13 of 14: George Peabody (1795-1869): A-Z Handbook…, By Franklin Parker & Betty J. Parker, bfparker@frontiernet.net

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13 of 14: George Peabody (1795-1869): A-Z Handbook of the Massachusetts-Born Merchant in the South, London-Based Banker, and Philanthropist’s Life, Influence, and Related People, Places, Events, and Institutions. ©2007, By Franklin Parker & Betty J. Parker, bfparker@frontiernet.net

This work updates and expands Franklin Parker, George Peabody, A Biography (Nashville, Tenn.: Vanderbilt Univ. Press, ©1971, revised with illustrations ©1995), and the authors’ related George Peabody publications. Note: To read on your computer Franklin Parker’s out-of-print George Peabody, A Biography, 1995, as a free Google E-book copy and paste on your browser: http://books.google.com/books?id=OPIbk-ZPnF4C&pg=PP1&lpg=PR4&dq=Franklin+Parker,+George+Peabody,+a+Biography&output=html&sig=6R8ZoKwN1B36wtCSePijnLaYJS8

Background: Why these 1 to 14 blogs on George Peabody? The authors attended George Peabody College for Teachers, Nashville (renamed Peabody College of Vanderbilt Univ. July 1, 1979). Franklin Parker’s doctoral dissertation, “George Peabody, Founder of Modern Philanthropy,” 1956, has been an ongoing research and writing interest for over 50 years. The authors’ intent is to perpetuate public memory of him.

George Peabody, now largely forgotten by scholars and the public, was significant as: 1-a Massachusetts-born merchant in the U.S. South, beginning as junior partner in Riggs, Peabody & Co. (1814-29); then head of Peabody, Riggs & Co. (1829-43), importing dry goods and other commodities worldwide for sale to U.S. wholesalers. He transformed himself from merchant into: 2-a London-based merchant-banker, George Peabody & Co. (1838-64), which helped finance the B&O RR, the 2nd Mexican War Loan, the Atlantic Cable, and by choosing Junius Spencer Morgan (1813-90) as partner Oct. 1, 1854, was a root of the JP Morgan international banking firm.

Merchant-turned-banker George Peabody finally became: 3-the best known U.S. philanthropist of the 1850s-60s, founding the Peabody Homes of London for the working poor; founder in the U.S. of 7 Peabody Libraries and Lecture Halls; the Peabody Conservatory of Music, Baltimore; three Peabody Museums at Harvard (Anthropology), Yale (Paleontology), and the Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA (maritime history); and founder of the Peabody Education Fund for the South (1867-1914), a model for all later larger U.S. funds and foundations.

Two tributes to George Peabody:

Historian John Steele Gordon called George Peabody the “Most Underrated Philanthropist…. Peabody is unjustly forgotten today, but his unprecedented generosity was greatly appreciated in his time.” Ref.: American Heritage. Vol. 50, No. 3 (May-June 1999), pp. 68-69.

“The Peabody Fund, established in 1867 by George Peabody to assist southern education, is often credited with being the first foundation….” Ref.: Reader’s Companion to American History, ed. by Eric Foner and John A. Garraty (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1991). Internet: http://HistoryChannel.com/

End of Background. HTML symbols are intended for blogging (ignore). This 13 of 14 blogs covers entries from: : References: Md., State of to Newspapers, New York Daily Times, Sept. 16, 1856.

Maryland, State of-a. Laws Made and Passed by the General Assembly of the State of Maryland, at a Session Begun and Held at Annapolis, on Monday, 28th day of December, 1835, and Ended on Monday the 4th day of April, 1836 (Annapolis: Jeremiah Hughes, 1836), Chapter 395, Section II (Legislation authorizing Md.’s $8 million bond sale for internal improvements. When GP was appointed one of three commissioners to market these bonds abroad, he left for London Feb. 1837, remaining there to head George Peabody & Co., 1838-64, making three return U.S. visit: Sept. 1856-Aug 1857, May 1, 1866-May 1, 1867, and June 8-Sept. 29, 1869).

Maryland, State of-b. Journal of Proceedings of the House of Delegates of the State of Maryland at December Session, 1837 (Annapolis: Jeremiah Hughes, 1837), p. 111 (Similar to entry immediately above).

Maryland, State of-c. Annual Message of the Executive (Governor Thomas G. Pratt) to the General Assembly of Maryland, December Session, 1847, Document A, p. 11 (Md. legislature and Gov. Thomas G. Pratt voted GP unanimous praise, 1847, for selling part of Md.’s $8 million bond issue abroad; similar to Maryland Assembly, House of Delegates, entry above. Also quoted in Baltimore’s American and Commercial Daily Advertiser, Dec. 29, 1847, p. 2, c. 3-6; and in Scharf-b, III, pp. 216-217).

Maryland, State of-d. Journal of Proceedings of the House of Delegates of the State of Maryland (Annapolis: Riley and Davis, 1847), p. 420 (Md. legislature and Gov. Thomas G. Pratt voted GP unanimous praise, 1847, for selling part of Md.’s $8 million bond issue abroad; similar to Maryland Assembly, House of Delegates, entry above).

Maryland, State of-e. Journal of the Proceedings of the House of Delegates of Maryland. January Session, 1870 (Annapolis: William Thompson, 1870), pp. 23, 154-156 (Md.’s resolutions on GP’s death read in part “…his name will stand preeminent in history…generations yet unborn will learn to venerate his memory”).

Massachusetts, Commonwealth of. Document Printed by Order of the House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts During the Session of the General Court A.D. 1868 (Boston: Wright & Potter, 1868), House Document No. 180, March 31, 1868 (Change of name of South Danvers to Peabody, Mass.).

Massachusetts, Commonwealth of. General Laws and Resolves Passed by Legislature of Massachusetts During the Session of 1868 (Boston: Secty. of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 1868), p. 25 (Change of name of South Danvers to Peabody, Mass.).

Massachusetts Historical Society Proceedings, Vol. 9 (1866-1867), pp. 359-367 (On GP’s nephew O.C. Marsh’s science career; similar to Bakker, Robert T., entry above. Frontispiece has GP engraving by W.H. Forbes).

Massachusetts Historical Society Proceedings, Vol. 10 (1867-1869), pp. 339-340 (GP, in Europe with R.C. Winthrop, had an audience with Pope Pius IX, Rome, Feb. 24 or 25, 1868. GP gave a $19,300 gift to San Spirito Hospital, Vatican charitable hospital, Rome. GP sat in U.S. sculptor W.W. Story’s Rome studio, Feb. 19-27, 1868, for his intended London statue. GP met Baltimorean J.P. Kennedy, Nice, France, March 3, 1868. GP visited George Eustice [friend W.W. Corcoran’s son-in-law], Cannes, France, March 16, 1868. GP and Winthrop were received by Napoleon III [Louis Napoleon Bonaparte] and Empress Eugénie, Paris, France, about March 17, 1868).

Massachusetts Medical Society: A Catalogue of the Honorary and Past and Present Fellows, 1781-1931 (Brookline, Mass.: Riverdale Press for the Mass. Medical Society, 1931). (Listed is Boston physician and dentist Dr. Nathan Cooley Keep, d. 1875, age 74, Boylston St., Boston, admitted to the Mass. Medical Soc., 1830, whom GP consulted several times in May 1866. Also listed is Dr. Charles Gideon Putnam, Boston, also d. 1875, age 69, believed to have treated GP in June 1869).

Matthew, H.C.G. (ed). The Gladstone Diaries, with Cabinet Minutes and Prime-Ministerial Correspondence; Vol. VII, January 1869-June 1871 (Oxford, England: Clarendon Press, 1982), VII, p. 167 (P.M. W. E. Gladstone’s Cabinet decision, Nov. 10, 1869, to use HMS Monarch as transatlantic funeral ship to transport GP’s remains from Portsmouth, England, to Portland, Maine, for burial in Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Mass., Feb. 8, 1870).

May, Samuel P. The Descendants of Richard Sares (Sears) of Yarmouth, Mass. 1638-1888 with an Appendix Containing some Notices of other Families by the name of Sears (Albany, N.Y.: Joel Munsell’s Sons, 1890). (First PEF administrator Barnas Sears’s daughter, Elizabeth Corey [née Sears] Fultz assisted her father in his last illness. On his death, July 6, 1880, as acting PEF administrator, she prepared the 1880-81 PEF annual report, until the appointment of second PEF administrator Jabez Lamar Monroe Curry on Feb. 2, 1881).

Mayer, Henry. All on Fire: William Lloyd Garrison and the Abolition of Slavery (New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 1998), pp. 15-16 (Abolitionist W.L. Garrison was age 5 at the time of the Great Fire of Newburyport, Mass., in his birthplace. The fire, on the night of May 31, 1811, destroyed 240 buildings, 13 wharves, left 90 families homeless, and “every dry goods store a wreck” including uncle John Peabody’s store and David Peabody’s drapery shop in which his brother, GP, then age 16, worked. In 1869, just before GP’s death, and again in 1870, after GP’s death, Garrison, in his newspaper, The Independent, attacked GP as a Confederate sympathizer. Garrison’s biographer called him a professional “agitator” against slavery).

Melville, Herman. Journal of a Visit to London and the Continent (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1948), p. 47 (GP, U.S. London Legation Secty. J.C.B. Davis, and Vt.-born London book dealer Henry Stevens dined Nov. 24, 1849, at Joshua Bates’s home near London, with visiting U.S. novelist Herman Melville as guest. All knew and spoke of Melville’s brother Gansvoort Melville, former U.S. Legation secretary, who died in 1846; similar to Leyda, Jay, entry above).

[Memorial Church, Georgetown, Mass.]. The Peabody Memorial Church, In Georgetown, Mass. Its Origin, the Exercises Connected with the Laying of the Corner-stone, the Dedication, and the Ordination of its Pastor (Georgetown, Mass.: privately printed, 1869). (John Greenleaf Whittier later wrote that he would not have written “Memorial Hymn,” a poem read Jan. 8, 1868, at the dedication of Memorial Church, Georgetown, Mass., GP built in his mother’s memory in her hometown, had he known of GP’s condition that the church “exclude political and other subjects not in keeping with its religious purpose.” See: Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, entry above).

Mencken, Henry [Louis]. Letters of H.L. Mencken; Selected and Annotated by Guy J. Forgue (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1981), p. 422 (Baltimore journalist, author, and critic Henry Louis Mencken described in a letter his use of the PIB reference collection for research when writing his books).

[Mennin, Peter, about] “Music…Mennin of the Peabody,” Gardens, Houses and People (Baltimore), Aug. 1958 (Peter Mennin was the Peabody Conservatory of Music’s fifth director for four years, 1958-62. He left to become president of NYC’s Juilliard School of Music, where he had previously taught).

Meredith, Roy. The Face of R. E. Lee (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1947), pp. 84-85 (GP photographed with Robert E. Lee, other former Civil War generals, and northern and southern educational and political leaders at Greenbrier Hotel, White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., Aug. 12, 1869, identified under GP Illustrations. Photos of GP taken that day are also in Conte, pp. 69-71; Dabney, Vol. 1, facing p. 83; Freeman-a, 1935, appendix [incorrect identification]; Freeman-b, 1947, Vol. 4, p. 438 [correct identification]; Kocher and Dearstyne, pp. 189-190; Lanier, ed., Vol. 5, p. 4; Meredith, pp. 84-85; Miller, ed., Vol. 10, p. 4; Murphy, p. 58).

Miller, Francis Trevelyan, ed. The Photographic History of the Civil War (New York: Review of Reviews Co., 1911), Vol. 10, p. 4 (Similar to entry immediately above).

Milton, George Fort. The Age of Hate, Andrew Johnson and the Radicals (New York: Coward McCann, 1930), p. 385 (To avoid impeachment, Pres. A. Johnson’s political advisor, Francis Preston Blair, Sr.’s plan for a complete cabinet change with GP as Treasury Secty. never came about; similar to Bergeron, Paul H., ed., entry above).

Mims, Edwin-a. Chancellor Kirkland of Vanderbilt (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1940) (Kirkland’s biography, influence, and relationship with adjoining GPCFT, by Vanderbilt Univ. English professor).

Mims, Edwin-b. History of Vanderbilt University (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1946) (History and relationship with adjoining GPCFT, by Vanderbilt Univ. English professor).

