Ph.D., 1937). Ref.: Crawford-a, pp. 19-21.

Windrow, J.E. 2-Wrote on J.B. Lindsley. J.E. Windrow’s dissertation, supervised by Prof. Alfred Leland Crabb (1883-1979) was on Univ. of Nashville Chancellor John Berrien Lindsley (1822-97), and was published as John Berrien Lindsley, Educator, Physician, Social Philosopher (Chapel Hill: Univ. of N.C. Press, 1938). He served GPCFT as Alumni Secty. (1925-37 and 1943-69), Demonstration School Director (1937-47), Alumni Fund chairman (1969-74), editor for 40 years of the alumni magazine, Peabody Reflector (1925-37, 1943-69), and GPCFT first Archivist and Historian (1974-84). Ref.: Vaughn, pp. 10-12.

Windrow, J.E. 3-60 Years at GPCFT. At a dinner held in J.E. Windrow’s honor, Nov. 5, 1982, celebrating his 60 years at Peabody, a $500,000 John Edwin Windrow Merit Scholarship Fund in Education and Human Development was given in his honor by one of his students, Arthur A. Smith (M.A., GPCFT, 1929, and Ph.D., Vanderbilt, 1933), retired senior vice president and economist at the First National Bank of Dallas. J.E. Windrow edited Peabody and Alfred Leland Crabb: The Story of Peabody As Reflected in Selected Writings of Alfred Leland Crabb (Nashville: Williams Press, 1977), consisting of A.L. Crabb’s writings on Peabody’s history published in the Peabody Reflector, 1939-41. Ref.: “John Edwin Windrow (1899-1984),” inside front cover. “‘Mr. Peabody’ Dr. Windrow Dies at 84,” Tennessean (Nashville), May 28, 1984, pp. l-A-2-A. See: Crabb, Alfred Leland.

Windsor Castle, England. For Queen Victoria’s 1-March 28, 1866, letter to GP and his April 3, 1866, reply; 2-her June 20, 1869, letter to him and his July 19, 1869, reply; and her cablegram on the centennial of his birth (Feb. 18, 1895), see Queen Victoria. For Queen Victoria’s invitation for GP to visit her and rest at Windsor Castle (Oct. 30, 1869), see Death and Funeral, GP’s. For her carriage and representation at his Westminster Abbey funeral service (Nov. 12, 1869), see Death and Funeral, GP’s. For MP John Bright’s (1811-89) dinner conversation with Queen Victoria about GP (Dec. 30, 1868), See: John Bright. For Royal Archive sources of letters to, from, and about GP, see Royal Archives, Windsor Castle, under References, British Library unpublished letters and documents.

Alabama Claims Affected GP’s Funeral
Winslow
W, John Ancrum (1811-73) 1-Capt. of USS Kearsarge Which Sank CSS Alabama. John Ancrum Winslow was the U.S. Navy Capt. of the USS Kearsarge which engaged and sank the British-built Confederate raider CSS Alabama off the coast of Cherbourg, France, June 19, 1864. CSS Alabama and other British-built Confederate raiders sank many Union ships and cost Union lives and treasure. An international court (1872) required Britain to pay the U.S. $15.5 million in reparation. GP’s death on Nov. 4, 1869, in London, amid the anger and furor over the Alabama Claims, affected the transatlantic return of his remains for burial in Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Mass. See: Alabama Claims. Death and Funeral, GP’s.

Winslow, J.A. 2-Alabama Furor Led to GP’s Unprecedented International Funeral. Queen Victoria is said to have first suggested that GP’s remains be returned to the U.S. on a royal ship. On Nov. 9, 1869, British PM William Ewart Gladstone (1809-98) said publicly: “With Mr. Peabody’s nation we will not quarrel.” The next day (Nov. 10, 1869) PM Gladstone’s Cabinet offered HMS Monarch, Britain’s newest and largest battleship as funeral vessel. British leaders first, then U.S. leaders not to be outdone, embarked on an unprecedented 96-day transatlantic funeral for GP, watched by thousands and read of by millions in newspapers. Respect for his philanthropies and his U.S.-British friendship efforts and the wish to ease angers over Civil War incidents (Trent, Alabama, others) were motives for the unprecedented funeral honors. Ref.: Ibid.

Winslow, J.A. 3-Career. John Ancrum Winslow, born in Wilmington, N.C., was appointed a U.S. midshipman (1827), served in the Mexican War, and was commissioned a Commander (1855). In the Civil War he first served with a flotilla on the Upper Mississippi (1861), was promoted to Capt. (1862), commanded the USS Kearsarge (1863-64), was promoted to Commodore and received congressional thanks for sinking the Alabama. He commanded the Gulf squadron (1866-67), was made a Rear Adm. (1870), was commander of the Pacific squadron (1870-72), and died in Boston. Ref.: Ibid. See: persons named. Cherbourg, France. Mallory, Stephen Russell. Semmes, Raphael Harwood.

Winter, Simon, was GP’s valet (manservant) during the last months of GP’s life, probably Sept. to Nov., 1869. One account of GP’s last July 23-Aug. 30, 1869, visit to White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., mentioned GP and a manservant. Little is known about Simon Winter, who attended the dying GP at the home of Sir Curtis Miranda Lampson (1806-85), 80 Eaton Square, London. News accounts list him in a carriage in the funeral procession from Lampson’s home to Westminster Abbey, Nov. 12, 1869. He also supplied GP’s death certificate information to the General Register Office, Somerset House, London. See: Death and Funeral, GP’s. Somerset House, London.

Winthrop, John (1588-1649), was an early governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony and ancestor of Robert Charles Winthrop (1809-94), who was GP’s philanthropic advisor and the PEF Board of Trustees president.

GP’s Philanthropic Advisor R.C. Winthrop

Winthrop, Robert Charles (1809-94). 1-GP’s Philanthropic Advisor, from 1866. Robert Charles Winthrop was GP’s philanthropic advisor from May 1866 to GP’s death on Nov. 4, 1869. He was also president of the PEF board of trustees (Feb. 7, 1867 to 1894).

Career of Robert Charles Winthrop

Winthrop, R.C. 2-Career. Robert Charles Winthrop was the Boston-born descendant of an early governor of Mass. Bay Colony (John Winthrop, 1588-1649). He was a statesman of prestige and probity, uniquely fitted to be GP’s philanthropic advisor. A Harvard College graduate (1828), he studied law under Daniel Webster (1782-1852), served in the Mass. legislature (1835-41), where he was Speaker the last three years. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1842-50), was its Speaker during 1847-50, was appointed to complete Daniel Webster’s U.S. Senate term (1850-51), and was a noted orator at both the Washington Monument, Washington, D.C., cornerstone laying (1848) and dedication (1885) ceremonies.

Winthrop, R.C. 3-Career Cont’d. No longer seeking higher office after 1851, he gave his time to literary and philanthropic works, particularly to GP’s philanthropy from 1866 onward, and to the founding (1886) of Winthrop Normal and Industrial College, Rockhill, S.C., later renamed Winthrop College, still a low-cost college. Moderate in the Civil War, he won acceptance in both North and South and moved easily in political, academic, and social circles. It was a bold act after the devastating Civil War for two northerners, GP to propose and finance the PEF (Feb. 7, 1867 to 1914), and Winthrop to help guide, this large effort to uplift the South by aiding public education in eleven former Confederate states, with W.Va. added because of its poverty.

Winthrop, R.C. 4-First Contacts with GP, 1847-52. R.C. Winthrop was in London in 1847 but missed meeting GP at that time. He knew of GP’s $15,000 loan to the U.S. exhibitors at the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London, the first world’s fair, and of GP’s Exhibition-connected U.S.-British friendship dinners (July 4 and Oct. 27, 1851). As a Mass. statesman he especially appreciated GP’s first gift, the Peabody Institute Library in South Danvers (renamed Peabody, April 13, 1868), Mass., on June 16, 1852. See: Danvers, Mass., Centennial Celebration, June 16, 1852. Great Exhibition of 1851, London (first world’s fair).

Winthrop, R.C. 5-First Contacts with GP, 1847-52 Cont’d. Through Timothy Bigelow Lawrence (1826-69), who was secretary to his father, U.S. Minister to Britain Abbott Lawrence (1792-1855), Winthrop sent GP a copy of a speech he gave at Harvard Univ. Winthrop’s letter to T. Bigelow Lawrence, passed on to GP, read: “Mr. Peabody was absent from London, I believe, when I was there in 1847; at any rate I did not have the pleasure of meeting him. I venture however to send him through you a copy of my late address at Cambridge. His late liberality at Danvers proves that he is mindful of the cause of good learning in his native State.” Ref.: T. Bigelow Lawrence to GP, Sept. 14, 1852, Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass.

Making of Philanthropist GP

Winthrop, R.C. 6-GP: Quiet American in London. The path to GP’s post-1866 philanthropy, uniquely led by Winthrop, is here briefly noted. GP was little known except to commercial contacts and Baltimore, Md., friends (from 1814, age 19). In London after his fifth commercial trip to Europe (Feb. 1837 to his death, except for three U.S. visits), he still remained a little known merchant and securities broker for 14 years until 1851.

Winthrop, R.C. 7-Md.’s Fiscal Agent in London. GP entered the public arena in a small way between Feb. 1837 and 1848. As Md.’s agent to sell abroad the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal part of Md.’s $8 million bond issue for internal improvements (including the B&O RR), he was publicly critical of repudiation. His letters to Md. officials, published in the press, held that stopping interest payments on its bonds by Md. and eight other states, brought on by the Panic of 1837, gave foreign investors honest cause to malign all Americans. He urged states to resume interest payments retroactively, assured foreign investors that these payments would be resumed, and decided that he would not claim his $60,000 commission for selling Md.’s bonds. When the states recovered financially and Marylanders realized that GP had upheld their credit abroad, the Md. Legislature passed resolutions of praise to him. These, sent to him with the thanks of the Md. governor, were his first modest brush with praise and fame. See: Md.’s $8 Million Bond Sale Abroad and GP.

Winthrop, R.C. 8-GP Helpful to Visiting Americans. GP early told a few intimates (who probably listened in bemused skepticism) of his intent to found an educational or other useful institution in towns and cities where he had worked and lived. Despite business concerns and frequent illness, he increasingly helped U.S. visitors to London from New England, Md., and elsewhere. For many who came to him with letters of introduction, he got tickets to the Parliament, the opera, Botanical Gardens; corsages for the women; and performed banking and other needed services. See: Riggs, Sr., Elisha.

Winthrop, R.C. 9-Great Exhibition of 1851 in London. In Marsh before the May 1 opening of the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London, GP heard that the U.S. exhibitors were in a dilemma. They lacked congressional funds to decorate their rather large Crystal Palace exhibit area. With a polite note through U.S. Minister to Britain Abbott Lawrence, he offered, without guarantee of repayment, $15,000. This loan, repaid by Congress three years later, enabled over six million visitors to see U.S. industry and art to best advantage. See: Great Exhibition of 1851, London (first world’s fair).

Winthrop, R.C. 10-July 4, 1851, Dinner. The U.S. exhibitors, many of whom later helped spread his fame, were invited to two Exhibition-connected GP-sponsored U.S.-British friendship dinners: July 4 and Oct. 27, 1851. Few knew that U.S. Minister Abbott Lawrence, aware of British anti-American prejudice, had warned GP that “the fashionables and aristocracy of London” would not attend his July 4, 1851, dinner and ball. But when GP got the Duke of Wellington (1769-1852) as guest of honor (the man who defeated Napoleon at Waterloo), the dinner and ball for 800 guests were a huge success. Minister Abbott Lawrence sent GP his “…heartfelt thanks…. [You have] done that which was never before attempted.” Ref.: Ibid. See: Corcoran, William Wilson. Dinners, GP’s, London.

Winthrop, R.C. 11-Oct. 27, 1851, Dinner. Even more popular was GP’s Oct. 27, 1851, U.S.-British friendship dinner to the departing U.S. exhibitors. He had the menu, toasts, proceedings, and speeches printed in a book for each guest. Beautifully bound copies printed on vellum were sent to U.S. Pres. Millard Fillmore (1800-74), Queen Victoria’s husband Albert of Saxe-Co-burg-Gotha (Prince Albert, 1819-61), and other dignitaries. The New York Times described the dinner in two columns. The Canadian Quebec Gazette recorded: “For years there have been built up antagonism and recrimination. Suddenly a respected American, long resident in London…brings them together. The thing works and elicits applause and appreciation….” Ref.: Ibid.

Winthrop, R.C. 12-Praise from a Nephew. GP’s social emergence and favorable press reports on his U.S.-British friendship dinners encouraged his philanthropic intent. His nephew, George Peabody Russell (1835-1909), wrote from Harvard where GP was paying for his college education: “Your parting entertainment to the American Exhibitors has caused your name to be known and appreciated on this side of the Atlantic…. In fact you have become quite a public character.” Ref.: Ibid.

Winthrop, R.C. 13-Praise from W.W. Corcoran. To Washington, D.C., business friend William Wilson Corcoran’s (1798-1888) letter: “You will make us proud to call you friend and countryman,” GP replied (knowing that Corcoran, soon to donate the Corcoran Art Gallery to the nation, was already a much praised philanthropist): “However liberal I may be here, I cannot keep pace with your noble acts of charity at home; but one of these days I mean to come out and then if my feelings regarding money don’t change and I have plenty, I shall become a strong competitor of yours in benevolence.” Ref.: Ibid.

GP’s First Gifts

Winthrop, R.C. 14-First Gifts. Praise in the press prompted the Md. Institute for the Promotion of the Mechanic Arts to make GP an honorary member. He had also read of the Md. Institute’s effort to raise funds for a school of chemistry. He sent Md. Institute Pres. William H. Keighler, Oct. 31, 1851, a $1,000 check for the chemistry school “as a small token of gratitude toward a State from which I have been mighty honored, and a City in the prosperity of which I shall ever feel the greatest interest.” Invited but unable to attend the June 16, 1852, centennial celebration of his hometown of Danvers’ separation from Salem, Mass., GP’s letter from London, May 26, 1852, was read aloud to those assembled. His letter contained a $20,000 check for his first Peabody Institute Library, to which he gave a total of $217,600 and a sentiment: “By George Peabody, of London: Education–a debt due from present to future generations.” Ref.: Ibid.

Winthrop, R.C. 15-Seeking Advice, Finding Trustees. The philanthropic impulse and purposes were GP’s. Yet he consulted knowledgeable friends and sought to word his founding letters to guarantee future direction. He selected trustees carefully to carry out the long range purposes of each gift. In 1854 he urged visiting Baltimore leader Reverdy Johnson (1796-1876) to consult with Baltimoreans John Pendleton Kennedy (1795-1870), William Edwards Mayhew, and Charles James Madison Eaton (1808-93) about an institution for Baltimore. See: PIB. Persons named.

Winthrop, R.C. 16-PIB. Financial panic, trustee squabbling, and Civil War divisions (Md. was a divided border state) delayed the PIB for nine years from founding letter (Feb. 12, 1857) to dedication and opening (Oct. 25, 1866). It took GP’s presence, tact, and goodwill to forestall legal action between two sets of trustees that would have killed the PIB at inception. Seeking advice and finding trustees was also GP’s pattern in founding the Peabody Homes of London (March 12, 1862). See: PIB.

Winthrop, R.C. 17-Peabody Homes of London. The London gift idea went through several stages. It was Lord Shaftesbury, head of the Ragged School Union, who said that, even more than schools, the London poor’s greatest need was apartments near their work. See: Peabody Homes of London.

Winthrop, R.C. 18-U.S.-British Clash over the Trent Affair. With plans laid and trustees selected, U.S. Civil War-generated antagonisms threatened GP’s grand housing scheme. 1-On Nov. 8, 1861, in the Bahamas the captain of a Union ship illegally stopped the British mail ship Trent and removed and jailed four Confederate agents seeking arms and aid in England and France. This act brought northern jubilation and British anger (Pres. Lincoln had them released Jan. 1, 1862). Ref.: Ibid. See: Wilkes, Charles (above).

Winthrop, R.C. 19-U.S.-British Clash over CSS Alabama. 2-Without a navy of its own, Confederate agents secretly bought British-made ships, armed and outfitted them as Confederate raiders (CSS Alabama, others), which cost Union lives and treasure. Americans were angry and the British defensive. 3-U.S. Secty. of State William Henry Seward (1801-72) allegedly told the then Colonial Secty. (the Duke of Newcastle) that one way to end the U.S. Civil War and get the South to rejoin the Union was to start a war with Britain. Britishers were incensed at this “Newcastle story.” Ref.: Ibid.

Winthrop, R.C. 20-GP Delayed London Housing Gift. Britain moved to a war footing and sent 8,000 troops to Canada in case of a U.S.-British war. GP and his trustees, unsure if his housing plan would be accepted in view of these hostilities, delayed its public announcement until March 12, 1862. He need not have worried. News of his gift swept London, captured England, echoed in the U.S., and reached the world press. Peabody housing trustee Sir James Emerson Tennent (1791-1869), who sent GP press notices, added: “…the press is only a faint echo of the voice of Society which is so forcibly in praise of an act so utterly beyond all precedent….” Ref.: Ibid.

Winthrop, R.C. 21-“I had not the least conception….” Ill, resting in Bath, England, with six years to live, GP received from a friend many newspaper clippings about his gift. He commented to the sender: “I had not the least conception it would cause so much excitement over the country.” With the Civil War ended, GP prepared for his 1866-67 U.S. visit: to strengthen his institutes, soften serious PIB disagreements, See: it safely opened, and help bind Civil War wounds by aiding public schools in the former Confederate States. He needed a philanthropic advisor of stature and probity, acceptable to North and South. He approached Robert Charles Winthrop of Mass. Ref.: Ibid.

Winthrop, R.C. 22-Thurlow Weed Recommended R.C. Winthrop. GP early bared his philanthropic dreams to Thurlow Weed, influential Whig Party and later Republican Party leader, former N.Y. state legislator, Albany, N.Y. Evening Journal owner, who guided the election of Pres. William Henry Harrison (1773-1841) and championed William Henry Seward’s (1801-72) political career. Weed recommended Robert Charles Winthrop as best qualified to help guide GP’s philanthropy. Subsequent events proved Weed to be right. See: Civil War and GP. Weed, Thurlow (above)

GP and Winthrop

Winthrop, R.C. 23-GP and Winthrop, 1866. On his May 1, 1866-May 1, 1867, U.S. visit, GP consulted Winthrop frequently: May 9, 1866, again in June, Sept., and Oct. 1866, and frequently thereafter. At the Oct. 1866 meeting in Winthrop’s Brookline home, a Boston suburb, according to second PEF administrator J.L.M. Curry (1825-1903), GP said to Winthrop: “‘And now I come to the last,’…as he drew forth another roll [of papers] with a trembling hand. ‘You may be surprised when you learn precisely what it is; but it is the one nearest my heart, and the one for which I shall do the most, now and hereafter,’ and he then proceeded to read the rude sketch of the endowment for Southern education.'” See: PEF. PCofVU. Conkin, Peabody College, index.

Winthrop, R.C. 24-GP and Winthrop, 1866 Cont’d. Winthrop expressed amazement. He remembered GP’s reply and quoted it in his Feb. 8, 1870, eulogy. GP’s reply, later cut on the stone marker at his Westminster Abbey grave site: “Why, Mr. Winthrop, this is no new idea to me. From the earliest of my manhood I have contemplated some such disposition of my property; and I have prayed my Heavenly Father, day be day, that I might be enabled before I died, to show my gratitude for the blessings which He has bestowed upon me, by doing some great good for my fellow-men.” Ref.: Ibid. See: Death and Funeral, GP’s.

Winthrop, R.C. 25-Nephew O.C. Marsh, GP, and Science. GP had paid for nephew Othniel Charles Marsh’s (1831-99) education at Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass., Yale College, Yale’s Sheffield Scientific School, and German universities, enabling Marsh to become the first U.S. paleontology professor at Yale. With his eye on this professorship, nephew Marsh influenced his uncle’s founding of the Peabody Museums at Harvard, Yale, and in Salem, Mass. Winthrop’s help was needed particularly at Harvard, whose authorities wanted new money for the library or the arts. See: Science: GP’s Gifts to Science and Science Education.

Winthrop, R.C. 26-Meetings on Peabody Museum, Harvard. Winthrop discussed the Harvard museum gift with GP, June 1, 1866, at the Tremont House, Boston; with GP’s nephews, Yale Prof. O.C. Marsh and George Peabody Russell (1835-1909, Harvard class of 1856) at the Mass. Historical Society, June 4; and again with GP, June 17. Winthrop especially sought the advice and approval of leading U.S. scientist and Harvard zoologist Louis Agassiz (1807-73). Ref.: Ibid.

Winthrop, R.C. 27-James Walker on Peabody Museum, Harvard. Winthrop also talked to Harvard’s former Pres. James Walker (1794-1874, Harvard president during 1853-60), who said to Winthrop: “…When a generous man like Mr. Peabody proposes a great gift, we…had better take what he offers and take it on his terms, and for the object which he evidently has at heart…. There…will be, as you say, disappointments in some quarters. But the branch of Science, to which this endowment is devoted, is one to which many minds in Europe are now eagerly turning…. This Museum…will be the first of its kind in our country.” Ref.: Ibid.

Winthrop, R.C. 28-Peabody Museum, Harvard, Founding Letter. Winthrop shared Pres. Walker’s thoughts with GP on July 6, 1866. On Sept. 24 Winthrop again met with GP and his nephews, Prof. O.C. Marsh and G.P. Russell. On Sept. 28, 1866, Winthrop called the first meeting of trustees of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard. They accepted GP’s gift of $150,000. His founding letter, dated Oct. 8, 1866, ended with these suggestions that: “…In view of the gradual obliteration or destruction of the works and remains of the ancient races of this continent, the labor of exploration and collection be commenced…as early…as practicable; and also, that, in the event of the discovery in America of human remains or implements of an earlier geological period than the present, especial attention be given to their study, and their comparison with those found in other countries.” Ref.: Ibid.

Winthrop, R.C. 29-Anthropology at Harvard. Thus, GP’s first thought of an astronomical observatory for Harvard, and second thought of a school of design (probably of art or architecture), became through the influence of nephew O.C. Marsh, a Yale man, the first U.S. museum of anthropology in the U.S. GP endowed it nine years after the discovery in 1857 in Prussia of the Neanderthal skull, which renewed interest in man’s origins. Ethnological items, long collected but unexamined, were soon donated to the new Peabody Museum at Harvard by New England societies, including the Mass. Historical Society. Ref.: Ibid.

Winthrop, R.C. 30-Walker on Science at Harvard. When the Mass. Historical Society’s ethnological items were transferred to the Peabody Museum at Harvard, former Harvard Pres. James Walker said, “For a long time Harvard has exhausted her resources on the traditional liberal arts. The time has come for her to advance scientific knowledge. Mr. Peabody shows great wisdom in facilitating cooperation between the Massachusetts Historical Society and his Museum at Harvard through trustees of the latter who are prominent members of the former.” Ref.: Ibid.

Winthrop, R.C. 31-Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale. The Peabody Museum of Natural Science at Yale Univ. soon followed (Oct. 22, 1866, also $150,000), where nephew O.C. Marsh and his mentors were jubilant. Earlier, when GP’s endowment for Yale was certain and after the Conn. legislature had allocated federal Morrill Act funds (for science and engineering) to Yale’s Sheffield Scientific School, one of Marsh’s mentors had written him: “The fact is that Yale is going to be largely rebuilt, and all at once! The time of her renaissance has come!” Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody Education Fund (PEF)

Winthrop, R.C. 32-PEF’s First Meeting (Feb. 8, 1867). GP’s intent to aid public education in the South was strengthened when former S.C. Gov. William Aiken (1806-87) wrote him in despair on Jan. 25, 1867: “I think the South is ruined…. Nothing…can save the South from absolute want;… its destruction is certain.” Winthrop helped select the first distinguished PEF trustees, 16 including himself. Ten of these trustees first met in an upper room, Willard’s Hotel, Washington, D.C., Feb. 8, 1867. PEF trustee Pres. Winthrop read aloud GP’s Feb. 7, 1867, founding letter. A contemporary account, basis of later versions, stated: “Ceremonies were held in [trustee] Mr. [William Maxwell] Evart’s room, and were very impressive. The distinguished party knelt in prayer delivered by Bishop [Charles Pettit] McIlvaine.” See: PEF.

Winthrop, R.C. 33-First Meeting, Curry’s Version. Second PEF administrator J.L.M. Curry later (1898) described that first meeting: “Mr. Peabody addressed his Letter of Gift to sixteen gentlemen on the 8th of February, 1867, ten of whom were assembled in a little upper chamber of Willard’s Hotel at Washington. Mr. Winthrop communicated the letter constituting them and their associates Trustees. Deeply sensible of the honor conferred, and of the responsibility and magnitude of the Trust, and realizing their dependence on the guidance and blessing of God, whose favor had been invoked by Bishop McIlvaine, they received their credentials and the securities from the hands of Mr. Peabody himself, accepted the obligations prescribed, and inaugurated the work committed to them.” Ref.: Ibid.

Winthrop, R.C. 34-First Meeting, B.R. Payne’s Version. GPCFT Pres. Bruce Ryburn Payne’s (1874-1937) Feb. 18, 1916, Founders Day speech gave that scene some drama: “There stand several governors of states both North and South; senators of the United States, Ulysses Grant and Admiral Farragut. Mr. Winthrop is called to take the chair. Mr. Peabody rises to read his deed of gift. They kneel in a circle of prayer, the Puritan of New England, the pioneer of the West, the financier of the metropolis, and the defeated veteran of the Confederacy. [On] bended knee they dedicate this great gift. They consecrate themselves to its wise expenditure. In that act, not quite two years after Appomattox, is the first guarantee of a reunited country.” Ref.: Ibid.

Winthrop, R.C. 35-U.S. Pres. Johnson. Press reports prompted U.S. Pres. Andrew Johnson (1808-75) to call on GP at his Willard’s Hotel rooms [Feb. 9, 1867]; R.C. Winthrop and others were present). Taking GP by the hand, Pres. Johnson said he had thought to find GP alone, that he called as a private citizen to thank GP for his PEF gift, that it would help unite the country, and that he was glad to have GP representing the U.S. in England. GP thanked Pres. Johnson with some emotion and at length. Probably not mentioned was political advisor Francis Preston Blair, Sr.’s (1791-1876), plan that Pres. Johnson’s might avert impeachment by a complete change of cabinet with GP as Treasury Secty. But loyalty to his cabinet kept Johnson from this course. Ref.: Ibid. See: Congressional Gold Medal and Resolutions of Praise to GP.

Winthrop, R.C. 36-PEF Needed a Policy and an Administrator. The PEF, first multimillion dollar U.S. foundation, faced a large task. 1-The eleven former Confederate states plus W. Va. were in economic, social, and political ruin. 2-All but Tenn. and W.Va. were under punitive reconstruction military rule. 3-None of the southern states had an adequate public school system. Of the sixteen PEF trustees, twelve of them were northern statesmen and four southern statesmen. None of them was a public school educator. Clearly, Winthrop and his fellow trustees needed an educational policy and an educational administrator. See: Sears, Barnas.

First PEF Administrator Barnas Sears

Winthrop, R.C. 37-Winthrop Met Sears. PEF trustee Pres. Robert Charles Winthrop (1809-94) found such a person in an old acquaintance, Barnas Sears (1802-80), then Brown Univ. president. They met by chance in Boston, March 13, 1867, a few weeks after the PEF’s founding. Winthrop asked Sears how the PEF might carry out its mission. Sears outlined a strategy which so impressed Winthrop that he persuaded the trustees to appoint Sears as the PEF’s first administrator. See: PEF

Winthrop, R.C. 38-Sears’s Career. Sears was born in Sandisfield, Mass., was a Brown Univ. graduate (1825, and its president, 1855-67), a graduate of Newton Theological Seminary (where he became an ordained Baptist minister from 1827, was later a professor and its president). He had studied in Germany, was a professor at what is now Colgate Univ., N.Y. (1831-33), and was the second Mass. Board of Education secretary (1848-55), succeeding Horace Mann (1796-1859). Ref.: Ibid.

Sears’s PEF Policy

Winthrop, R.C. 39-PEF Policy. Sears’s policy proposals were 1-to aid existing public schools in larger towns to serve as models for other communities, 2-to require that PEF-aided schools become permanently tax-supported public schools under state control, 3-to require that PEF-aided schools meet ten months a year, 4-to have at least one teacher per 50 pupils, and 5-to assure that local citizens match PEF funds, if possible by two or three times the amount of PEF aid. 6-Sears set a scale of aid according to enrollment: $300 a year for a school enrolling up to 100 pupils, $450 for 100 to 150 pupils, $600 for 150 to 200 pupils, $800 for 200 to 250 pupils, and $1,000 for 300 or more pupils. Sears moved his family to Staunton, Va., traveled and spoke widely in the South, and asked dedicated local public school educators to be his sub-agents in selecting schools for PEF grants. Ref.: Ibid.

Winthrop, R.C. 40-Three Policy Phases. Sears’s first policy phase was to use the PEF’s limited resources and requirements as a lever to achieve permanently tax-supported model elementary and secondary public schools. His second phase, largely carried out by his successor, second PEF agent Jabez Lamar Monroe Curry during 1881-85 and 1888-1903, promoted teachers’ institutes (two and three-day teacher training sessions) and established teacher training normal schools. The PEF’s third phase promoted rural public schools, attempted by the PEF’s third administrator, Tenn.-born educator Wycliffe Rose (1862-1931), during 1907-14. Ref.: Ibid.

Second PEF Trustees’ Meeting

Winthrop, R.C. 41-Second PEF Trustees’ Meeting. The second PEF trustees’ meeting was held March 19-22, 1867, at NYC’s Fifth Ave. Hotel. GP gave a banquet March 22, 1867, for the trustees, their wives, and 73 guests, including: 1-NYC store owner Alexander Turney Stewart (1803-76), whose store was later bought by and named Wanamaker’s (A.T. Stewart built a model community in Garden City, N.Y., based on the plan of GP’s model apartments for London’s working poor). 2-NYC financier William Backhouse Astor (1792-1875); 3-historian George Bancroft (1800-91), who had been U.S. Minister to Britain (1846-49), and others. See: Farragut, David G. Persons named.