Mirabile, Lisa, ed. “Morgan Grenfell Group PLC.” International Directory of Company Histories (Chicago: St. James Press, 1990), Vol. II, pp. 427-429 (History of George Peabody & Co., London, 1838-64; succeeded by J.S. Morgan & Co., Oct. 1, 1864-Dec. 31, 1909; by Morgan Grenfell & Co., Jan. 1, 1910-1918; by Morgan Grenfell & Co. Ltd., 1918-90; continued as Deutsche Morgan Grenfell since June 29, 1990, a German owned bank).

Mirsky, Jeannette. Elisha Kent Kane and the Seafaring Frontier (Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1954). (GP’s $10,000 science equipment gift for the 1853-55 Second U.S. Grinnell Expedition’s search for lost British Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin; similar to Browne, James A., entry above).

Mitchell, Broadus. “Hopkins, Johns,” Dictionary of American Biography, ed. by Dumas Malone (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1943), IX, pp. 213-214 (There may have been other influences, but GP’s philanthropic example and talk with Johns Hopkins at B&O RR Pres. John Work Garrett’s home near Baltimore sometime in 1866-67 influenced Johns Hopkins to write his will founding the Johns Hopkins Univ., medical school, and hospital. Best account is in Garrett, John Work (1820-84). Address… , entry above).

Mitchell, Rosamond Joscelyne, and Mary Dorothy Rose Leys. A History of the English People (London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1950), p. 427 (Quoted Charles Dickens’s letter to reformer-philanthropist Angela Georgina Burdett-Coutts, a great influence on his reform tendencies, that the poor “will never save their children from the dreadful and unnatural mortality now prevalent…or save themselves from untimely sickness and death, until they have cheap pure water in unlimited quantity, wholesome air, efficient drainage, and such alterations in building acts as shall preserve open space in the closest regions”).

Mitman, Carl W. “Lampson, Sir Curtis Miranda (Sept. 21, 1806-March 12, 1885),” Dictionary of American Biography, ed. by Dumas Malone (New York: Scribner’s Sons, 1933), X, p. 566 (Vt.-born but a London resident from 1830, Lampson made money in the fur trade, had children in Britain, became a naturalized British subject, and was knighted for his work as an Atlantic Cable Co. director. GP’s longtime business associate and friend, he was a trustee of the Peabody Homes of London. GP, gravely ill on his return from his last U.S. visit, rested at Lampson’s London home, 80 Eaton Sq., from Oct. 8, 1869, until his death on Nov. 4, 1869. Lampson helped oversee GP’s funeral in Britain).

Moody, John, and George Kibbe Turner. “The Masters of Capital in America: Morgan: The Great Trustee,” McClure’s Magazine, Vol. 36, No. 1 (Nov. 1910), pp. 3-24 (Some useful insights into GP as merchant, financier, and philanthropist. Portrait of aged seated GP on p. 7).

Moore, Frank, ed. The Rebellion Record; a Diary of American Events (New York: G.P. Putnam, 1861), I, p. 76 (Quoted New York Times, May 23, 1861, report that Confederate emissary Ambrose Dudley Mann tried to get GP to sell Confederate bonds but was “firmly repulsed”).

Moorman, John Jennings-a. A Directory for the Use of the White Sulphur Waters; with Practical Remarks on their Medical Properties, and Applicability to Particular Diseases (Philadelphia: T.K. & P.G. Collins, 1839). (Resident physician at the Greenbrier Hotel, White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., who attended to, interviewed, and wrote about GP, Robert E. Lee, and other famous visitors).

Moorman, John Jennings-b. “The Memoir of Dr. John J. Moorman, Resident Physician at White Sulphur Springs,” Journal of the Greenbrier Historical Society, Vol. 3, No. 6 (1980), pp. 15-17 (Similar to entry immediately above. His interview with GP in Aug. 1869 is included).

Moran, Benjamin. The Footpath and Highway, or Wanderings of an American in Great Britain in 1851 and 1852 (London: Trubner, 1854). (Philadelphia-born Moran’s book of travel. He was at the U.S. Legation, London, as clerk, 1853-57; assistant secty., 1857; and secty., 1857-75. His journal, valuable for its frank, often prejudiced, views of people and events, included criticism of GP).

“Moran, Benjamin (1820-1886).” Findling, John E. Dictionary of American Diplomatic History. 2nd ed. (New York: Greenwood Press, l989), p. 358 (Biographical sketch reported that in 1854 Benjamin Moran was U.S. Minister to Britain James Buchanan’s private secretary, U.S. Minister to Portugal during 1874-76, served there six more years as chargé d’affaires, had a stroke in 1882, returned to live in England four more years as an invalid, and died in Essex, England, on June 20, 1886).

Moran, Benjamin. The Journal of Benjamin Moran 1857-1865. Ed by Sarah Agnes Wallace and Frances Elma Gillespie (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1948), Vols. I and II. See: under Wallace, Sarah Agnes, and Frances Elma Gillespie, below.

Moran, Hugh Anderson. Makers of America, Significant Factors in the Ancestry and Social Inheritance of Leading Americans; A Study of the Lives of Sixty-three Persons Elected to the American Hall of Fame, from the Point of View of Their Heredity, Social and Economic Status, Education and Moral Training, in an Attempt to Discover Significant Factors in Their Early Years (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell United Religious Work, 1936). (GP elected to N.Y.U. Hall of Fame, 1900; similar to entry for Banks, Louis, above).

[Morgan Grenfell & Co. Ltd.]. George Peabody & Co., J.S. Morgan & Co., Morgan Grenfell & Co., Morgan Grenfell & Co. Ltd.: 1838-1958 (Oxford: Printed for private circulation at the University Press, 1958). (George Peabody & Co., London, 1838-64, became J.S. Morgan & Co., 1864-1909; Morgan Grenfell & Co., 1909-90, and, after this book appeared, Deutsche Morgan Grenfell since June 29, 1990).

“Morgan, Junius Spencer (1813-1890).” Findling, John E. Dictionary of American Diplomatic History. 2nd ed. (New York: Greenwood Press, l989), p. 359 (Short biographical sketch of GP’s last partner).

“Morison, Nathaniel Holmes-a.” Biographical Cyclopedia: Representative Men of Maryland and District of Columbia (Baltimore: National Biographical Publishing Co., 1879), pp. 323-324 (On Nathaniel Holmes Morison, first PIB provost and second librarian during 1867-90).

Morison, Nathaniel Holmes-b, et al., compilers. Catalogue of the Library of the Peabody Institute of the City of Baltimore (Baltimore: Peabody Library, 1883-93) (Five-volume catalog of PIB’s holding of some 100,000 volumes by author, title, with many cross reference content articles. A second catalog of eight volumes listing additional books appeared in 1905).

[Morison, Nathaniel Holmes]-c. Peabody Bulletin (Baltimore), May 1936. (On Nathaniel Holmes Morison, first PIB provost and second librarian during 1867-90).

Morison, Samuel Eliot. Nathaniel Holmes Morison, 1815-1890: Provost of the Peabody Institute of Baltimore, 1867-1890, An Address…February 12, 1957 (Baltimore: Peabody Institute Library, 1962) (By esteemed historian and relative of N.H. Morrison. Similar to entry immediately above).

“Morris, John Godlove-a.” National Cyclopedia of American Biography (New York: James T. White & Co., 1893), III, p. 61 (On John Godlove Morris, first PIB director and librarian during 1860-67).

Morris, John G[odlove]-b. Life Reminiscences of an Old Lutheran Minister (Philadelphia: Lutheran Publication Society, 1896). (Similar to entry immediately above).

Morse, John Torrey. Life and Letters of Oliver Wendell Holmes (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1897), II, pp. 180-181 (Having seen how near death GP looked, Holmes wrote to historian-statesman John Lothrop Motley, July 18, 1869, that GP looked like “the Dives who is going to Abraham’s bosom and I fear before a great while”).

“Moses Davenport (February 14, 1806-February 18, 1861).” See: “Davenport, Moses (February 14, 1806-February 18, 1861).” The Mayors of Newburyport: 1851 to the Present… , above.

Mortuary Honors to the Late George Peabody in Portland, Me. (Portland: Loring, Short & Harmon, 1870), pp. 2-4 (Bostonians and New Yorkers contended about which port city would receive GP’s remains from HMS Monarch, with Portland, Me., chosen by the British Admiralty, Dec. 14, 1869, because of its deeper harbor. pp. 4-7, 12-34, described the transfer on Jan. 29, 1870, of GP’s coffin from the Monarch to Portland City Hall, Me., and the many visitors on Jan. 31 to the lying in state in the Portland City Hall auditorium, specially decorated by marine artist Harrison Bird Brown. The coffin was taken from Portland City Hall on Feb. 1, 1870, and taken by special train to Kennebunk, Me.; Portsmouth, N.H.; and into Mass. to Newburyport, Ipswich, Beverly, and Peabody for the final funeral service, Robert C. Winthrop’s eulogy, and burial in Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Mass., p. 24).

Motley, John Lothrop. The Complete Works of John L. Motley. The Correspondence of John Lothrop Motley, ed. by George William Curtis (New York: Society of English and French Literature, 1889-1900), III, pp. 204, 233, and related pages (As U.S. Minister to Britain during 1869-70 Motley was closely involved in GP’s death and transatlantic funeral. His Nov. 7, 1869, letter to German Chancellor Count von Bismarck describes GP’s death. He wrote of GP and R.C. Winthrop’s audience with Pope, Rome, Feb. 24 or 25, 1868; GP’s gift to San Spirito Hospital, Vatican; GP at U.S. sculptor W.W. Story’s Rome studio, Feb. 19-27, 1868; GP met Baltimorean J.P. Kennedy, Nice, France, March 3, 1868; visited George Eustice [friend W.W. Corcoran’s son in law], Cannes, France, March 16, 1868; and both were received by Napoleon III [Louis Napoleon Bonaparte] and Empress Eugénie, Paris, France, about March 17, 1868; similar to Massachusetts Historical Society Proceedings, Vol. 10 [1867-1869], pp. 339-340, entry above).

“Mr. Ortmann and His Successor,” Gardens, Houses and People (Baltimore), Vol. 16, No. 8 (Aug. 1941) (Transition from Otto Rudolph Ortmann, third Peabody Conservatory of Music director during 1928-41, to fourth director Reginald Stewart during 1941-58; similar to “Otto Ortmann-a,” entry below).

Mr. Peabody’s Gift to the Poor of London (London: Spottiswood & Co., 1866). (Brief history from March 12, 1862, founding letter to operation of early Peabody apartment complexes for London’s working poor; total gift $2.5 million).

Murphy, Richard W. The Nation Reunited: The Civil War: War’s Aftermath (Alexandria, Va.: Time-Life Books, 1987), p. 58 (Photo taken at White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., Aug. 12, 1869, of five seated figures, including GP and Robert E. Lee, plus seven standing former Civil War generals, all identified under GP Illustrations).

Muzzey, David Saville. “Butler, Charles (Jan. 15, 1802-Dec. 13, 1897),” Dictionary of American Biography, ed. by Allen Johnson and Dumas Malone (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1930, 1958), II, Part l, pp. 359-360 (Believed to be the NYC Butler who gave Delia Salter Bacon a letter of introduction to GP, London, May 1853, for help in exploring her theory that Francis Bacon and others wrote Shakespeare’s plays).

Myers, Gustavus. History of the Great American Fortunes (New York: Modern Library, 1910, rev. 1936), Vol. 1, p. 59; Vol. 3, pp. 149-152 (A socialist historian who repeated the unsubstantiated charge that GP was a Confederate sympathizer who profited from the Civil War at the Union’s expense, stated earlier by U.S. Consul in Paris John Bigelow, 1862; by Springfield [Mass.] Daily Republican editor Samuel Bowles, 1866; socialist writer Matthew Josephson, 1934; and by poet and Lincoln biographer Carl Sandburg, 1939. See: “Bigelow, John…” above).

Nautical Magazine and Naval Chronicle (Portsmouth, England), Jan. 1870, p. 29 (Described HMS Monarch painted slate gray and outfitted in Portsmouth, England, during Nov. 23 to Dec. 11, 1869, as funeral vessel to transport GP’s remains for burial in the U.S.; similar to London Times, Dec. 4, 1869, p. 9, entry below).

Nevins, Allen. Frémont: Pathmaker of the West (New York: Longmans, Green & Co., 1955), pp. 319-392, 395, 399, 404 (U.S. explorer-politician John Charles Frémont and his wife, Jesse [née Benton] Frémont, U.S. Sen. from Missouri Thomas Hart Benton’s daughter, were in London to finance their California Mariposa Estate mining. Frémont was arrested April 7, 1852, for unpaid debts made to meet territorial expenses when he was California’s acting governor at the Mexican War outbreak, 1846-47. Frémont appealed to GP, who deposited the bail needed for his release the next day, April 8, 1852).