Winthrop, R.C. 42-Second PEF Trustees’ Meeting Cont’d. GP sat between trustee Adm. David G. Farragut (1801-70) and the wife of trustee Gen. U.S. Grant (1822-85). The military men were in full dress uniform. PEF trustee Pres. Robert Charles Winthrop said: “The time is at hand for the departure of George Peabody. I have here resolutions [from] the trustees [who]…thank him for his hospitality to us in Washington and New York. We consider this trust a high honor. We wish him God’s blessing as he takes leave of this country.” Winthrop concluded: “Since he arrived last May he has performed acts of charity without precedent in the annals of the world….” The next day, March 23, 1867, GP and the trustees were photographed at famed photographer Mathew Brady’s (1823-96) NYC studio. Ref.: Ibid.

Winthrop, R.C. 43-GP’s 1866-67 Gifts. GP’s gifts during his May 1, 1866 to May 1, 1867, U.S. visit, coordinated by R.C. Winthrop, totaled $2,210,000, including: 1-$70,000 for a Memorial Church, Georgetown, Mass., in memory of his mother, who was born there, then named Rowley (ground broken June 19, 1866). 2-$40,000 each added to the Peabody Institute Library, South Danvers (renamed Peabody, Mass., April 13, 1868), and the 3-Peabody Institute Library, North Danvers (now Danvers, Mass.). 4-$150,000 each for the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard Univ. (Oct. 8, 1866) and the 5-Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale Univ. (Oct. 22, 1866). Ref.: Ibid.

Winthrop, R.C. 44-GP’s 1866-67 Gifts Cont’d. 6-$500,000 to the PIB. 7-$25,000 each to Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass., for a professorship of mathematics and natural science (Oct. 30, 1866), and to 8-Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio, for a professorship of mathematics and civil engineering (Nov. 6, 1866). 9-$20, 000 each for publication funds to the Md. Historical Society, Baltimore (Nov. 5, 1866), and to the 10-Mass. Historical Society, Boston (Jan. 1, 1867). 11-$15,000 each for a public library fund in Newburyport, Mass. (Feb. 20, 1867), and 12-Georgetown,. D.C. (April 20, 1867). 13-$140,000 for what is now the Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Mass. (Feb. 26, 1867); and 14-$1 million to create the PEF (Feb. 7, 1867; doubled to $2 million, June 29, 1869). Ref.: Ibid.

GP in Rome & Paris

Winthrop, R.C. 45-With GP in Rome, 1868. GP never regained the 20 pounds he lost during his 1866-67 U.S. visit. He and Winthrop traveled together in Europe in 1868. During Feb. 19-27, 1868, GP sat in U.S. sculptor William Wetmore Story’s (1819-95) Rome studio for a seated statue to be placed on Threadneedle St., near London’s Royal Exchange (unveiled July 23, 1869, by the Prince of Wales). About Feb. 24-25, 1868, GP and Winthrop had an interview in Rome with Pope Pius IX, GP’s only audience, Winthrop’s second audience (his first audience was in 1860). GP’s gift of $19,300 to San Spirito Hospital, a Vatican charitable hospital in Rome, probably on Feb. 24 or 25, 1868, may have been the basis for a press item from Rome on GP’s death (Nov. 4, 1869) and transatlantic funeral: “A statue of Mr. Peabody is to be erected at Rome by order of the Pope.” But no GP statue in Rome ever materialized. See: Corcoran, William Wilson.

Winthrop, R.C. 46-With GP in Nice and Paris, 1868. GP left Rome Feb. 27, 1868, for Genoa, then went by boat to Nice, France, arriving March 3, 1868, where Baltimore friend John Pendleton Kennedy, on his way to Rome, briefly visited him. GP went to Cannes, France, March 16, 1868, where he visited George Eustis (1828-72), William Wilson Corcoran’s son-in-law, and the Corcoran grandchildren. From Cannes, about March 17, 1868, GP and Winthrop went to Paris, France, where they were received by Napoleon III (Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, 1808-73) and Empress Eugénie (1826-1920). Ref.: Ibid.

GP’s Last U.S. Visit

Winthrop, R.C. 47-Last U.S. Visit, June 8-Sept. 29, 1869. In Jan. 1869 GP had a “gouty cough,” lost appetite, and was weak. He recovered slowly, knew his time was running out. Wanting to double the PEF and put his other U.S. philanthropies in better order, he determined to make what was his last U.S. visit. He wrote Baltimore friend John Pendleton Kennedy (May 22, 1869): “I fear if I postpone this visit until next year, it will be too late.” Robert Charles Winthrop wrote to PEF trustee Hamilton Fish (May 20, 1869): “Recent advices from Mr. Peabody make me very apprehensive that he is more ill than we had anticipated.” See: Death and Funeral, GP’s.

Winthrop, R.C. 48-Last Gifts. Greatly weakened, GP arrived on the Scotia, NYC, June 8, 1869; saw family and friends; was cared for by Boston’s Dr. Putnam; met in Boston (June 10) R.C. Winthrop, PEF administrator Barnas Sears, and others; visited and was applauded at the June 20 Boston Peace Jubilee and Music Festival; doubled to $2 million his PEF (June 29, 1869); added $45,000 to the Peabody Institute, Danvers, Mass. (July 14, 1869, total $100,000); gave $50,000 more to the Peabody Institute, Peabody, Mass. (Sept. 13, 1869, total $217,000); and added $400,000 to the PIB (Sept. 22, 1869, total $1.4 million). Ref.: Ibid.

Winthrop, R.C. 49-“the Dives who is going to Abraham’s bosom” Oliver Wendell Holmes (1809-94), who read his poem, “George Peabody,” to dignitaries at the Peabody Institute Library, Peabody, Mass., noted GP’s feebleness and trembling hands. He described GP in a note (July 15, 1869) to U.S. Minister to Britain John Lothrop Motley (1814-77) as “the Dives who is going to Abraham’s bosom and I fear before a great while….” Longtime friend Ohio Episcopal Bishop Charles Pettit McIlvaine (1799-1873), glad that GP was going to rest at a W.Va. health spa, wrote to Robert Charles Winthrop: “The White Sulphur Springs will, I hope, be beneficial to our excellent friend; but it can be only a very superficial good. [His] cough is terrible, and I have no expectation of his living a year….” Ref.: Ibid.

GP’s Last Hurrah in W.Va.

Winthrop, R.C. 50-Last Hurrah in W.Va. Winthrop was not with GP on his July 23 to Aug. 29, 1869, stay at White Sulphur Springs in W.Va. In this last summer of life GP was praised, honored, and féted. He was by chance the center of attention of an unusual gathering of northern and southern statesmen, educators, and military leaders, including Gen. Robert E. Lee (1807-70), then president of Washington College, Lexington, Va. (renamed Washington and Lee Univ. in 1871). Ref.: Ibid.

Winthrop, R.C. 51-With R.E. Lee in W.Va. Though ill, GP and Lee sometimes dined together, walked arm in arm, were applauded and photographed together and with other prominent guests (Aug. 12). A Peabody Ball was spontaneously held whose gaiety he heard from his bungalow. Talk turned to the education needs of the South, setting a precedent for later significant conferences on southern educational needs. GP gave Lee’s college a gift of Va. bonds for a mathematics professorship, which when later redeemed totaled $60,000. GP and Lee left together Aug. 30, 1869, in a special railroad car It was Lee’s next to last summer of life and GP’s last summer. Ref.: Ibid.

GP’s Death and Funeral

Winthrop, R.C. 52-Death in London. Transatlantic Funeral. GP wrote his last will, Sept. 9, 1869; boarded the Scotia, NYC, Sept. 29; disembarked at Queenstown (now Cobh), Ireland, Oct. 8; went to friend Sir Curtis Miranda Lampson’s 80 Eaton Sq., London, home; where he died Nov. 4, 1869. His last will, requiring burial in Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Mass., set in process an unprecedented 96-day transatlantic funeral. Suddenly, British and U.S. political leaders from the Queen to the President outdid each other in ceremony and honor to soften still-simmering U.S.-British angers (lingering Trent and Alabama Claims antagonisms). Common people in the English-speaking world mourned his death. Circumstances cast him as an American hero Ref.: Ibid.

Winthrop, R.C. 53-Will R.E. Lee Attend GP’s Funeral? Controversy swirled around Robert E. Lee’s possible attendance at GP’s final funeral (Feb. 8, 1870) in Peabody, Mass. R.C. Winthrop, concerned that a demonstration against Lee might mar the ceremony, wrote confidentially (Feb. 2, 1870) to Lee’s friends John Pendleton Kennedy and W.W. Corcoran: “There is apprehension here, that if Lee should come to the funeral, something unpleasant might occur, which would be as painful to us as to him. Would you contact friends to impart this to the General?” Lee, too ill to attend, wrote W.W. Corcoran: “…I am unable to undertake the journey….” Ref.: Ibid.

Winthrop, R.C. 54-Lack of U.S. Officials. Winthrop had another concern. He attended the U.S. Navy reception and transfer ceremonies of GP’s remains (Jan. 25-Feb. 1, 1870) from the HMS Monarch funeral ship to Portland, Me. Back in Mass., looking at plans for the Feb. 8, 1870, final GP funeral service, he noted, as he had in Portland, the large official British presence and the small U.S. official presence. He wrote Secty. of State Hamilton Fish, also a PEF trustee (Feb. 2, 1870): “Pity that some chiefs of the United States military or the civil government cannot be there. The Chairman of the Danvers committee came to see me and asked if you have given the order for a battalion of regular soldiers to be here.” “I wish you could attend yourself, or President Grant and General Sherman. It would lessen the embarrassment of the Prince and British minister being there.” Ref.: Ibid.

Winthrop, R.C. 55-Final Funeral Service. Feb. 8, 1870, was a bitterly cold winter day. Thousands poured into tiny Peabody, Mass., by special morning trains which ran full from Boston. Large crowds were quiet and respectful. The 50 state troopers had little to do but give directions. Ref.: Ibid.

Winthrop, R.C. 56-South Congregational Church. The church filled quickly. Queen Victoria’s son, Prince Arthur (1850-1942), in the seventh pew from the pulpit, held all eyes. His retinue, including British Minister to the U.S. Sir Edward Thornton, was nearby. Behind the prince sat the funeral ship’s (HMS Monarch) Capt. John E. Commerell (1829-1901), the accompanying USS Plymouth‘s Capt. William H. Macomb, Adm. Farragut’s staff, Mass. Gov. William Claflin, Maine Gov. Joshua L. Chamberlain, the mayors of eight New England cities, Harvard Univ. Pres. Charles William Eliot (1834-1926), and others. On the first six rows sat GP’s relatives, elderly citizens who knew him in youth, and the trustees of his institutes and funds. Anthems were sung. Scripture was read. Robert Charles Winthrop rose to give the eulogy. Ref.: Ibid.

Winthrop’s Eulogy on GP

Winthrop, R.C. 57-Winthrop’s Eulogy: “What a career this has been whose final scene lies before us! Who can contemplate his rise from lowly beginnings to these final royal honors without admiration? His death, painless and peaceful, came after he completed his great dream and saw his old friends and loved ones….. He had ambition and wanted to do grand things in a grand way. His public charity is too well known to bear repetition and I believe he also did much private good which remains unknown. The trusts he established, the institutes he founded, the buildings he raised stand before all eyes.” Ref.: Ibid.

Winthrop, R.C. 58-Winthrop’s Eulogy Cont’d: “I have authority for saying that he planned these for many years, for in private talks he told me all he planned and when I expressed my amazement at the magnitude of his purpose, he said to me with guileless simplicity: ‘Why Mr. Winthrop, this is no new idea to me. From the earliest of my manhood, I have contemplated some such disposition of my property; and I have prayed my heavenly Father, day by day, that I might be enabled, before I died, to show my gratitude for the blessings which He has bestowed upon me by doing some great good to my fellow-men. ‘” [The underlined words are engraved on GP’s marker in Westminster Abbey, London, where his remains rested for 30 days, Nov. 12-Dec. 11, 1869. That marker and the above words on it at Westminster Abbey were refurbished for the Feb. 12, 1995, bicentennial celebration of his birth]. Ref.: Ibid.

Winthrop, R.C. 59-Winthrop’s Eulogy Cont’d.: “To measure his gifts in dollars and pounds or in the number of people served is inadequate. He did something more. The successful way he arranged the machinery of world-wide philanthropy compels attention. It is a lesson that cannot be lost to history. It has inspired and will continue to inspire others to do likewise. This was the greatness of his life. “Now, all that is mortal of him comes back, borne with honors that mark a conquering hero. The battle he fought was the greed within him. His conquest was the victory he achieved over the gaining, hoarding, saving instinct. Such is the conqueror we make ready to bury in the earth this day.” Ref.: Ibid.

Winthrop, R.C. 60-Winthrop’s Eulogy Cont’d.: “And so was fulfilled for him a prophecy he heard once as the subject of a sermon, on which by some force of reflection lingered in his mind and which he more than once mentioned to me: ‘And it shall come to pass in that day, that the light shall not be clear nor dark; but it shall be one day which shall be known to the Lord, not day, or night: but it shall come to pass that at evening time it shall be light.'” Winthrop stated that GP first heard this text, Zechariah 14:6-7, in a sermon by the Rev. Dr. John Lothrop (1772-1820) of Brattle St., Boston, date not known. Ref.: Ibid. See: Lothrop, John.

Winthrop, R.C. 61-Winthrop’s Eulogy Cont’d.: “And so we bid thee farewell, noble friend. The village of thy birth weeps. The flower of Essex County stands at thy grave. Massachusetts mourns her son. Maine does honor to thee. New England and Old England join hands because of thee. The children of the South praise thy works. Chiefs of the Republic stand with royalty at thy bier. And so we bid thee farewell, friend of mankind.” See: Death and Funeral, GP’s.

Winthrop, R.C. 62-Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Mass. GP’s remains were laid to rest in Harmony Grove Cemetery, whose 65 acres of avenues and walks were first laid out in 1840. It had been a thick walnut grove when he was a boy and could be seen from the attic of the house where he was born. On a knoll where he had once played he had chosen the family burial plot on Anemone Ave., lot number 51. Here he had brought together the remains of his mother, father, sisters, and brothers. Here he himself was interred. He had made a good choice of philanthropic advisor. Winthrop guided the PEF for 24 more years. Ref.: Ibid. For tributes to R.C. Winthrop at his death (June 5, 1894), see Tucker, L.L., p. 537.

Winthrop University, Rock Hill, S.C. Peabody Building. See: Peabody, George (1795-1869), Named Institutions, Firms, Buildings, Ships, Other Facilities, Music, & Poems Named for GP. P.,G.: …Named for GP. 23-Peabody Building, Winthrop University, Rock Hill, S.C.

With GP in W.Va., 1869

Wise, Henry Alexander (1806-76). 1-With GP in W.Va. Henry Alexander Wise, former Va. governor and a Confederate general, was with GP at White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., July 23-Aug. 30, 1869. He drew up the resolutions of praise read publicly before GP, July 27, 1869. He participated in the informal talks of later educational consequence that took place on southern public education needs with Robert E. Lee (1807-70), then president of Washington College, Lexington, Va. (renamed Washington and Lee Univ., 1871), other former Civil War generals, and northern and southern educators and statesmen. See: Corcoran, William Wilson. Peabody, George, Illustrations.

Wise, H.A. 2-Career. H.A. Wise was born in Va., graduated from Washington College, Penn., was a lawyer, U.S. Congressman (1833-44), U.S. Minister to Brazil (1844-47) and Va. Gov. (1856-60). He opposed Va.’s secession, but served as a Confederate general. Ref.: Boatner, p. 944.

Wish, Harvey (1909-68), was a historian who wrote of the PEF: “Northern philanthropy tried to fill the gap left by Southern poverty and by Bourbon indifference to elementary education. No kindness had touched the hearts of Southerners quite as much as the huge educational bequest of the Massachusetts-born financier, George Peabody of England.” Ref.: Wish-a, II, p. 37. Wish-b.

Wolcott, Roger (1847-1901), was Mass. Lt. Gov. when he spoke at the George Peabody Centennial Celebration held Monday, Feb. 18, 1895, at the Town Hall, Peabody, Mass. Born in Boston, Roger Wolcott graduated from Harvard Univ. (1870) and Harvard Law School (1874), was a member of Boston’s Common Council (1877-79), member of Mass. House of Representatives (1882-85), was Mass. Lt. Gov. (1892-96), and Mass. Gov. (1896-98). See: George Peabody Centennial Celebration (Feb. 18, 1795-1895).

Woodward, Henry (1832-1921), was the British Museum Keeper of Geology whom GP’s nephew Othniel Charles Marsh (1831-99) visited in London while studying at the German universities of Berlin, Heidelberg, and Breslau in 1862-65. Marsh, with uncle GP’s approval and money, was preparing for a career as the first U.S. paleontology professor at Yale Univ. In Paris Marsh consulted with French geologist Philippe-Èdouard Poulletier de Verneuil. In Berlin he spoke to visiting English scientist Sir Charles Lyell (1797-1875). In England he also visited English scientists Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-95) and Charles Darwin (1809-82). Darwin later acknowledged that Marsh’s fossil findings had provided proof for evolution theory. See: Othniel Charles Marsh.

World’s Fair, 1851. See: Great Exhibition of 1851, London (first world’s fair).

Wright, Luther. During GP’s Sept. 15, 1856 to Aug. 19, 1857, U.S. visit, he went to Luther Wright’s bank in Oswego, N.Y. (April 25, 1857) where he met with business friend Curtis Miranda Lampson (1806-85) about a railroad line whose stock they owned. See: Augusta, Ga. Visits to the U.S.

Yale Univ. GP founded at Yale Univ. the Peabody Museum of Natural History, Oct. 22, 1866, $150,000, through the influence of his nephew O.C. Marsh. See: Marsh, Othniel Charles. Science: GP’s Gifts to Science and Science Education.

Yancey, William Lowndes (1814-63). 1-Confederate Emissary to Europe. W.L. Yancey was a Confederate emissary sent to Europe at the beginning of the Civil War to seek recognition, arms, and aid. Others were Pierre A. Rost (1797-1868), Ambrose Dudley Mann (1801-89), James Murray Mason (1798-1871) of Va. and his male secretary, and John Slidell (1793-1871) from La. and his male secretary. For the illegal removal of Mason and Slidell from the British mail ship Trent (Nov. 8, 1861) and its effect on GP, see Trent Affair.

Yancey, W.L. 2-Career. William L. Yancey was born in Warren County, Ga., attended Williams College (1830-33), became a lawyer in Greenville, S.C., and was elected to the U.S. Congress (1844-46). A staunch southerner and secessionist leader, he failed to secure British and French recognition and aid at the beginning of the Civil War. He served in the Confederate senate until his death. Ref.: Boatner, p. 950.

Z

Zanesville, Ohio. During his Sept. 15, 1856 to Aug. 19, 1857, U.S. visit GP was in Zanesville, Ohio, Oct. 21-Nov. 3, 1856, visiting his youngest brother Jeremiah Peabody’s (1805-77) family. During his May 1, 1866 to May 1, 1867, U.S. visit he was again in Zanesville, Ohio, visiting relatives, Nov. 2-10, 1866, and gave $25,000 to Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio, for a professorship of mathematics and civil engineering on Nov. 6, 1866. See: Visits to the U.S. by GP.

Zoology. See: Agassiz, Louis.

References: books, encyclopedias, articles (annotated)

Entries are in one alphabetical order by author’s last name or, if no author, alphabetically by the first letter of the title (omitting “a”, “an,” and “the”). Two or more entries by the same author are arranged chronologically by date of publication and identified -a, -b, -c, etc. “Mac” and “Mc” are filed as if both are spelled Mac. Entries under authors’ last names precede entries under same named titles or institutions (example: Peabody, Mrs. Henry Wayland, comes before Peabody: An Illustrated Guide).

Abbott, Lemuel Abijah. Descendants of George Abbott of Rowley, Massachusetts: of his joint descendants with George Abbott, Sr., of Andover, Mass., of the descendants of Daniel Abbott of Providence, R.I., of some of the descendants of Capt. Thomas Abbott of Andover, Mass., of George Abbott of Norwalk, CT., of Robert Abbott of Bradford, CT. Library of Congress microform CS71.A12 1906 (Boston: T.R. Marvin & Son, 1906), pp. 795-796 (Listed Essex County dignitary Alfred Amos Abbott, who gave the welcoming address at GP celebration on GP’s first U.S. return visit after nearly 20 years’ absence in London, Danvers, Mass., Oct. 9, 1856).

Abernethy, Thomas P. “Stuart, Alexander Hugh Holmes (April 2, 1807-Feb. 13, 1891),” Dictionary of American Biography , ed. by Dumas Malone (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1935), Vol. IX, pp. 160-161 (PEF trustee A.H.H. Stuart during 1871-89 was born in Staunton, Va., was a graduate of the Univ. of Va., was a lawyer, member of the Va. House of Delegates, Va. member of U.S. House of Representatives, and U.S. Secty. of the Interior under U.S. Pres. Fillmore, and member of the Va. Senate. He opposed secession and was rector of the Univ. of Va.).

Account of the Great Fire Which Destroyed About 250 Buildings in Newburyport on the Night of 31st of May, 1811 (Newburyport, Mass.: W.& J. Gilman, 1811). (The 1811 fire ruined business prospects, including the store of older brother David Peabody, where GP, age 16, clerked, and the store of paternal uncle John Peabody, with whom GP left in 1812 to open a store in Georgetown, D.C.)

Adams, Ephraim Douglass. Great Britain and the American Civil War (London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1925), I, pp. 114, 213, 277 (“Newcastle story,” 1861, reported in London Times that U.S. Secty. of State W.H. Seward told the Duke of Newcastle, then Colonial Secty., that a U.S. war with Britain would end the Civil War and get the South to rejoin the Union to fight a common enemy. II, p. 163, statement that Consul in Paris John Bigelow’s “charge…that Gladstone subscribed to the Confederate cotton loan appears to have been unfounded” and casts doubt on Bigelow’s charge that GP aided the Confederacy financially. See: “Bigelow, John…” below).

Adams, Henry Brooks-a. The Education of Henry Adams (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1918) (H.B. Adams was private secretary to his father, U.S. Minister to Britain Charles Francis Adams during 1861-68. He wrote of his contacts in London with important Britons and visiting and resident Americans, such as GP, Joshua Bates, Benjamin Moran, Junius S. Morgan, and others).

Adams, Henry Brooks-b. Henry Adams and His Friends, A Collection of His Unpublished Letters, comp. by Harold Dean Cater (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1947), p. xxxiv (Author was private secretary to his father, Charles Francis Adams, U.S. Minister to Britain (1861-68). while in London, Henry Adams wrote that U.S. London Legation Secty.: “Benjamin Moran…had an exaggerated notion of his importance; he was sensitive to flattery, and easily offended…. He kept an extensive diary [which] throws an interesting light on the Legation scene. [His] diary…must be read from the point of view of his character.” Moran was frequently critical of GP).

Ainslie, Robert, Rev.], in Kirk, J. F. A Supplement to Allibone’s Critical Dictionary of English Literature (Philadelphia, 1891). (Believed to be the same Robert Ainslie as next below).

Ainslie, Robert. A Memorial of a Visit to Brighton of Mr. Peabody and of the Hon. Reverdy Johnson; Being a Discourse Delivered in Christ Church, New Road, Brighton, on Sunday Morning, Nov. 22, 1868 (London: Longman & Co., 1868). (GP and U.S Minister to Britain Reverdy Johnson were in Brighton, England, when Johnson spoke at a Nov. 21, 1868, public dinner. Both attended Christ Church, Brighton, Nov. 22, and were the subject of The Rev. Robert Ainslie’s sermon).

Aldridge, Henry R. The National Housing Manual, A Guide to National Housing Policy and Administration (London: National Housing and Town Planning Council, 1923), pp. 107-108 (Housing survey of both subsidized private housing from the 1860s, as in the Peabody homes of London, and of municipal housing since then).

”Alger, William Rounseville,” Who Was Who in America, Volume 1 (1897-1942) (Chicago: Marquis Who’s Who, 1943), p. 15 (In his sermon at the close of the Boston Peace Jubilee, Sunday, June 20, 1869, The Rev. William Rounseville Alger mentioned that GP had done more to keep the peace between Britain and America than a hundred demagogues to destroy it).

Allen, Frederick Lewis. The Great Pierpont Morgan (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1949), pp. 192-212 (This life of J.P. Morgan, Sr., has many references to GP. Included is GP’s Oct. 1, 1854-Oct. 1, 1864 partnership with Boston merchant Junius Spencer Morgan, whose son J.P. Morgan, Sr., began as NYC agent for George Peabody & Co. J.P. Morgan, Sr., was a PEF trustee).

Allen, Jack-a. “The Peabody Saga,” Peabody Reflector, Vol. 53, No. 2 (Summer 1980), pp. 4-13 (Issues and personalities involved in the historical origins and transitions from Davidson Academy, Nashville, to Cumberland College, to the Univ. of Nashville, to Peabody Normal College, to GPCFT, to PCofVU).

Allen, Jack-b. “Peabody: A Tale of Two Centuries,” Peabody Reflector, Vol. 58, No. 2 (Spring 1986), pp. 19-23 (Similar to entry immediately above. Also has photo of GP seated in old age, from waist up, p. 19, and four photos of GPCFT, pp. 21-23).

Allen, Jack-c, Raymond C. Norris, and Ida Long Rogers. Design for the Future: A Report from the Select Committee on Peabody’s Second Century to President John Dunworth and the Board of Trustees (Nashville: George Peabody College for Teachers, August 29, l974). (Three dedicated veteran faculty members’ recommendations to refocus and strengthen GPCFT’s future, a report criticized by W.W. Force).

“Almack’s,” Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed. (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1910), Vol. I, p. 711 (Willis’s Rooms, 1765-1881, formerly “Almack’s,” was a London restaurant with meeting rooms where GP held some of his U.S.-British friendship dinners, including July 4, 1851. He later more frequently held his dinners at the Star and Garter, Richmond, about eight miles from London overlooking the Thames River).

“Almack’s Assembly Rooms,” London Encyclopedia, ed. by Ben Weintreb and Christopher Hibbert (London: Macmillan, 1983), p. 20 (Same as above).

American Annual Cyclopedia and Register of Events of the Year 1867 (New York: Appleton, 1867), VII, pp. frontispiece, 7 (Engraving of GP by H.B. Hall, Jr.).

American Journal of Science, Vol. 33 (May 1862), p. 138 (Harvard zoology Prof. Louis Agassiz, world authority on fossil fishes, wrote to Yale chemistry Prof. Benjamin Silliman, Jr., Dec. 23, 1861, on GP’s nephew O.C. Marsh’s 1861 paper: “A student from your Scientific School, Mr. Marsh, has shown me today two vertebrae…which has excited my interest in the highest degree.” Marsh wrote his uncle GP, London, June 9, 1862: “I was so fortunate during one of my vacations as to make a discovery which has already attracted considerable attention among scientific men”).

Andrews, Matthew Page. History of Maryland, Province and State (New York: Doubleday, Doran & Co., 1929), p. 595 (GP’s philanthropic example and talk with Johns Hopkins at B&O RR Pres. John Work Garrett’s home near Baltimore sometime in 1866-67 early influenced Johns Hopkins to make his will founding the Johns Hopkins Univ., medical school, and hospital. There may have been other influences. The best account is under Garrett, John Work [1820-84]. Address Delivered…, entry below).

Annual Register; A Review of Public Events at Home and Abroad for the Year, 1869 (London: Longman & Co., 1870), Part II, pp. 91, 128-130, 144-146 (July 23, 1869, unveiling of GP’s seated statue in London, p. 91; his Nov. 4, 1869, death in London; Nov. 12, 1869, Westminster Abbey funeral service; occupants of funeral carriages from the Abbey to Waterloo railway station; funeral train from London to Portsmouth harbor, Dec. 11, 1869; and GP’s coffin placed aboard HMS Monarch for transatlantic crossing to New England).

“Appleton, Francis Henry,” Who Was Who in America, Volume 1 (1897-1942) (Chicago: Marquis Who’s Who, 1943), p. 29 (An agriculturist and member of the Mass. House of Representatives from 1891, Appleton was also the main speaker at the George Peabody Centennial Celebration held Monday, Feb. 18, 1895, Peabody, Mass.).

Appleton, William S. “Memoir of Horatio Gates Somerby,” Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Vol. 1, Second Series (March 1885), pp. 132-138 (H.G. Somerby, born in Newburyport, Mass., was a London resident genealogist, GP’s longtime friend and sometime agent who helped arrange GP’s July 4, 1854, dinner at which U.S. Legation Secty. Daniel Edgar Sickles refused to stand and walked out because GP toasted Queen Victoria before toasting the U.S. president. Has full length photo of H.G. Somerby, facing p. 132).

[Arnoult, Aed, active 1866]. (Sometimes listed as Aed Arnault, artist, presumably French, who overpainted life-size photographs of GP by John J.E. Mayall to resemble oil paintings. Aed Arnoult is mentioned in the Allgemeines Lexicon der Bildenden Kunstler[Leipzig], Vol. 2 [1908], p. 125; and in E. Benezit, Dictionnaire Critique et Documentaire des Peintres, Sculpteurs, Dessinateurs et Graveurs [Paris: Libraire Grund, 1976], Vol. 1, p. 269).

“Asger Hamerik-a, April 8, 1843-July 13, 1923,” Peabody Bulletin (Baltimore), Fall 1923, pp. 4-5 (Born in Copenhagen, Denmark, Asger Hamerik was the much respected PIB Conservatory of Music director for 27 years, during 1871-98. Raised in a musical family, he studied music in London and Berlin; was French composer Hector Berlioz’s only student in Paris; and despite his limited English and shyness, he won over the music community in Baltimore; and raised the Peabody Conservatory of Music’s national and international academic standing).
[Asger Hamerik-b]. Peabody Bulletin (Baltimore), May 1933 (Copenhagen, Denmark-born PIB Conservatory of Music director during 1871-98).

“Athenaeum Club, 107 Pall Mall, London SW1.” London Encyclopedia, ed. by Ben Weintreb and Christopher Hibbert (London: Macmillan, 1983), p. 29 (GP was admitted to membership in this most intellectual of all London Clubs on Feb. 3, 1863. Under its Rule Two, the Athenaeum, founded 1824, annually admitted nine members who were eminent in science, literature, the arts, or public service. GP was admitted after establishing on March 12, 1862, the Peabody Donation Fund which built and managed low-rent apartments for London’s working families, total gift, $2.5 million).

Austin, John Osborne. American Authors’ Ancestry (Providence, R.I.: R.L. Freeman Co., 1915), p. 72 (Genealogy of GP’s forebears included, in his paternal line: Peabody, Foster, Andrews, Pope, and Gaines; and in his maternal line: Spofford, Scott, Wheeler, Poor, Follansbee, and Dodge).

Ayres, Leonard P. Seven Great Foundations (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1911). (Praised the PEF’s activities and influence on public education in the 11 former Confederate states plus W.Va. added because of its poverty).

Bacon, Theodore. Delia Bacon, A Biographical Sketch (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1888), p. 65 (U.S. writer Delia Salter Bacon was in London May 1853 to try to prove her theory that William Shakespeare’s plays were written by a combination of Francis Bacon, Sir Walter Raleigh, and Edmund Spenser. She brought letters of introduction to GP, who aided her to visit the Houses of Parliament, secured loans for her from NYC’s Charles Butler, and helped her find London housing).

Bailey, Thomas A. A Diplomatic History of the American People (New York: F.S. Crofts & Co., 1947), pp. 298-299 (U.S. State Dept. demanded British ambassador to U.S. John Crampton’s recall for recruiting Americans to fight for Britain in the Crimean War, 1855-56. This irritation was felt during GP’s June 13, 1856, London U.S.-British friendship dinner to introduce the new U.S. Minister George Mifflin Dallas).

Bain, Robert, et al. Biographical Dictionary of Southern Writers (Baton Rouge, La.: La. State University Press, 1979), pp. 101-102 (On Alfred Leland Crabb, GPCFT professor of education during 1927-49 who taught English and Writing courses. He remained as professor emeritus, taught summers, edited the Peabody Journal of Education for 38 years during 1932-70, was GPCFT historian and a local historian and novelist who frequently guided and lectured to visitors about historic ante-bellum homes and Civil War scenes and incidents. A.L. Crabb, a member of co-author Franklin Parker’s dissertation committee, helped direct research on GP for this work).

Bakker, Robert T. The Dinosaur Heresies: New Theories Unlocking the Mystery of the Dinosaurs and Their Extinction (New York: William Morrow, 1986), pp. 37-41, 164-165, 206-213, 298-305, 365-369 (On GP’s nephew O.C. Marsh, for whose complete education GP paid. He was the first U.S paleontology prof. at Yale, the second such prof. in the world, and influenced GP’s founding of three Peabody Museums at Harvard, Yale, and in Salem, Mass. The long Marsh-Cope rivalry for dinosaur fossil finds produced much of what is now known of dinosaurs).

Baldwin, Jessie A. History and Folklore of Post Mills, Vermont (Thetford, Vt.: Thetford Historical Society, 1983), pp. 12-15 (In the winter 1810 GP, then age 15, visited his maternal grandparents, Jeremiah Dodge and Judith (née Spofford) Dodge, and their son, his uncle Eliphalet Dodge, in Post Mills Village, Thetford, Vt. In memory of his visit there, GP gave, $5,000 for a public library, Aug. 1866, which opened Oct. 9, 1867, as the Peabody Library, Thetford, Vt.).

Baldwin, Leland DeWitt. The Stream of American History (New York: American Book Co., 1952), II, p. 121 (Although the author praised the work of the PEF, Baldwin repeated the unsubstantiated charge that GP was a Confederate sympathizer who profited from the Civil War at the Union’s expense, stated originally on July 17, 1862, by U.S. Consul in Paris John Bigelow; Springfield [Mass.] Daily Republican editor Samuel Bowles, 1866; socialist writer Gustavus Myers, 1910, 1936; socialist writer Matthew Josephson, 1934; and poet and Lincoln biographer Carl Sandburg, 1939 See: “Bigelow, John…” below).

“Baltimore’s 150th Birthday,” Maryland History Notes, Vol. 5, No. 3 (Nov. 1947), pp. 1-2 (Photo of GP’s portrait painted by James R. Lambdin in 1857 [original at Maryland Historical Society is mentioned on p. 1]. Also has photo, p. 1, of GP portrait, “Painted during the early years of his maturity” [probably in his early thirties] by Chester Harding [original in Maryland Historical Society, oil on canvas, 30″ x 25,” in oval frame], donated by Mrs. Charles R. Weld [née Frances Eaton], who died March 13, 1947).

Banks, Louis. The Story of the Hall of Fame (New York: Christian Herald, 1902), p. 14 (GP was one of 29 most famous Americans elected to the N.Y.U. Hall of Fame, 1900, tying for 16th place from the top with Henry Clay. In 1901 a tablet was unveiled and on May 12, 1926, a GP bust was unveiled, made by sculptor Hans Schuler, with address given by GPCFT Pres. Bruce R. Payne).

Barnard, Henry-a, ed. American Journal of Education, Vol. l, No. 3 (March 1856), pp. 237-242; and Vol. 29 (1879), pp. xxxviii-xxxix (Both articles are about the 100th anniversary of the separation of Danvers from Salem, Mass., when GP’s May 6, 1852, letter from London, read at the June 16, 1852, celebration, founded his first Peabody Institute Library, to which he ultimately gave $217,600 and a motto: “Education, a debt due from present to future generations”).

Barnard, Henry-b, ed. “The Public Reception to George Peabody at Danvers,” American Journal of Education, Vol. 2 (1856), pp. 642-653. (Described GP celebration, South Danvers, Mass., Oct. 9, 1856, on his first U.S. visit after nearly 20 years’ absence in London since Feb. 1837).

Barnes, Thurlow Weed. Memoir of Thurlow Weed by his Grandson (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1884), p. 365 (Weed, GP’s friend and advisor since 1843, defended GP’s Union loyalty in print when GP was attacked during his 1866-67 U.S. visit and after GP’s Nov. 4, 1869, death and prolonged funeral).

Barrett, Francis T. “A Great Catalogue, Being an Appreciation of the Catalogue of the Library of the Peabody Institute, Baltimore,” The Library, Vol. 6 (1894), pp. 69-73 (Before the advent of card catalogs, Barrett praised the usefulness of Nathaniel Holmes Morison, et al., compilers, Catalogue of the Library of the Peabody Institute of the City of Baltimore [Baltimore: Peabody Library, 1883-93], five volumes listing authors, titles, and many cross reference content articles of the PIB Library’s then 100,000-volume collection. A second catalog of eight volumes listing additional books appeared in 1905).

Barson, Susie and Martin O’Rourke. The Peabody Estates Conservation Guidelines (London: Peabody Trust, 2001). (Contains GP illustration and biographical sketch, p. 6; with some 19 photos, 7 engravings, and 5 drawings of the first erected (1865) Peabody Homes at Islington, London. Brief history of trustees, first architect, and of significance for London housing of the working poor).

“Bates, Joshua,” Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, ed. by James Grant Wilson and John Fiske (New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1887), Vol. 1, p. 194 (Career of Mass.-born Joshua Bates: agent, partner, and head of famed British investment banking firm, Baring Brothers. GP had business and personal relations with Joshua Bates, who became a naturalized British subject. By the mid-1850s GP approached and soon surpassed Joshua Bates’s stature as the best known U.S.-born resident banker in London).

Baylen, Joseph O. “A Tennessean Politician in Imperial Russia,” Tennessee Historical Quarterly, Vol. 14 (1955), pp. 227-252 (Former Tenn. Gov. Neill Smith Brown attended GP’s July 4, 1851, London dinner when Brown was U.S. Minister to Russia, 1850-53).

Beasley, Wallace. The Life and Educational Contributions of James D. Porter (Nashville: Bureau of Publications, George Peabody College for Teachers, 1950). (J.D. Porter was a Univ. of Nashville graduate [1846], lawyer, Tenn. House member, Confederate officer, Tenn.’s governor [1874-78, when he encouraged the creation in 1875 of State Normal College, renamed Peabody Normal College, from Univ. of Nashville’s moribund Literary Dept.]. He was Peabody Normal College president [1901-09], when he helped raise local, county, and state funds to match $1.5 million from the PEF to endow GPCFT).

[Bell, Robert, 1821-73]. Dictionary of Canadian Biography, ed. by Marc Le Terreur (Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press, 1972), Vol. X, pp. 45-46 (On GP’s 1866-67 U.S. visit, he was in Montreal, Canada, July 7-8, 1866, where he attended Christ Church Cathedral; Church of the Messiah, Unitarian; and at a public levee [open house] spoke longest with Canadian MP from Russell, Ontario, Robert Bell about public affairs, Anglo-American relations, and Queen Victoria’s gift to him of her portrait, being specially prepared, which he received in Washington, D.C., in March 1867).

Bennett, Frank M. Steam Navy of the United States (Pittsburgh: Warren, 1896), p. 234 (Brief history and description of British warship HMS Monarch, which was planned in 1865, launched in 1867, commissioned in May 1869, and chosen in Nov. 1869 to return GP’s remains for burial in the U.S.).

Bergeron, Paul H., ed. The Papers of Andrew Johnson, Volume 12, February-August 1867 (Knoxville: Univ. of Tenn. Press, 1995), pp. 22-23 (To avoid impeachment, Pres. Johnson’s political advisor, Francis Preston Blair, Sr. advised a complete cabinet change: GP as Treasury Secty., Mass. Gov. John Albion Andrew as Secty. of State, Ohio Gov. Jacob Dolson Cox as Interior Secty., U.S. Sen. Edgar Cowan of Penn. as Atty.-Gen., Adm. D.G. Farragut as Navy Secty., Gen. U.S. Grant as Secty. of War, and Horace Greeley as Postmaster Gen. But loyalty to his cabinet kept Johnson from this course. Note: U.S. Pres. Andrew Johnson’s visit to GP at Willard’s Hotel was on Feb. 9, 1867, not Feb. 11, as recorded in Bergeron, who cited as source, Philadelphia Public Ledger, Feb. 11, 1867).

“Best Graduate Schools,” U.S. News & World Report, Vol. 126, No. 12 (March 29, 1999, pp. 109, 111. (PCofVU ranked sixth out of 49 top U.S. graduate schools of education in 1999 and was seventh in 1998, p. 69. See: also Tennessean, March 31, 2000, pp. B1, continued 6B).

Bibby, Cyril. Scientist Extraordinary: The Life and Scientific Work of Thomas Henry Huxley, 1825-1895 (Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1972). (On GP’s nephew O.C. Marsh’s science career; similar to Bakker, Robert T., entry above).

Biddle, Edward, and Mantle Field. The Life and Works of Thomas Sully (Philadelphia: Wickersham Press, 1921), p. 205 (Amid GP’s death and funeral publicity were press reports of his broken engagement to Esther Elizabeth Hoppin from Providence, R.I., 1838-39, in London when she attended Queen Victoria’s coronation. She broke the engagement, married an earlier beau, Alexander Lardner, who died in 1848. They lived in Philadelphia and had two children. She died in 1905. Artist Sully’s portrait of her, made in 1840, is in NYC’s Frick Art Reference Library).

Bigelow, John (Nov. 25, 1817-Dec. 19, 1911),” Dictionary of American Biography. Ed. by Allen Johnson (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1935), Vol. 1, pp. 258-259 (Historian E.D. Adams, Great Britain and the American Civil War [1925, II, p. 163] wrote that U.S. Consul in Paris John Bigelow’s “charge…that [Wm. E.] Gladstone subscribed to the Confederate cotton loan appears to have been unfounded.” Thus one can doubt Bigelow’s July 17, 1862, charge made to U.S. Secty. of State Wm. H. Seward [1801-72] that “Peabody and Company were exaggerating Federal reverses to augment a panic over the safety of European investments in United States securities in order to accelerate their liquidation, in which transactions the bank was making a fortune”).

Biographical Sketch of George Peabody of London From Hunt’s Merchants’ Magazine For April, 1857 (New York: Baker and Godwin, 1857), reprint of “George Peabody-a,” Hunt’s Merchants’ Magazine, Vol. 36, No. 4 [April 1857], pp. 428-437. (Early favorable GP biographical sketch in a prestigious journal with an engraving of GP, marked “engraved by J.C. Buttre from a daguerreotype,” with GP’s signature).

Blair, William Allen, ed. A Politician Goes to War: The Civil War Letters of John White Geary (Harrisburg: Penn. Historical & Museum Commission, 1995). (Source, believed to be in error [Freeman-a, 1935, appendix], stated that J.W. Geary met by chance, spoke to, and was photographed with GP at White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., Aug. 12, 1869. The W.Va. photos are in Conte, pp. 69-71; Dabney, Vol. 1, facing p. 83; Freeman-a, 1935, appendix [incorrect identification]; Freeman-b, 1947, Vol. 4, p. 438 [correct identification]; Kocher and Dearstyne, pp. 189-190; Lanier, ed., Vol. 5, p. 4; Meredith, pp. 84-85; Miller, ed., Vol. 10, p. 4; and Murphy, p. 58).

Bloomfield, Maxwell. “Hoffman, David (24 Dec. 1784-11 Nov. 1854).” American National Biography, ed. By John A. Garraty and Mark C. Carnes (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1999), Vol. 1, pp. 938-939 (David Hoffman was a Baltimore-born lawyer, Univ. of Md. Law professor, and land agent for Calif. impresario John Charles Frémont [1813-90]. While in London during 1847-53, he wrote two letters: one undated, another on Nov. 4, 1850, to ask GP for financial help in an escape plan to free imprisoned Hungarian freedom fighter Lajos Kossuth).

“Boards Vote Peabody Merger,” Vanderbilt Gazette, No. 111 (May 16, 1979), pp. 1, 12 (Details of GPCFT-Vanderbilt July 1, 1979, merger as PCofVU).

Boase, Frederic. Modern English Biography; Containing Many Thousands and Concise Memoirs of Persons Who Have Died Between the Years 1851-1900 with an Index of the Most Interesting Matter (London: Frank Cass & Co., 1965), 6 vols., pp. 1162, 1502 (Page 1162 has career of Rev. Thomas Nolan, 1809-82, vicar of St. Peter’s, Regent Sq., London, who visited GP several times before his Nov. 4, 1869, death, 80 Eaton Sq., London, at home of Sir Curtis Miranda Lampson. Page 1502 has career of Benjamin Samuel Phillips, 1811-89, then City of London Alderman who in the London Court of Common Council seconded Council member Charles Reed’s, 1819-81, motion, May 22, 1862, to grant GP the Freedom of the City of London).

Boase, George Clement-a. “Brown, Sir William (1784-1864),” Dictionary of National Biography, ed. by Sir Lesley Stephen and Sir Sidney Lee (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1921-22), Vol. III, p. 37 (Born in Liverpool, England, the son of Alexander Brown of Alexander Brown & Sons of Baltimore, and a longtime business friend of GP, William Brown was on a business trip to NYC when he heard of GP’s engagement to marry Esther Elizabeth Hoppin. Not knowing that the engagement had been broken, he added his congratulations in a Jan. 2, 1839, letter to GP. Brown, a philanthropic benefactor to his native Liverpool, England, was honored with a knighthood).

Boase, George Clement-b. “Sir Charles Reed (1819-1881),” Dictionary of National Biography, ed. by Sir Lesley Stephen and Sir Sidney Lee (London: Oxford University Press, 1921-1922), Vol. XVI, pp. 832-834 (Reed, an English politician who made a fortune in type founding, was active in his father’s [Andrew Reed’s] philanthropy; was a member of Parliament, 1868-74, 1880; was president of the London school board, 1873-81; and was knighted in 1876. He introduced in London’s Court of Common Council the resolution, May 22, 1862, to grant the Freedom of the City of London to GP, July 10, 1862, for GP’s March 12, 1862, Peabody Donation Fund for housing for London’s working poor, total gift $2.5 million, 1862-69. In proposing this honor he told of GP’s U.S.-British friendship dinners [Reed had attended GP’s July 4, 1854, dinner]; and GP’s aid to the Second U.S. Grinnell Expedition, 1853-55, to search for lost British Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin. Reed was later GP’s friend, advisor, and an executor of GP’s British estate).

Boase, George Clement-c. “Lampson, Sir Curtis Miranda (1806-1885),” Dictionary of National Biography, ed. by Sir Lesley Stephen and Sir Sidney Lee (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1921-1922), Vol. XI, pp. 473-474 (Born in Newhaven, Vt., Curtis Miranda Lampson was a London resident from 1830, was successful in the fur trade, had children born in England, became a naturalized British subject [May 14, 1849], was head of C.M. Lampson & Co., London, and was created a baronet [Nov. 16, 1866] for his work as a director since 1856 and later vice chairman of the Atlantic Cable Co.).

Boatner, Mark Mayo, III. The Civil War Dictionary. Rev. ed. (New York: Vintage Press, 1988). (Useful for sketches of Union and Confederate Civil War generals, several of whom by chance met, spoke to, and were photographed with GP at White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., Aug. 12, 1869).

Bohner, Charles H. John Pendleton Kennedy: Gentleman from Baltimore (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1961), pp. 214-215, 234, 235, 238, 239 (J.P. Kennedy’s life and career, his long friendship and connections with GP, including his plan of the PIB from 1857, and GP’s $10,000 scientific equipment gift, 1853-55, in the search for lost British Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin while J.P. Kennedy was U.S. Navy Secretary).

Bolton, Charles K. “Shurtleff, Nathaniel Bradstreet (June 29, 1810-Oct. 17, 1874).” Dictionary of American Biography, ed. by Dumas Malone (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1934), Vol. IX, pp. 141-142 (Boston Mayor Shurtleff publicly announced GP’s presence at the mid-June 1869 Boston Music Hall’s Peace and Jubilee Music Festival. Mayor Shurtleff also attended GP’s July 16, 1869, receptions at the Peabody Institutes of Peabody and Danvers, Mass.).

Bolton, Sarah Knowles-a. Famous Givers and Their Gifts (Freeport, New York: Books for Libraries Press, 1971 reprint of 1896 edition), pp. 307-308 (Mention of GP’s 1867-69 $2 million PEF to aid public education in the 11 former Confederate states and the origin of Peabody Normal College, Nashville).

Bolton, Sarah Knowles-b. Lives of Poor Boys Who Became Famous (New York: Crowell, 1885), frontispiece has illustration of GP.

“Bonaparte, Jerome Napoleon [1805-70],” Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, ed. by James Grant Wilson and John Fiske (New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1887), Vol. 1, p. 311 (This member of the famed Bonaparte family was born in England, came to the U.S., graduated from Harvard College, studied law but did not practice law while he lived on inherited wealth in Baltimore, where GP is said to have sold a carriage for him and where he died).

Bond, Horace Mann-a. The Education of the Negro in the American Social Order (New York: Octagon Books, 1966, revision of 1934 edition), pp. 28-29, 57, 63 (PEF’s work and influence on black education in the 11 former Confederate states plus W.Va., added because of its poverty).

Bond, Horace Mann-b. Negro Education in Alabama: A Study in Cotton and Steel (New York: Octagon Books, 1969) (PEF’s work and influence on black education in Ala.).

Book Review Digest 1940 (New York: H.W. Wilson Co., 1941), pp. 815-816; and Book Review Digest 1941 (New York: H.W. Wilson Co., 1942), pp. 797-798 (Extracts of reviews, all favorable, of Charles Schuchert and Clara Mae LeVene, O. C. Marsh, Pioneer in Paleontology [New Haven: Yale University Press, 1940], the nephew whose education and career as the first paleontology professor in the U.S. GP made financially possible).

Bourne, H.R. Fox. Famous London Merchants, a Book for Boys (London: John Hog, 1868) (Quoted in part in the first of three articles by John Moody and George Kibbe Turner, “The Masters of Capital in America. Morgan: The Great Trustee,” McClure’s Magazine, Vol. 36, No. 1, Nov. 1910, pp. 3-24).

Bowler, Peter J. Fossils and Progress: Paleontology and the Idea of Progressive Evolution in the Nineteenth Century (New York: Science History Publications, 1976), pp. 130-141. (On GP’s nephew O.C. Marsh’s science career; similar to Bakker, Robert T., entry above).

Bowman, John S., ed. The Civil War Almanac in Large Print (Boston: G.K. Hall, 1992). (On GP-related Civil War military and political figures and events, including Alabama Claims, Trent Affair, George Peabody [ship], and others).

“Bradford, Edward Anthony.” See: Landry, Stuart O. History of the Boston Club (New Orleans: Pelican Publishing Co., 1938), appendix, pp. 281-282 (Career of E.A. Bradford, 1814-72, one of the 16 original PEF trustees).

Bradford Academy, Mass. Semi-Centennial Catalogue of the Officers and Students of Bradford Academy, 1803-1853 (Cambridge: Metcalf & Co., 1853), pp. iii-xv (GP paid for the education at Bradford of younger brother Jeremiah Dodge Peabody, 1819, p. 27; younger sister Judith Dodge Peabody, 1821-27, pp. 72 and 149 [she taught for a time at Chester, N.H., and returned to Bradford]; younger sister Mary Gaines Peabody, 1822-23, p. 65; younger nephew Adolphus William Peabody, 1827, p. 27; younger nephew George Peabody, 1827, p. 27; and youngest sister Sophronia Phelps Peabody, 1827, p. 149).

Branch, Taylor. “Hearts on Fire [Excerpts from his book, Pillar of Fire, 1997],” Vanity Fair, No. 449 (Jan. 1998), pp. 76-85.

Brandes, George. William Shakespeare, A Critical Study (London: William Heinemann, 1899), p. 89 (Brandes, Shakespearean scholar wrote: “Miss [Delia Salter] Bacon literally dedicated her life to her attack upon Shakespeare. She saw in his works, not poetry, but a great philosophical-political system, and maintained that proof of her doctrine would be found deposited in Shakespeare’s grave. She had discovered in [Sir Francis] Bacon’s letters the key to a cipher which would clear up every thing; but unfortunately she became insane before she had imparted this key to the world”).

Brandt, Ned. The Congressman Who Got Away with Murder (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1991), pp. 30-31 (Biography of controversial super patriot Daniel Edgar Sickles who, as U.S. legation secretary, London, attended a GP-sponsored July 4, 1854, U.S.-British friendship dinner. When GP toasted the Queen before the U.S. President Sickles refused to stand and then walked out “stiff and red-gorged” in anger. Sickles attacked GP in the press for lack of patriotism and for “toadying” to the British).

Branscomb, Harvie. Purely Academic: An Autobiography (Nashville: Vanderbilt University, 1978). (Described early GPCFT-Vanderbilt Univ. cooperation and connections).

Bready, J. Wesley. Lord Shaftesbury and Social-Industrial Progress (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1926) (Life and influence of British social reformer Shaftesbury, whose suggestion to Ohio Episcopal Bishop C.P. McIlvaine, acting for GP, that low-cost housing was the London poor’s greatest need, influenced GP’s Peabody Homes of London, to which he gave a total of $2.5 million, 1862-69).

Bremner, Robert H. The Public Good: Philanthropy and Welfare in the Civil War Era (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1980), pp. 32, 186-90, 210-11 (GP’s philanthropy mentioned).

Brew, John O., ed. One Hundred Years of Anthropology (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1968). (On the history of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard Univ. and on GP’s nephew O.C. Marsh’s science career; similar to Bakker, Robert T., entry above).

Brigham, William T. “New England in Baltimore,” New England Magazine (New Series), Vol. 22 (1900), pp. 218-231 (Illustration of GP, p. 227).

Bright, John. Diaries of John Bright (London: Cassell & Co., 1930), pp. 308, 330, 334 (Member of Parliament John Bright was GP’s guest at Castle Connell, Shannon River near Limerick, Ireland. He described GP as “a remarkable and generous man.” He recorded: “Peabody has had almost no schooling and has not read books, but has had much experience, and is deeply versed in questions of commerce and banking. He is a man of strong will, and can decide questions for himself”).

Brooks, Eldridge Streeter. Great Americans Every Young American Should Know (Philadelphia: Winston Co., l902), p. 184 (The Great Fire of Newburyport, Mass., May 31, 1811, ruined business prospects, including older brother David Peabody’s store [where GP, age 16, clerked] and the store of their paternal uncle John Peabody. GP and Uncle John left Newburyport in 1812 to open a store in Georgetown, D.C.).

“Brown, Harrison Bird.” See: Niss, Bob. Faces of Maine (Portland, Maine: Guy Gannett Publishing Co.: 1981), below

Brown, Hugh Victor. A History of the Education of Negroes in North Carolina (Raleigh: Irving Swain Press, 1961) (PEF’s work and influence on black education in N.C.).

Browne, Gary L. “Vansant, Joshua (1803-84),” Biographical Dictionary of American Mayors 1820-1980. Big City Mayors, ed. by Melvin G. Holli and Peter d’A. Jones (Westport, Ct.: Greenwood Press, 1981), p. 373 (Joshua Vansant was president, Md. Institute for the Promotion of the Mechanic Arts, Baltimore, when he praised GP at the Md. Institute’s GP reception, Feb. 2, 1857).

Browne, James A. The Northwest Passage and the Fate of Sir John Franklin (Woolrich, England: W.P. Jackson, 1860). (Moved by Lady Franklin’s appeal to the U.S. President and Congress, GP gave $10,000 for scientific equipment for the Second U.S. Grinnell Expedition’s [1853-55] unsuccessful search for British Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin, lost in May 1847 with 137 seamen. NYC merchant Henry Grinnell’s two ships, commanded by U.S. Naval Capt. Elisha Kent Kane, M.D. [medical officer on the First U.S. Grinnell Expedition], marked the U.S.’s first scientific exploration in the Arctic and the naming of Peabody Bay off Greenland for GP’s aid).

Browne, Turner, and Elaine Partnow. Macmillan Biographical Encyclopedia of Photographic Artists and Innovators (New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1983), p. 40l (Biographical sketch of Philadelphia, Penn.-born London–based photographer John Mayall [full name John Jabez Edwin Mayall] who took at least one full length photo of GP in London).

Brubacher, John Seiler. Henry Barnard on Education (New York: McGraw, 1931), p. 12 (Conn. and R.I. public education leader Henry Barnard was in London as delegate to the International Exposition of Educational Methods when he attended and gave a talk on New England public schools at GP’s July 4, 1854, U.S.-British friendship dinner. The dinner was marred when jingoistic U.S. Legation Secty. Daniel Edgar Sickles walked out in anger because GP toasted Queen Victoria before the U.S. president. In the letters-to-the-press controversy that followed, Barnard was one of 26 Americans at the dinner who defended GP).

“Brush, Murray Peabody.” Who Was Who in America with World Notables (Chicago: Marquis Who’s Who, 1973), Vol. V (1969-1973), p. 95 (Murray Peabody Brush, born in 1872, was an educator and grandnephew of GP who was asked, along with GP’s grandnephew George Russell Peabody, to help raise funds for a bust of GP at the N.Y. Univ. Hall of Fame. Funds were raised and a bust by sculptor Hans Schuler was unveiled May 12, 1926, at the University Heights N.Y. Univ. Hall of Fame colonnade).

Bryan, Nelson-a. “The Dean and the Decade: Willis Hawley, Completing His Deanship, Reflects on Peabody’s First Ten Years as a School of Vanderbilt University,” Peabody Reflector, Vol. 61, No. 1 (Fall 1989), pp. 12-15 (PCofVU’s first dean evaluated his first decade since merger).

Bryan, Nelson-b. “The Life of a Philanthropist: George Peabody,” Peabody Reflector, Vol. 64, No. 2 (Winter 1994), pp. 2-7 (Six GP-related illustrations are identified under Peabody, George, Illustrations).

Bryant, J.S. The Life of the Late George Peabody, Merchant and Philanthropist, with A Short Account of His Gift to the People of London (London: Peabody Donation Fund, 1914), p. 18 (Queen Victoria’s March 28, 1866, letter to GP thanking him for his March 12, 1862, Peabody Donation Fund, London, to build model apartments for London’s working poor and stating that she was having a miniature portrait of herself especially painted for him. Also, GP’s April 3, 1866, reply to Queen Victoria).

Buchanan, James. The Works of James Buchanan, Comprising his Speeches, State Papers. and Private Correspondence, ed. by John Bassett Moore (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Co., 1908), IX, pp. 290-291 (Controversial U.S. Legation Secty. Daniel Edgar Sickles walked out in anger from GP’s July 4, 1854, U.S.-British friendship dinner, charging GP in the press with toadying to the British by toasting Queen Victoria before the U.S. president).

Buck, Paul Herman. The Road to Reunion, 1865-1900 (Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1937), pp. 164, 166 (Praised the PEF’s influence on public education in the 11 former Confederate states plus W.Va., added because of its poverty).

Buley, Ernest Charles. Into the Polar Seas; The Story of Sir John Franklin (London: Sunday School Union, no date). (GP’s $10,000 science equipment gift for the 1853-55 Second U.S. Grinnell Expedition’s search for lost British Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin; similar to Browne, James A., entry above).

Bullock, Henry Allen. A History of Negro Education in the South From 1619 to the Present (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1967) (PEF’s work and influence on black education in the 11 former Confederate states plus W.Va., added because of its poverty).