New England Historical and Genealogical Register, Vol. 2 (1848), pp. 153-161, 361-372; Vol. 3 (1849), pp. 359-373 (GP’s paternal forebears included Peabody, Foster, Andrews, Pope, and Gaines); Vol. 27 (1873), p. 87 (GP’s maternal forebears included Spofford, Scott, Wheeler, Poor, Follansbee, and Dodge)

“New Initiatives Strengthen VU/Metro Ties,” Peabody Columns, Vol. 3, No. 5 (Jan. 1993), p. 2 (Under second Dean James William Pellegrino PCofVU faculty helped improve Nashville public schools and elsewhere with computer and other electronic learning techniques).

“New Peabody Dean Eager to Help State Change Face of Education,” Tennessean, Dec. 26, 1991, p. 3B (Similar to entry immediately above).

New York Historical Society. New York Historical Society’s Dictionary of Artists in America, 1564-1860 (New Haven, Conn.: Yale Univ. Press, 1964), p. 284 (Lists engraver-artist whose engravings of GP appear under Peabody, George, Illus. L).

New York Times Obituaries Index 1858-1968 (New York: New York Times, 1970), p. 789. (Joseph Peabody, listed as “retired banker,” died April 7, 1905). He is believed to be Joseph Peabody, GP’s younger relative [distant cousin?], who 1857 shared an apartment at 45 West 17 St., NYC, with John Pierpont Morgan [1837-1913], then age 20, later Sr., J.P. Morgan was the son of GP’s partner in George Peabody & Co., London, Junius Spencer Morgan [1813-90)]. J.P. Morgan began his banking career as the NYC agent for George Peabody & Co.).

New York University-a. Hall of Fame. Unveiling of Busts at the Colonnade, University Heights, New York City, Wednesday, May 12, 1926, at 3:15 o’clock, Order of Exercises (New York: Hall of Fame, 1926). (Unveiling of GP’s bust; similar to Banks, Louis, entry above).

New York University-b. Handbook of the Hall of Fame (New York: Hall of Fame, 1951), p. 4 (GP elected to N.Y.U. Hall of Fame, 1900; similar to Banks, Louis, entry above).

New York University-c. Hall of Fame for Great Americans. Hall of Fame for Great Americans at New York University: Official Handbook (New York: New York University Press, 1962) (Story of the N.Y.U. Hall of Fame to which GP was elected, 1900. Has portrait of GP).

Nichols, Robert Hastings. “Lindsley, Philip (Dec. 21, 1786-May 25, 1855),” Dictionary of American Biography, ed. by Dumas Malone (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1933, 1961), VI, Part 1, pp. 278-279 (Biographical sketch of. Philip Lindsley, Cumberland College president and chancellor of its successor, the Univ. of Nashville, from whose moribund literary department the PEF helped create and support Peabody Normal College, 1875-1911).

Niss, Bob. Faces of Maine (Portland, Maine: Guy Gannett Publishing Co.: 1981), entry under “Harrison Bird Brown” (Harrison Bird Brown, Portland, Me., marine landscape artist, decorated Portland, Me., City Hall for the lying-in-state ceremony of GP’s remains, Jan. 31, 1870. A biographical note on H.B. Brown is also in: Catalog, Colby College Art Museum, Waterville, Me., May 5-June 20, 1965; and Portland, Me., Museum of Art, June 29-July 25, 1965; titled “The Land and the Sea of Five Maine Artists”).

Nolan, Thomas, Rev. (1809-82, vicar of St. Peter’s, Regent Sq., London, who visited GP several times before his Nov. 4, 1869, death, 80 Eaton Sq., London, home of Sir Curtis Miranda Lampson). See: Boase, Frederic, above.

Oberholtzer, Ellis Paxton. A History of the United States Since the Civil War (New York: Macmillan Co., 1917), I, pp. 469-470 (To avoid impeachment, Pres. A. Johnson’s political advisor, Francis Preston Blair, Sr.’s plan for a complete cabinet change with GP as Treasury Secty. never came about; similar to Bergeron, Paul H., ed., entry above).

Olson, Sherry H. Baltimore: The Building of an American City (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980), pp. 105, 168, 192 (History of the PIB Library and Conservatory of Music).

“On Music: David Zinman Honored with Peabody Medal,” Johns Hopkins Gazette, Vol. 25, No. 31 (April 29, 1996). (The PIB George Peabody Medal for Outstanding Contributions to Music in America was initiated in 1980).

Ortmann, Otto Rudolph. See: Otto Ortmann-a and–b (both below).

Ortmann, Otto Rudolph-a. The Physical Basis of Piano Touch and Tone (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1925) (One of several landmark books on the acoustical science of music by the third Peabody Conservatory of Music director during 1928-41).

Ortmann, Otto Rudolph-b. The Physiological Mechanics of Piano Technique (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1929); paperback reprint, 1962 (Similar to entry immediately above).

Ortmann, Otto Rudolph-c. [about] “A Decade of Conservatory Activity,” Peabody Bulletin (Baltimore), Dec. 1938, pp. 33-34 (Peabody Conservatory of Music events under Otto Rudolph Ortmann as third director during 1928-41; similar to “Otto Ortmann-a,” below).

Ostrom, John H., and John S. McIntosh. Marsh’s Dinosaurs: The Collections from Como Bluff (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1966), pp. v-vi, 6-11, 28-43 (On GP’s nephew O.C. Marsh’s science career; similar to Bakker, Robert T., entry above).

“Otto Ortmann-a.” Peabody Bulletin (Baltimore), May 1936, p. 16 (Otto Rudolph Ortmann, third Peabody Conservatory of Music director for 13 years during 1928-41, was from a musical Baltimore family of German origin, studied at Johns Hopkins Univ. and the Peabody Conservatory of Music where he taught piano and harmony before becoming acting director and director. He wrote three landmark books on the acoustical aspects of music despite giving considerable time to fundraising. He strengthened the Conservatory’s music degree ties with nearby Johns Hopkins Univ. and with Goucher College, whose music department he ultimately headed).

“Otto Ortmann-b.” Peabody Bulletin (Baltimore), Fall 1941, pp. 3-4 (Similar to entry immediately above).

Owsley, Jr., Frank L. The CSS Florida: Her Building and Operations (University, Ala.: Univ. of Alabama Press, 1987). (One of the several British-built raiders sold covertly to Confederate agents and armed as raiders, the CSS Florida, under Commander Charles Maningault Morris, cost Union ships, lives, and treasure, leading to the Alabama Claims international court settlement, whereby Britain paid the U.S. $15.5 million indemnity).

Oxford University. Oxford University Calendar, 1868 (Oxford: James Parke & Co., 1868), p. 163 (Described Oxford Univ.’s honorary Doctor of Laws degree awarded to GP June 26, 1867, five years after he founded the Peabody Donation Fund for housing for London’s working poor, March 12, 1862; total gift $2.5 million, 1862-69).

Paradise, Scott H. “Peabody, George (Feb. 18, 1795-Nov. 4, 1869)” Dictionary of American Biography, ed. by Dumas Malone (New York: Charles Scribner’s Son, 1934), Vol. VII, Part 1, pp. 336-338 (Author was head of English Dept. and later President of Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass., attended by several of GP’s nephews. GP’s papers from England were first stored at Phillips Academy before permanent deposit at the Essex Institute, now the Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Mass. Paradise mistakenly referred to GP as “President of Eastern Railroad,” confusing the London banker-philanthropist with the same named George Peabody, 1804-92, of Salem, Mass., GP’s distant cousin. No French escort vessel, as reported by S. H. Paradise, joined HMS Monarch to return GP’s remains for burial in Mass.).

(Parker, Franklin and Betty J. entries are arranged chronologically by date of issue and are identified in the body of the work as Ref.: Parker, F.-a, -b, -c, etc.)

Parker, Franklin-a. “Founder Paid Debt to Education,” Peabody Post (GPCFT), Vol. 8, No. 8 (Feb. 10, 1955), p. 1 (Portrait of seated GP holding Feb. 7, 1867, letter founding the PEF).

Parker, Franklin-b. “The Girl George Peabody Almost Married,” Peabody Reflector , Vol. 28, No. 8 (Oct. 1955), pp. 215, 224-225; reprinted in Parker, Franklin-o, pp. 10-14 (On the GP-Esther Elizabeth Hoppin broken engagement. Similar to Biddle, Edward, and Mantle Field, above).

Parker, Franklin-c. George Peabody (1795-1869), Founder of Modern Philanthropy (Nashville: George Peabody College for Teachers, 1955), Founders Day Address, given Feb. 18, 1955, at GPCFT (Eight GP-related illustrations are identified under George Peabody Illustrations).

Parker, Franklin-d. “George Peabody and the Spirit of America,” Peabody Reflector , Vol. 29, No. 2 (Feb. 1956), pp. 26-27 (Photos of bronze doors with tableaux depicting the “Spirit of America,” designed by Louis Amateis, and featuring as part of the design the face of GP, among others, on right end of the transom, p. 27).

Parker, Franklin-e. “On the Trail of George Peabody,” Berea Alumnus, Vol. 26, No. 8 (May 1956), p. 4 (Why the authors did research on GP; depositories they searched in the U.S. and in England; and what they found).

Parker, Franklin-f, with William M. Merrill. “William Lloyd Garrison and George Peabody,” Essex Institute Historical Collections, Vol. 95, No. 1 (Jan. 1959), pp. 1-20 (Abolitionist W.L. Garrison’s attacks on GP, before and after GP’s death, charged GP as a Confederate sympathizer for his 1857 $1.4 million PIB gift when Md. “was rife with sedition”; for his 1867-69 $2 million PEF gift to aid public education in the South; for accepting friendly overtures from southern leaders at the White Sulphur Springs health spa, W.Va., Aug. 1869, before his death; and for deliberately drawing public attention by hurrying to die in London when his will required burial in Mass.).

Parker, Franklin-g. “George Peabody and Maryland,” Peabody Journal of Education , Vol. 37, No. 3 (Nov. 1959), pp. 150-157 (Origin, brief history, and influence of GP’s gifts to Md.).

Parker, Franklin-h. “Robert E. Lee, George Peabody, and Sectional Reunion,” Peabody Journal of Education , Vol. 37, No. 4 (Jan. 1960), pp. 195-202 (GP, Lee, former Civil War generals, and northern and southern leaders and educators met by chance at the Greenbrier Hotel, White Sulphur Springs, W.Va. July 23-Aug. 30, 1869, held informal talks on public education needs of the South which set a precedent for later similar conferences. Photos taken Aug. 12, 1869, are identified under George Peabody Illustrations).

Parker, Franklin-i. “Influences on the Founder of the Johns Hopkins University and the Johns Hopkins Medical School,” Bulletin of the History of Medicine, Vol. 34, No. 2 (March-April 1960), pp. 148-153 (Details of GP and others who influenced Johns Hopkins’ philanthropy).

Parker, Franklin-j. “George Peabody and the Search for Sir John Franklin, 1852-1854,” American Neptune , Vol. 20, No. 2 (April 1960), 104-111 (Details, motive, and influence of GP’s $10,000 gift for scientific equipment for the Second U.S. Grinnell Expedition to find lost British Arctic explorer).

Parker, Franklin-k. “An Approach to Peabody’s Gifts and Legacies,” Essex Institute Historical Collections , Vol. 96, No. 4 (Oct. 1960), pp. 291-296 (Listed GP’s known philanthropic gifts).

Parker, Franklin-l. “George Peabody’s Influence on Southern Educational Philanthropy,” Tennessee Historical Quarterly, Vol. 20, No. 2 (March 1961), pp. 65-74 (Influence of the PIB and especially the PEF on public education in the South).

Parker, Franklin-m. ”Maryland’s Yankee Friend—George Peabody Esq.,” The Maryland Teacher, Vol. 20, No. 5 (Jan. 1963), pp. 4-7, 24; reprinted in The Peabody Notes (Spring 1963), pp. 4-7, 10 (GP’s gifts to Md. Three GP-related illustrations in the article are identified under George Peabody Illustrations).

Parker, Franklin-n. “The Funeral of George Peabody,” Essex Institute Historical Collections , Vol. 99, No. 2 (April 1963), pp. 67-87; reprinted in Peabody Journal of Education , Vol. 44, No. 1 (July 1966), pp. 21-36 (Documented details of GP’s Nov. 4, 1869, death in London and reasons for his 96-day transatlantic funeral with final burial in Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Mass., Feb. 8, 1870).