Burk, Kathleen. Morgan Grenfell 1838-1988: The Biography of a Merchant Bank (London: Oxford University Press, 1989) (Described GP’s wealth in the 1850s-60s, his Panic of 1857 difficulties, and his securing a Bank of England loan. George Peabody & Co., London, 1838-64, became J.S. Morgan & Co., 1864-90, became Morgan Grenfell & Co., 1890-1990, and Deutsche Morgan Grenfell since June 29, 1990. Six GP-related illustrations are identified under Peabody, George, Illustrations).

Burke, John Bernard. Burke’s American Families with British Ancestry. The Lineages of 1,600 Families of British Origin Now Resident in the United States of America. (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1977), pp. 2856-2857 (Brief lineage of GP’s two grand nephews: George Russell Peabody, 1883-1946, who helped raise funds for the GP bust at NY Univ. Hall of Fame, unveiled May 12, 1926; and Arthur Peabody, b.1858).

Buttre, Lillian C. American Portrait Gallery (New York: Buttre, 1877), I, plate 39 (Engraving of GP by J.C. Buttre, made from a GP photo).

Callahan, James Morton. “Bulloch, James Dunwody (June 25, 1823-Jan. 7, 1901),” Dictionary of American Biography, ed. by Allen Johnson and Dumas Malone (New York: Charles Scribner, 1930, 1958), II, pp. 257-258 (Confederate naval commander).

“Campbell, Robert Blair,” Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume (1607-1896) . Chicago: Marquis Who’s Who, 1963), p. 94 (Described Robert Blair Campbell, U.S. resident in London who presided over the July 4, 1858, dinner for Americans in London, formerly sponsored by GP. U.S. Legation in London Secty. Benjamin Moran, privately critical of GP in his [Moran’s] journal, led the association of newer U.S. residents in London, some of whom disdained the influence and prestige of older U.S. residents like GP).

“Campus Links to National, Metro K-12 Alliances,” Vanderbilt Register (Sept. 17 and 21, 1992), pp. 1, 6 (Under second Dean James William Pellegrino PCofVU faculty helped improve public schools in Nashville and elsewhere by use of computer and other electronic learning techniques).

“Carl O. Dunbar 1891-1979: An Appreciation,” Discovery, Vol. 14, No. 1 (1979), p. 44 (Dunbar, 1891-1979, was at Yale’s Peabody Museum of Natural History for 40 years, as graduate student in paleontology under Prof. Charles Schuchert and for 17 years as director, succeeding Albert E. Parr, 1900-91).

Carnegie, Andrew. Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie (New York: Doubleday, Doran & Co., 1933), p. 270 (Carnegie recalled that in 1869 when Britain launched its largest warship HMS Monarch, he telegraphed British cabinet member John Bright, “First and best service for Monarch, bringing home the body of Peabody.” “Strange to say,” he wrote, “this was done, and thus the Monarch became the messenger of peace, not of destruction”).

Caroli, Betty Boyd. First Ladies. Second edn. (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1993), pp. 120-126 (On Harriet Lane, niece of 15th U.S. Pres. James Buchanan, a bachelor and her guardian. He sent her to the best Washington, D.C., schools. She was his hostess when he was U.S. Minister to Britain, 1853-56; was friendly to GP but not involved when U.S. Legation in London Secty. Daniel Edgar Sickles refused to stand and walked out of GP’s July 4, 1854, U.S.-British friendship dinner because GP toasted the Queen before the U.S. President. She was friendly when GP visited Washington, D.C., in Jan. 1857).

Carosso, Vincent P. The Morgans, Private International Bankers, 1854-1913 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1987) (George Peabody & Co., London, 1838-64, became J.S. Morgan & Co., 1864-90, became Morgan Grenfell & Co., 1890-1990, and Deutsche Morgan Grenfell since June 29, 1990. Three GP-related illustrations are identified under Peabody, George, Illustrations. Described Charles Cubitt Gooch, GP’s British-born confidential clerk and bookkeeper, 1843-1851. Gooch was then a salaried partner from Jan. 1852 until he retired in Sept. 1873 in the renamed J.S. Morgan & Co., pp. 661, 689).

Carter, Samuel, III. Cyrus Field (New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1968), p. 162 (Life of Atlantic Cable Co. organizer Field who urged GP to become a director and investor from 1858).

Carus, William, ed. Memorials of the Right Reverend Charles Pettit McIlvaine, Late Bishop of Ohio in the Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States (London: Elliot Stock, 1882), pp. 298-299 (McIlvaine wrote to R.C. Winthrop, July 22, 1869, “The White Sulphur Springs will, I hope, be beneficial to our excellent friend [GP]; but it can be only a very superficial good. [His] cough is terrible, and I have no expectation of his living a year.” McIlvaine wrote to R.C. Winthrop, Nov. 20, 1869, reporting his daughter’s account of GP’s last illness and death, Nov. 4, 1869, pp. 294-296. She was at GP’s deathbed at the home of GP’s longtime business friend Sir Curtis Miranda Lampson, 80 Eaton Sq., London. McIlvaine, in NYC, on his way to attend GP’s burial, Peabody, Mass., Feb. 8, 1870, described to fellow clergyman Carus, Jan. 25, 1870, the transfer reception earlier that day of GP’s remains from HMS Monarch to Portland harbor, Maine, pp. 299-300).

[Cazenove, Philip (1798-1880)]. Burke’s Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Landed Gentry, 18th edn., by Peter Townsend (London: Burke’s Peerage Ltd., 1965), Vol. 1, p. 128 (Philip Cazenove paid for British artist Henry William Pickersgill’s [1782-1875] portrait of GP in the Corporation of London’s Guildhall. Cazenove is listed as “of Clapham, Founder of the Girls School at Green Lane and of Bolingbrooke Hospital”).

Centennial Celebration at Danvers, Massachusetts, June 16, 1852 (Boston: Dutton and Wentworth, 1852). (Invited to attend but unable to leave London, GP sent a letter dated May 26, 1852, and enclosed $20,000 for his first Peabody Institute in his hometown of Danvers, renamed South Danvers, renamed Peabody, Mass., April 13, 1868, to which he ultimately gave $217,600. With his letter and gift was the sentiment: “Education: a debt due from present to future generations”).

“Centuries of Influence: A Celebration of Library Science at Peabody,” Peabody Reflector, Vol. 59, No. 2 (Fall 1987), pp. 9, 11 (PCofVU closed its 60-year-old Library School. A 1987 study found it understaffed, with falling enrollment, and unable to meet American Library Assn. standards).

Chapple, William Dismore. George Peabody (Salem, Mass.: Peabody Museum, 1948), p. 8 (Getting the Duke of Wellington to attend as honored guest at GP’s first large-scale U.S.-British July 4, 1851, friendship dinner, Willis’s Rooms [also called Almack’s], London, in connection with the Great Exhibition of 1851, made it a huge success, attracted a good press, marked GP’s social emergence, and the next year, 1852, his philanthropic emergence in establishing his first Peabody Institute Library).

Chernow, Ron. The House of Morgan: An American Banking Dynasty and the Rise of Modern Finance (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1990), p. 12 (Retold from Samuel Carter’s Cyrus Field, 1968 biography of Field getting GP as director and investor in the Atlantic Cable Co., 1858-60, amid gains, breakdowns, and losses until full service succeeded. The first chapter on GP as the root of the Morgan banking firm depicts GP as an eccentric bachelor and is insensitively titled “Miser”).

Chesney, Alan M. The Johns Hopkins Hospital and the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine; A Chronicle, Early Years, 1867-1893 (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1943), I, p. 6 (Among those who influenced Baltimore merchant Johns Hopkins to found the Johns Hopkins Univ., medical school, and hospital, besides GP at a meeting in 1866-67, was Dr. Joseph Parrish, M.D., in 1873, the year Hopkins died. For best account see Garrett, John Work [1820-84]. Address…, entry below).

Chevalier, Michel, et. al. Les Contemporains Célèbres/Illustrés: 106 Portraits, 106 Études (Paris: Librairie Internationale, 1869), pp. 164-170 (GP portrait and biographical sketch).

Chicester, Henry Manners. “Grey, Charles (1804-70),” Dictionary of National Biography, ed. by Sir Lesley Stephen and Sir Sidney Lee (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1921-1922), Vol. VIII, pp. 622-623 (As advisor to Queen Victoria Gen. Charles Grey reviewed and made minor changes on a June 20, 1869, letter drafted by Privy Council member Arthur Helps for Queen Victoria to consider sending to GP showing her appreciation for his London housing gift and concern about his ill health).

“Childers, Hugh Culling Eardley (1827-96),” Encyclopaedia Britannica (Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1964), Vol. 5, pp. 502-503 (On Dec. 8, 1869, First Lord of the Admiralty Hugh Culling Eardley Childers boarded HMS Monarch, Portsmouth, England, to inspect preparations in progress to receive GP’s remains).

City of London Club, Rules, List of Members, and Annual Report for 1859 (London: privately printed, 1859), p. 51 (GP was denied membership in exclusive Reform Club, 1844, because some U.S. states had defaulted on their bond interest payments. When payments resumed, GP was accepted into Parthenon Club, 1848, and City of London Club, 1850).

Civil War Almanac in Large Print. (Boston: G.K. Hall & Co., 1992). (On May 1, 1856, the Powhatan Steamship Co., Baltimore, laid the keel of their third 1,200 ton $90,000 freighter to carry goods between Baltimore and Richmond, Va. It was to be named the Hiawatha but instead, following favorable press publicity on GP’s Feb. 12, 1857, PIB founding, the board of directors named it George Peabody to honor GP’s gift to Baltimore and as good company advertisement. Used as a Federal steamship in the Civil War, the George Peabody collided with another Federal steamship, West Point, on the Potomac River, Aug. 13, 1862, in an accident in which 83 lives were lost).

Clark, Thomas D. The Southern Country Editor (New York: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1948), p. 30 (Praised the PEF’s influence on public education in the 11 former Confederate states plus W.Va., added because of its poverty).

Clarke, John M. James Hall of Albany; Geologist and Paleontologist, 1811-1898 (Albany, N.Y.: 1923), p. 242. (Described geologist Col. Ezekiel Jewett, fossil collector near Lockport, N.Y., who about 1845 befriended GP’s nephew Othniel Charles Marsh, then about age 14, and influenced him toward science and paleontology).

“Claunch, John.” “President Claunch Dies,” Peabody Reflector, Vol. 62, No. 1 (Spring 1991), p. 2 (John Claunch, GPCFT’s fifth president from Aug. 1, 1967 to 1974, was born in La., attended Stephen F. Austin State Teachers College, Nacogdoches, Texas [B.A.], and the Univ. of Texas, Austin [M.A., Ph.D.]; served in the U.S. Army Air Force during WW II.; and worked at Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, Texas, 1938-67, as chair of government dept., dean of the University’s Dallas College (an adult education center), and director, Institute for Urban Research. His retirement as GPCFT’s president, announced Aug. 20, 1973, became official June 1, 1974. He was succeeded by John Dunworth, GPCFT’s sixth and last president during 1974-79. Pres. Claunch lived in Nashville for several years before returning to Dallas, where he died Nov. 21, 1990, age 84).

Clinton, Susan. Reading Between the Bones: the Pioneers of Dinosaur Paleontology (New York: Franklin Watts, 1997), Chap. 3 (Rivalry, 1870s-80s, on fossil finds of dinosaurs, early birds, and early horse bones found in southwest Wyoming and elsewhere in the west between Philadelphia-born Quaker Edward Drinker Cope and GP’s nephew Othniel Charles Marsh of Yale).

Clowes, William L. The Royal Navy: A History from the Earliest Times to the Death of Queen Victoria (London: Sampson Low, Marston, 1903), Vol. VII, p. 227 (Cited by GP funeral researcher Allen Howard Welch’s article as source that Queen Victoria first suggested that a Royal Navy man-of-war transfer GP’s remains for burial in the U.S. Vol. VI, pp. 215, 341 and Vol. VII, pp. 129-130, and 575 described the career of HMS Monarch‘s Capt. John Edmund Commerell, who in Dec.-Jan. 1869-70 transported GP’s remains from Portsmouth, England, to Portland, Me. At age 16 he distinguished himself as midshipman on HMS Firebrand; was one of the first to receive the Victoria Cross, June 26, 1857, during the Crimean War; and attained the rank of captain in 1859 after leading a division of seamen in a landing force in North China).

Cobb, Alice. “Yes, Lord, I’ll Do It.” Scarritt’s Century of Service (Nashville: Scarritt College, 1987), pp. 55-57 (In her history of Scarritt College for Christian Workers, the author related how in the late 1920s Chancellor James A Kirkland’s insistence on VU control held up foundation funding for the proposed Joint University Library and how Kirkland’s objection to its joint control by VU, Peabody, and Scarritt was overcome in 1932. In 1984 the JUL [since 1941] was renamed the Jean and Alexander Heard Library of Vanderbilt University).

Cochrane, Robert (comp.). Beneficent and Useful Lives (London: W. & R. Chambers, 1890), p. 48 (Great Fire of Newburyport, Mass., May 31, 1811, ruined business prospects, including the store of older brother David Peabody [where GP, age 16, clerked] and the store of paternal uncle John Peabody with whom GP left in 1812 to open a store in Georgetown, D.C. Pp. 49-50 described former U.S. Minister to Britain Abbott Lawrence’s cornerstone laying speech, Aug. 20, 1853, for GP’s first Peabody Institute Library, South Danvers, renamed Peabody, Mass., on April 13, 1868, to which he gave a total of $217,600).

Cohen, Henry. Business and Politics in America from the Age of Jackson to the Civil War: The Career Biography of W.W. Corcoran (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Publishing Corp., 1971), p. 14. (Much on GP’s long friendship and business connections with Washington, D.C., banker William Wilson Corcoran).

Colbert, Edwin Harris-a. Dinosaurs: Their Discovery and Their World (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1961), pp. 28-37, 70-71, 86-87, 118-119, 146-149, 277 (On GP’s nephew O.C. Marsh’s science career; similar to Bakker, Robert T., entry above).

Colbert, Edwin Harris-b. Men and Dinosaurs: The Search in Field and Laboratory (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1968), pp. 55, 66-97, 144-145 (On GP’s nephew O.C. Marsh’s science career; similar to Bakker, Robert T., entry above).

Colbert, Edwin Harris-c. The Great Dinosaur Hunters and Their Discoveries (New York: Dover Publications, 1984). (On GP’s nephew O.C. Marsh’s science career; similar to Bakker, Robert T., entry above).

Colbert, Edwin Harris-d. Dinosaurs: An Illustrated History (Maplewood, N.J.: Hammond, 1985), pp. 24-27 (On GP’s nephew O.C. Marsh’s science career; similar to Bakker, Robert T., entry above).

Coles, Henry Rutgers Remsen (comp.). The Descendants of Thomas Hoppin from Northamptonshire, England, to New England. In the Line of His Son, Stephen, Born at Dorchester, Mass., 1626 (Typewritten copy, Library of Congress: CS71.H795 1936, 1936), p. 7. (On the GP-Esther Elizabeth Hoppin broken engagement. Similar to Biddle, Edward, and Mantle Field, above).

“Committee of Visitors, The” Peabody Reflector, Vol. 52, No. 3 (Autumn 1979), pp. 10, 12 (Vanderbilt-GPCFT merger talks during Sept.-Dec. 1978, resulted in PCofVU, July 1, 1979).

Congressional Globe (1867). See: U.S. government, below.

Conkin, Paul K., et al. Gone with the Ivy: A Biography of Vanderbilt University (Knoxville: Univ. of Tennessee Press, 1985), pp. 177-179, 470-473, and 706-715 (Described issues and personalities involved in the historical transition from Peabody Normal College, Nashville, to GPCFT to PCofVU. Photo of GPCFT campus, Nashville, Tenn., after World War II, p. 473).

Conkin, Paul K. Peabody College From a Frontier Academy to the Frontiers of Teaching and Learning (Nashville: Vanderbilt Univ. Press, 2002), 447 pp. (Definitive history based on original documents by VU Professor of History Emeritus

Connelly, John Lawrence. “Craighead, Thomas Brown,” Tennessee Encyclopedia of History & Culture, ed. by Carroll Van West (Nashville: Tenn. Historical Society, Rutledge Hill Press, l998), p. 216 (T.B. Craighead was College of N.J. Presbyterian minister, founder and first principal of Davidson Academy, 1785-1806, Nashville, and the first three years [from 1809] of its rechartered successor Cumberland College, earliest predecessors of PCofVU).

Conte, Robert S. The History of the Greenbrier: America’s Resort (White Sulphur Springs, W. Va.: The Greenbrier, 1989), pp. 69-71 (Photo of Robert E. Lee, GP, William W. Corcoran, and seven former Civil War generals at White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., Aug. 12, 1869, p. 70. Persons in photo are identified under Peabody, George, Illustrations. Other photos of GP taken that day are also in Conte, pp. 69-71; Dabney, Vol. 1, facing p. 83; Freeman-a, 1935, appendix [incorrect identification]; Freeman-b, 1947, Vol. 4, p. 438 [correct identification]; Kocher and Dearstyne, pp. 189-190; Lanier, ed., Vol. 5, p. 4; Meredith, pp. 84-85; Miller, ed, Vol. 10, p. 4; and Murphy, p. 58).

Corcoran, William Wilson. A Grandfather’s Legacy; Containing a Sketch of His Life and Obituary Notices of Some Members of His Family, Together with Letters from His Friends (Washington, D.C.: Henry Polkinhorn, 1879), pp. 110-111 (GP’s appearance at the opera and at social occasions with Miss Wilcocks, niece of U.S. Minister to Britain J.R. Ingersoll during 1852-53, led to rumors in the press of a romance. GP commented on this to Corcoran: “I have now arrived at an age that throws aside all thoughts of marriage [although] I think her [Miss Wilcocks] a very fine woman.” Pp. 224-225 reprinted S.C. Gov. William Aiken’s Jan. 25, 1867, letter to GP sent via Corcoran about the ruined post-Civil War South. Pp. 310-311 Invitation to GP’s funeral by Committee on Invitation, Peabody, Mass., no date, Library of Congress Corcoran Papers XVI, Accession No. 105113. Has many references about and letters to and from GP in their long personal friendship and business connections).

Corey, Lewis. The House of Morgan; A Social Biography of the Masters of Capital (New York: C. Howard Watts, 1930), pp. 74-76 (The tempestuous Civil War stopped the sale of U.S. securities abroad from 1861 until Union victory was assured in 1864. Still, the following writers, without proof, charged GP with war profits at the Union’s expense: U.S. Consul in Paris John Bigelow; 1862; Springfield, Mass., Daily Republican editor Samuel Bowles, 1866; socialist writer Gustavus Myers, 1910, 1936; socialist writer Matthew Josephson, 1934; poet and biographer Carl Sandburg in his Abraham Lincoln, 1939; and historian L.D. Baldwin, 1952. See: “Bigelow, John…” above).

Corgan, James X. “Troost, Gerard,” Tennessee Encyclopedia of History & Culture, ed. by Carroll Van West (Nashville: Tennessee Historical Society, Rutledge Hill Press, l998), pp. 992-993 (Life and career of Dutch-born professor of science, Univ. of Nashville, 1828-50).

Corlew, Robert E.-a. “Bell, Montgomery, ” Tennessee Encyclopedia of History & Culture, ed. by Carroll Van West (Nashville: Tennessee Historical Society, Rutledge Hill Press, l998), pp. 58-59 (Montgomery Bell Academy, still functioning, was founded in 1867 as the Univ. of Nashville’s preparatory dept., named after Tenn. ironmaster Montgomery Bell, who in his will left $20,000 for a boys’ school).

Corlew, Robert E.-b. Tennessee: A Short History, 2nd ed. (Knoxville: Univ. of Tennessee Press, 1981), pp. 119-120 (Mentioned GPCFT, Nashville, and its predecessors: Davidson Academy, Cumberland College, and Peabody Normal College).

Coulter, E. Merton. The South During Reconstruction, 1855-1877 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1947), p. 327 (Praised the PEF’s influence on public education in the 11 former Confederate states plus W.Va., added because of its poverty).

[Courtenay-a, William Ashmead]. A Memoir of George Peabody. Proceedings of the General Assembly of South Carolina, Proposing Concerted Action by the Southern States For Placing a Statue of the Philanthropist in the Capitol at Washington (Charleston, SC: Lucas and Richardson Co., 1896). (A proposed GP statue in Statuary Hall, U.S. House of Representatives, U.S. Capitol Bldg., Washington, D.C., was first urged at a Va. conference of Superintendents of Education and recorded in Va.’s Superintendent of Public Instruction’s 1885 annual report. PEF administrator J.L.M. Curry tried but failed to further this proposal in other southern states, particularly S.C. and Tenn. S.C. Gov. John Gary Evans’ annual message, Jan. 25, 1896, reported S.C.’s effort, including $1,500 appropriated).

Courtenay-b, William Ashmead. Kindly Memories of the Recent Past (Walhalla, SC: Keowee Courier, 1905), pp. 1-10 (Described the proposal for a GP statue in Statuary Hall, U.S. House of Representatives, U.S. Capitol Bldg., Washington, D.C.). See: Courtenay, William Ashmead, A memoir of George Peabody [microform] : proceedings of the General Assembly of South Carolina, proposing concerted action by the southern states, for placing a statue of the philanthropist in the Capitol at Washington [Charleston : Lucas & Richardson Co., printers], 1896.

“Courtenay-c, William Ashmead.” Who Was Who in America, Volume 1 (1897-1942) (Chicago: Marquis Who’s Who, 1943), p. 265 (W.A. Courtenay of Charleston, S.C., a PEF trustee from 1888 was a manufacturer, bookseller, publisher, Confederate officer, mayor of Charleston during 1879-87, and editor of the Charleston Year Books).

Cox, Julia P., comp. Guide to the Papers of Vermont Governors (Montpelier, Vt., 1985). (Former Vt. Gov. John Gregory Smith provided GP with a special Vermont Central Line railroad car for GP’s trip to Montreal, Canada, July 1866. Gov. Smith was a businessman, lawyer, Vt. state senator, 1858-59, Vt. state representative 1860-62, and Speaker of the House, 1862. His papers are at Sheldon Museum, Middlebury; Univ. of Vt.; and Vt. State Archives).

Coyle, Wilbur F. The Mayors of Baltimore: Illustrated from Portraits in the City Hall (Baltimore: Reprinted from the Baltimore Municipal Journal, 1919), pp. 106-115 (Baltimore Mayor John Lee Chapman and city council members greeted GP and guests Oct. 24, 1866, there to attend the Oct. 25-26, 1866, PIB dedication and opening. GP’s guests included Charles Macalester of Philadelphia, Capt. Charles H.E. Judkins of the Scotia, GP’s nephew George Peabody Russell and wife, nephew Othniel Charles Marsh, and George Peabody Wetmore of Newport, R.I., later R.I. governor and U.S. senator; and some PIB trustees).

Crabb, Alfred Leland-a. “Bruce Ryburn Payne–Man of Faith,” Peabody Reflector (March 1931), reprinted in Windrow, ed., pp. 257-266 (GPCFT historian and faculty member Crabb’s biographical sketch of B.R. Payne, GPCFT’s first president during 1911-37).

Crabb, Alfred Leland-b. “Davidson Academy, 1785-1806,” Peabody Reflector (Oct. 1931), reprinted in Windrow, p. 29 (U.S. Gen. and seventh U.S. Pres. Andrew Jackson was trustee during 1792-1845 of Davidson Academy and its successor institutions Cumberland College and the Univ. of Nashville).

Crabb, Alfred Leland-c. “James Priestley–Pioneer Schoolmaster (A Study in Incompleteness),” Peabody Reflector, (Dec. 1932), reprinted in Windrow, ed., pp. 267-273 (GPCFT historian A.L. Crabb on James Priestley, second president of Cumberland College, Nashville, Tenn., during Oct. 24, 1809-Feb. 24, 1821. Cumberland College [1806-26], rechartered from Davidson Academy [1785-1806], was succeeded by the Univ. of Nashville [1826-75], Peabody Normal College [1875-1909], GPCFT [1911-79], and PCofVU [since 1979]).

Crawford, Jean-a. “A Tribute Fit for the Man,” Peabody Reflector, Vol. 56, No. 1 (Spring 1983), pp. 19-21 (As GPCFT student, faculty member, and administrator for 60 years, John Edwin Windrow was an indefatigable GPCFT publicist. His GPCFT dissertation and book were on the life of Univ. of Nashville Chancellor John Berrien Lindsley).

Crawford, Jean-b. “Learning with Jasper,” Peabody Reflector, Vol. 61, No. 2 (Summer 1990), pp. 26-27 (PCofVU’s Learning Technology Center in 1987-88 developed a multimedia videodisk “Jasper” stories series used to solve middle school math problems. The Jasper stories series soon spread to other states).

Crichton, Mary. “Peabody in England: Bridging the Cultural Gap,” Peabody Reflector, Vol. 65, No. 1 (Fall 1994), pp. 14-17 (Two GP-related illustrations are identified under Peabody, George, Illustrations).

Cummings, Richard O. “The Growth of Technical Cooperation with Governments Abroad, 1849-1853,” Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 18, No. 2 (May 1949), pp. 199-212 (Credited GP’s international contributions: 1-His $15,000 loan to the U.S. exhibitors at the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London [first world’s fair], allowing over six million visitors to see U.S. art and industry in the best light; 2-his $10,000 gift for scientific equipment for the Second U.S. Grinnell Expedition in search for Sir John Franklin, 1853-55, which initiated U.S. Arctic exploration; 3-his U.S.-British friendship dinners in London, 1850s-early 60s, during a period of U.S.-British friction; and 4-his $2.5 million Peabody apartments for London’s working poor, which stimulated municipal housing for low income people).

Currier, John James. History of Newburyport, 1764-1909 (Newburyport, Mass.: privately printed, 1906-1909), II, p. 406 (On GP’s Oct. 2, 1856, visit to the Essex County Agricultural Fair, Newburyport, Mass. He recognized and greeted former mayor Moses Davenport and Prescott Spaulding. He told the crowd that Spaulding was the merchant who gave him his first consignment of goods in 1812, when at age 17, after the Great Newburyport Fire, he left Newburyport with paternal uncle John Peabody to open a store in Georgetown, D.C.).

Curry, Jabez Lamar Monroe-a. “The Peabody Education Fund,” Educational Review, Vol. 13 (March 1897), pp. 226-231 (Described the PEF’s influence on public education in the 11 former Confederate states plus W.Va., added because of its poverty).

Curry, Jabez Lamar Monroe-b. A Brief Sketch of George Peabody and a History of the Peabody Education Fund Through Thirty Years (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1898. Reprinted New York: Negro Universities Press, 1969), p. ix (Described GP’s May 18, 1853, U.S.-British friendship dinner, Star and Garter Hotel, Richmond, near London. Among the 150 guests: 1-Harvard Prof. and later Pres. [1860] C.C. Felton, eighth U.S. Pres. during 1837-41. 2-Former U. S. Pres. Martin Van Buren. 3-U.S. Minister to Britain. J.R. Ingersoll and his niece Miss Wilcocks. 4-Ohio Episcopal Bishop C.P. McIlvaine. 4-Boston merchant J.S. Morgan [and his wife], then considering becoming GP’s partner. [p. 12]: Mr. Humphreys’ daughter’s undated letter to Curry, quoting her father, to whom GP allegedly said, on being congratulated on his philanthropy: “Humphreys, after my disappointment long ago, I determined to devote myself to my fellow-beings, and am carrying out that decision to my best ability.” She also mentioned seeing Queen Victoria’s miniature porcelainized portrait when GP first received it, March 1867. Curry, PEF’s second administrator, summarized its history, activities, and influence on public education in the 11 former Confederate states plus W.Va., added because of its poverty. The frontispiece is an engraving of GP in old age by W.H. Forbes. [pp. 19, 33, 35, 64, 106, 137]: On William Maxwell Evarts, Boston-born statesman and one of the 16 original PEF trustee. [pp. 17-18]: At the 25th anniversary of the founding of Johns Hopkins Univ., Evangelist Dwight L. Moody told of hearing from B&O RR. Pres. J.W. Garrett’s son how Garrett brought together in his home near Baltimore GP and Johns Hopkins during GP’s 1866-67 U.S. visit. At Johns Hopkins’ request GP told how he began his philanthropy. Soon after, Hopkins made out his will, leaving funds for the Johns Hopkins Univ., medical school, and hospital. [p. 53; see also Garrett, John Work (1820-84). Address…., entry below]: A sick GP at age 74, after amending his will and arranging for burial at Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Mass., left NYC on the Scotia, ending his last four-month U.S. visit, June 8-Sept. 29, 1869. He reached London to rest at business friend Curtis M. Lampson’s 80 Eaton Sq. home where he died Nov. 4, 1869).

Cyriax, Richard J. Sir John Franklin’s Last Arctic Expedition, A Chapter in the History of the Royal Navy (London: Methuen and Co., 1946). (GP gave $10,000 for scientific equipment for the Second U.S. Grinnell Expedition’s [1853-55] unsuccessful search for British Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin, lost in May 1847 with 137 seamen. The two Grinnell expeditions marked the U.S.’s first Arctic exploration and the naming of Peabody Bay off Greenland for GP’s aid).

Dabney, Charles William. Universal Education in the South. In Two Volumes. Volume I: From the Beginning to 1900 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1936), Vol. 1, facing p. 83 (Five GP-related illustrations, identified under Peabody, George, Illustrations, were taken Aug. 12, 1869, Greenbrier Hotel, White Sulphur Springs, W.Va. Other GP photos taken that day are also in Conte, pp. 69-71; Dabney, Vol. 1, facing p. 83; Freeman-a, 1935, appendix [incorrect identification]; Freeman-b, 1947, Vol. 4, p. 438 [correct]; Kocher and Dearstyne, pp. 189-190; Lanier, ed., Vol. 5, p. 4; Meredith, pp. 84-85; Miller, ed., Vol. 10, p. 4; Murphy, p. 58. Has much about GP’s PEF influence in both volumes. Quoted Tenn. supt. of public instruction John Eaton’s account of being with GP at White Sulphur Springs health spa, W.Va., July 23-Aug. 30, 1869, in Vol. I, p. 107, footnote 10. Vol. I, p. 103: at the 25th anniversary of the founding of Johns Hopkins Univ., Evangelist Dwight L. Moody told of hearing from B&O RR Pres. J.W. Garrett’s son how Garrett brought together GP and Johns Hopkins in his home near Baltimore during GP’s 1866-67 U.S. visit. At Hopkins’ request GP told how and why he began his philanthropy. Hopkins soon after drew up his will endowing the Johns Hopkins Univ., medical school, and hospital in Baltimore. See: also under Garrett, John Work (1820-84). Address…, entry below).

Dalzell, Robert F., Jr. American Participation in the Great Exhibition of 1851 (Amherst, Mass.: Amherst College Press, 1959), 64 pp (This Amherst College, Mass., senior thesis included an historical overview of the exhibition and of U.S. participation, mentioned GP’s $15,000 loan to the U.S. exhibitors, traced British-U.S. changed attitudes from mutual suspicion and ridicule to respect, and explored the success of the U.S. exhibits).

“Danvers Centennial Celebration,” Littell’s Living Age , Vol. 34, No. 425 (July 10, 1852), pp. 85-87 (Invited but unable to attend the 100th anniversary of hometown Danvers’ separation from Salem, Mass., GP in his May 26, 1852, letter from London, read at the June 16, 1852, celebration, founded his first Peabody Institute Library, to which he ultimately gave $217,600 and a motto: “Education, a debt due from present to future generations”).

Danvers, Mass. Proceedings at the Reception and Dinner in Honor of George Peabody, Esq., of London, by the Citizens of the Old Town of Danvers, October 9, 1856. To Which is appended an Historical Sketch of the Peabody Institute, with the Exercises at the Laying of the Corner-stone and at the Dedication (Boston: H.W. Dutton & Son, 1856). (On his first U.S. return visit after nearly 20 years’ absence in London, since Feb. 1837, GP declined public receptions in NYC, Boston, and elsewhere for one in his hometown. Described bands, marching school children, and speeches [with GP’s replies] by Essex County dignitary Alfred A. Abbott, R.S. Daniels, Edward Everett, Mass. Gov. Henry J. Gardner, and J.C.B Davis. Included letters from dignitaries invited but unable to attend: Abbott Lawrence, Rufus Choate, Washington Irving, Elisha Kent Kane, Peter Cooper, Robert C. Winthrop, Josiah Quincy, Jr., W.W. Corcoran, George Bancroft, Henry Barnard, and others; and extracts from newspaper accounts. The initials of artist Winslow Homer, 1836-1910, who did the lithographs for this book appear on illustrations facing pp. 21, 89).

Danvers, Mass. Vital Records of Danvers, Massachusetts To the End of the Year, 1849, Marriages (Salem, Mass.: Essex Institute, 1909), II, p. 422 (gravestone record of the death of GP’s older sister Achsah Spofford Peabody on Feb. 7, 1821, age 30).

[Darbishire, Henry Astley, 1825-99], British Architects 1834–1900, Compiled by A. Felstead, et al. (London: Mansell, 1993) (British architect Darbishire originally designed the Peabody Homes of London. He owned a portrait of GP painted by British artist Lowes Cato Dickinson).

Darnell, Riley C. Tennessee Blue Book 1995-1996. Bicentennial Edition (1796-1996) (Nashville: State of Tenn., 1996), p. 452 (On former Tenn. Gov. Neill Smith Brown, who attended GP’s July 4, 1851, London dinner when Brown was U.S. Minister to Russia, 1850-53. Also has biographical sketch of Tenn. Gov. James Davis Porter, connected with Peabody Normal College, p. 455).

“Davenport, Moses (February 14, 1806-February 18, 1861).” The Mayors of Newburyport: 1851 to the Present: Local Newburyport History as Reflected in the Lives of its Mayors. Compiled and edited by Jerie Lansen and Todd Woodworth (Newburyport, Mass.: Ocean Press, 1996), pp. 7-8 (Visiting the Essex County Agricultural Fair, Newburyport, Mass., Oct. 2, 1856, GP recognized and greeted merchant and former mayor Moses Davenport).

Davis, Louise Littleton. More Tales of Tennessee (Gretna, La.: Pelican Publishing Co., 1978), pp. 127-135 (On former Tenn. Gov. Neill Smith Brown, who attended GP’s July 4, 1851, London dinner when Brown was U.S. Minister to Russia, 1850-53).

Davis, William C. Rebels & Yankees: The Fighting Men of the Civil War (New York: Gallery Books, 1989). (On Civil War military leaders and related events).

De Mare, Marie. G. P. A. Healy, American Artist (New York: David McKay Co., 1954), p. 206 (Mention of 1862 exhibition of portraits by Healy including his portrait of GP made in 1854 [the GP portrait is not in this book]. Healy’s portrait of GP is located in the National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., with prints published in Burk, facing p. 80 and Kenin, p. 94).

”Dedication of the Peabody Museum: Simple Exercises Mark the Laying of the Cornerstone of New Home for Notable Collections,” Yale Alumni Weekly (July 6, 1923), pp. 1249-1250.

Desmond, Adrian J. The Hot-Blooded Dinosaurs: A Revolution in Paleontology (New York: Dial Press, 1976), pp. 30-37, 106-117, 138-139, 174-177 (On GP’s nephew O.C. Marsh’s science career; similar to Bakker, Robert T., entry above).

Dexter, Ralph W. “The Role of E. S. Morse, Director of the Peabody Academy of Science, in Bringing Zoology to Japan (1877-1883),” Essex Institute Historical Collections, Vol. 126, No. 4 (Oct. 1990), pp. 254-260 (Edward Sylvester Morse, Peabody Academy of Science, Salem, Mass. [since 1992 Peabody Essex Museum], first director during 1880-1916, achieved renown by teaching for the first time Darwinian evolution and zoology at Tokyo Imperial Univ.).

Diagram Group. A Field Guide to Dinosaurs (New York: Avon, 1983), pp. 52-53, 146-147, 210-211, 218-223, 246-249 (On GP’s nephew O.C. Marsh’s science career; similar to Bakker, Robert T., entry above).

Dickens, Charles, ed.-a. “Tilling the Devil’s Acres,” Household Words (edited by Charles Dickens), Vol. 15, No. 377 (June 13, 1857), pp. 553-558 (Described the desperate need of England’s poor in health, sanitation, and housing. Five years later GP established the Peabody Donation Fund to provide low-rent housing for London’s working poor).

Dickens, Charles-b. Letters to the Baroness Burdett-Coutts, ed. by Charles C. Osborne (London: Murray, 1931), p. 142 (Dickens wrote to reformer-philanthropist Angela Georgina Burdett-Coutts, a great influence on his reform tendencies, that the poor “will never save their children from the dreadful and unnatural mortality now prevalent…or save themselves from untimely sickness and death, until they have cheap pure water in unlimited quantity, wholesome air, efficient drainage, and such alterations in building acts as shall preserve open space in the closest regions”).

[Dickinson, Lowes Cato, 1819-1908], Dictionary of National Biography CD-ROM (British artist, whose portraits of GP are owned by the Peabody Trust of London, Astley Darbishire, British architect who designed the Peabody Homes of London, and by the PIB).

“Dielman, Louis Henry,” Maryland History Notes, Vol. 17, No. 1 (May 1959), p. 2 (On Louis Henry Dielman, fifth PIB librarian during 1926-42).

Dillingham, George A. The Foundation of the Peabody Tradition (Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1989), p. 12 (U.S. Gen. and seventh U.S. Pres. Andrew Jackson was trustee during 1792-1845 of Davidson Academy and its successor institutions: Cumberland College and the Univ. of Nashville).

Dissertation Abstracts International, Vol. 19, No. 8 (Feb. 1959), pp. 1986-1987. (Peabody Hall, Univ. of Ga., which houses its College of Education, was constructed 1912-13 with a $40,000 grant from the PEF. It was known as the Peabody School of Education during 1908-32 when the Ga. Legislature created the Board of Regents to direct all of higher education in Ga.).

District of Columbia, Board of Trustees of Public Schools. Second Report of the Board of Trustees of the Public Schools of the District of Columbia, 1875-1876 (Washington, D.C.: R. Beresford, 1877), pp. 62-66 (Has William Dawson Johnson “Peabody Library,” document, from the William Dawson Johnson Papers in the Library of Congress Ms. which relates that on April 20, 1867, GP gave $15,000 to five trustees toward a free public library building fund in Georgetown, D.C. In 1876 his gift became the George Peabody Library Association of Georgetown, D.C. It later merged with the public library system of Washington, D.C., and still exists as the George Peabody Room of the Public Library of Washington, D.C., containing Georgetown, D.C., historiana).

Dixon, Roland B. “Anthropology, 1866-1929,” The Development of Harvard University Since the Inauguration of President Eliot 1869-1929, ed. by Samuel Eliot Morison (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1930), Chap. X, pp. 202-215 (Described GP’s developing interest in science through his nephew, O.C. Marsh, and GP’s philanthropic adviser R.C. Winthrop’s consultation with Harvard Univ. scientist Louis Agassiz and former Harvard Pres. James Walker [June-early July 1866] leading to GP’s $150,000 gift which founded the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard, Oct. 8, 1866, and greatly advanced the study of anthropology in the U.S.).

Dobbin, Isabel L. “Asger Hamerik,” Peabody Bulletin (Baltimore), April-May 1913, pp. 2-4 (Much respected PIB Conservatory of Music director for 27 years, during 1871-98. Similar to “Asger Hamerick-a, April 8, 1843-July 13, 1923,” above).

Dodgson, Charles Lutwidge. The Diaries of Lewis Carroll, ed. by Roger Lancelyn Green (New York: Oxford University Press, 1954), I, p. 261 (Alice in Wonderland author Lewis Carroll, pseudonym of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, recorded that as a proctor at the Sheldonian Theater he witnessed the granting of Oxford Univ.’s honorary Doctor of Laws degree to GP June 26, 1867, and that “in the afternoon…I was introduced to the hero of the day, Mr. Peabody, who kindly consented to sit for a photograph in the morning”).

Doll, Gaynelle, and Phillip B. Tucker. “Partners in Time,” Peabody Reflector, Vol. 69, No. 1 (Winter 2000), pp. 15-22 (Using recent reflections from selected GPCFT-VU merger participants, former managing editor G. Doll of VU’s alumni publications and current Peabody Reflector editor P.B. Tucker present a positive 20-year assessment of the July 1, 1979, merger, from which both institutions have emerged stronger and revitalized).

Dorn, Sherman-a. “Payne’s Ambition,” Peabody Reflector, Vol. 65, No. 1 (Spring 1995), pp. 2-3 (Good evaluation of contributions of GPCFT’s first Pres. Bruce R. Payne during 1911-37. Historian Dorn wrote: “Peabody in the 1920s was clearly Bruce Payne’s institution”).

Dorn, Sherman-b. A Brief History of Peabody College (Nashville: Peabody College of Vanderbilt University, 1996). (Dorn was research assistant professor at PCofVU when commissioned by Dean James W. Pellegrino to write a brief history based on PCofVU archives, covering origins as Peabody Normal College [1875-1909], transition to “super teachers college” GPCFT, 1914-79, to PCofVU since 1979, Vanderbilt Univ.’s ninth school. Dorn, historian with history degrees from Haverford College and the Univ. of Penn., helped offset lingering criticism of GPCFT-Vanderbilt merger, July 1, 1979).

Dorsey, John-a. Mr. Peabody’s Library: The Building, The Collection, The Neighborhood (Baltimore: Enoch Pratt Free Library, 1978), pp. 2, 4, 6f (Four GP-related illustrations are identified under George Peabody Illustrations in this historical view of the PIB Library).

Dorsey, John-b, ed. On Mencken (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1980), p. 54 (Baltimore newspaper writer, author, and critic Henry Louis Mencken used the PIB reference collection when writing his books).

Drake, Ellen T. “Some Notes on the Beginnings of Peabody Museum,” Discovery, Vol. 2, No. 1 (Fall 1966), pp. 33-35 (Editor of Discovery‘s Centennial Issue traced origin and growth of Yale’s Peabody Museum of Natural History, including contributions by Benjamin Silliman, James Dwight Dana, Othniel Charles Marsh, his uncle GP, Charles Schuchert, others; also on buildings, collections, and research).

“Dudley, Robert” (fl. 1865-1891). Humanities Reference Librarian Andrew Cheyney, Liverpool, England, Central Library (U.K.), reported (Aug. 9, 2000) that Algernon Graves, The Royal Academy of Arts: a Complete Dictionary of Contributors and their Work from its Foundation in 1769 to 1904 / by Algernon Graves, F.S.A. Compiled with the sanction of the President and Council of the Royal Academy (New York: Burt Franklin, 1972; reprint of London: Henry Graves & Co., Ltd., 1905-1906, 2 vols.), p. 381, listed Robert Dudley, London Artist, 32 Sussex Place, Kensington, 1866. His large oil on canvas painting, “HMS Monarch Transporting the Body of George Peabody,” 1870, 43″ x 72, was exhibited at London’s Royal Academy of Arts, 1870. The painting was acquired by the Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Mass., 1995. A photograph by Mark Sexton of the painting appeared on the cover of the Peabody Essex Museum’s American Neptune, Fall 1995.

“Dudley, Robert” (fl. 1865-1891) Cont’d. Artist Robert Dudley is also listed in: 1-Christopher Wood, Dictionary of Victorian Painters. 3rd rev. & updated edn. [Woodbridge, Suffolk, England: Antique Collectors Club, 1995], p. 148. 2-Brook-Hart, Denys. British 19th Century Marine Painting [Woodbridge, Suffolk, England: Antique Collectors Club, 1974], p. 46. 3-Algernon Graves, A Century of Loan Exhibits [London: Algernon Graves, 1913], p. 304. 4-Wilson, Arnold.
[Leigh-on-Sea, England: F. Lewis, Publishers, Ltd., 1967], p. 31). 5-The Dictionary of British Watercolour Artists (Upto 1920) Vol. 1 (H L Mallalieu. Antique Collectors Club. 1986), ISBN 1851490361 (Listed Robert Charles Dudley, 1826–1900, as “A marine, portrait & landscape painter in oil, watercolour and a lithographer. He worked in Spain, Tangiers and Venice as well as in England, exhibited at the R.A. in 1865,” indicating that this may be the same Robert Dudley).

Dunbar, Carl O. “Recollections on the Renaissance of Peabody Museum Exhibits, 1939-1959,” Discovery, Vol. 12, No. 1 (Fall 1976), pp. 17-35 (Dunbar, 1891-1979, was at Yale’s Peabody Museum of Natural History for 40 years, as graduate student in paleontology under Prof. Charles Schuchert, and for 17 years as director, succeeding Albert E. Parr, 1900-91).

Durant, John, and Alice Durant. Pictorial History of American Presidents. 2nd revised ed. (New York: A.S. Barnes and Co., 1962), p. 139 (Has idealized drawing which depicted GP’s $2 million 1867-69 PEF gift for public education in the South to heal Civil War scars and educate both southern whites and blacks; original in the Library of Congress).

Duyckinck, Evart A. Portrait Gallery of Eminent Men and Women of Europe and America (New York: Johnson, 1873), II, p. 291 (Photo of GP).

Dykeman, Wilma. Tennessee: A Bicentennial History (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1975), pp. 161-162 (GPCFT, Nashville, and its predecessors).

Easterby, J.H. “Aiken, William (Jan. 28, 1806-Sept. 6, 1887),” Dictionary of American Biography, ed. by Allen Johnson (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1964), I, pp. 128-129 (Aiken was one of the 16 original PEF trustees from 1867).

Eaton, John. First Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction in the State of Tennessee, Ending Thursday, October 7, 1869 (Nashville: George Edgar Grishman, 1869), Appendix T (GP visited Greenbrier Hotel, White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., July 23-Aug. 30, 1869, where he spoke to and was photographed with Robert E. Lee, other former Civil War generals, and northern and southern educational and political leaders, and where a Peabody Ball was held in his honor).

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Economist (London), “Victorian Yankee,” Vol. 242, No. 6704 (Feb. 19, 1972), p. 53 (Book review of Franklin Parker, George Peabody, a Biography [Nashville: Vanderbilt Univ. Press, 1971], with engraved portrait of GP in old age seated at desk, with head supported by right hand).

“Educator William W. Force dies at 81,” Nashville Tennessean, March 14, 1997, p. 6B (Obituary of administrator at both Vanderbilt and GPCFT who was critical of 1974 Design for the Future report to refocus and strengthen GPCFT’s future).

Ellicott, J.M. Life of John Ancrum Winslow (New York: 1902). (U.S. naval Capt. of USS Kearsarge which sank British-built Confederate raider CSS Alabama near Cherbourg, France, June 19, 1864).

[Elphinestone, Howard Cawfurd]. Dictionary of National Biography, ed. by Sir Lesley Stephen and Sir Sidney Lee (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1921-27 edn.), Vol. 22, pp. 608-609 (Military aide to Queen Victoria’s son Prince Arthur, then on a Canadian tour in mid-Nov. 1869. When Prince Arthur received the Queen’s approval to visit in the U.S., he left Montreal, Canada, Jan. 20, 1870, visited Washington, D.C., and NYC, Jan. 29, 1870. It was at Elphinestone’s suggestion that Prince Arthur attended GP’s final funeral and eulogy, Feb. 8, 1870, Peabody, Mass. He wrote the Queen: [Jan 27]: “Should Mr. Peabody’s funeral take place soon after that, Col. Elphinestone thought it would be a gracious act on the part of the Prince to attend”).

Endicott, C.M. A Genealogy of the Peabody Family (Boston: David Clapp & Son, 1867), pp. 2-3 (Heraldry Office, London, records traced the Peabody family name to Queen Boadicia [61 A.D.], Icena, Britain, vassal to Roman Emperor Nero, who had her whipped when she objected to his seizing her late husband’s wealth. She led an unsuccessful revolt against Rome, ending her life with poison, while her kinsman, Boadie, fled to Wales. Boadie in the Cambrian tongue meant “man” or “great man,” while Pea meant ‘hill” or ‘mountain,” so that Peabody meant “mountain man” or “great man of the mountain.” See: Pope, ed., 1909, p. viii, who, rejecting the Queen Boadicia origin of “Peabody,” held that when English surnames were crystallized, 14th century, “Paybody” referred to trusted paymasters of barons or public officials, and that the Latin motto of the Peabody coat of arms, Murus aereus conscientia sana, meant “A sound conscience is a wall of bronze”; i.e.,” a solid wall of defense.” On pp. 55-60: William Paybody, who arrived in New England with his father and sister, 1636, and lived first in Plymouth and then Duxbury, Mass., married Elizabeth Alden, third child and eldest daughter of John Alden and Priscilla Mullins. The Alden-Mullins romance was made famous in Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s The Courtship of Miles Standish, 1858. The gravestone of their daughter, Elizabeth Alden Pabodie, in Old Burying Ground, Little Compton, R.I., reads: “wife of William Pabodie, who dyed may ye 31st: 1717: and in the 94th year of her age”).

English, D.C., M.D. [Obituary, Dr. Joseph Parrish, M.D. (1818-91)], Transactions of the Medical Society of New Jersey (Newark, NJ: Medical Society of New Jersey, L.J. Hardham, Printer, 1891), pp. 243-254. (Obituary described Dr. Parrish’s influence on Johns Hopkins to found the Johns Hopkins Univ., medical school, and hospital in 1873, the year Hopkins died. Earlier, sometime in 1866-67, GP and Hopkins also spoke together about philanthropy. See: Garrett, John Work [1820-84]. Address…, entry above).

Essex Institute. Visitor’s Guide to Salem (Salem, Mass.: Salem Observer Press, 1866), p. 199 (Peabody family burial plot, Anemone Ave., lot number 51, Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Mass.).

Essex Institute, Salem, Mass. See Vital Records of Rowley, Massachusetts, To the End of the Year, 1849 (Salem, Mass.: Essex Institute, 1929).

Evans, M.G. “Founder’s Day, Feb. 1, 1913,” Peabody Bulletin (Baltimore), Series 9, No. 4 (March 1913), p. 6 (Feb. was an important month in GP’s life and career. He was born Feb. 18, 1795; left the U.S. for England to stay for some 30 years on Feb. 1, 1837, to his death on Nov. 4, 1869 [except for three U.S. visits]; dated his letter founding the $1.4 million PIB on Feb. 12, 1857; dated his letter founding the $2 million PEF on Feb. 7, 1867; his remains reached Portland, Maine, during a 96-day transatlantic funeral on Feb. 1, 1870; and he was buried on Feb. 8, 1870, Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Mass.).

Everett, Edward-a. Speech, at the Dinner Given in Honor of George Peabody, Esq., of London, by the Citizens of the Old Town of Danvers, October 9, 1856 (Boston: H.W. Dutton & Son, 1857). (On GP’s first U.S. visit after nearly 20 years’ absence in London since Feb. 1837, he declined public receptions in NYC, Boston, and elsewhere for a gala reception in his hometown where he founded his first Peabody Institute Library, 1852. Bands, marching school children, and speeches [with GP’s replies] were given by Mass. dignitaries Alfred A. Abbott, R.S. Daniels, Mass. Gov. Henry J. Gardner, and J.C.B Davis, with Edward Everett’s the major address. Dorchester, Mass.-born Everett was a graduate, professor, and president of Harvard, member of both the U.S. House and Senate, Mass. governor, U.S. Minister to Britain, U.S. Secty. of State, and the best known orator of his time. His two-hour Gettysburg address, Nov. 19, 1863, is largely forgotten, compared to Pres. Lincoln’s three-minutes 272-word address). Note: Edward Everett’s full Oct. 9, 1856, speech on the internet (seen Dec. 24, 20004): http://www.hti.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=moa;idno=AEM7072.0001.001

Everett, Edward-b. Orations and Speeches on Various Occasions (Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1892), II, pp. 466-476 (His speech at the dinner given for GP by Danvers, Mass. citizens , Oct. 9, 1856, on GP’s first U.S. visit after nearly 20 years’ absence in London, since Feb. 1837). Note: His full Oct. 9, 1856, speech on the internet (seen Dec. 24, 20004): http://www.hti.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=moa;idno=AEM7072.0001.001

Farr, R.R. Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Virginia (Richmond: Va. Supt. of Public Printing, 1885), Part II, p. 29 (A proposed statue of GP in Statuary Hall, U.S. House of Representatives, U.S. Capitol Bldg., Washington, D.C., first urged at a conference of Va. Superintendents of Education, was recorded in this 1885 annual report of Va.’s Superintendent of Public Instruction. This report came to PEF administrator J.L.M. Curry’s attention, who tried but failed to advance the proposal. Similar efforts in the S.C. and Tenn. legislatures also failed).
Farragut, Loyall. The Life of David Glasgow Farragut, First Admiral of the United States Navy, Embodying His Journal and Letters (New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1879), p. 540 (Adm. Farragut’s last official naval duty was to organize the reception of GP’s remains from HMS Monarch at Portland harbor, Maine, Jan. 25-Feb. 1, 1870. Farragut, one of the 16 original PEF trustees in 1867, was ill during the Portland reception and died seven months later, Aug. 14, 1870).
Fell, Jesse Weldon-a. A Treatise on Cancer, and its Treatment (London, 1857). (U.S.-born physician Fell experimented with a cancer cure in London’s Middlesex Hospital. He was a friend of U.S. Legation Secty. Benjamin Moran, had attended Mrs. Moran before her death, and with Moran and others formed the American Association of London [1858], a club for social and charitable purposes. These newer U.S. residents in London were generally critical of and less successful than older London residents like GP in organizing Fourth of July dinners [1858-early 1860s], which GP had started in 1850).

“Fell, Jesse Weldon-b,” Albione’s Dictionary of Authors (Philadelphia: Trubner & Co., 1859), Vol. 1, p. 584 (Brief sketch of U.S.-born physician who experimented with a cancer cure in London’s Middlesex Hospital. With U.S. Legation Secty. Benjamin Moran, Fell and others formed in 1858 an American Association of London for social and charitable purposes).

“Felt, Charles Frederick Wilson,” 1864-1923, son of Charles Wilson Felt (born Nov. 18, 1834, d.?), GP critic. The son’s obituaries are in Biographical Directory of the Railway Officials of America, ed. By T. Addison Busbey (Chicago: Railway Age Co., 1906), p. 194; and in Who Was Who in America, Vol. 1, 1897-1942 (Chicago: A.N. Marquis Co., 1943), p. 390. Neither the Salem, Mass., public library or the Salem, Mass., City Clerk has a death date for Charles Wilson Felt.

Felton, Cornelius Conway. Familiar Letters from Europe (Boston: Tichnor and Field, 1865), p. 28 (Felton, Harvard Univ. prof. and later pres., described GP’s May 18, 1853, U.S.-British friendship dinner, Star and Garter Hotel, Richmond, near London. Among 150 guests besides Felton: eighth U.S. Pres. during 1837-41 Martin Van Buren, U.S. Minister to Britain J.R. Ingersoll and his niece Miss Wilcocks, Ohio Episcopal Bishop C.P. McIlvaine, and Boston merchant J.S. Morgan, then considering becoming GP’s partner).

Ffrench, Yvonne. The Great Exhibition: 1851 (London: Harville Press, 1950), pp. 237-238 (Quoted London Punch‘s satirical remarks on U.S. exhibitors’ large promise and little performance before the opening of the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London, before GP’s $15,000 loan to the exhibitors, and before his exhibition-connected social emergence. Also mentioned that U.S. yacht America beat England’s Baltic, 1851, in British waters to win the silver tankard prize still known as America’s cup, p. 242).

Field, J.L. “The Battle of Southsea” (Portsmouth Paper 34, published by Portsmouth City Council, Portsmouth, England), p. 18 (Biographical sketch of George Sheppard, Mayor of Portsmouth, England, participant in the Dec. 11, 1869, transfer of GP’s remains from Westminster Abbey, London, by train to Portsmouth harbor, England, and the placing of the coffin aboard HMS Monarch for the transatlantic voyage to New England).

Figuier, Louis. Les Nouvelles Conquetes de la Science, Volume 1 (Paris: Librarie Illustrés, 1883), pp. 92-94 (Mentioned that John W. Starr of Cincinnati, Ohio, who invented a light bulb powered by an electric current, secured an English patent for it in London in 1846, that he sought financing for it from GP).

[Fillmore, Millard]. Millard Fillmore Papers, Volume One, ed. by Frank H. Severance (Buffalo, N.Y.: Buffalo Historical Society, 1907; N.Y.: Kraus Reprint Co., 1970), I, pp. 444-445 (Fillmore’s toast to GP at GP’s July 4, 1855, dinner, Willis’s Rooms, London, at which Fillmore was guest of honor).

Fleming, Walter Lynwood. “Brown, Neill Smith (1810-86),” Dictionary of American Biography (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1929), Vol. 2, Part 1, pp. 147-148. (Brown, former Tenn. governor, was U.S. Ambassador to Russia, 1850-53, when he attended GP’s July 4, 1851, London dinner).

Flexner, Abraham with collaborator Esther S. Bailey. Funds and Foundations: Their Policies Past and Present (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1952), p. 11 (Praised the PEF’s influence on public education in the 11 former Confederate states plus W.Va., added because of its poverty).

Flood, Charles Bracelen. Lee: The Last Years (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1981), pp. 215-216 (In 1883 Va. gave Washington and Lee Univ. $60,000, the value with interest for GP’s Va. bonds, lost on the Arctic, 1854. GP gave the bonds to Pres. R.E. Lee’s Washington College, 1869, for a math professorship. Local (White Sulphur Springs, W.Va.) sources on Lee, with GP and others, at White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., Aug. 1869: White Sulphur Echo, Vol. 22, No. 51 (Aug. 12, 1869), p. 2, c. 1-2; p. 3; Lee Week Herald, Vol. 1, No. 4 (Aug. 25, 1932) [Commemorative retrospective]; White Sulphur Echo and Lee Week Herald, Aug. 31, 1934) [Veteran’s Day retrospective].

Folmsbee, Stanley J., Robert E. Corlew, and Enoch L. Mitchell. Tennessee: A Short History (Knoxville: Univ. of Tenn. Press, 1969), pp. 274-275 (Brief mention of GPCFT’s predecessors: Davidson Academy, Cumberland College, Univ. of Nashville, and Peabody Normal College).

Foote, Shelby. The Civil War: A Narrative: Fredericksburg to Meridian (New York: Random House, 1963), pp. 154, 157 (On the 1861 Trent Affair, southern cotton and British textiles, and other U.S.-British Civil War conflicts).

Force, William W.-a. Payne of Peabody: An Apostle of Education (Nashville: privately printed, 1985). (GPCFT prof. and administrator’s description of life and educational influence of Bruce Ryburn Payne, GPCFT’s first president during 1911-37).

Force, William W.-b. A Short History of George Peabody College for Teachers, 1974-1979 (Nashville: Williams Printing Co., 1986). (GPCFT prof. and administrator’s view of circumstances leading to the July 1, 1979, merger of GPCFT and Vanderbilt Univ. as PCofVU. Force’s view that GPCFT could have survived financially has been strongly disputed).

“Former VU Board President Sam Fleming Mourned,” Vanderbilt University Medical Center Reporter (Nashville, Tenn.), Jan. 28, 2000, pp. 1-2 (Obituary of VU Board of Trustee member Sam M. Fleming, active when GPCFT became PCofVU, July 1, 1979).

Forney, John Wien. Letters from Europe (Philadelphia: T. B. Peterson, 1867), pp. 19-31, 62-69 (Described GP aboard the Scotia returning to England and resolutions of praise from U.S. passengers, May 8, 1867. Forney also described his May 25, 1867, visit to the Peabody Homes in Islington, a borough containing some of London’s worst slums. GP had arranged for two U.S.-born trustees of the Peabody Donation Fund, Sir Curtis Miranda Lampson, 1806-85, and Horatio Gates Somerby, 1805-72, to show Forney the homes and answer his questions).