Parker, Franklin-o. “The Girl George Peabody Almost Married.” Peabody Notes, Vol. 17, No. 3 (Spring 1964), pp. 10-14 (reprinted in Parker, Franklin-b, pp. 215, 224-225; reprinted in Parker, Franklin-zd) (On the GP-Esther Elizabeth Hoppin broken engagement. Similar to Biddle, Edward, and Mantle Field, above).

Parker, Franklin-p. “George Peabody, 1795-1869, Founder of Modern Philanthropy.” Peabody Reflector , Vol. 38, No. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1965), pp. 9-16 (GP’s life and philanthropic influence).

Parker, Franklin-q. “George Peabody and the Peabody Museum of Salem,” Curator, Vol. 10, No. 2 (1967), pp. 137-153 (GP’s Feb. 26, 1867, $140,000 gift to the Peabody Academy of Science, Salem, Mass., combined several inadequately housed collections: 1-East India Marine Society’s [1799] ethnological and marine history objects brought back by Salem clipper ship masters, 2-Essex Historical Society manuscript collections [1821], 3-Essex County Natural History Society collections [1833; 2 and 3 were merged as the Essex Institute in 1848]. GP’s gift attracted donated science items and manuscripts from other societies so that the Peabody Academy of Science, 1867-1915, was renamed Peabody Museum of Salem, 1915-92, and Peabody Essex Museum since 1992. Has ten GP-related illustrations which are identified under George Peabody Illustrations).

Parker, Franklin-r. “To Live Fulfilled: George Peabody, 1795-1869, Founder of George Peabody College for Teachers,” Peabody Reflector , Vol. 43, No. 2 (Spring 1970), pp. 50-53 (Portrait of GP, with Feb 7, 1867, letter founding the PEF, p. 51).

Parker, Franklin-s. “On the Trail of George Peabody,” Peabody Reflector , Vol. 44, No. 4 (Fall 1971), pp. 100-103 (Why and where authors did research on GP and what they found; similar to Parker, Franklin-e, entry above).

Parker, Franklin-t. George Peabody, A Biography (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1971). (Facing the title page is an engraving of a photo of GP holding his Feb. 7, 1867, letter founding the PEF. GP’s signature is below this engraving. The dust jacked has a profile of GP as a young man, made after an original by Gary Gore, then design and promotion manager, Vanderbilt Univ. Press. His design was awarded a Gold Medal by the Art Directors’ Club, Nashville, 1971. Revised and updated 1995 book is listed below).

Parker, Franklin-u. “The Creation of the Peabody Education Fund,” School & Society, Vol. 99, No. 2337 (Dec. 1971), pp. 497-500 (Chapter from 1971 book mentioned immediately above).

Parker, Franklin-v. “George Peabody, 1795-1869: His Influence on Educational Philanthropy.Peabody Journal of Education , Vol. 49, No. 2 (Jan. 1972), pp. 138-145 (GP’s life as merchant, banker, with focus on the influence of his educational philanthropy).

Parker, Franklin-w. “Pantheon of Philanthropy: George Peabody,” National Society of Fundraisers Journal, Vol. 1, No. 1 (Dec. 1976), pp. 16-20 (Portrait of GP in old age, head and shoulders, p. 17).

Parker, Franklin-x. “In Praise of George Peabody, 1795-1869,” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), Vol. 15, No. 2 (June 1991), Fiche 5 A02. Abstracted in Peabody Times (Peabody, Mass.), June 5, 1991, pp. A1, A8.

Parker, Franklin-y. “George Peabody (1795-1869), Founder of Modern Educational Philanthropy: His Contributions to Higher Education,” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), Vol. 16, No. 1 (March 1992), Fiche 11 D06 (GP’s life and influence as merchant, financier, and educational philanthropist in the U.S. and in England).

Parker, Franklin-z. “George Peabody (1795-1869), Founder of Modern Educational Philanthropy: His Contributions to Higher Education,” in Academic Profiles in Higher Education, ed. by James J. Van Patten (Lewiston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen Press, 1992), pp. 71-91 (Similar to entry immediately above with focus on GP’s influence on higher education).

Parker, Franklin-za, and Betty J. Parker. “George Peabody’s (1795-1869) Educational Legacy,” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), Vol. 18, No. 1 (March 1994), Fiche 1 C05. Abstracted in Resources in Education, Vol. 29, No. 9 (Sept. 1994), p. 147 (ERIC ED 369 720). (Similar to entry immediately above).

Parker, Franklin-zb, and Betty J. Parker. “Educational Philanthropist George Peabody (1795-1869), George Peabody College for Teachers, Nashville, and the Peabody Library and Conservatory of Music, Baltimore (Brief History),” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), Vol. 18, No. 1 (March 1994), Fiche 3 A10; abstracted in Resources in Education, Vol. 30, No. 5 (May 1995), p. 134 (ERIC ED 378 070). Same in Journal of Educational Philosophy & History, Vol. 44 (1994), pp. 69-93 (Similar to entry immediately above).

Parker, Franklin-zc. “Educational Philanthropist George Peabody (1795-1869): Photos and Related Illustrations in Printed Sources and Depositories,” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), Vol. 18, No. 2 (June 1994), Fiche 1 D1Z; and abstracted in Resources in Education,Vol. 30, No. 6 (June 1995), p. 149 (ERIC ED 397 179). (Description and location of GP-related illustrations which have appeared in print).

Parker, Franklin-zd. “The Legacy of George Peabody: Special Bicentenary Issue,” Peabody Journal of Education , Vol. 70, No. 1 (Fall 1994), 210 pp. (Reprint of author’s 22 articles on GP, with annotations in Current Index to Journals in Education, Vol. 70, No. 1 [July 1955], pp. 149-151).

Parker, Franklin-ze. “Educational Philanthropist George Peabody and Peabody College of Vanderbilt University: Dialogue with Bibliography,” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), Vol. 18, No. 3 (December 1994), Fiche 2 E06 (Based on talk given on GP’s life and influence).

Parker, Franklin-zf, and Betty J. Parker. “America’s Forgotten Educational Philanthropist: A Bicentennial View,” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), Vol. 19, No. 1 (March 1995), Fiche 7 A11 (Similar to entry immediately above).

Parker, Franklin-zg, and Betty J. Parker. “Educational Philanthropist George Peabody (1795-1869) and the Peabody Institute Library, Danvers, Massachusetts: Dialogue and Chronology,” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), Vol. 19, No. 1 (March 1995), Fiche 7 B01 (GP’s life and influence followed by a chronology of his activities).

Parker, Franklin-zh. George Peabody, A Biography (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1995, revised and updated). (Book has 15 GP-related illustrations, including the dust jacket, engraving facing title page, and illustrations between pp. 112-113, each identified under GP Illustrations).

Parker, Franklin-zi, and Betty J. Parker. “George Peabody (1795-1869); Merchant Banker, Philanthropist,” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), Vol. 20, No. 1 (March 1996), Fiche 9 B01 (GP’s life and influence).

Parker, Franklin-zj, and Betty J. Parker. “George Peabody College of Vanderbilt University,” Tennessee Encyclopedia of History & Culture, ed. by Carroll Van West (Nashville, Tenn.: Tennessee Historical Society, Rutledge Hill Press, 1998), pp. 359-360 (Brief history from Davidson Academy, 1785-1806, Nashville, Tenn., rechartered as Cumberland College, 1806-26, rechartered as the Univ. of Nashville, 1827-75, rechartered as Peabody Normal College, 1875-1909, supported by PEF grants, rechartered as GPCFT with campus built next to Vanderbilt Univ., 1914-79; became PCofVU on July 1, 1979).

Parker, Franklin-zk, and Betty J. Parker. “Peabody Education Fund in Tennessee (1867-1914),” Tennessee Encyclopedia of History & Culture, ed. by Carroll Van West (Nashville, Tenn.: Tennessee Historical Society, Rutledge Hill Press, 1998), pp. 725-726 (Tenn. received about 9% of the $2,478,000 distributed by the PEF to 12 southern states during 1868-97, second highest percentage after Va. The PEF also helped create the Peabody Normal College, giving it a total of $555,730, while state appropriations totaled $429,000, during 1875-1909; plus $398,690.88 in 3,645 PEF-financed Peabody Scholarships during 1871-1904. On disbanding in 1914 the PEF helped transform Peabody Normal College into GPCFT with a $1.5 million grant, which required matching funds).

Parker, Wyman W. Henry Stevens of Vermont, American Rare Book Dealer in London, 1845-1886 (Amsterdam, Holland: N. Israel, 1963), pp. 83, 126 (GP, U.S. Legation Secty. J.C.B. Davis, and Vt.-born London book dealer Henry Stevens dined Nov. 24, 1849, at Joshua Bates’s home near London, with visiting U.S. novelist Herman Melville as guest. All knew and spoke of Melville’s brother Gansvoort Melville, former U.S. Legation secretary, who died in 1846; similar to Leyda, Jay, entry above. Description of Stevens’ attendance at GP’s July 4, 1862, dinner, Star and Garter Hotel, Richmond near London, p. 251).

Parkes, Oscar. British Battleships, 1860-1950: A History of Design, Construction, and Armament (London: Seele Service, 1956), p. 136 (Parkes, authority on British war ships, attributed HMS Monarch‘s choice as GP funeral vessel to steel magnate and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie’s cable to British MP John Bright after reading of GP’s Nov. 4, 1869, death in London and his will requiring burial in Mass.: “First and best service for Monarch, bringing home the body of Peabody.” See: Carnegie).

[Parrish, Joseph, M.D., obituary] . See: English, D.C., M.D. (Author of Dr. Joseph Parrish, M.D.’s obituary described his influence on Johns Hopkins in founding the Johns Hopkins Univ., Medical School, and Hospital. See: Garrett, John Work (1820-84). Address… , entry above).

Payne, Bruce R. George Peabody; Founder’s Day Address, February 18, 1916 (Nashville: George Peabody College for Teachers, 1916). (Pres. Payne’s dramatic description based on eye witness accounts of the PEF’s founding meeting, Feb. 8, 1867, Willard’s Hotel, Washington, D.C., 10 of the original 16 trustees present: “There stand several governors of states both North and South; senators of the United States, Ulysses Grant and Admiral Farragut. Mr. Winthrop is called to take the chair. Mr. Peabody rises to read his deed of gift. They kneel in a circle of prayer, the Puritan of New England [R.C. Winthrop], the pioneer of the West, the financier of the metropolis [GP], and the defeated veteran of the Confederacy. [On] bended knee they dedicate this great gift. They consecrate themselves to its wise expenditure. In that act, not quite two years after Appomattox, is the first guarantee of a reunited country”).

Payne, M. Carr, Jr. “Remembering Doc,” Peabody Reflector , Vol. 65, No. 1 (Spring 1995), pp. 4-5 (Contribution of GPCFT’s first Pres. Bruce R. Payne during 1911-37 by his grandson who wrote: “During the 1930s more Peabody faculty were presidents of U.S. learned societies than any other institution in the South”).

“Peabody, Charles.” Who Was Who in America, Vol. 1, 1897-1942 (Chicago: A.N. Marquis, 1943), p. 947 (Charles Peabody, 1869-1939, was GP’s grandnephew, the son of nephew Robert Singleton Peabody, 1837-1904, fourth born son of GP’s youngest brother Jeremiah Dodge Peabody, 1805-77. Charles Peabody was a Harvard Ph.D. archaeologist at Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass., and a curator at the Peabody Museum of Harvard).

Peabody, Mrs. Henry Wayland. Henry Wayland Peabody (West Medford, Mass.: M.H. Leavis, 1909), p. 18 (Genealogy with Francis Peboddy, 1612 or 1614-97, listed as first of the Peabodys to leave St. Albans, Hertfordshire County, England, 1635, on Planter, for New England).

Peabody: An Illustrated Guide (Baltimore: Peabody Institute of the Johns Hopkins University, 1977), facing pp. 3, 7, 19, inside back cover (Five GP-related photos are identified under GP Illustrations).

Peabody Bulletin (Baltimore), May 1933 (About Asger Hamerik, much respected PIB Conservatory of Music director for 27 years, during 1871-98. Similar to “Asger Hamerick-a, April 8, 1843-July 13, 1923,” above).

“The Peabody Centenary,” Critic, Vol. 22 new series, Vol. 26 old series (Feb. 23, 1895), p. 145 (Some 1,800 school children listened to morning speeches in the Peabody Institute, Peabody, Mass. Afternoon speeches in Town Hall by F.H. Appleton and Mass. Lt. Gov. Roger Wolcott. Evening banquet speech by Harvard Prof. F.G. Peabody read in his absence. Messages received from Queen Victoria, Johns Hopkins Univ. Pres. D.C. Gilman, others).

Peabody Conservatory of Music (Baltimore: Peabody Institute [1957]). (History and description).

Peabody Conservatory of Music, Academic Years [current] (Baltimore: Peabody Institute of the Johns Hopkins University, 2006) (Catalog of programs and courses).

Peabody Donation (London: E. Couchman and Co., 1862), pp. 9-14 (GP’s March 12, 1862, founding letter to Peabody Donation Fund trustees for apartments for London’s working poor, total gift $2.5 million, 1862-69; press excerpts on the gift. Honors that followed included the Freedom of the City of London, July 10, 1862; guest of honor at the Lord Mayor of London’s Mansion House dinner that evening; honorary membership of the ancient guild of Clothworkers’ Co., July 2, 1862, and others).

Peabody Donation Fund-a. Leisure Hour, Vol. 15, No. 761 (1866), p. 474 (GP’s second Peabody Donation Fund, April 19, 1866, gift, $500,000); p. 477 (Described GP’s being given the Freedom of the City of London, July 10, 1862, and that evening being guest of honor at the Lord Mayor of London’s Mansion House dinner, in appreciation for his March 12, 1862, Peabody Donation Fund for model homes for London working poor, total gift $2.5 million).

Peabody Donation Fund-b. 1862-1962 (London: George Berridge & Co., Ltd., 1962). (Centenary celebration).

Peabody Education Fund. Proceedings of the Trustees of the Peabody Education Fund From Their Original Organization on the 8th of February, 1867 (Boston: John Wilson & Sons, 1875-1916), Six Volumes (Vol. I, p. vi: On March 8, 1867, U.S. Sen. Charles Sumner, R-Mass., introduced joint congressional resolution of thanks and gold medal to GP for PEF, debated and passed, 36 yeas and 2 nays, the nays charging GP with Confederate sympathy; debated March 9, 1867, U.S. House of Representatives, passed despite same charge, and sent to U.S. president, March 16, 1867. Vol. I, 151-167: Robert Charles Winthrop’s widely reprinted eulogy of GP, Feb. 8, 1870, South Congregational Church, Peabody, Mass., followed by burial, Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Mass. Vol. I, pp. 167-174: analyzed the PEF’s activities and influence on public education in the 11 former Confederate states plus W.Va., added because of its poverty.

Peabody Education Fund. Proceedings of the Trustees of the Peabody Education Fund From Their Original Organization on the 8th of February, 1867 (Boston: John Wilson & Sons, 1875-1916), Six Volumes (Continuing with: Vol. II, p. 309: described GP and R.C. Winthrop’s audience with Pope, Rome, Feb. 24 or 25, 1868; GP’s gift to San Spirito Hospital, Vatican; GP at U.S. sculptor W.W. Story’s Rome studio, Feb. 19-27, 1868; met Baltimorean J.P. Kennedy, Nice, France, March 3, 1868; visited George Eustice [friend W.W. Corcoran’s son-in-law], Cannes, France, March 16, 1868; and both were received by Napoleon III [Louis Napoleon Bonaparte] and Empress Eugénie, Paris, France, about March 17, 1868; similar to Massachusetts Historical Society Proceedings, Vol. 10 [1867-1869], pp. 339-340, entry above. Vol. V, pp. 131-132, 175, 293: a proposed GP statue in Statuary Hall, U.S. House of Representatives, U.S. Capitol Bldg., Washington, D.C., was first urged at a Va. conference of Superintendents of Education and recorded in Va.’s Superintendent of Public Instruction’s 1885 annual report. PEF administrator J.L.M. Curry tried but failed to further this proposal in other southern states, particularly in S.C. and Tenn.).

Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Mass. Fact Sheet [1993]. (Origin and transformation from East India Marine Society, 1799, Essex Historical Society, 1821, and Essex County Natural History Society, 1833, to Essex Institute, 1848, to Peabody Academy of Science, Feb. 26, 1867-1915, to Peabody Museum of Salem, 1915-92, and Peabody Essex Museum since 1992; similar to Parker, Franklin-q, entry above).

“Peabody Gets $80,000 Grant,” Vanderbilt Register (Dec. 8, 1989), p. 7 (From merger on July 1, 1979, PCofVU sought educational technology grants, faculty improvement, and contract links to upgrade Nashville and other public school systems through computer-based learning and teaching and in special education).

Peabody Hall, Univ. of Ga. See: Dissertation Abstracts International, above.

Peabody Historical Society, Peabody, Mass. [Bicentennial Calendar] George Peabody, 200th Anniversary, 1795-1995 (Peabody, Mass.: Peabody Historical Society, 1995), 28 pp. (The 43 GP-related illustrations are identified under George Peabody Illustrations).

Peabody, Joseph (d. April 7, 1905). See: New York Times Obituaries Index 1858-1968, above.

Peabody Institute and Its Future (Baltimore: Peabody Institute [1957]). (A centennial view).

“Peabody Institute, Baltimore,” The International Cyclopedia of Music and Musicians, ed. by Oscar Thompson (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1975), p. 1640 (History, description, and evaluation of the Peabody Conservatory of Music, Baltimore, part of Johns Hopkins Univ. since 1982).

Peabody Institute Library, Baltimore. Catalogue of the Library of the Peabody Institute of the City of Baltimore (Baltimore: Peabody Library, 1883-93), five volumes. (Using as models book catalogs of the NYC Astor Library and the British Museum Library, PIB librarians N.H. Morison, P.R. Uhler, and some assistants spent 14 years [1869-1882] compiling this first five-volume PIB Library book catalog. It listed some 100,000 volumes by author, title, and with many cross referenced content articles. A second catalog of eight volumes listing additional books appeared in 1905).

Peabody Institute Library, Baltimore. Mr. Emerson Lectures at the Peabody Institute (Baltimore: PIB Library, 1949) (R.W. Emerson’s second indirect contact with GP was four lectures he gave at the PIB in early 1872. At PIB Provost Nathaniel Holmes Morison’s invitation, essayist Ralph Waldo Emerson’s four early 1872 PIB lectures were: 1-“Imagination and Poetry,” Jan. 2; 2-“Resources and Inspiration,” Jan. 4; 3-“Homes and Hospitality,” Jan. 9; and 4-“Art and Nature,” Jan. 11).

Peabody Institute Library (Peabody, Mass.: Peabody Institute Library, n.d), unpaged (Six GP-related illustrations are described under George Peabody Illustrations).

Peabody Institute of Baltimore. The Founder’s Letters and Papers Relating to its Dedication and its History up to the 1st January, 1868 (Baltimore: William K. Boyle, 1868), pp. 90-97 (GP’s speech at the PIB’s dedication and opening, Oct. 25, 1866, affirmed his support for the Union during the Civil War. Blaming himself for past discord and pleading for harmony, he asked the Md. Historical Society trustees to withdraw from joint PIB administration and gave them a $20,000 publication fund).

“The Peabody Library Returns,” Peabody News (Aug./Sept. 1982), p. 4.

Peabody Museum of Salem–Essex Institute News Release, May 19, 1992. (Origin and transformation from East India Marine Society, 1799, Essex Historical Society, 1821, and Essex County Natural History Society, 1833, to Essex Institute, 1848, to Peabody Academy of Science, Feb. 26, 1867-1915, to Peabody Museum of Salem, 1915-92, and Peabody Essex Museum since 1992; similar to Parker, Franklin-q, entry above).

Peabody Reflector -a. Vol. 38, No. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1965), issue cover (Black and white portrait of GP holding PEF founding letter of Feb. 7, 1867, addressed to the Hon. Robert C. Winthrop and other trustees).

Peabody Reflector-b. Vol. 41, No. 4 (Fall 1971), back cover (Copy of a silhouette of a young GP, taken from front of the dust jacket of Franklin Parker, George Peabody A Biography [Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1971 ed. and rev. 1995 ed.]).

Peabody Reflector-c. Vol. 52, No. 3 (Autumn 1979), “How Students See the Merger,” pp. 13-14 (Details of GPCFT-Vanderbilt July 1, 1979, merger as PCofVU).

Peabody Reflector -d. Special Section, Vol. 51, No. 4 (Winter 1979), p. 98 a-h. See: “Peabody-Vanderbilt Merger Information” below.

Peabody Reflector -e. Vol. 52, No. 4 (Winter 1980), issue cover (Engraving of GP in old age).

“Peabody Students Getting in Tune for Transposition to Hopkins: Some Notes, Quotes, and Thoughts About New School,” Hopkins News-Letter, Vol. 81, No. 31 (Feb. 11, 1977), pp. 1-2 (PIB Conservatory of Music-Johns Hopkins Univ. merger terms were worked out in June 1976 and completed in 1982, with the Conservatory retaining its autonomy under Johns Hopkins Univ. management).

“Peabody Top Choice in Education,” Peabody Columns , Vol. 1, No. 7 (March 1991), p. 2 (PCofVU ranked among top U.S. graduate schools of education in the 1990s).

Peabody Trust, London-a. Peabody Trust 1862-1987: 125 Years Caring for Londoners (London: Peabody Trust, 1987). (Four GP-related illustrations are identified under George Peabody Illustrations).

Peabody Trust, London-b. Annual Report & Accounts 1994/95: Fighting Poverty in London (London: Peabody Trust, 1996). (Some 27,000 Londoners in 1995 lived in nearly 14,000 Peabody homes on 83 estates. Peabody Trust assets were £900 million or about $1.53 billion, from original gifts that totaled $2.5 million, 1862-69).

Peabody Trust Group, London-c.: Annual Report 2006 (London: Peabody Trust Group, 2002). (Peabody Trust Group owned or managed over 20,000 affordable London homes housing nearly 50,000 low income Londoners [about 59% white, 32% black, and 9% others]. These include, besides Peabody Trust Group-built estates, other London public housing units whose authorities deliberately chose to come under the Peabody Trust Group because of its efficient management, facilities, playgrounds for the young, recreation for the elderly, computer centers, job training, and job placement for its working adults). See: “Peabody Buildings,” URL: http://www.vauxhallsociety.org.uk/Peabody.html.

“Peabody-Vanderbilt Merger Information,” Peabody Reflector , Special Section, Vol. 51, No. 4 (Winter 1979), pp. 98 a-h (Vanderbilt-GPCFT merger talks during Sept.-Dec. 1978, resulted in PCofVU, July 1, 1979; some merger details).

“Pellegrino Announces Faculty Searches in Each Department,” Peabody Columns , Vol. 2, No. 45 (Jan. 1992), p. 1 (Under second Dean James William Pellegrino PCofVU new faculty recruiting was meant to help improve public schools in Nashville and elsewhere by computer and other electronic teaching and learning techniques).

Pellegrino, James. “From the Dean,” Peabody Reflector , Vol. 63, No. 2 (Fall 1992), inside front cover (Under second Dean James William Pellegrino PCofVU faculty is helping improve public schools in Nashville and elsewhere).

Penick, James. “Professor Cope vs. Professor Marsh, a Bitter Feud Among the Bones,” American Heritage, Vol. 22, No. 5 (Aug. 1971), pp. 5-13 (Rivalry, 1870s-80s, on fossil finds of dinosaurs, early birds, and early horse bones found in southwest Wyoming and elsewhere in the west between Philadelphia-born Quaker Edward Drinker Cope and GP’s nephew Othniel Charles Marsh of Yale).

Perkinson, Henry J. The Imperfect Panacea: American Faith in Education 1865-1990 (New York: McGraw Hill, 1991), p. 29 (Critical of the PEF’s influence on black education in the former 11 Confederate states plus W.Va., added because of its poverty).

Pevsner, Nikolous. High Victorian Design; a Study of the Exhibits of 1851 (London: Architectural Press, 1951), pp. 28-29 (A block of model housing for the poor was built at the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London by Henry Roberts at the suggestion of Queen Victoria’s husband Albert of Saxe-Co-burg-Gotha (Prince Albert, 1819-61).

Philadelphia, Penn., Rabbiner-Conferenz, Protokolle der Rabbiner-Conferenz abgehalten zu Philadelphia, vom 3, bis zum, 6 November, 1869 (New York: Druck und Ferfag. S. Hecht, Buch und Schreibmaterialien Handlung, 1870). (Rabbi Samuel Hirsch’s speech on GP’s life, philanthropy, and death led to a unanimous resolution of esteem for GP entered into the minutes of a national convention of Jewish religious leaders [rabbis], Philadelphia, Nov. 6, 1869).