Foskett, Daphne. A Dictionary of British Miniature Painters (London: Faber & Faber, 1972), Vol. I, p. 550 (F.A.C. Tilt is the British artist listed as of London and Epsom whose 1867 miniature portrait of Queen Victoria was done “by Command; the original miniature for which the enamel was prepared for Mr. Peabody.” This miniature was the Queen’s gift to GP for his Peabody Donation Fund [total gift $2.5 million] which built and managed apartments for London’s working poor. The miniature, said to have cost $70,000, is in the Peabody Institute Library, Peabody, Mass.).

Frederick, John H. “Macalester, Charles (1798-1873),” Dictionary of American Biography, ed. by James Truslow Adams (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1933, 1961), VI, pp. 543-544 (Charles Macalester met GP, London, 1842, and was GP’s agent in Philadelphia, where he was born. A financier, he was one of the 16 original PEF trustees; on the PEF Finance Committee. He left land for what is now Macalester College, St. Paul, Minn.).

Freeman, Douglas Southall-a. Robert E. Lee; A Biography. The Pulitzer Prize Edition (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1935, 1936), next to last photo in appendix is titled “Illustrations Specially Selected for the Pulitzer Prize edition” (Photo of GP and 12 others taken at Greenbrier Hotel, White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., Aug. 12, 1869, with persons in photo identified under GP Illustrations).

Freeman, Douglas Southall-b. Robert E. Lee, A Biography (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1947), IV, p. 438 (Photo of GP sitting alone, taken at Greenbrier Hotel, White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., Aug. 12, 1869. Also reported GP’s gift to Lee’s college as follows: GP’s $35,000 in Va. bonds was lost when the Arctic, a Collins Line ship, sank in the winter of 1854 off Cape Race, Newfoundland. After unsuccessfully trying to get Va. to redeem the lost bonds, GP gave their value in 1869 to Pres. Robert E. Lee’s Washington College [renamed Washington and Lee Univ., l871] for a mathematics professorship. In 1883 Va. gave the university $60,000, the value of the bonds with accrued interest).

French, John C.-a. A History of the University Founded by Johns Hopkins (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1946), pp. 10-12 (There may have been other influences, but GP’s philanthropic example and talk with Johns Hopkins at B&O RR Pres. John Work Garrett’s home near Baltimore sometime in 1866-67 early influenced Johns Hopkins to write his will founding the Johns Hopkins Univ., medical school, and hospital. See: also Garrett, John Work (1820-84). Address…, entry below).

French, John C.-b. “Mr. Johns Hopkins and Dr. Macaulay’s ‘Medical Improvement,'” Bulletin of the History of Medicine, Vol. 27 (1953), pp. 562-566 (Besides talks on philanthropy between GP and Johns Hopkins sometime in 1866-67 and Hopkins-Dr. Joseph Parrish, M.D., talk in 1873, author French told of Hopkins’ close and long contact with Baltimore physician Dr. Patrick Macaulay, M.D., active in civic affairs and a fellow director with Hopkins of the B&O RR. Dr. Macaulay’s pamphlet, Medical Improvement, 1824, advocating clinical or supervised bedside experience for medical students, came into Hopkins’ hands and may have influenced him to insist on this clinical experience in his will founding the Johns Hopkins Univ., hospital, and medical school. See also Garrett, John Work [1820-84]. Address…, entry below).

Frizzell, Mildred Armor. “George Peabody Cup,” Hobbies, Vol. 86, No. 4 (June 1981), pp. 41, 62 (Photo of a GP pressed glass cup made in Sunderland, England, for sale after GP’s Nov. 4, 1869, death).

Fuess, Claude Moore. “Clifford, John Henry (Jan. 16, 1809-Jan 2, 1876),” Dictionary of American Biography, ed. by Allen Johnson and Dumas Malone (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1930), II, pp. 215-216 (Former Mass. Gov. J.H. Clifford was one of the 16 original PEF trustees).

Funk, Henry Daniel. A History of Macalester College; Its Origin, Struggle and Growth (St. Paul, Minn.: Macalester College Board of Trustees, 1910), pp. 46-47 (Biographical sketch of founder Charles Macalester, a Philadelphia financier. He met GP in London, 1842, was GP’s Philadelphia agent and one of the 16 original PEF trustees and member of the PEF Finance Committee).

Galkin, Elliott. “The Man Who Brought Science into the Music Hall,” Baltimore Magazine, Vol. 72, No. 8 (Aug. 1979), pp. 170-171, 172 (Otto Rudolph Ortmann was the third Peabody Conservatory of Music director for 13 years during 1928-41. He was from a Baltimore musical family of German origin, studied at Johns Hopkins Univ. and the Peabody Conservatory of Music, where he taught piano and harmony before becoming acting director and director. Ortmann did considerable research, resulting in three landmark books on the acoustical aspects of music. He strengthened the Conservatory’s music degree ties with nearby Johns Hopkins Univ. and with Goucher College, whose music department he ultimately headed).

Gallagher, Hugh Gregory. FDR’s Splendid Deception (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1985). (Mentioned that banker-philanthropist George Foster Peabody influenced polio-victim Franklin Delano Roosevelt to make his first visit to Warm Springs, Ga., on Oct. 3, 1924, and sold FDR land there in 1926, which FDR developed as the Georgia Warm Springs Foundation for polio therapy. G.F. Peabody, distantly related to GP, was connected with the Southern Education Board and the General Education Board, both influenced by GP’s PEF).

Garland, Eric. “Has Baltimore Put Its Library on the Shelf,” Baltimore Magazine, Vol. 76, No. 2 (Feb. 1983), pp. 46-51, 102-106 (Described the 16-year PIB Library-Enoch Pratt Free Library merger during July 2, 1966-July 1, 1982, and the PIB Library-Johns Hopkins Univ. Library merger since July 1, 1982).

Garrett, John Work (1820-84). Address Delivered on the 30th of January, 1883, Before the Young Men’s Christian Association of Baltimore on the Occasion of Their Thirtieth Anniversary (Baltimore: News Steam Printing Office, 1883), pp. 9-10 (Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Pres. J.W. Garrett described, 16 years after it happened, how he brought together GP and Johns Hopkins at his Md. home [most likely on April 25, 1867; or Nov 12 or 13, 1866], knowing that Hopkins sought advice on a philanthropic gift in his will. Garrett witnessed GP’s explanation to Hopkins about when, why, and how he became a philanthropist; 24 hours later Hopkins is said to have drafted his will, founding the Johns Hopkins Univ., Medical School, and Hospital, Baltimore).

“Garrett, John Work (1820-84).” Appletons’ Cyclopedia of American Biography, ed. by James Grant Wilson and John Fiske (New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1888), Vol. II, p. 609 (Biographical sketch of B&O RR Pres. John Work Garrett who brought GP and Johns Hopkins together at Garrett’s Baltimore home sometime during 1866-67, when GP influenced Hopkins to found the Johns Hopkins Univ., hospital, and medical school in Baltimore. Same page has biographical sketch of J.W. Garrett’s son, Robert Garrett, who succeeded his father as B&O RR president, and who on April 7, 1890, had a replica erected in front of the PIB of GP’s seated statue in London, made by U.S. sculptor William Wetmore Story, unveiled on Threadneedle St. near London’s Royal Exchange by the Prince of Wales, July 23, 1869).

“Garrett, John Work” (1872-1942)-1. Who Was Who in America, Vol. 2 (1943-50) (Chicago: A.N. Marquis, 1963), p. 205 (Baltimore-born son of Thomas Harrison Garrett, 1849-88, and grandson of John Work Garrett, 1820-84. He represented the PEF trustees when he and GP’s grandnephew Murray Peabody Brush, b. 1872, unveiled the GP bust on May 12, 1926, with the main address given by GPCFT Pres. Bruce Ryburn Payne, 1874-1937, at the N.Y. Univ. Hall of Fame colonnade on University Heights overlooking the Hudson River).

“Garrett, John Work” (1872-1942)-2. John E. Findling. Dictionary of American Diplomatic History. 2nd ed. (New York: Greenwood Press, l989), p. 199 (same content as immediately above).

Garrett, William R. “The Genesis of the Peabody College for Teachers,” American Historical Magazine and Tennessee Historical Society Quarterly, Vol. 8 (Jan. 1903), pp. 14-25 (Confirmed that in 1875 the then Tenn. Gov. James Davis Porter helped PEF first administrator Barnas Sears establish Peabody Normal College on the campus of the Univ. of Nashville and by 1909 helped secure matching funds that transformed it into GPCFT).

Garrison, William Lloyd. William Lloyd Garrison, 1805-1879, The Story of His Life Told by his Children (New York: Century Co., 1889), p. 242 (Train, a critic of GP, was characterized: “George Francis Train, a notorious charlatan who was exciting the mirth of the country by posing as a self-constituted candidate for President”).

Garside, Anne. “The Way I See It: Celebrating Mr. Peabody’s Bicentennial,” Johns Hopkins Gazette, Vol. 25, No. 12 (Nov. 27, 1995). (GP Bicentennial Celebration, Westminster Abbey, London, Nov. 16, 1995, described by participant, PIB Conservatory of Music director of public affairs).

Garside, Anne. “Peabody Historic Hall to Honor Griswold,” Johns Hopkins Gazette, Vol. 27, No. 26 (March 16, 1998). (As part of Johns Hopkins Univ. $900 million fundraising in 1998, the $20 million raised for the PIB Conservatory of Music was chaired by Baltimore investment banker and Johns Hopkins Univ. trustee Benjamin H. Griswold, who himself gave the Conservatory a $2 million gift in honor of his mother who attended the Prep School and the Conservatory, 1926-36. The PIB’s North Hall was renamed the Leith Symington Griswold Hall, March 8, 1998, in her honor).

Gates, William G. City of Portsmouth. Records of the Corporation 1835-1927 (Portsmouth, England: Charpentier, 1928), Vol. I, pp. 114-115 (Handing over ceremony of GP’s remains from Westminster Abbey, London, to Portsmouth harbor on Dec. 11, 1869, and the placing of the coffin aboard HMS Monarch for transatlantic crossing to New England).

Genzmer, George Harvey. “Morris, John Gottlieb (Nov. 14, 1803-Oct. 10, 1895),” Dictionary of American Biography, ed. by Dumas Malone (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1934), VII, pp. 212-213 (Life and career of John Godlove Morris, first PIB director and librarian during 1860-67).

“George Peabody-a,” Hunt’s Merchants’ Magazine, Vol. 36, No. 4 [April 1857], pp. 428-437 (Early favorable GP biographical sketch in prestigious journal with engraving of GP, “engraved by J.C. Buttre from a daguerreotype,” with GP’s signature. Reprinted as A Biographical Sketch of George Peabody of London From Hunt’s Merchants’ Magazine For April, 1857 [New York: Baker and Godwin, 1857]).

“George Peabody-b,” Harper’s Weekly Magazine, Vol. 6 (May 17, 1862), p. 309 (Has woodcut illustration of GP).

“George Peabody-c,” Harper’s Weekly, Vol. 13, No. 673 (Nov. 20, 1869), pp. 749, 808 (Has woodcut illustration of GP).

“George Peabody-d,” Appletons’ Cyclopedia of American Biography , ed. by James Grant Wilson and John Fiske (New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1888), IV, p. 688 (Same GP biographical sketch and engraving by H.B. Hall, Jr. seen (July 1, 2001) http://famousamericans.net/georgepeabody/

“George Peabody and His Service to the State,” Maryland Historical Magazine, Vol. 5, No. 4 (Dec. 1910), p. 327 (Baltimore lawyer John Joseph Speed, involved in Md.’s 1837 $8 million bond sale abroad for internal improvements, relayed to GP, London, the March 7, 1848, resolutions of praise from Md.’s legislature and governor for GP’s marketing of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal portion of the bonds during the Panic of 1837, for assuring foreign investors that Md. would resume its bond interest payments, and for declining his $60,000 commission because of Md.’s financial difficulty).

George Peabody Bicentennial, Town of Danvers (Danvers, Mass.: Danvers Preservation Commission for the George Peabody Bicentennial Celebration, 1995) (Eighteen GP-related illustrations are identified under George Peabody Illustrations).

[George Peabody College for Teachers-a, Nashville]. See: Semicentennial of George Peabody College for Teachers 1875-1925 (Nashville: George Peabody College for Teachers, [1925]).

George Peabody College for Teachers-b, Nashville. The Historical Background of Peabody College. Covering a Period of One Hundred and Fifty-five Years. Bulletin , Vol. 30, No. 10 (Oct. 1941) (Fifteen GP-related illustrations are identified under GP Illustrations, including eight U.S. presidents who were trustees of GPCFT and its predecessors).

“George Peabody Fund,” Virginia Journal of Education, Vol. 57 (Sept. 1963), pp. 32-40 (Portrait of GP).

“George Peabody Wetmore,” Representative Men and Old Families of Rhode Island: Genealogical Records and Historical Sketches of Prominent and Representative Citizens and of Many of the Old Families…(Chicago: J.H. Beers & Co., 1908), p. 24 (William Shepard Wetmore’s son, born 1846 in London while his parents were abroad, became R.I. governor, U.S. senator, and trustee of the PEF and the Peabody Museum of Yale. GP and his father were close commercial friends).

Gibbs-Smith, C.H. (comp.). The Great Exhibition of 1851 (London: His Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1950) (Described the first world’s fair in London, 1851, important to GP because his loan of $15,000 to the U.S. exhibitors, later repaid by the U.S. Congress, and his two Exhibition-connected U.S.-British friendship dinners marked his social emergence and strengthened his philanthropic intent to establish educational institutions in communities where he lived and worked).

Gilman, Daniel Coit-a. “Thirty Years of the Peabody Education Fund,” Atlantic Monthly, Vol. 79 (Feb. 1897), pp. 161-166 (Analyzed the PEF’s activities and influence on public education in the 11 former Confederate states plus W.Va., added because of its poverty).

Gilman, Daniel Coit-b. The Launching of a University and Other Papers: A Sheaf of Remembrances (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1906), pp. 10-12 (Johns Hopkins Univ. Pres. Gilman quoted evangelist Dwight Lyman Moody, who, at the 25th anniversary of the founding of Johns Hopkins Univ., told how he heard from B&O RR. Pres. J.W. Garrett’s son how Garrett brought together in his home near Baltimore GP and Johns Hopkins during GP’s 1866-67 U.S. visit.; and GP influenced Hopkins to found the Johns Hopkins Univ., medical school, and hospital in Baltimore. The best account is under Garrett, John Work (1820-84). Address…, entry above).

Gilman, Daniel Coit-c. “Five Great Gifts,” The Outlook, Vol. 86, No. 13 (July 27, 1907), pp. 648-652 and 657 (Praised the PEF’s influence on public education in the 11 former Confederate states plus W.Va., added because of its poverty).

Gilmore, P.S. History of the National Peace Jubilee and Great Music Festival Held in the City of Boston, June, 1869, to Commemorate the Restoration of Peace Throughout the Land (Boston: Lee and Shepard, 1871), p. 598 (GP paid an unannounced visit to the National Peace Jubilee and Great Music Festival in Boston, was recognized and introduced by Mayor Shurtleff, was applauded, and responded with a few remarks, in mid June during his June 8-Sept. 29, 1869, U.S. visit).

Girling, Katherine Peabody. Selim Hobard Peabody; a Biography (Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press, 1923), p. 16 (Girling suggests that Peabody ancestors of this S.H. Peabody, Vt.-born educator and president of the Univ. of Illinois, might have come from Pappedae, Northern France, and reached England with William the Conqueror; the earliest known English spelling is “Peberdy,” perhaps derived from the name of this town).

[Gladstone, William E., PM’s Dec. 9, 1869, speech on GP], Saturday Review of Politics, Literature and Art, Vol. 28, No. 733 (Nov. 13, 1869), p. 621 (Comment on PM W.E. Gladstone’s Nov. 9, 1869, Lord Mayor’s Day speech, London, “… With the country of Mr. Peabody we are not likely to quarrel,” suggested easing of U.S.-British tension over and likely settlement of the Alabama Claims).

Glyndon, Howard. “The Coming of the Silent Guest” [poem], George Peabody House Museum, Vol. 2, Issue 3 (May 2001), p. 3 (Poem on GP’s death and funeral appeared in the New York Semi-Weekly Tribune, Friday, Jan. 28, 1870, no page given.

Glick, Thomas F., ed. Comparative Reception of Darwinism (Austin: Univ. of Texas Press, 1972), pp. 192-213 (On GP’s nephew O.C. Marsh’s science career; similar to Bakker, Robert T., entry above).

“Goodwin, James,” Who Was Who in America, Volume 1 (1897-1942) (Chicago: Marquis Who’s Who, 1943), p. 469 (On May 18, 1853, John Pierpont Morgan, Sr., then age 16 and in London because his father Junius Spencer Morgan was considering becoming GP’s partner, wrote his 14-year-old cousin James Goodwin: “Father and Mother went to a dinner given by George Peabody at Richmond”).

Gordon, John Steele. “The Atlantic Stakes,” American Heritage, Vol. 48, No. 5 (Sept. 1997), pp. 18, 20 (The Collins Line was a NYC-Liverpool transatlantic steamship company financed in part by GP’s first senior partner Elisha Riggs, Sr., inaugurated in 1849. GP’s $35,000 in Va. bonds was lost when the Arctic, a Collins Line ship, sunk Sept. 27, 1854, 20 miles off Cape Race, Newfoundland. After unsuccessfully trying to get Va. to redeem the lost bonds, GP gave their value to Pres. Robert E. Lee’s Washington College [renamed Washington and Lee Univ., l871] for a mathematics professorship. In 1883 Va. gave the university $60,000, the value of the bonds with accrued interest).

Gordon, John Steele. A Thread Across the Ocean: The Heroic Story of the Transatlantic Cable (New York: Perennial, HarperCollins, 2002), pp. 22-23, 41 (is on NYC department store owner A.T. Stewart, whose Garden City, L.I., NY, model homes were influenced by the Peabody Homes of London. Page 68 is on GP as one of several directors of the Atlantic Cable Co.).

Gould, Stephen Jay. Bully for Brontosaurus: Reflections in Natural History (New York: W.W. Norton, 1991), pp. 86-93, 139, 160-163, 170-177, 416-433 (On GP’s nephew O.C. Marsh’s science career; similar to Bakker, Robert T., entry above).

“Graham, William Alexander (1804-1875),” Encyclopedia of N.C. (New York: Somerset Publishers, l992), p. 16 (One of the 16 original PEF trustees, he was a N.C. state legislator, U.S. Senator, N.C. governor, U.S. Navy Secty., a candidate for U.S. Vice Pres., and a senator in the second Confederate Congress).

Graphic, Vol. 1, No. 3 (Dec. 18, 1869), p. 28 (Engraving of GP’s coffin in mortuary chapel aboard HMS Monarch during transatlantic crossing for final burial in Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Mass., Feb. 8, 1870).

Graphic, Vol. 1, No. 4 (Dec. 25, 1869), p. 27 (Engraving of GP’s coffin being placed aboard HMS Monarch at Portsmouth harbor, England, Dec. 11, 1869).

Graves, Algernon. See: “Dudley, Robert (fl. 1865-1891) above.

“Green, Samuel Abbott (1830-1918),” Appletons’ Cyclopedia of American Biography. Rev. Ed. by James Grant Wilson and John Fiske (New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1900), Vol. 2, p. 746 (Mass.-born educator and PEF trustee who replaced J.L.M. Curry as PEF Administrator while Curry was U.S. Minister to Spain, 1885-88).

Green, Samuel Swett. The Public Library in the United States, 1853-1893 (Boston: Boston Book Co., 1913), p. 118 (On origin, growth, and historical importance of the PIB Library).

Griffis, William E. Millard Fillmore: Constructive Statesman (Ithaca, N.Y.: Andrus and Church, 1915), p. 86 (U.S. exhibitors at the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London lacked congressional funds to display U.S. industry and art products. GP’s timely $15,000 loan saved the U.S. and its London embassy staff from embarrassment. This loan, which Congress repaid three years later, and GP’s two exhibition-connected U.S.-British friendship dinners, led to his social emergence).

Guerout, Max. “The Wreck of the C.S.S. Alabama: Avenging Angel of the Confederacy,” National Geographic, Vol. 186, No. 6 (Dec. 1994), pp. 67-83 (Wreckage found off Cherbourg, France, of British-built Confederate raider Alabama, which sank some 60 Union ships).

Guiliano, Mike. “History of the Peabody Conservatory and Other Related Incidents,” Hopkins News-Letter , Vol. 81, No. 31 (Feb. 11, 1977).

Gwyn, Ann. “Changing Hands: Johns Hopkins Acquires Peabody Library,” Wilson Library Bulletin, Vol. 57, No. 5 (Jan. 1983), pp. 401-404 (From July 1, 1982, Enoch Pratt Librarian Lynn Hart merged the PIB Library’s 250,000 volumes and seven staff members into the Peabody Library of the Milton S. Eisenhower Special Collections of the Johns Hopkins Univ. Library. Engraving of GP, p. 401).

Hall, Theodore. “A Harvard Garner, the Peabody Museum,” Harvard Graduates’ Magazine, Vol. 40, No. 149 (March 1932), pp. 276-297 (GP’s developing interest in science through his nephew, O.C. Marsh, and GP’s philanthropic adviser R.C. Winthrop’s consultation with Harvard Univ. scientist Louis Agassiz and former Harvard Pres. James Walker [June-early July 1866], leading to GP’s $150,000 gift, which founded the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard, Oct. 8, 1866, and greatly advanced the study of anthropology in the U.S.).

“Hamerik, Professor Asger,” Biographical Cyclopedia of Representative Men of Maryland and District of Columbia (Baltimore: National Biographical Publishing Co., 1879), pp. 84-86 (Born in Copenhagen, Denmark, Asger Hamerik was the successful and much respected PIB Conservatory of Music director for 27 years, during 187l-98. Born to a musical family, he studied music in London and Berlin and was French composer Hector Berlioz’s only student in Paris. Despite his limited English and shyness, he won the hearts of the music community in Baltimore and significantly raised the national and international academic standing of the Peabody Conservatory of Music).

“Hamerikana: To Asger Hamerik on his Seventieth Birthday. Congratulations and Loving Greetings from His Pupils and Friends” (with extracts from two letters from Sidney Lanier mentioning Hamerik), Peabody Bulletin (Baltimore), April-May 1913, p. 5 (Much respected PIB Conservatory of Music director for 27 years, during 1871-98. Similar to “Asger Hamerick-a, April 8, 1843-July 13, 1923,” above).

Hamersly, L.R. The Records of Living Officers of the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott, 1870), p. 61 (Career of Capt. William H. Macomb of the USS Plymouth, assigned Nov. 12-15, 1869, from Marseilles, France, to join HMS Monarch in Portsmouth, England, and to accompany the Monarch in returning GP’s remains for burial in Mass.).

Hanaford, Phebe Ann. The Life of George Peabody (Boston: B.B. Russell, 1870), p. 231 (U.S. House Resolution No. 96, asking Pres. U.S. Grant to order a naval reception of GP’s remains from England on U.S. territory “with the…dignity of a great people,” was introduced in the House on Dec. 15, 1869, debated and passed on Dec. 21, 1869, passed in the Senate on Dec. 23, 1869, and signed into law by Pres. Grant on Jan. 10, 1870. [Pp. 240-242] has eulogies on GP from French novelist Victor Hugo and French political writer Louis Blanc).

[Hankey, Thomson]. Concise Dictionary of National Biography (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1965), Vol. I, p. 566 (Thomson Hankey was an official of the Bank of England and an MP who was among the 800 guests who attended GP’s July 4, 1851, dinner, Willis’s Rooms, London, during the Great Exhibition of 1851, London. The dinner attracted favorable press attention because the Duke of Wellington was guest of honor. Thomson Hankey began as senior partner in his father’s West Indian mercantile firm, was a director [1835] and governor of the Bank of England [1851-52], and an MP [1853-68, 1874-80]).

Hanna, Hugh Sisson. Financial History of Maryland, 1789-1848 (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1907).

Harbour, Henry. Arctic Explorers: Sir John Franklin, Fridtjof Nansen (London: Collins, no date). (GP gave $10,000 for scientific equipment for the Second U.S. Grinnell Expedition’s [1853-55] unsuccessful search for British Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin, lost in May 1847 with 137 seamen. The two Grinnell Expeditions marked the U.S.’s first Arctic exploration and the naming of Peabody Bay off Greenland for GP’s aid).

Hare, Augustus J.C. The Years with Mother, ed. by Malcolm Barnes (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1952), pp. 191-192 (In Nice, France, March 1863, GP gave a lavish dinner with a concert in honor of the marriage of the Prince of Wales; King Louis [Ludwig] of Bavaria attended).

H Harlow, Alvin F. “Stewart, Alexander Turney (October 12, 1803-April 10, 1867),” Dictionary of American Biography, ed. by Dumas Malone (N.Y.: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1936), XVIII, pp. 3-5 (Writing of his interview with GP, May 1-9, 1867, aboard the Scotia, returning to England, and of his visit to the Peabody Homes, Islington, in one of London’s worst slums, Philadelphia newspaper owner John Wien Forney said, “Mr. Peabody’s example will be followed in both hemispheres. Mr. A.T. Stewart of NYC has already procured copies of the plans.” Dry goods merchant and philanthropist A.T. Stewart’s NYC store, the world’s largest retail department store, opened 1862, was sold to John Wanamaker in 1896. Stewart built the planned community at Garden City, Long Island, NYC, on Peabody Homes of London plans).

Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, Vol. 118 (1884), p. 773 (Illustration of U.S. sculptor William W. Story’s seated GP statue in Threadneedle St., near London’s Royal Exchange).

Harper’s Weekly, Vol. 10 (1866), pp. 221, 701 (Woodcut illustrations of GP).

Harper’s Weekly, Vol. 11, No. 537 (April 13, 1867), pp. 227-228, 238 (Described PEF trustees’ second meeting, at NYC’s Fifth Avenue Hotel, March 19-22, 1867; the banquet GP gave for the trustees and their wives on March 22, 1867; with a woodcut illustration of the 16 trustees and GP from a photo taken at Civil War photographer Mathew Brady’s NYC studio on March 23, 1867).

Harris, James Morrison-a. Address by the Hon. J. Morrison Harris, Upon the Occasion of the Celebration of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Organization of the Maryland Historical Society, Delivered March 12, 1894 (Baltimore: J. Murphy & Co., 1897), p. 18 (Baltimorean John Pendleton Kennedy, PIB planner, helped draft GP’s May 8, 1866, letter to the Md. Historical Society, noting insurmountable PIB-Society differences over joint PIB administration. GP acknowledged the moral and legal right of the Society, admitted the wrong done to the Society by the PIB trustees, and humbly asked Society members as a personal favor to him to withdraw from the original agreement. Md. Historical Society members decided, May 24, 1866, to do so. On Nov. 5, 1866, GP personally thanked Society members and contributed $20,000 to their publications fund).

Harris, James Morrison-b. Biographical Cyclopedia of Representative Men of Maryland and District of Columbia (Baltimore: National Biographical Publishing Co., 1879) pp. 645-646 (Biographical sketch of Baltimorean who praised GP at the Md. Historical Society’s reception for GP in Baltimore, Jan. 30, 1857).

Harrison, Frederick G. Biographical Sketches of Preeminent Americans. 4 vols. (Boston: Walker, 1892-1893), II (1892), plate 22 (Illustration of GP).

“Harrison, John Jacob (1822-88, also known as John Jacob Harrison,” in Venn, J.A., Comp. Alumni Cantabrigiensis: A Biographical List of All Known Students, Graduates and Holders of Office at the University of Cambridge from the Earliest Times to 1900, ed. by John Venn and John A. Venn (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1947), Part 2, Vol. 3, p. 263 (Rev. J.J. Harrison was the Royal Navy chaplain who participated in the Dec. 11, 1869, transfer of GP’s remains from the funeral train at Portsmouth harbor, England, to the HMS Monarch. He was born in Yorkshire, educated at Shrewsbury School, graduated 1840 as John James Harrison, and Corpus Christi College, Cambridge Univ., B.A., 1844; M.A., 1849; was ordained in York as deacon, 1844, and Anglican priest, 1845; and was Royal Navy Chaplain, 1846-77, during which he served aboard HMS Royal Adelaide, won three medals, and was Chaplain of Haslar Hospital, the Royal Navy’s hospital near Portsmouth, England. His obituary is in The Guardian, March 21, 1888. See: Death and Funeral, GP’s).

Hart, Richard H. Enoch Pratt, the Story of a Plain Man (Baltimore: Enoch Pratt Free Library, 1935) (Baltimore merchant and financier Enoch Pratt, PIB trustee and treasurer, knowing that the specialized PIB served mainly researchers, endowed the Enoch Pratt Free Library as Baltimore’s public library).

Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass. “George Peabody Russell,” Memorial of the Harvard College Class of 1856, Prepared for the Fiftieth Anniversary of Graduation, June 27, 1906 (Cambridge, Mass.: Geo. H. Ellis Co., 1906), p. 242, with facing photo and signature (Biographical sketch of GP’s nephew, son of his sister Judith Dodge [née Peabody] Russell, a lawyer like his father, one of the original l6 PEF trustees, who accompanied GP’s remains from England to the U.S.).

Harvard Univ.-a. Baccalaureate Sermon, and Oration and Poem.. Class of 1867 (Cambridge, Mass.: John Wilson and Son, 1867), pp. 32-33 (Harvard Univ.’s honorary Doctor of Laws degree awarded to GP in London in absentia on July 17, 1867, nine months after his $150,000 gift founding the Harvard Univ. Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Oct. 8, 1866, which greatly advanced the study of anthropology in the U.S.).

Harvard Univ.-b. Quinquentennial Catalogue of the Officers and Graduates of Harvard University 1636-1905 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1905), p. 571 (Described Harvard Univ.’s honorary Doctor of Laws degree awarded to GP in London in absentia on July 17, 1867, nine months after his $150,000 gift founding the Harvard Univ. Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Oct. 8, 1866).