[Phillips, Benjamin Samuel]. See: Boase, Frederic, above.

Pierce, Edward L. Memoirs and Letters of Charles Sumner (Boston: Robert Brothers, 1893), IV, p. 323, note 4 (On March 8, 1867, U.S. Sen. Charles Sumner, R-Mass., introduced joint congressional resolution of thanks and gold medal to GP for PEF, debated and passed, 36 yeas and 2 nays, the nays charging GP with Confederate sympathy; debated March 9, 1867, U.S. House of Representatives, passed despite same charge, and sent to U.S. president, March 16, 1867).

“Pierce Made Peabody ‘Shine Again.'” Johns Hopkins Gazette, Vol. 24, No. 35 (May 22, 1995). (PIB Conservatory of Music under ninth director Robert Pierce, 1983-95, faculty member since 1958).

Pinchon, Edgcumb. Dan Sickles, Hero of Gettysburg and “Yankee King of Spain” (New York: Doubleday, Doran, 1945). (Controversial U.S. Legation in London Secty. Daniel Edgar Sickles walked out in anger from GP’s July 4, 1854, U.S.-British friendship dinner, charging GP in the press with toadying to the British by toasting Queen Victoria before the U.S. president).

Plate, Robert. The Dinosaur Hunters (New York: David McKay Co., 1964) (On GP’s nephew O.C. Marsh’s science career; similar to Bakker, Robert T., entry above).

Pollard, Michael. People Who Care (Ada, Okla.: Garrett Educational Corp., 1992), pp. 12-13 (Three GP-related illustrations are described under GP Illustrations).

[Poole, Fitch]. “Notes From the Diary of Fitch Poole,” Historical Collections of the Danvers Historical Society, Vol. 14 (1926), pp. 58-59 (Diary entries of first librarian of the Peabody Institute Library, Peabody, Mass., covering GP’s death, Nov. 4, 1869, to eulogy, funeral, and burial, Feb. 8, 1870).

Pope, Charles Henry, ed. Peabody Genealogy (Boston: Charles Henry Pope, 1909), p. viii (Pope rejected C.M. Endicott’s 1867 account [which see] of the Queen Boadicia origin of “Peabody.” Pope held that when English surnames were crystallized in the 14th century, “Paybody” referred to trustworthy men who paid servants, creditors, and employees of barons, manufacturers, or public officials. They were selected by character and ability as paymasters or paying-tellers. Pope stated that the Latin motto of the Peabody coat of arms, Murus aereus conscientia sana, meant “A sound conscience is a wall of bronze,” or better, since the Romans thought of bronze as a hard metal, “A sound conscience is a solid wall of defense”).

Porter, David D.-a. “The ‘Trent’ Affair,” The Naval History of the Civil War (Secaucus, N.J.: Castle, 1984), pp. 63-74 (Nov. 8, 1861, seizure and removal of four Confederates from British Trent which caused delay in announcement of GP’s March 12, 1862, Peabody Donation Fund for London housing).

Porter, David D.-b. The Naval History of the Civil War (Secaucus, N.J.: Castle, 1984), pp. 621-658 (Chap. XLVI. “The Adventures of the ‘Florida’ [‘Oreto’] and ‘Alabama,'” Confederate raiders which wrecked Union cargo ships).

Power, D’Arcy. “Pavy, Frederick William (1829-1911),” Dictionary of National Biography Supplement, ed. by Sir Sidney Lee (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1912), pp. 84-85 (Physician F.W. Pavy of Guy’s Hospital embalmed GP ‘s remains after GP’s Nov. 4, 1869, death in London. Dr. Pavy is also known for his early investigation of diabetes).

Pratt, Edwin A. “The Conversion of Westminster,” The Monthly Review, Vol. 27 (June 1907), pp. 125-140 (Quoted Dickens, Charles, ed. “Tilling the Devil’s Acres,” Household Words [edited by Charles Dickens], Vol. 15, No. 377 [June 13, 1857], pp. 553-558, on housing and other needs of England’s poor).

“President Claunch Dies,” Peabody Reflector , Vol. 62, No. 1 (Spring 1991), p. 2 (Career and death of GPCFT’s fifth president during 1963-73).

Price, John. Homes for the People! Our Greatest Want and How to Supply It. (London: E. and F. Spon, 1874), p. 15 (On Sidney Waterlow who praised GP’s example and first proved that low rent housing could be a philanthropic and commercial success in his block of model housing opened in Mark St., Finsbury borough, London, soon after publication of GP’s March 12, 1862, letter founding the Peabody Homes of London).

“Priestley, James.” Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume 1607-1896 (Chicago: Marquis Who’s Who, 1963), p. 425 (Va.-born James Priestley, 1760-1821, was the second president of Cumberland College, Nashville, during Oct. 24, 1809 to Feb. 24, 1821. The sequence of the seven historically connected institutions: Davidson Academy, 1785-1806, was rechartered as Cumberland College, 1806-26, rechartered as the Univ. of Nashville, 1826-75, rechartered as State Normal School, 1875-89, name changed to Peabody Normal College, 1889-1909, rechartered as GPCFT, 1914-79, and succeeded by PCofVU, since 1979. For James Priestley’s somewhat different career position dates, see Ref.: Crabb-c).

Prime, Samuel Irenaeus. The Life of Samuel F.B. Morse, Inventor of the Electro-Magnetic Recording Telegraph (New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1875), pp. 630-631 (Morse replied to a toast to “The Telegraph” at GP’s July 4, 1854, Independence Day dinner for over 100 guests, Richmond near London. Speeches by U.S. Minister to Britain George M. Dallas and GP).

Pritchard, Michael. A Directory of London Photographers, 1841-1908 (Lists: Rigge, Henry [1803-?], as a London photographer, 35 New Bond St., W., who made a sepia photo visiting card marked “1861-1862,” size 2.5″x3.6/8,” of GP standing full length near draped column with his hands across his chest. This photo is marked cdv66-01 for sale by The Eastern Window, seen on Internet Nov. 1, 2003: http://www.the-eastern-window.com/EWcdv-index.html?row1col2=EWcdv66-01.html A “H. Rigge,” English, active ca. 1860s is also listed in Index to American Photographic Collections, 3rd edition, compiled at the International Museum of Photography at George Eastman House, Rochester, N.Y., URL: http://www.geh.org Information secured from Librarian Jennifer Brathovde, Reference Section, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress, Washington, DC, 20540-4730. Rigge’s birth year secured from H.Williams@nls.uk as Reference 03/2489Q, received Nov. 28, 2003).

Proceedings at the Reception and Dinner in Honor of George Peabody, Esq., of London, by the Citizens of the Old Town of Danvers, October 9, 1856. To Which is appended an Historical Sketch of the Peabody Institute, with the Exercises at the Laying of the Corner-stone and at the Dedication (Boston: H.W. Dutton & Son, 1856). See: Danvers, Mass. Proceedings at the Reception and Dinner in Honor of George Peabody, Esq., of London, by the Citizens of the Old Town of Danvers, October 9, 1856….

Putnam, Alice L. “The Peabody Celebration in Danvers. From a Letter in Possession of Col. Eben Putnam,” The Historical Collections of the Danvers Historical Society, Vol. 20 (1932), pp. 63-64. (Letter from 17-year-old Salem, Mass., school girl who described her impressions of attending the Danvers, Mass., Oct. 9, 1856, GP celebration on his first U.S. visit after nearly 20 years’ absence in London since Feb. 1837).

Putnam, Charles Gideon, M.D. For Boston physician who treated GP in 1869, see Mass. Medical Society, above.

Putnam, Frederic Ward. The Archaeological Reports of Frederic Ward Putnam: Selected from the Annual Reports of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University 1875-1903 (New York: AMS Press, 1973, reprint), IX-XIII (GP founded with a $150,000 gift, Oct. 8, 1866, the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, of which anthropologist Frederic Ward Putnam was curator during 1874-1909).

[Putnam, William LeBaron]. General Catalogue of Bowdoin College and the Medical School of Maine. A Biographical Record of Alumni and Officers, 1794-1950. Sesquicentennial Edition (Brunswick, Me.: Bowdoin College), 1950), p. 103 (Career of William LeBaron Putnam, mayor of Portland, Me., when it was receiving port of GP’s remains, Jan. 25-Feb. 1, 1870).

Randolph, Harold. “Asger Hamerik–An Appreciation,” Peabody Bulletin (Baltimore), Fall 1923, pp. 5-6 (Much respected PIB Conservatory of Music director for 27 years, during 1871-98. Similar to “Asger Hamerick-a, April 8, 1843-July 13, 1923,” above).

Range, Willard. The Rise and Progress of Negro Colleges in Georgia 1865-1949 (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1951) (On the PEF’s work and influence on black education in Ga.).

Rawnsley, Willingham Franklin, ed. The Life, Diaries, and Correspondence of Lady Jane Franklin, 1792-1875 (London: Erskine, MacDonald, 1949). (GP’s $10,000 science equipment gift for 1853-55 Second U.S. Grinnell Expedition’s search for lost British Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin; similar to Browne, James A., entry above).

Reck, W. Emerson. A. Lincoln: His Last 24 Hours (Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co., 1987) (In 1858 London barrister Tom Taylor asked U.S. Legation in London Secty. J.C.B. Davis, a GP acquaintance, to help get his [Taylor’s] comedy play, Our American Cousin, 1851, produced on stage. Actress and stage manager Laura Keene bought and successfully staged it. It played in Chicago May 20, 1860, when the Republican Party Convention in that city chose Abraham Lincoln as its presidential candidate. It was the play Pres. Lincoln attended April 14, 1865, Ford Theater, Washington, D.C., when he was assassinated).

Records of the Columbia Historical Society, Vols. 46-47 (1944-1945), p. 41 (On April 20, 1867, GP gave $15,000 to five trustees for a free public library building fund in Georgetown, D.C. In 1876 his gift became the George Peabody Library Association of Georgetown, D.C. It was later merged with the Public Library system of Washington, D.C., and still exists as the George Peabody Room of the public library of Washington, D.C., containing Georgetown, D.C., historiana).

Redlich, Fritz. The Molding of American Banking: Men and Ideas (New York: Johnson Reprint Corp., 1968), Part I, pp. xxxiii (a), Part II, pp. 70, 348, 350-353f (History of U.S. banking, including short account of GP’s career, J.S. Morgan, J.P. Morgan, George Peabody & Co., and related topics).

Reed, Charles. Memoir of Charles Reed (London: Macmillan & Co., 1883). (In London’s Court of Common Council Charles Reed introduced, May 2, 1862, the resolution granting the Freedom of the City of London to GP, July 10, 1862. He was later GP’s friend, advisor, and an executor of GP’s British estate; similar to Boase, George Clement-b, entry above).

“Reform Club, 104-105 Pall Mall, London SW1.” London Encyclopedia, ed. by Ben Weintreb and Christopher Hibbert (London: Macmillan, 1983), pp. 640-641 (GP was blackballed when he was proposed for membership in the Reform Club in 1844 by two members of Parliament. Americans then were in ill-repute after the Panic of 1837 when nine U.S. states stopped interest payments on their bonds sold abroad. Four years later [1848] he was taken into membership at the Parthenon Club without opposition and in 1850 into the City of London Club).

Reingold, Nathan, ed. Science in Nineteenth-Century America: A Documentary History (New York: Hill and Wang, 1964), pp. 236-241 (On GP’s nephew O.C. Marsh’s science career; similar to Bakker, Robert T., entry above).
Reniers, Perceval. The Springs of Virginia; Life, Love, and Death at the Waters 1775-1900 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1941), pp. 218-219 (GP visited Greenbrier Hotel, White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., July 23-Aug. 30, 1869, where he spoke to and was photographed [Aug. 12] with Robert E. Lee, other former Civil War generals, and northern and southern educational and political leaders, and where a Peabody Ball was held in his honor [Aug. 11]).