Harvard Univ.-c. Endowment Funds of Harvard University, June 30, 1947 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1948), pp. 363-365 (GP’s developing interest in science spurred by his nephew, O.C. Marsh, and GP’s philanthropic adviser R.C. Winthrop’s consultation with Harvard Univ. scientist Louis Agassiz and former Harvard Pres. James Walker [June-early July 1866] led to GP’s $150,000 gift which founded the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard, Oct. 8, 1866, and greatly advanced the study of anthropology in the U.S.).

Harwell, Sara-a. “Crabb, Alfred Leland,” Tennessee Encyclopedia of History & Culture, ed. by Carroll Van West (Nashville: Tenn. Historical Society, Rutledge Hill Press, 1998), p. 215 (A.L. Crabb was GPCFT English professor [1927-49], editor and writer for the Peabody Journal of Education for 38 years, 1932-70, a GPCFT historian, and regional novelist of note. He advised co-author Franklin Parker on his dissertation, “George Peabody, Founder of Modern Philanthropy” [Ed.D., GPCFT, 1956], three vols.).

Harwell, Sara-b. “Lindsley, John Berrien, ” Tennessee Encyclopedia of History & Culture, ed. by Carroll Van West (Nashville: Tenn. Historical Society, Rutledge Hill Press, 1998), p.543 (This son of Univ. of Nashville Pres. Philip Lindsley [during 1824-50] graduated from the Univ. of Nashville and the Univ. of Penn. medical school, helped found and was first dean [1850-56] of the Univ. of Nashville Medical Dept., and succeeded his father as Univ. of Nashville chancellor [1855-70]. He worked with PEF first administrator Barnas Sears to create the Peabody Normal College).

Hawley, Willis D.-a. “From the Dean,” Peabody Reflector, Vol. 58, No. 2 (Spring 1986), p. 2 (PCofVU progress since 1979 under first Dean Willis D. Hawley).

Hawley, Willis D.-b. “From the Dean,” Peabody Reflector, Vol. 59, No. 2 (Fall 1987), p. 2 (PCofVU progress since 1979 under first Dean Willis D. Hawley).

“Head Start Program Marks Anniversary: Has Peabody History,” Peabody Reflector, Vol. 62, No. 1 (Spring 1991), p. 7 (Described GPCFT psychology Prof. Susan Gray’s leadership in earliest initiation of Project Head Start).

Healy, George P. A.-a. Reminiscences of a Portrait Painter (Chicago: A. C. McClurg & Co., 1894). (Boston-born artist George Peter Alexander Healy’s portrait of GP, made in 1854, is located in the National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., with prints published in Burk, facing p. 80, and Kenin, p. 94).

Healy, George P. A.-b. Souvenir of the Exhibition Entitled Healy’s Sitters (Richmond: Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, 1950). (For annotation see Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond, Va.).

Heard, Alexander. “A Vanderbilt Perspective on the Merger,” Peabody Reflector, Vol. 52, No. 2 (Summer 1979), pp. 4-5 (Positive reflection on GPCFT-Vanderbilt July 1, 1979, merger as PCofVU).

Hearn, Chester G. Gray Raiders of the Sea: How Eight Confederate Warships Destroyed the Union’s High Seas Commerce (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Univ. Press, 1996). (On British-built Confederate raider CSS Alabama and other Confederate ships which wrecked Union cargo ships).

Hearn, Nicholas. George Peabody (1795-1869) “One of the Poor’s Greatest Benefactors? “ (London: Peabody Donation Fund, 1980), pp. 6, 20-21, 24, 26-28 (Seven GP-related illustrations are identified under George Peabody Illustrations).

Hellman, Geoffrey T. “The First Great Cheerful Giver,” American Heritage, Vol. 17, No. 4 (1966), pp. 28-33, 76-77 (Biographical sketch of GP with five illustration identified under George Peabody Illustrations). The same article by G.T. Hellman is reprinted in Peabody Reflector, Vol. 40, No. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1967), pp. 4-11 (With ten GP illustrations on front cover and pp. 4-6, 8-9, 11, identified under George Peabody Illustrations).

Henderson, Rosemary O’Brien. “The Achsah Peabody Story,” George Peabody House Museum, Vol. 3, No. 1 (February 2002), p. 3 (GP’s oldest sister, second born of 8 children, the first of 4 daughters, who had mental illness in her last years before her death at age 29).

Hendrick, Burton J. Statesmen of the Lost Cause: Jefferson Davis And His Cabinet (New York: Literary Guild of America, 1939), p. 370 (Confederate Naval Commander James Dunwody Bulloch, who purchased the British-built Confederate raider CSS Alabama, was 26th U.S. Pres. Theodore Roosevelt’s uncle. Roosevelt was a trustee during 1901-14 of Peabody Normal College [1875-1909] and its transition into GPCFT [1914-79]. Book is informative on the Trent Affair, Confederate naval commanders, and U.S.-British relations during the Civil War).

“Henry Harrington Hill,” Peabody Reflector, Vol. 59, No. 2 (Fall 1987), pp. inside front cover, 36 (GPCFT’s third president during 1945-60 and interim president, 1962-63, under whom during post-W.W.II higher education growth, GPCFT surged to national and international prominence).

“Henry Hill at Peabody,” Peabody Reflector, Vol. 59, No. 1 (Winter 1987), pp. 19-20 (GPCFT’s third president during 1945-60 and interim president, 1962-63, whose years saw GPCFT rise to national prominence).

Herringshaw’s Encyclopedia of American Biography of the Nineteenth Century, ed. by Thomas William Herringshaw (Chicago: American Publishers’ Association, 1902), p. 726 (Short biographical sketch and illustration of GP, head view, in old age).

Heymann, C. David. American Aristocracy: The Lives and Times of James Russell, Amy and Robert Lowell (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1980), p. 17 (Described the “Essex Junto,” politically and socially intertwined famous and wealthy families of eastern Mass., many in Essex County, who moved to Boston after the American Revolution: the Lowell, Cabot, Lodge, Lee, Higginson, and Jackson families; a compact social group, often intermarrying and helping one another in business. GP’s branch of the Peabody family was of humble origin and circumstances, with only a distant relative, Joseph Peabody of Salem, a wealthy clipper ship owner. GP’s friend Abbott Lawrence, U.S. Minister to Britain during 1849-52, was the grandfather of U.S. poet Amy Lowell, astronomer Percival Lowell, and Harvard’s Pres. Abbott Lawrence Lowell).

Hicks, Frederick C. “Evarts, William Maxwell (Feb. 6, 1818-Feb. 28, 1901),” Dictionary of American Biography, ed. by Allen Johnson and Dumas Malone (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1931), III, pp. 215-218 (Boston-born statesman W.M. Evarts was one of the 16 original PEF trustees).

Hidy, Muriel Emmie-a. “The George Peabody Papers,” Bulletin of the Business Historical Society, Vol. 12, No. 1 (Feb. 1938), pp. 1-6 (GP engraving “by J.C. Buttre from a daguerreotype,” with signature, taken from “George Peabody,” Hunt’s Merchants’ Magazine, Vol. 36, No. 4 [April 1857], pp. 428-437).

Hidy, Muriel Emmie-b. “George Peabody–An American in London,” Essex Institute Historical Collections, Vol. 77, No. 1 (Jan., 1941), p. 11.

Hidy, Muriel Emmie-c. George Peabody, Merchant and Financier, 1829-1854 (New York: Arno Press, 1978), published from Ph. D. dissertation, Radcliffe College, 1939. (Invaluable detailed account of GP’s business career for the years covered. Mentioned on p. 301: GP admitted to the Parthenon Club, London, 1848. See: author’s husband Ralph W. Hidy’s book on The House of Baring).

Hidy, Ralph Willard-a. “The Organization and Functions of Anglo-American Merchant Bankers, 1815-1860,” The Tasks of Economic History, a supplement to the Journal of Economic History, Vol. 1 (Dec. 1941), pp. 53-66 (U.S. and British merchants in London, including GP; their NYC, London, and other connections; and their investment and banking activities).

Hidy, Ralph Willard-b. “Cushioning a Crisis in the London Money Market,” Bulletin, Business Historical Society, Vol. 20 (Nov. 1946), pp. 131-145 (Financial Panic of 1857 and its effect on merchant-bankers like GP).

Hidy, Ralph Willard-c. The House of Baring in American Trade and Finance; English Merchant Bankers at Work 1763-1861 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1949. Reprinted. New York: Russell and Russell, 1970). (This London banking firm dominated U.S. trade and U.S. securities from American colonial times. George Peabody & Co. became in time a friendly competitor. GP had some business contact and friendly relations with Mass.-born Joshua Bates, a Baring Brothers agent, partner, and eventual director. Author Ralph W. Hidy was married to Muriel Emmie Hidy, author of an invaluable 1939 dissertation on GP’s business career, published in 1978. On pp. 309, 552, R.W. Hidy recorded that GP was denied membership in exclusive Reform Club, 1844, because some U.S. states temporarily defaulted on their bond interest payments. When payments resumed, GP was accepted into the Parthenon Club, 1848, and City of London Club, 1850).

Hidy, Ralph Willard, and Muriel Emmie Hidy. “Anglo-American Merchant Bankers and the Railroads of the Old Northwest, 1848-1860,” Business History Review, Vol. 34, No. 2 (Summer 1960), pp. 150-169 (On GP and others who sold European iron and later steel rails needed by U.S. railroads).

Higginson, Thomas Wentworth. John Greenleaf Whittier (New York: Macmillan Co., 1911), p. 89 (A doctrinal dispute with their minister in Georgetown, Mass., led some 85 members including GP’s sister [it had also been their mother’s church] to meet in an inadequate chapel. Asked to help, GP built a $70,000 Memorial Church in his mother’s memory. John Greenleaf Whittier’s specially written poem “Memorial Hymn” was read at the Jan. 8, 1868, dedication. He later stated in The Independent [NYC], Jan. 24, 1868, p. 2, c. 1-2, “A Marred Memorial,” that he would not have written it had he known of the condition in GP’s Oct. 18, 1867, letter from London that the church “exclude political and other subjects not in keeping with its religious purpose”).

Hiles, Bill. “A New Era Dawns…,” Peabody Reflector, Vol. 52, No. l (Spring 1979), pp. 4-5 (Details of GPCFT-Vanderbilt July 1, 1979, merger as PCofVU).

Hill, Eloise Wilkes. “The Peabody Influence….A New Book,” Peabody Reflector, Vol. 42, No. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1969), pp. 15-16 (Photo taken in 1961 of GPCFT’s Pres. Henry H. Hill and Mrs. Hill standing near U.S. sculptor William W. Story’s seated GP statue in Threadneedle St., near Royal Exchange, London, p. 16).

Hill, Ruth Henderson. George Peabody “The Great Benefactor” 1795-1869; for the Centennial of the Peabody Institute, Peabody, Massachusetts (Peabody, Mass.: Peabody Institute, 1953, reprint, 1989), cover, pp. 4, 8, 10, 14, 16 (Seven GP-related illustrations are identified under George Peabody Illustrations), p. 17 (GP was given the Freedom of the City of London, July 10, 1862, and that evening was guest of honor at the Lord Mayor of London’s Mansion House dinner, in appreciation for his March 12, 1862, Peabody Donation Fund for model apartments for London working poor, total gift $2.5 million).

“Hirsch, Samuel.” Universal Jewish Encyclopedia in Ten Volumes, ed by Isaac Landman (New York: Ktav Publishing House, 1969), Vol. 5, p.379 (On Nov. 5, 1869, the day after GP’s death, Rabbi Samuel Hirsch, Reform Congregation, Knesseth Israel, Philadelphia, PA., praised GP as philanthropist at the rabbinical conference held in Philadelphia, 1869, over which he presided and which passed resolutions of praise for him).

Historical Background of Peabody College Covering the Period of One Hundred and Fifty-Five Years (Nashville: George Peabody College for Teachers Bulletin), Vol. 30, No. 10 (October 1941). See: under entry for GPCFT.

“Historical Funerals, George Peabody, 1795-1869, Philanthropist and Financier,” American Funeral Director, Vol. 75, No. 5 (May 1952), pp. 46-48 (Account of GP’s transatlantic funeral with contemporary illustrations [drawings], Nov. 4, 1869-Feb. 8, 1870, including handing over ceremony of GP’s remains from Westminster Abbey, London, to Portsmouth harbor on Dec. 11, 1869, and placing the coffin aboard HMS Monarch for transatlantic crossing to New England).

Historical Magazine, Vol. 1 (1857), p. 77 (GP receptions and speeches in Baltimore at Md. Historical Society, Jan. 30, 1857, and at Md. Institute, Feb. 2, 1857, before his Feb. 12, 1857, PIB founding letter).

Hoar, George Frisbie. Charles Sumner: His Complete Works. See: Sumner, Charles.

Hoehling, A. A. Damn the Torpedoes: Naval Incidents of the Civil War (Winston-Salem, N.C.: John F. Blair, 1989). (Trent Affair, CSS Alabama, and related events).

Hoffschwelle, Mary S.-a. “The Science of Domesticity: Home Economics at George Peabody College for Teachers, 1914-1939,” Journal of Southern History, Vol. 57, No. 4 (1991), pp. 659-680.

Hoffschwelle, Mary S.-b. “Rose, Wycliffe (1862-1931),” Tennessee Encyclopedia of History & Culture, ed. by Carroll Van West (Nashville: Tenn. Historical Society, Rutledge Hill Press, 1998), pp. 810-811 (Saulsbury, Tenn.-born third PEF administrator during 1907-14, Wycliffe Rose attended Peabody Normal College, Nashville, taught mathematics and later philosophy of education there, 1890-1902, taught at the Univ. of Tenn., 1902-04, and returned as Peabody Normal College dean during 1904-07. Later connected with the Southern Education Board, John F. Slater Fund, General Education Board, the Rockefeller Sanitary Commission, and the International Health Board. He led in advancing public education and public health in the South, the U.S., and internationally).

Holmes, Oliver Wendell. Poetical Works of Oliver Wendell Holmes (Boston: Houghton Mifflin & Co., 1892, reprinted St. Claire Shores, MI.: Scholarly Press, 1972), II, p. 220 (“George Peabody” poem composed and read by O.W. Holmes, at the July 16, 1869, dedication of the Peabody Institute Library, Danvers, Mass. Present were former Mass. Govs. Clifford Claflin and Robert Charles Winthrop, Boston Mayor Shurtleff, U.S. Sen. Charles Sumner, Essex County statesman Alfred A. Abbott, recent U.S. Minister to Britain Charles Francis Adams, GP’s two nephews George Peabody Russell and Robert Singleton Peabody, and GP, infirm at age 74, on his last U.S. visit, with ten weeks to live [he died Nov. 4, 1869, in London]. Holmes described GP’s weakened appearance to historian-statesman John Lothrop Motley (1814-77), as “…the Dives who is going to Abraham’s bosom and I fear before a great while”).

Hoobler, James A. “Hibbs, Henry Clossen (1882-1949),” Tennessee Encyclopedia of History & Culture, ed. by Carroll Van West (Nashville: Tenn. Historical Society, Rutledge Hill Press, 1998), pp. 422-423 (Architect Henry Clossen Hibbs, hired by first Pres. Bruce R. Payne to design GPCFT campus buildings, Nashville [completed 1914], after Thomas Jefferson’s Univ. of Va. architectural plan).

”Hope, Sir James (1808-81).” Dictionary of National Biography, ed. by Sir Lesley Stephen and Sir Sidney Lee (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1921-22), Vol. IX, pp. 1212-1214 (Sir James Hope was the British Commander in Chief at Portsmouth harbor, England, during the Dec. 11, 1869, ceremonies placing GP’s remains aboard HMS Monarch).

Hovey, Alvah. Barnas Sears; A Christian Educator, His making and Work (New York: Silver, Burdett & Co., 1902 (Biography of the PEF’s first administrator).

“How Students See the Merger,” Peabody Reflector, Vol. 52, No. 3 (Autumn 1979), pp. 13-14 (Vanderbilt-GPCFT merger talks during Sept.-Dec. 1978, resulted in PCofVU, July 1, 1879).

Howard, George Washington. The Monumental City, Its Past History and Present Resources (Baltimore: J.D. Ehlers & Co., 1873), p. 980 (GP gave $500 annually in prizes to Md. Institute’s School of Design students. Pp. 464-466 on Samuel Jones, Jr., who in 1837 urged GP to take his place as one of three commissioners to sell abroad Md.’s $8 million bond sale).

Howard, Leland Ossian. “Uhler, Philip Reese,” Dictionary of American Biography, ed. by Dumas Malone (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1943), XIX, pp. 106-107 (Life and career of the PIB’s third librarian during 1890-1913).

Howard, Robert West. The Dawnseekers: The First History of American Paleontology (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1975) (On GP’s nephew O.C. Marsh’s science career; similar to Bakker, Robert T., entry above).

Hoyt, Edwin Ponder. The Peabody Influence: How a Great New England Family Helped to Build America (New York: Dodd, Mead and Co., 1968), facing p. 110 (Three GP-related illustrations are identified under GP Illustrations).

Hubbell, Jay B. The South in American Literature, 1607-1900 (Durham, N.C.: Duke Univ. Press, 1954), p. 481 (Baltimore, which became a city in 1796, attracted French, Scottish, Irish, English, and Dutch refugees, merchants, and adventurers, who helped make it an early cultural center. GP worked in Baltimore, 1815-37, and founded the PIB, Feb. 12, 1857, total gift $1.4 million).

Ingalls, Zoë. “The Soaring Splendor of the Peabody Library,” Chronicle of Higher Education, Vol. 40, No. 15 (Dec. 1, 1993), B-5 (Depicted the PIB Library’s interior and exterior architecture. Its early extensive reference collection for some years rivaled the holdings of the Library of Congress).

Ingersoll, Ernest. “The Peabody Museum of American Archaeology,” Lippincott’s Magazine, Vol. 10 (November 1885), pp. 474-487 (Anthropologist-historian Ingersoll wrote that the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard began the systematic study of anthropology in U.S. higher education. Pre-Columbian life in North America was largely unexplored; existing collections were slight and fragmentary. Among the museum’s prominent scientist- officers was Frederic Ward Putnam, its curator during 1874-1909, called by his peers the “Father of American Anthropology,” who wrote over 400 anthropological reports, many of them on the culture of the “mound builders,” ancient ancestors of the American Indians).

“Iowa State’s Benbow Named Peabody Dean,” Peabody Reflector, Vol. 68, No. 1 (Summer 1998), p. 2 (Third PCofVU Dean Camilla Persson Benbow, from Aug. 1998, was born in Lund, Sweden; became a U.S. naturalized citizen; and was educated at Johns Hopkins Univ. [B.A, Psychology, 1977; M.A., Psychology, 1978; M.S., Education, 1980; Ed.D., Gifted, l981]. At Johns Hopkins Univ. she was Assoc. Research Scientist, Psychology [1981-86] and Asst. Prof., Psychology [1983-86]. At Iowa State Univ. she was Psychology Prof. [1990-95], Distinguished Prof. [1995-98], Psychology Dept. Chair [1992-98], and Interim Dean, College of Education [1996-98]. She has published two books and written over 100 professional articles in the field of talented and gifted youth).

Jackson, Cordelia. “People and Places in Old Georgetown,” Records of the Columbia Historical Society, Vol. 33-34 (1932), p.150 (Elisha Riggs, Sr.’s store , about 1812, before he became GP’s senior partner in Riggs, Peabody & Co., 1814-29, was on the southwest corner of Wisconsin Ave. and North St., Georgetown, D.C.).

Jackson, John.” Dictionary of National Biography, ed. by Sir Lesley Stephens & Sir Sidney Lee (London: Smith, Elder & Co., 1885-1900), Vol. 29, pp. 99-100; and Whitaker’s Almanack, ed. by Joseph Whitaker (London: Whitaker’s Almanack, 1870), p. 71 (Biographical sketch of the Rt. Hon. & Rt. Rev. John Jackson, Bishop of London, who preached the sermon, Westminster Abbey, Sunday, Nov. 14, 1869, following the Nov. 12, 1869, Westminster Abbey GP funeral).

Jacob, Kathryn A. “Mr. Johns Hopkins,” Johns Hopkins Magazine, Vol. 25, No. 1 (Jan. 1974), pp. 13-17 (There may have been other later influences, but GP’s philanthropic example and talk with Johns Hopkins at B&O RR Pres. John Work Garrett’s home near Baltimore sometime in 1866-67 early influenced Johns Hopkins to draft his will founding the Johns Hopkins Univ., medical school, and hospital. The best account is under Garrett, John Work (1820-84). Address…, entry above).

Jaffe, Bernard. “Othniel Charles Marsh (1831-1899),” Men of Science in America: The Role of Science in the Growth of Our Country (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1944), pp. 279-306, 565 (On GP’s nephew O.C. Marsh’s science career; similar to Bakker, Robert T., entry above).

“Jewett, Ezekiel (Col., 1791-1877) [obit.], American Journal of Science, Vol. 114, No. 79 (1877), p. 80 (Geologist Ezekiel Jewett, who collected fossil rocks on the Erie Canal near Lockport, N.Y., about 1845, befriended GP’s nephew Othniel Charles Marsh, then about age 14, leading to Marsh’s first interest in science. This interest plus GP’s financial aid in Marsh’s science studies led Marsh to become the first U.S. paleontology professor at Yale Univ.).

“John Edwin Windrow (1899-1984),” Peabody Reflector, Vol. 57, No. 1 (Summer 1984), inside front cover (As GPCFT student, faculty member, and administrator for 60 years, John Edwin Windrow was an indefatigable GPCFT publicist. His GPCFT dissertation and book were on the life of Univ. of Nashville Chancellor John Berrien Lindsley).

Johns Hopkins Hullabaloo; A Yearbook of the Johns Hopkins University, 1899 (Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins Co., 1899), pp. 9-11 (Influences, including GP’s, on Johns Hopkins’ philanthropy founding the Johns Hopkins Univ., medical school, and hospital. Similar to Jacob, Kathryn A., above. The best account is under Garrett, John Work (1820-84). Address…, entry above).

Johnson, Benjamin Pierce. Report of Benjamin P. Johnson, Agent of the State of New York, Appointed to Attend the Exhibition of the Industry of All Nations, Held in London (Albany, N.Y.: C. Van Benthuysen, 1852) (Described the first world’s fair in London, 1851, important to GP because his loan of $15,000 to the U.S. exhibitors, later repaid by the U.S. Congress, and his two Exhibition-connected U.S.-British friendship dinners, marked his social emergence and his rise to fame as a philanthropist who established educational institutions in communities where he lived and worked).

Johnson, Kenneth R. “The Peabody Fund: Its Role and Influence in Alabama,” Alabama Review, Vol. 27, No. 2 (April 1974), pp. 10l-126 (Described and evaluated PEF’s work in Ala.).

Johnson, Rossiter, ed. Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans (Boston: Biographical Society, 1904), Vol. 4, n.p (Biographical sketches of B&O Railroad Pres. John Work Garrett, who brought GP and Johns Hopkins together at his home, 1866-67, leading to Hopkins’ $8 million endowment of Johns Hopkins Univ., medical school, and hospital. Has sketch of his son Robert Garrett who had a replica of sculptor William Wetmore Story’s seated GP statue, unveiled on Threadneedle St. near London’s Royal Exchange by the Prince of Wales, July 23, 1869, erected in front of the PIB, April 7, 1890. See: also under Garrett, John Work [1820-84]. Address…, entry above).

[Jones, Frank Nicholas-a]. “New Peabody Librarian,” Gardens, Houses and People (Baltimore), July 1957 (Biographical sketch of Frank Nicholas Jones, seventh PIB Librarian during 1956-66).

Jones, Frank Nicholas-b. George Peabody and the Peabody Institute (Baltimore: Peabody Institute Library, 1965). (Biographical sketch of GP, founding and brief history of the PIB, and on p. 7 an alleged GP romance: in 1958 a Mrs. Charles Rieman gave the PIB Library an undated manuscript by Baltimore lawyer James Wilson Leakin, “Family Tree of the Knoxes and Their Connections.” It stated that during GP’s Baltimore years [1815-37] he proposed marriage to Elizabeth Knox, daughter of Samuel and Grace (née Gilmore) Knox of Baltimore. Her father advised against the marriage, preferring she marry a banker. She married George Carson, a Baltimore bank teller, who died after the birth of their fourth child. In the Carson family tradition, when GP visited Baltimore in 1857, he again proposed to the widow Carson, then managing a boarding home. She declined, saying that people would believe she had married GP solely for money. A PIB Art Gallery catalog listed an 1840 portrait of Elizabeth [née Knox] Carson, stating “Lady to whom G. Peabody twice offered his hand”).

Jordan, Donaldson, and Edwin J. Pratt. Europe and the American Civil War (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1931), pp. 34-35 (Details of the 1861 Trent Affair).

Josephson, Matthew. The Robber Barons (New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1934 and 1962), p. 60 (A socialist historian who repeated the unsubstantiated charge that GP was a Confederate sympathizer who profited from the Civil War at the Union’s expense, stated in 1862 by John Bigelow, U.S. Consul in Paris; by Springfield [Mass.] Daily Republican editor Samuel Bowles, 1866; by socialist historian Gustavus Myers, 1910, 1936; later by poet and biographer Carl Sandburg in his Abraham Lincoln, 1939; and by historian Leland DeWitt Baldwin, 1952. See: “Bigelow, John…” above).

Journal of the United States Senate (1867). See: U.S. government.

Kahn, Roseann. “A History of the Peabody Institute Library, Baltimore, Maryland, 1857-1916” (Master’s thesis, Catholic University of America, 1953), published as ACRL Microcard Series No. 16 (Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press for the Association of College and Reference Libraries, 1954).

Kane, Elisha Kent-a. Adrift in the Arctic Icepack; from the History of the First United Grinnell Expedition in Search of Sir John Franklin (Oyster Bay, N.Y.: Nelson, Doubleday, 1853, 1915 reprint). (GP gave $10,000 for scientific equipment for the Second U.S. Grinnell Expedition’s [1853-55] unsuccessful search for British Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin, lost in May 1847 with 137 seamen. The Grinnell Expeditions marked the U.S.’s first Arctic exploration and the naming of Peabody Bay off Greenland for GP’s aid).

Kane, Elisha Kent-b. Arctic Exploration; The Second Grinnell Expedition, 1853-55 (Philadelphia: Childs and Sampson and Co., 1856). (GP gave $10,000 for scientific equipment for the Second U.S. Grinnell Expedition’s [1853-55] unsuccessful search for British Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin. The Grinnell Expeditions marked the U.S.’s first Arctic exploration and the naming of Peabody Bay off Greenland for GP’s aid).

Kane, Elisha Kent-c. “Report to the Secretary of the United States Navy, at Washington, of the Expedition in Search of Sir John Franklin, During the Years 1853-4-5, With a Chart Showing the Discoveries Made in the Arctic Regions,” Journal of the Royal Geographic Society, Vol. 26 (1856), p. 8 (GP gave $10,000 for scientific equipment for the Second U.S. Grinnell Expedition’s [1853-55] unsuccessful search for British Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin. The Grinnell Expeditions marked the U.S.’s first Arctic exploration and the naming of Peabody Bay off Greenland for GP’s aid).

[Keep, Nathan Cooley], Boston physician, active May 1866. Listed in Mass. Medical Society, below.

Keefer, Lubov. Baltimore’s Music: The Haven of the American Composer (Baltimore: J.H. Furst Co., 1962). (PIB Conservatory of Music persons mentioned in this history of music in Baltimore includes GP, James Monroe [or Munroe] Deems, Harold Randolph, Lucien H. Southard, Asger Hamerik, Sidney Lanier, May Garrettson Evans, and others).

Kelly, Frederick. “Sidney Lanier at the Peabody Institute,” Peabody Bulletin (Baltimore), 1976, pp. 35-38 (Poet Sidney Lanier was a 31-year-old law clerk when he left Macon, Ga., to seek a music career in NYC. He stopped in Baltimore to visit a flutist friend, who introduced him to Peabody Conservatory of Music Director Asger Hamerik. Impressed when Lanier played his own flute compositions, Hamerik hired Lanier as the Conservatory’s first flutist. Lanier lived near the PIB for eight years, lectured on English literature at Johns Hopkins Univ., and died in 1881 at age 39 of tuberculosis contracted when he was a Civil War prisoner).

Keneally, Thomas. American Scoundrel: the life of the notorious Civil War General Dan Sickles (New York : Nan A. Talese/Doubleday, 2002). (Brief mention of Sickles’ walking out of GP’s July 4, 1854, dinner. See: Sickles, Daniel F. and in References see Bowman, ed., Brandt, Pinchon).

Kenin, Richard. Return to Albion: Americans in England 1760-1940 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1979), pp. 87-105 (Chap. 4, “The Lords of Change Alley: George Peabody and “Co.,'” 18 pp., not footnoted, has striking insights into GP’s character, motives, and significance [examples]: GP “was not a witty man. He was formal to the point of stiffness.” “When not entertaining publicly, he preferred to dine in inexpensive chop houses.” “Where integrity and reliability were the keystones to a man’s reputation, Peabody was a rock of respectability. He lived alone, and he lived exclusively for his work.” “Peabody never spent or gave money away quietly.” “What Peabody created, and what still survives today, was…the first large housing agency in Britain, operating completely independently of government on a noncommercial basis.” Seven GP-related illustrations, pp. 94, 98, 100, 102, 103-5, are identified under GP Illustrations).

Kenin, Richard, and Justin Wintle, eds. The Dictionary of Biographical Quotations of British and American Subjects (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), p. 590 (Two entries for GP: 1-George T. Dole’s poem delivered before Yale Univ. Phi Beta Kappa Society, 1868; and 2-Victor Hugo’s Elegy on George Peabody).