Report of the Centennial Celebration of the Birth of George Peabody, Held at Peabody, Mass. Monday, February 8, 1895 (Cambridge, Mass.: Riverside Press, 1895), p. 19 (Town Hall decoration, p. 21; speeches by Francis H. Appleton, p. 41; Mass. Lt. Gov. Roger Wolcott, pp. 67-68; Harvard Prof. F.G. Peabody, p. 73; Queen Victoria’s cablegram, pp. 74-75; Johns Hopkins Univ. Pres. D.C. Gilman’s message, pp. 64, 79-82; Reproduced train schedule, Boston to Peabody, Mass., Feb. 8, 1870, for GP’s funeral and eulogy, South Congregational Church, and burial, Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Mass. Mid-morning arrival of Queen Victoria’s son Prince Arthur and retinue, British Minister to the U.S. Edward Thornton, Mass. Gov. William Claflin and staff, Robert Charles Winthrop, former U.S. Minister to Britain Charles Francis Adams, Harvard Univ. Pres. Charles William Eliot, and other delegates. Also in Boston Herald, Feb. 16, 1895).

Reynolds, David S. Walt Whitman’s America: A Cultural Biography (New York: Knopf, 1995), p. 505 (U.S. poet Walt Whitman’s poem about GP, written amid the publicity following GP’s Nov. 4, 1869, death in London and transatlantic funeral for burial in Salem, Mass.).

Rice, Jessie Pearl. J. L. M. Curry, Southerner, Statesman and Educator (New York: King’s Crown Press, 1949) (J.L.M. Curry was trustee and second PEF administrator during 1881-85 and 1888-1903).

Richter, William L. The ABC-CLIO Companion to American Reconstruction, 1862-1877 (Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 1996), pp. 174-177 (Author showed that all northern freedmen’s aid societies found it impossible to aid black public schools in the South except through segregated schools sanctioned by the white power structure. The author thus underscored that this course was inevitable for administrator Barnas Sears to carry out the PEF’s mandate).

“Riggs, Elisha Francis,” National Cyclopaedia of American Biography (New York: James T. White & Co., 1916), XV, p. 229 (Elisha Francis Riggs, 1851-1910, grandson of Elisha Riggs, Sr., 1779-1853, GP’s senior partner in Riggs & Peabody, 1814-29, succeeded his father George Washington Riggs, 1831-81, as head of the banking firm of Riggs & Co., Washington, D.C., successor to Corcoran & Riggs, 1840-48. When Elisha Francis Riggs retired in 1896, Riggs & Co. became the Riggs National Bank, corner of 15th St. and N.Y. Ave., Washington, D.C., original site of Corcoran & Riggs).

Riggs, John Beverley. Riggs Family of Maryland; A Genealogical and Historical Record, Incl. A Study of the Several Families in England (Brookeville, Md.: privately printed, 1939). (Included family members connected with GP).

“Rinehart, William Henry,” Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, ed. by James Grant Wilson and John Fiske (New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1888), V, p. 256 (PIB Gallery of Art owned and displayed 42 of Baltimore resident sculptor William Henry Rinehart’s figures, reliefs, busts, and three marble originals, including his masterpiece, Clytie).

Roberts, Henry. The Essentials of a Healthy Dwelling and the Extension of its Benefits to the Laboring Class with a Special Promotion of that Object by H.R.H. the Late Prince Consort (London: J. Ridgway, 1862). (A block of model housing for the poor was built at the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London by Henry Roberts at the suggestion of Queen Victoria’s husband Albert of Saxe-Co-burg-Gotha (Prince Albert, 1819-61).

Robertson, Marcelle. “New Dean to Work for ‘Answers,'” Vanderbilt Hustle, Vol. 104, No. 1 (Jan. 14, 1992), pp. 1, 11 (Under second Dean James William Pellegrino PCofVU faculty helped improve public schools in Nashville and elsewhere by electronic learning techniques).

Rodgers, Charles T. (comp). American Superiority at the World’s Fair (Philadelphia: John J. Hawkins, 1852). (Ffrench, p. 242, quoted from this book that while England and France won most awards at the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London, the first world’s fair, the U.S. made an impressive showing, including the U.S. yacht America which beat the British Baltic in the first international yacht race in British waters, 1851, with the silver tankard prize afterward known as America’s cup. GP’s $15,000 loan to the U.S. exhibitors allowed U.S. art and industrial products to be seen to good advantage by over six million visitors; and his two Exhibition-connected U.S.-British friendship dinners were praised in the press).

Rosen, F. Bruce. “The Influence of the Peabody Fund on Education in Reconstruction Florida,” Florida Historical Quarterly, Vol. 55, No. 3 (1977), pp. 310-320 (Described and evaluated PEF’s work in Fla.).

Ross, Ishbel. Ladies of the Press: The Story of Women in Journalism by an Insider (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1936), “Baltimore,” Chapter XXXVII,” pp. 493-497 (On Baltimorean May Garrettson Evans’ early career as a Baltimore reporter. She attended the Peabody Conservatory of Music, reviewed musical events for the Baltimore Sun for her reporter brother, and became an early woman reporter for the Sun. She saw the need for a preparatory school for the Conservatory and started a preparatory school herself, Oct. 1894, taught largely by Conservatory staff. In 1898 her school became the Peabody Conservatory of Music’s Preparatory Dept. [commonly called “the Prep”], which grew in enrollment and prestige under her direction).

Rousmaniere, John. “The America’s Cup,” American Heritage, Vol. 51, No. 1 (Feb.-March 2000), pp. 70 (After GP’s loan to the U.S. exhibitors enabled U.S. industry and art to be shown to best advantage at the first world’s fair in London, 1851, the New York Yacht Club’s America came in first over other entries, including Britain’s Balitc, in the world’s first international yacht competition, Aug. 22, 1851, in British waters. The U.S. was jubilant over this victory, the origin of “America’s Cup).
Ruane, Michael E., “Checks and Balance Sheets of a City’s History,” Washington Post National Weekly Edition, Vol. 23, No. 40 (July 24-30, 2006), p.34 (Riggs National Bank, Washington, D.C., earlier known as Corcoran and Riggs, and later as Riggs Bank, was founded in 1836 by William Wilson Corcoran [1798-1888], financed the Mexican War—with George Peabody & Co.’s aid in London. The Riggs Bank was taken over by Pittsburgh-based PNC Bank, May 13, 2005. See: persons and topics named).

Rudwick, Martin J.S. The Meaning of Fossils: Episodes in the History of Paleontology. 2nd ed. (New York: Neale Watson Academic Publications, 1976), pp. 252-255 (On GP’s nephew O.C. Marsh’s science career; similar to Bakker, Robert T., entry above).

Rusk, William S.-a. “Notes on the Life of William Henry Rinehart, Sculptor,” Maryland Historical Magazine, Vol. 19, No. 4 (Dec. 1924), pp. 309-338 (PIB Gallery of Art owned and displayed 42 of Md.-born Baltimore resident sculptor William Henry Rinehart’s figures, reliefs, busts, and three marble originals, including his masterpiece, Clytie).

Rusk, William S.-b. “Rinehart, William Henry,” Dictionary of American Biography , ed. by Dumas Malone (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1943), XV, pp. 615-617 (Similar to entry immediately above).

Russell, John Dale. Report of the Study of Closer Cooperation Between George Peabody College for Teachers and Vanderbilt University (Nashville, May 1962) (Pre-July 1, 1979, GPCFT-Vanderbilt Univ. merger events and concerns).

Ryan, Will Carson. Studies in Early Graduate Education, the Johns Hopkins, Clark University, the University of Chicago, Bulletin No. 30 (New York: Carnegie Foundation, 1939), p. 16 (GP’s influence on Johns Hopkins’ philanthropy. Best account in Garrett, John Work [1820-84]. Address…, entry above).

Salisbury, Lynne Trowbridge. Peabody Museum of Natural History: A Guide to the Exhibits (New Haven: Yale University, 1961), p. 6 (Photo of GP, head and shoulders, in old age, and photo of Yale paleontologist Othniel Charles Marsh, GP’s nephew who influenced him to found three Peabody Museums at Harvard and Yale universities and in Salem, Mass.).

Sandburg, Carl-a. Abraham Lincoln, The War Years (Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1939), III, pp. 124-125 (Without citing proof, Sandburg wrote: “Of the international bankers Peabody & Morgan, sturdy Samuel Bowles said in the Springfield [Mass.] Daily Republican [Oct. 27, 1866, p. 4, c. 2], that their agencies in New York and London had induced during the war a flight of capital from America.” Sandburg quoted Bowles: ‘”They [GP and partner J.S. Morgan] gave us no faith and no help in our struggle for national existence…. No individuals contributed so much to flooding the money markets with evidence of our debts to Europe, and breaking down their prices and weakening financial confidence in our nationality, and none made more money by the operation.'” This charge, first made without supporting evidence by U.S. Consul General in Paris John Bigelow, was uncritically repeated by socialist historian Gustavus Myers, 1910, 1936; by socialist historian Matthew Josephson’s Robber Barons, 1934, p. 60; and in historian’s Leland DeWitt Baldwin’s Stream of American History, 1952, II, p. 121. See: “Bigelow, John…” above).

Sandburg, Carl-b. Always the Young Strangers (New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1953), pp. 260, 262-263, 269 (As a schoolboy growing up in Galesburg, Ill., about 1890, poet and biographer Carl Sandburg first read about GP in a vest pocket size pamphlet series packed in “Duke’s Cigarettes,” which he asked an adult smoker to save for him).

Satterlee, Herbert. The Life of J. Pierpont Morgan (New York: privately printed, 1937). (Written by J.P. Morgan, Sr.’s son-in-law. Useful on young Morgan’s contact with GP about 1853-58).

Schaaf, Elizabeth-a, compiler. Guide to the Archives: The Peabody Institute of the City of Baltimore, 1857-1977 (Baltimore: Archives of the Peabody Institute of the Johns Hopkins University, l987). (Seven GP-related illustrations are described under George Peabody Illustrations).

Schaaf, Elizabeth-b. “Baltimore’s Peabody Art Gallery,” The Archives of the American Art Journal, Vol. 24, No. 4 (1984), pp. 9-14 (Described the PIB’s Gallery of Art holdings, how they were acquired, from whom, and how and when displayed).

Schaaf, Elizabeth-c. “From Idea to Tradition: The Peabody Prep,” Music Educators Journal, Vol. 72, No. 1 (Sept. 1985), pp. 38-43 (Baltimorean May Garrettson Evans started the Peabody Conservatory of Music’s Preparatory Dept., Oct. 1894. Similar to Luckett, Margie H., above).

Schaaf, Elizabeth-d. “George Peabody: His Life and Legacy, 1795-1869,” Maryland Historical Magazine, Vol. 90, No. 3 (Fall 1995), pp. 269-285 (Insightful GP bio-sketch for the bicentennial of his birth, with 10 illustrations, by the Archivist, Peabody Institute of the Johns Hopkins University; adapted from her earlier PIB, Peabody News, prelude to opening of “The Prophetic Eye: The GP Bicentenary Exhibition, Museum of London, Feb. 1-July 9, 1995); see P.G., Illus. S. (Cont’d).

Schaaf, Larry J. “Mayall’s Life-Size Portrait of George Peabody,” History of Photography, Vol. 9, No. 4 (Oct.-Dec. 1985), pp. 279-288 (Philadelphia-born and London photographer John Jabez Edwin Mayall took at least one 8 ft. life-size photograph of GP. The photograph was said to have been painted over by French artist Aed Arnoult [alternately spelled Aed Arnault, no dates given; identified in one source as Queen Victoria’s portrait painter] to resemble an oil painting. The original copy, first exhibited at the Royal Pavilion, Brighton, 1867, is in the PIB art collection. Copies that have appeared in print were signed by GP in 1868, with his handwritten quotation from his Feb. 7, 1867, PEF founding letter).

Scharf, John Thomas-a. The Chronicles of Baltimore; Being a Complete History of “Baltimore Town” and Baltimore City From the Earliest Period to the Present Time (Baltimore: Turnbull Brothers, 1874), p. 231 (GP’s philanthropic example and talk with Hopkins at B&O RR Pres. John Work Garrett’s home near Baltimore during 1866-67 early influenced Johns Hopkins to write his will founding the Johns Hopkins Univ., medical school, and hospital; best account in Garrett, John Work [1820-84] Address…, entry above. Baltimore’s early history, including its eight cultural centers and libraries, 1790-1852, prior to the PIB’s founding letter, Feb. 12, 1857, pp. 280, 403, 405. GP receptions and speeches in Baltimore at Md. Historical Society, Jan. 30, 1857, and at Md. Institute, Feb. 2, 1857, before his Feb. 12, 1857 PIB founding letter, p. 552. Items placed in the PIB cornerstone, April 16, 1859: 1-Hunt’s Merchants’ Magazine, Vol. 36, No. 4 [April 1857] containing the “George Peabody” biographical sketch with an engraving of GP “engraved by J.C. Buttre from a daguerreotype,” pp. 428-437. 2-Proceedings at the Reception and Dinner in Honor of George Peabody, Esq., of London, by the Citizens of the Old Town of Danvers, October 9, 1856 [Boston: H.W. Dutton & Son, 1856]. 3-some gold and silver coins. 4-reports of the Baltimore public schools. 5-Md. Institute reports. 6-Md. Historical Society reports. 7-B&O RR reports. 8-Baltimore Board of Trade reports. 9-Baltimore city government reports. 10-that day’s Baltimore newspapers. 11-and a piece of the Atlantic Cable; p. 568).