Kennedy, John Pendleton. “Sketch of the Peabody Institute, Baltimore,” Occasional Addresses; and the Letters of Mr. Ambrose on the Rebellion (New York: G. P. Putnam and Son, 1872), pp. 305-327.

Kent, Harold W. Charles Reed Bishop, Man of Hawaii (Palo Alto, Calif., Pacific Books, 1965), p. 297-298 (Career of C.R. Bishop who married Hawaiian Princess Bernice Pauahi Paki. She founded the Kamehameha Schools, Honolulu. Influenced by GP’s words and example, he founded the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii’s most important museum, and other charities).

Kent, William, ed. An Encyclopedia of London (New York: Macmillan, 1951), 523-524 (London’s four statues of Americans: GP, 1869; Abraham Lincoln, 1920; George Washington, 1921; Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 1948).

Kenyon, Paul. “Professor Tells How Peabody Pioneered in Giving Away Millions Constructively,” North Shore ’71 (Gloucester, Mass.), Vol. 6, No. 50 (Dec. 11, 1971), pp. 1-2, 4f (Eleven GP-related illustrations are identified under GP Illustrations).

Ketchum, Richard M., ed. “Collins Line,” American Heritage Book of the Pioneer Spirit (New York: American Heritage Publishing Co., 1959), pp. 244-255 (The Collins Line was a NYC-Liverpool transatlantic steamship company financed in part by GP’s first senior partner Elisha Riggs, Sr., inaugurated in 1849. GP’s $35,000 in Va. bonds was lost when the Arctic, a Collins Line ship, sank Sept. 27, 1854, 20 miles off Cape Race, Newfoundland. After unsuccessfully trying to get Va. to redeem the lost bonds, GP gave their value to Pres. Robert E. Lee’s Washington College [renamed Washington and Lee Univ., l871] for a mathematics professorship. In 1883 Va. gave the university $60,000, the value of the bonds with accrued interest).

King, William Bruce. “Corcoran, William Wilson (Dec. 27, 1798-Feb. 24, 1888), Dictionary of American Biography, ed. by Allen Johnson and Dumas Malone (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1929), Vol. II, Part 2, pp. 440-441 (Corcoran’s Washington, D.C., banking career and philanthropy).

Klein Philip. President James Buchanan, a Biography (University Park: Pennsylvania State Univ. Press, 1962) (While James Buchanan was U.S. Minister to Britain, his super patriotic London legation Secty. Daniel Edgar Sickles created an incident by walking out of GP’s July 4, 1854, U.S.-British friendship dinner because GP toasted Queen Victoria before the U.S. president. Later, there was a coldness between GP and Buchanan but Buchanan’s niece Harriet Lane was cordial to GP. She married Baltimorean Henry Elliot Johnston).

Knight, Edgar W.-a. Public Education in the South (New York: Ginn & Co., 1922), pp. 383-414 (Praised the PEF’s influence on public education in the 11 former Confederate states plus W.Va., added because of its poverty).

Knight, Edgar W.-b. “Peabody Fund,” Dictionary of American History, ed. by James Truslow Adams. Second edn., rev. (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1940), IV, p. 230 (PEF distributed from GP’s original $2 million a total of about $3,650,000, during 1869-1914).

Knight, Edgar W.-c. Education in the United States (New York: Ginn & Co., 1951), p. 555 (Praised the PEF’s influence on public education in 11 former Confederate states plus W.Va., added because of its poverty).

Knott, Howard W.H. “Fenner, Charles Erasmus (1834-1911).” Dictionary of American Biography, ed. by Dumas Malone (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1929), Vol. III, pp. 323-324 (C.E. Fenner, a PEF trustee, was born in Tenn. of a physician father, was a lawyer, moved to La. in 1840, and served in the La. legislature).

Kocher, Alfred Lawrence, and Howard Dearstyne. Shadows in Silver, a Record of Virginia, 1850-1900, in Contemporary Photographs taken by George and Huestis Cook with Additions from the Cook Collection (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1954), pp. 189-190 (Two GP photos taken at White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., Aug. 12, 1869, are identified under GP Illustrations. It is not certain that photos were taken by George or Huestis Cook. Photos of GP and others taken on the same day are also in Conte, pp. 69-71; Dabney, Vol. 1, facing p. 83; Freeman-a, 1935, appendix [incorrect identification]; Freeman-b, 1947, Vol. 4, p. 438 [correct identification]; Lanier, ed., Vol. 5, p. 4; Meredith, pp. 84-85; Miller, ed., Vol. 10, p. 4; and Murphy, p. 58).

Koçu, Resad Ekrem. “Blacque Bey (Edouard)(1824-95).” Istanbul Ansiklopedisi [Encyclopedia of Istanbul] (Istanbul, Turkey: Istanbul Encyclopedia and Publishing Co., 1961), Vol. 5, n., pp. 2834-2835 (Journalistic and diplomatic career of Turkish Minister to the U.S. Edouard Blacque Bey, Istanbul-born of French parents. He met, spoke to, and was photographed in a group with GP, then visiting the mineral springs health spa at White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., July 23-Aug. 30, 1869).

Kreyling, Christine, “Great Aspirations,” Vanderbilt Magazine, Vol. 82, No. 2 (Fall 2000), pp. 20-23 (Vanderbilt Univ.-GPCFT architectural differences also reflected philosophical differences between Vanderbilt Chancellor James Hampton kirkland (“an educational conservative…who believed in a certain degree of intellectual and social elitism”) and GPCFT Pres. Bruce R. Payne (who ” believed strongly in education for the masses, for social outsiders as well as insiders”).

Lancet, A Journal of British and Foreign Medicine, Physiology, Surgery, Chemistry, Criticism, Literature, and News, Vol. 1 (Jan. 1, 1870), p. 33 (Described embalming of GP’s remains by Dr. Frederick W. Pavy of Guy’s Hospital, London, Nov. 7 or 8, 1869, possibly with collaboration of Dr. William Withey Gull, M.D.). Vol. 1 (Jan. 22, 1870, p. 134 (At GP’s Nov. 4, 1869, death England’s Solicitor General had to determine the legality of his property as a foreigner. It was determined that in 1866 GP bought through business friend and naturalized British subject Sir Curtis M. Lampson just over 13 acres of land at Stockwell near London, that he gave it in his will to the Peabody Donation Fund, that while it reverted to the Crown because he was not a British subject, the Crown in turn gave it to the Peabody Donation Fund).

Landry, Stuart O. History of the Boston Club (New Orleans: Pelican Publishing Co., 1938), pp. 281-282 (Biographical sketch of Edward Anthony Bradford, 1814-72, one of the 16 original PEF trustees, born in Conn., a La. lawyer, nominated by Pres. Millard Fillmore but not confirmed as U.S. Supreme Court Associate Justice, who died in Paris, France, and was succeeded as PEF trustee by Richard Taylor, son of U.S. Pres. Zachary Taylor).

Lane, William Coolidge, and Nina E. Brown, eds. A.L.A. Portrait Index, Vol. III (New York: Burt Franklin, 1906, reprinted 1960), p. 1129 (Each of the 15 sources listed as containing GP illustrations is identified under GP Illustrations).

Lanier Library, Tryon, North Carolina, 1890-1965, Diamond Jubilee (Tryon, N.C.: The Lanier Library, privately printed, 1965) (Macon, Ga.-born poet and musician Sidney Lanier lived in Tryon, N.C., after eight years as Peabody Symphony Orchestra first flutist, Baltimore, where he also lectured on music and poetry at the PIB and Johns Hopkins Univ. A Sidney Lanier Club, formed in Tryon, N.C., 1890, was renamed the Lanier Library Association, 1955).

Lanham, Url. The Bone Hunters (New York: Columbia University Press, 1973), pp. ix-xi, 79-164, 182-183, 218-267 (On GP’s nephew O.C. Marsh’s science career; similar to Bakker, Robert T., entry above).

Lanier, Robert S., ed. Photographic History of the Civil War. Vol. 5, The Armies and Leaders: Poetry and Eloquence (Secaucus, NJ: Blue & Grey Press, 1987), p. 4 (Photo taken at White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., Aug. 12, 1869. Caption listed five seated figures, left to right: Edouard Blacque Bey, Robert E. Lee, GP, William Wilson Corcoran, James Lyons; seven standing behind them, left to right: Gen. James Connor, S.C.; Gen. Martin Witherspoon Gary, S.C.; Gen. Gen. Robert Doak Lilley, Va.; Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard, La.; Gen. Alexander Robert Lawson, Ga.; Gen. Henry A. Wise, Va.; and Gen. Joseph Lancaster Brent, Md. Caption: “Photo preserved more than 40 years by Confederate veteran of Richmond, Mr. James Blair, through whose courtesy it appears here”).

“Lanier, Sidney,” Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, ed. by James Grant Wilson and John Fiske (New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1888), III, p. 613 (On poet Sidney Lanier, first flutist, PIB Conservatory of Music, who also taught English literature at Johns Hopkins Univ., about 1880; similar to Kelly, Frederick, entry above).

Larson, Henrietta M. Guide to Business History (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1948). (Of Gustavus Myers’ History of the Great American Fortunes, critical of GP as an anti-Union and pro-Confederate financier, Larsen wrote: “Marxian in its thought framework and not concerned with a careful analysis of the men’s business administration”).

“Last Honors, The” Harper’s Weekly, Vol. 14, No. 686 (Feb. 19, 1870), p. 113 (Five GP-related funeral scenes from his Nov. 4, 1869, death, to Feb. 8, 1870, final burial, are described under GP Illustrations).

Laubat, Joseph Flourimund. Medallic History of the United States, 1776-1876 (New York: J.W. Boulton, 1878), I, pp. 421-426 (Described the U.S. Congressional gold medal voted to GP, March 5-15, 1867, made by Starr and Marcus, NYC silversmiths and jewelers, displayed in Washington, D.C., May 26, 1868, seen by GP in London, Dec. 25, 1868, and sent for permanent keeping to the Peabody Institute Library, Peabody, Mass. Vol. II, plate 78, has etching by Jules Jacquemart of U.S. Congressional medal given to GP for his PEF, 1867).

Law, Frederick Houk. Great Americans (New York: Globe Book, 1953), pp. 391-396 (Portrait of GP on p. 389).

[Lawrence, William, 1818-97]. The Aldermen of the City of London. By A.B. Beaven. Volume 2 (London: Corporation of the City of London, 1908-1913), p. 147. (Career of William Lawrence, member of a deputation from the Fishmongers’ Co., London, who called on GP, April 18, 1866, to offer him honorary membership. GP accepted, but explained that he was leaving April 21, 1866, for a visit to the U.S. It was decided to admit him to honorary membership as of April 19, 1866, and to send to him in the U.S. the membership scroll in a gold box worth 100 guineas, or about $525. GP thus became the 41st honorary member and the first U.S. citizen to be admitted to the Fishmongers’ Co.).

Leavell, Ullin Whitney. Philanthropy in Negro Education Contributions to Education No. 100 (Nashville: George Peabody College for Teachers, 1930). (Analyzed the PEF’s activities and influence on black public education in the 11 former Confederate states plus W.Va., added because of its poverty).

Lee, Robert E. Recollections and Letters of General Robert E. Lee, By His Son Captain Robert E. Lee (Garden City, N.Y.: Garden City Publishing Co., 1924), p. 370 (At Peabody Institute [Peabody, Mass.] Librarian Fitch Poole’s request, Lee sent Poole a photo of himself, adding: “and shall be honored in its being placed among the ‘friends’ of Mr. Peabody…” P. 383: There was apprehension of an anti-Lee demonstration if he attended GP’s eulogy and funeral service, Feb. 8, 1870, in Peabody, Mass., and burial in Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Mass. Lee, ill, wrote to his daughter: “I am sorry that I could not attend Mr. Peabody’s funeral, but I did not feel able to undertake the journey”).

Lefler, Hugh Talmage and Albert Ray Newsome. History of a Southern State, North Carolina. Third ed. (Chapel Hill: Univ. of N.C, 1973), p. 538 (The PEF in N.C. “stimulated some local support, helped establish excellent town schools which served as examples to the rest of the state, and tended to break down the bitter southern hatred of the North”).

Lewis, Charles Lee. David Glasgow Farragut, Our First Admiral (Annapolis, Md.: U.S. Naval Academy, 1943), II, pp. 334-335, 373 (To head off impeachment, U.S. Pres. Andrew Johnson’s political advisor Francis Preston Blair, Sr., suggested a complete cabinet change with Farragut as Navy Secty., GP as Treasury Secty., and others. But Johnson’s loyalty to his old cabinet kept him from that course. One of the 16 original PEF trustees, Farragut attended the second trustees’ meeting at NYC’s Fifth Avenue Hotel, March 19-22, 1867. With Mrs. Farragut he attended GP’s March 22, 1867, banquet for the trustees and others. Farragut’s last U.S. naval duty was to supervise the flotilla of ships which met the British HMS Monarch with GP’s remains on board, accompanied by the USS corvette Plymouth, when they entered Portland harbor, Me., Jan. 25, 1870. Ill at the time, Farragut died six months later, Aug. 14, 1870).

Leyda, Jay. The Melville Log, a Documentary Life of Herman Melville, 1819-1891 (New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1951), p. 338 (GP, U.S. Legation Secty. J.C.B. Davis, and Vt.-born London resident rare book dealer Henry Stevens dined Nov. 24, 1849, at the home near London of Joshua Bates, Mass.-born head of Baring Brothers. One guest was U.S. novelist Herman Melville, seeking a publisher for his novel White Jacket. They all knew and spoke of Melville’s brother Gansvoort Melville, former U.S. Legation secretary, who died in 1846).

Lindsey, Bessie M. American Historical Glass (Rutland, Vt.: Charles E. Tuttle Co., 1967), pp. 372-373 (Photos on pp. 372-373 are of an embossed GP cup and bowl, memorial glassware manufactured and sold in Britain from Dec. 1869, just after the vast publicity accompanying GP’s Nov. 4, 1869, death, 96-day transatlantic funeral, and final burial on Feb. 8, 1870, in Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Mass.).

Little, George Thomas, comp. Genealogical and Family History of the State of Maine (New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Co., 1909), Vol. 1, p. 57 (Career of William LeBaron Putnam, mayor of Portland, Me., when it was receiving port of GP’s remains, Jan. 25-Feb. 1, 1870).

London-a, College of Heralds in London. Ancient Records, Vol. II, Folio 327, No. 109, transferred to Modern Records, Vol. 88, Folio 65, No. 97 (Pope, ed., p. viii, stated that the Latin motto of the Peabody coat of arms, Murus aereus conscientia sana, meant literally “A sound conscience is a wall of bronze.” Since the Romans thought of bronze as a hard metal, a better translation is, “A sound conscience is a solid wall of defense”; quoted in Endicott, p. 1-3. Wilson, P.W., pp. 7-8, 93-94).

London-b, Corporation of. London’s Roll of Fame, 1757-1884 (London: Cassell & Co., Ltd., 1884), pp. 263-266 (Official record of GP’s being given the Freedom of the City of London, July 10, 1862, for his March 12, 1862, creation of the Peabody Donation Fund for housing for London’s working poor, to which GP gave a total of $2.5 million. The evening of July 10, 1862, he was guest of honor at the Lord Mayor of London’s Mansion House dinner).

London County Council. Housing of the Working Classes in London (London: London County Council, 1913), p. 7 (Housing survey of both private subsidized housing, as in the Peabody homes of London from the 1860s, and municipal housing since then).

Lossing, Benson J. Mathew Brady’s Illustrated History of the Civil War, 1861-65 (New York: Fairfax Press, 1912), p. 486 (Photo titled “Peabody Fund Commission” has nine of the 16 original PEF trustees plus GP. These nine figures form the right hand portion of the 17 figures [GP is the 17th] usually seen in this historic photo, taken March 23, 1867, at Civil War photographer Mathew Brady’s NYC studio. The nine trustees in this photo of part of the group are, from left to right: Adm. David G. Farragut, GP, Hamilton Fish, U.S. Grant, William Aiken, Robert Charles Winthrop, Charles Pettit McIlvaine, William Cabell Rives, and Samuel Wetmore).

Losson, Christopher. “Porter, James Davis,” Tennessee Encyclopedia of History & Culture, ed. by Carroll Van West (Nashville: Tenn. Historical Society, Rutledge Hill Press, 1998), pp. 745-746 (James Davis Porter was a Univ. of Nashville graduate [1846], lawyer, Tenn. House member [1859-61], Confederate officer, circuit judge, Tenn. governor [1875-79], railroad president [1880-84], U.S. Asst. Secty. of State [1885], and U.S. Minister to Chile [1892]. Gov. Porter helped PEF first administrator Barnas Sears [1802-80] create State Normal School [1875-89], renamed Peabody Normal College [1889-1909] in Nashville, was a PEF trustee, Peabody Normal College president [1901-09], and helped secure funds for its transformation into GPCFT [1914-79]).

Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. Builders and Buildings (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, n.d.), p. 8 (“LSU received a grant from the [PEF] for construction of a building on the old campus and the name was carried over too the education building on the present campus”).

Lowther, William Boswell. “Andrew Reed (1787-1862),” Dictionary of National Biography, ed. by Sir Lesley Stephen and Sir Sidney Lee (London: Oxford University Press, 1921-1922), Vol. XVI, pp. 831-832 (Father of Sir Charles Reed, M.P., who introduced the resolution that GP be offered the Freedom of the City of London, granted on July 10, 1862. Charles Reed was later GP’s friend, advisor, and one of the British executors of his estate. See: Boase, George Clement-b, entry above).

Luckett, Margie H. “May Garrettson Evans,” Maryland Women (Baltimore: 1937), p. 106 (Baltimorean May Garrettson Evans attended the Peabody Conservatory of Music, reviewed musical events for the Baltimore Sun for her reporter brother, became an early woman reporter for the Sun and urged a preparatory school for the Conservatory. When nothing was done, she started a preparatory school herself, Oct. 1894, taught largely by Conservatory staff, which became [1898], the Peabody Conservatory of Music’s Preparatory Dept. [commonly called “the Prep”], and which grew in enrollment and prestige under her direction).

Ludington, Townsend. John Dos Passos: A Twentieth Century Odyssey (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1980), p. 456 (U.S. writer John Dos Passos used the PIB reference collection when writing his books).

Lydenberg, Harry Miller. “Stevens, Henry (August 24, 1819-February 28, 1886),” Dictionary of American Biography , ed. by Dumas Malone (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1935), Vol. 17, pp. 611-612 (Barnet, Vt.-born London-based rare book dealer and bibliographer, Henry Stevens was GP’s friend and sometime agent in book purchasing for Peabody Institute libraries. For GP he compiled and distributed to distinguished British-U.S. dignitaries: An Account of the Proceedings at the Dinner Given by Mr. George Peabody to the Americans Connected with the Great Exhibition, at the London Coffee House, Ludgate Hill, On the 27th October, 1851 [London: William Pickering, 1851]. For GP he also abstracted Md. colonial records from English depositories which GP gave to the Maryland Historical Society. In 1854 GP made a monetary loan to Stevens, using as collateral Stevens’ collection of 3,000 Benjamin Franklin documents. Stevens eventually sold the Franklin collection to the U.S. government for the Library of Congress).

(Mac and Mc are filed as if both are spelled Mac)

Macauley, James, ed. Speeches and Addresses of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales: 1863-1888 (London: John Murray, 1889), pp. 78-79 (The Prince of Wales’ remarks as he unveiled sculptor W.W. Story’s seated statue of GP, London, July 23, 1869).

McCabe, James Dabney (1842-83). Great Fortunes and How They Were Made (Cincinnati: E. Hannaford & Co., 1871), p. 172 (Stated that merchant Francis Todd [most sources list Prescott Spaulding, 1781-1864, not Francis Todd] in Newburyport, Mass., sent GP his first consignment of goods after GP and his paternal uncle John Peabody opened a store in Georgetown, D.C., on May 15, 1812. See: Prescott Spaulding).

McCarren, Mark J. The Scientific Contributions of Othniel Charles Marsh: Birds, Bones, and Brontotheres (New Haven: Peabody Museum of Natural History, 1993). (On GP’s nephew O.C. Marsh’s science career; similar to Bakker, Robert T., entry above).

McCauley, Elizabeth Anne. A.A.E. Disderi and the Carte de Visite Portrait Photograph; 2 Volumes in 1 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985) (French photographer Andre Adolphe Eugene Disderi who patented the visiting card [carte de visite] photograph, had studios in Paris and London, and made a visiting card photograph of GP).

McCauley, Elizabeth Anne. Industrial Madness: Commercial Photography in Paris 1848-1871 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994) (Similar content as immediately above).

McCormick, Thomas Denton. “Buchanan, John (1772-Nov. 6, 1844),” Dictionary of American Biography, ed. by Allen Johnson (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1929), Vol. III, p. 214 (John Buchanan, Thomas Emory, and GP were the three Md. fiscal agents appointed to sell abroad Md.’s $8 million in bonds to finance such internal improvements as the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal and the B&O RR).

MacCracken, Henry Mitchell. The Hall of Fame (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1901), p. 180 (GP’s election to the N.Y. Univ. Hall of Fame, 1900, account included report that evangelist Dwight L. Moody heard from B&O RR. Pres. J.W. Garrett’s son that his father brought GP and Johns Hopkins together in his home near Baltimore during GP’s 1866-67 U.S. visit and that GP directly influenced Hopkins to found the Johns Hopkins Univ., medical school, and hospital in Baltimore; similar to Garrett, John Work [1820-84]. Address…, entry above).

McCrank, Lawrence J. “The Centennial Celebration of the Foundation of the Peabody Library, Baltimore, Maryland: A Report and Review,” Journal of Library History, Vol. 14, No. 2 (Spring 1979), pp. 183-187 (Origin, growth, and importance of the PIB Library since its founding in 1857).

MacFadden, Bruce J. Fossil Horses: Systematics, Paleobiology, and Evolution of the Family Equidae (London, England: Cambridge University Press, 1992), pp. 29-33 (On GP’s nephew O.C. Marsh’s science career; similar to Bakker, Robert T., entry above).

McGinty, Brian. “A Shining Presence: Rebel Poet Sidney Lanier Goes to War,” Civil War Times Illustrated, Vol. 19, No. 2 (May 1980), pp. 25-31 (On poet Sidney Lanier, first flutist, PIB Conservatory of Music, who also taught English literature at Johns Hopkins Univ., about 1880; similar to Kelly, Frederick, entry above).

McIntosh, Hugh S. “Marsh and the Dinosaurs,” Discovery, Vol. 1, No. 1 (1965), pp. 31-37 (On GP’s nephew O.C. Marsh’s science career; similar to Bakker, Robert T., entry above).

Mackall, Somervell S. Early Days of Washington (Washington, D.C.: The Neale Co., 1899), p. 270 (Stated that “the principal dinner-room was decorated by the taste of George Peabody of this town,” referring to a June 5, 1813, celebration in Washington, D.C., marking the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte in his Russian campaign. On April 20, 1867, GP gave $15,000 to five trustees for a free public library building fund in Georgetown, D.C., p. 273. In 1876 his gift became the George Peabody Library Association of Georgetown, D.C.; later merged with the public library system of Washington, D.C., and still exists as the George Peabody Room of the Public Library of Washington, D.C., containing Georgetown, D.C., historiana).

MacLean, J. Kennedy, and Chelsea Fraser. Heroes of the North and Farthest South (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1932). (GP’s $10,000 science equipment gift for the 1853-55 Second U.S. Grinnell Expedition’s search for lost British Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin; similar to Browne, James A., entry above).

Magazine of Art (London). Vol. 13 (1890), p. 49 (J M. Johnstone’s engraving of portrait of GP by G.F. Watts).

Maine Adjutant General. Annual Report for the Year Ending December 31, 1869 (Augusta, Maine: Sprague, Owen and Nash, 1870), p. 39 (State of Maine Special Order No. 13, dated Dec. 21, 1869, listed preliminary plans to receive GP’s remains from HMS Monarch at Portland harbor; quoted in Boston Daily Advertiser, Dec. 23, 1869, p. 2, c. 3; and in Hampshire Telegraph [Portsmouth, England], Jan. 8, 1870, p. 4, c. 3).

Maine, State of. Journal of the House of Representatives, 49th Legislature, 1870 (Augusta, Maine: Sprague, Owen, and Nash, 1870), pp. 13, 41, 63, 78, 85, 107, 112, 116, 124-125, 132 (Maine officials made preliminary plans, Dec. 18, 1869, to receive GP’s remains at Portland harbor from HMS Monarch. Controversy arose over a Jan. 6, 1870, House resolution that the entire legislature, governor, State Council, and department heads attend en masse. This resolution was tabled on Jan. 6, taken up and tabled again on Jan. 7. A Joint Select Committee reported adversely on the resolution, Jan. 17, stating that current funeral plans were ample. A Senate paper of Jan. 22 ordered the legislature to adjourn for the funeral. The House moved indefinite postponement, Jan. 25. A House-Senate reconciliation committee resolved the dispute by adjourning the legislature for the funeral. The Boston Times, Jan. 30, 1870, p. 2, c. 1 explanation: “Mr. Peabody, although applied to, refused to subscribe to the Portland fund after the great fire of July 4, 1866”).

Maine, State of. Journal of the Senate, 49th Legislature, 1870 (Augusta, Maine: Sprague, Owen, and Nash, 1870), pp. 50, 81, 91, 102, 109, 117, 122, 124-125, 132, 137 (Included the account of GP’s giving $10,000 for science equipment for the 1853-55 Second U.S. Grinnell Expedition which searched for lost British Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin; similar to Browne, James A., entry above).

Mallalieu, H. L. The Dictionary of British Watercolour Artists Up To 1920 (Woodbridge, England: Antique Collectors’ Club, 1976-1990), 3 vols (Has entry for British-born resident in Florence, Italy, Charles Bethel Otley [1792-1867] who on April 24, 1863, donated U.S. sculptor Hiram Powers [1805–73] bust of GP to Peabody Donation Fund governors, London).

Manarin, Louis H. “William Lovenstein, City of Richmond, President Pro Tempore, 1895-1896.” Officers of the Senate of Virginia, 1776-1996 (Richmond, Va.: 1997), pp. 225-226 (William Lovenstein was Va. state senator who on Feb. 1, 1896, introduced a resolution and supporting letter of Jan. 24, 1896, from PEF administrator J.L.M. Curry for a GP statue to be placed in Statuary Hall, U.S. House of Representatives, U.S. Capitol Bldg., Washington, D.C., where each state has two statues of its notable citizens. But this resolution was not successful).

Manchester, William. Disturber of the Peace: The Life of H.L. Mencken (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1950), p. 292 (Baltimore journalist, author, and critic Henry Louis Mencken used the PIB reference collection for research when writing his books).

“Manning, Thomas Courtland.” Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume 1607-1896 (Chicago: Marquis Who’s Who, 1963), p. 331 (N.C.-born PEF trustee who was a lawyer, served on the La. Supreme Court, and was U.S. Minister to Mexico during 1886-1887).

“Mansel, Henry Longueville.” Dictionary of National Biography. The Concise Dictionary. Part I From the Beginnings to 1900 (London: Oxford Univ. Press, reprinted 1961), p. 836 (GP replied June 5, 1867, to H.L. Mansel’s letter asking if GP would accept an Oxford honorary degree, which was granted June 26, 1867).

Marine, William Matthew. The British Invasion of Maryland, 1812-1815 (Baltimore: Society of the War of 1812 in Maryland, 1913), pp. 419, 493 (On GP’s senior partner Elisha Riggs, Sr.’s War of 1812 military career when he was sent to inform U.S. Pres. and Mrs. James Madison that the British were coming to Washington, D.C.).

Markham, Albert Hastings. Life of Sir John Franklin and the Northwest Passage (New York: Dodd, Mead and Co., 1889). (GP’s $10,000 science equipment gift for the 1853-55 Second U.S. Grinnell Expedition’s search for lost British Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin; similar to Browne, James A., entry above).

Markham, Clement R. The Lands of Silence: A History of Arctic and Antarctic Exploration (Cambridge, England: University Press, 1921). (Similar to entry immediately above).

Marvel, William. Alabama and the Kearsarge: The Sailor’s Civil War (Chapel Hill: Univ. of N.C. Press, 1996). (Sinking of British-built Confederate raider CSS Alabama by USS Kearsarge, off Cherbourg, France, June 11, 1864).

Maryland Assembly, House of Delegates. Journal of Proceedings of the House of Delegates of the State of Maryland (Annapolis: Riley and Davis, 1847), p. 420 (Md. legislature and Gov. P.F. Thomas voted GP unanimous praise in 1847 for selling abroad the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal part of its $8 million bond issue following the Panic of 1837 and declining his commission because of Md.’s financial distress).

Maryland Historical Society-a, and the Peabody Institute Trustees. A Report from a Special Committee of the Maryland Historical Society, Read and Adopted at the Society’s Monthly Meeting, April the 5th, 1866 (Baltimore: John Murphy & Co., 1866). (GP resolved difficulties over PIB-Md. Historical Society joint trustee oversight of the PIB by asking the MHS trustees as a personal favor to him to withdraw from the original oversight plan. GP compensated with a $20,000 gift to MHS publication fund).

Maryland Historical Society-b. In Memory of George Peabody, Fund Publication No. 3 (Baltimore: John Murphy, 1870), p. 15 (Branz Mayer was president of the Md. Historical Society, Baltimore, when he wrote in 1870 after GP’s death: “George Peabody’s fame or ignominy lies with the men and their successors who guide and direct his philanthropic bounty. If they catch his vision they will elevate the race. If they fail they doom his substance and memory to ruin and ignominy”).

“Maryland Resolution to George Peabody,” Bankers’ Magazine and State Financial Register, Vol. 3, No. 7 (Jan. 1849), pp. 394-397 (Md. legislature and Gov. Thomas voted GP unanimous praise, 1847, for selling part of Md.’s $8 million bond issue abroad; similar to Maryland Assembly, House of Delegates, entry above).

End of 12 of14. Continued on 13 of 14. Send corrections, questions to bfparker@frontiernet.net

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