Scharf, John Thomas-b. History of Maryland from the Earliest Period to the Present Day (Baltimore: John B. Piet, 1879), III, pp. 216-217 (Md. legislature and Gov. Thomas G. Pratt voted GP unanimous praise, 1847, for selling part of Md.’s $8 million bond issue abroad; similar to Maryland Assembly, House of Delegates, entry above. Also quoted in Baltimore’s American and Commercial Daily Advertiser, Dec. 29, 1847, p. 2, c. 3-6).

Scharf, John Thomas-c. History of Baltimore City and County, Including Biographical Sketches of Their Representative Men (Philadelphia: Louis H. Everts, 1881), p. 663 (GP’s War of 1812 veterans land bounty, application, Feb. 25, 1857, Veterans Records of the War of 1812, National Archives, Washington, D.C. Pp. 485-487, on John B. Seidenstricker who praised GP at the Feb. 2, 1857, Md. Institute for the Promotion of Mechanic Arts reception for GP in Baltimore).

Schiff, Judith Ann. “The Peabody’s ‘Bone-Digger,'” Yale, Vol. 62, No. 5 (March 1999), p. 80 [same in Yale Alumni Magazine, Fall 1999, p. 80] (On the one hundredth anniversary of Othniel Charles Marsh’s death, Yale Univ. Library’s Chief Research Archivist described his career and contributions. Marsh’s career as the first U.S. paleontology professor at Yale, an important discoverer of fossils, particularly dinosaur bones, was made possible by his uncle GP who paid for nephew Marsh’s complete education in the U.S. and German universities, Marsh’s rock collection, and book library; and endowed the Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale, Oct. 22, 1866, $150,000).
Schoch, Robert M. “The Paleontological Collections of the Peabody Museum of Natural History,” Fossils Quarterly (Fall/Winter 1984-1985), pp. 4-14 (On GP’s nephew O.C. Marsh’s science career; similar to Bakker, Robert T., entry above).

Schuchert, Charles, and Clara Mae LeVene. O. C. Marsh, Pioneer in Paleontology (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1940). (Schuchert, a successor to Marsh at Yale’s Peabody Museum of Natural History; similar to Bakker, Robert T., entry above. Pp. 70-71 has GP’s April 16, 1828, letter to sister Sophronia Peabody of poverty and beggars he saw in rural Ireland during his first nine-month commercial buying trip to Europe. P. 21 has GP’s May 18, 1831, letter to nephew named after him, son of older brother David Peabody, who died of scarlet fever before he could enter Harvard as GP intended. GP’s poignant letter begins: “Deprived as I was…” On p. 75 authors state that the Civil War stopped the sale of U.S. securities abroad from 1861 until Union victory was assured in 1864. Still, critics, without proof, charged GP with war profit at Federal expense, including U.S. Consul in Paris John Bigelow, 1862; Springfield, Mass., Daily Republican editor Samuel Bowles, 1866; Marxist writer Matthew Josephson, 1934; poet and biographer Carl Sandburg in his Abraham Lincoln, 1939; and historian L.D. Baldwin, 1952. See: “Bigelow, John…” above).
[Schuler, Hans] Who’s Who in American Art (Washington: American Federation of Arts, 1940), III, p. 573 (Artist who made GP’s bust, unveiled May 12, 1926, at GP place in N.Y.U. Hall of Fame; similar to Banks, Louis, above).

Sears, Jesse Brundage. Philanthropy in the History of American Higher Education. Bulletin No. 26 (Washington, D.C.: United States Bureau of Education, 1922), p. 91 (Praised the PEF’s influence on public education in the 11 former Confederate states plus W.Va., added because of its poverty).

Semicentennial of George Peabody College for Teachers 1875-1925 (Nashville: George Peabody College for Teachers [1925]), p. 29 (Robert C. Winthrop’s GP eulogy, given in Peabody, Mass., Feb. 8, 1870, followed by burial that day at Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Mass.).

Semmer, Blythe. “Peabody Hotel.” The Tennessee Encyclopedia of History & Culture, ed. by Carroll Van West. (Nashville: Rutledge Hill Press for Tennessee Historical Society, 1998), p. 726 (Peabody Hotel, Memphis, Tenn., built by Colonel Robert C. Brinkley, 1869, who had crossed the Atlantic with GP, probably May 1867, and named the hotel after the philanthropist).

Shelesnyak, Moses C. “The Story of Elisha Kent Kane, Surgeon, U.S. Navy,” U.S. Naval Medical Bulletin, Vol. 47, No. 5 (Sept.-Oct. 1947), pp. 86-87. (GP’s $10,000 science equipment gift for 1853-55 Second U.S. Grinnell Expedition’s search for lost British Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin; similar to Browne, James A., entry above).

Shephard, Arthur MacC. “Almy, John Jay (April 24, 1815-May 16, 1895),” Dictionary of American Biography (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1964), Vol. 1, pp. 226-227 (J.J. Almy was born in Newport, R.I., a midshipman at age 14, served in the Mediterranean [1830-32], in the Mexican War, and Civil War. Author Allen H. Welch credited J.J. Almy with the near faultless reception ceremonies of GP’s remains at Portland harbor, Me., when Almy was chief of staff of Adm. D.G. Farragut, in charge of the U.S. Navy reception).

Sherer, Robert G. Subordination or Liberation? The Development and Conflicting Theories of Black Education in Nineteenth Century Alabama (University: Univ. of Alabama Press, 1977) (On the PEF’s work and influence on black education in Ala.).

Shor, Elizabeth Noble. Fossils and Flies: The Life of a Compleat Scientist Samuel Wendell Williston (1851-1918) (Norman: Univ. of Oklahoma Press, 1977), pp. 3-7, 22-23, 64-71, 96-98, 117-123 (On GP’s nephew O.C. Marsh’s science career; similar to Bakker, Robert T., entry above).

“Sidney Lanier Commemoration,” Johns Hopkins Alumni Magazine, Vol. 14, No. 5 (Oct. 1925-June 1926), pp. 480-505 (On poet Sidney Lanier, first flutist, PIB Conservatory of Music, who also taught English literature at Johns Hopkins Univ., about 1880; similar to Kelly, Frederick, entry above).

Simpson, George Gaylord. George Gaylord Simpson: Concession to the Improbable, An Unconventional Autobiography (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1978), pp. 16-17, 40-41, 130-131, 270-271 (Life of scientist G.G. Simpson, colleague of GP’s nephew O.C. Marsh. Similar to Bakker, Robert T., entry above).

Sinclair, Andrew. Corsair: The Life of J. Pierpont Morgan (Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1981), p. 5 (J.P. Morgan’s father, Junius Spencer Morgan, was GP’s partner, Oct. 1, 1854-Oct. 1, 1864, in George Peabody & Co., 1838-64, renamed J.S. Morgan & Co., 1864-1909, Morgan Grenfell & Co., Ltd., London, 1909-90, and Deutsche Morgan Grenfell since June 29, 1990).

Sioussat, St. George L. “Notes of Colonel W. G. Moore, Private Secretary to President Johnson, 1866-1869,” American Historical Review, Vol. 19, No. 1 (Oct. 1913), pp. 98-132. (To avoid impeachment, Pres. A. Johnson’s political advisor, Francis Preston Blair, Sr.’s plan for a complete cabinet change with GP as Treasury Secty., never came about; similar to Bergeron, Paul H., ed., entry above).

Smalley, George. The Life of Sir Sidney Waterlow, Bart. (London: Edward Arnold, 1909), pp. 8, 58-59 (Sidney Waterlow praised GP’s example and first proved that low rent housing could be a philanthropic and commercial success in his block of model housing opened in Mark St., Finsbury borough, London, soon after publication of GP’s March 12, 1862, letter founding the Peabody Homes of London).

Smiles, Samuel. George Moore: Merchant and Philanthropist. Second Edn. (London: Routledge, 1878). (Career of George Moore, member of a deputation from the Fishmongers’ Co., London, who called on GP, April 18, 1866, to offer him honorary membership. GP accepted, but explained that he was leaving April 21, 1866, for a visit to the U.S. It was decided to admit him to honorary membership as of April 19, 1866, and to send to him in the U.S. the membership scroll in a gold box worth 100 guineas, or about $525. GP thus became the 41st honorary member and the first U.S. citizen to be admitted to the Fishmongers’ Co.).

Smith, E.T. Murray. The Roll Call of Westminster Abbey (London: Smith Elder and Co., 1902), p. 383 (Thinking first of a London-wide network of drinking fountains, secondly of aiding the charitable Ragged School movement, GP settled on model housing for London’s working poor, a decision reached when Ohio Episcopal Bishop C.P. McIlvaine, for GP, spoke to the Ragged School Union head Lord Shaftesbury. This noted social reformer said that the London poor’s greatest need was low rent housing. GP gave a total of $2.5 million, 1862-69, for the Peabody Homes of London).

Smith, E. Vale. History of Newburyport; From the Earliest Settlement of the Country to the Present Time (Boston: Damrell & Moore, 1854), pp. 188-191. (Great Fire of Newburyport, Mass., May 31, 1811, ruined business prospects, including the store of older brother David Peabody where GP, age 16, clerked, and the store of paternal uncle John Peabody with whom GP left in 1812 to open a store in Georgetown, D.C.).

Smith, George Barnett. The Life and Speeches of the Rt. Hon. John Bright, M.P. (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1881), II, pp. 314-315 (British MP John Bright was GP’s guest for a week in July 1868 at Castle Connell, Limerick, Ireland, on the Shannon River which GP rented because he liked to fish there).

“Smith, John Spear.” Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, edited by James Grant Wilson and John Fiske (New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1888), V, p. 588 (J.S. Smith, president of the Md. Historical Society, introduced GP to its members at the MHS reception for GP, Baltimore, Jan. 30, 1857).

Smith, William Ernest-a. “Blair, Francis Preston, Sr. (April 12, 1791-Oct. 18, 1876),” Dictionary of American Biography , ed. by Dumas Malone (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1929), II, pp. 332-334 (To avoid impeachment, U.S. Pres. A. Johnson’s political advisor, Francis Preston Blair, Sr.’s plan for a complete cabinet change with GP as Treasury Secty., never came about; similar to Bergeron, Paul H., ed., entry above).

Smith, William Ernest-b. The Francis Preston Blair Family in Politic (New York: Macmillan Co., 1933), II, p. 332 (Fuller account of the Smith, William Ernest-a, entry immediately above).

Smythe, George Franklin. “McIlvaine, Charles Pettit (Jan. 18, 1799-March 13, 1873),” Dictionary of American Biography , ed. by Dumas Malone (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1933, 1961), VI, Part 2, pp. 64-65 (Biographical sketch of GP’s philanthropic advisor who helped plan the Peabody Homes of London, 1862, an Episcopal bishop and a leading PEF trustee).

Snyder, William T., Jr. “Peabody Institute of Baltimore,” Baltimore, Vol. 36, No. 6 (March 1943), pp. 37-38 (PIB brief history, cultural value, and significance of its reference library).

Sobel, Robert, and John Raimo, eds. Biographical Directory of the Governors of the United States 1789-1978 (Westport, Conn.: Meckler Books, 1978). (Pp. 709-711: William Claflin, 1818-1905, Mass. governor during 1869-71, and his staff attended GP’s funeral service in Peabody, Mass., on Feb. 8, 1870. Pp. 735-736: Endicott Peabody, b. 1920, familiarly called “Chubb,” was Mass. governor during 1963-65. P. 1357: biographical sketch of George Peabody Wetmore, 1846-1921, London-born son of GP’s business friend William Shepard Wetmore. G.P. Wetmore, R.I. Gov. during 1885-87, and U.S. Senator, 1895-1907, was also a trustee of the PEF and the Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale Univ.).

Society for Improving the Conditions of the Labouring Classes. Plans and Suggestions for Dwellings Adapted to the Working Classes Including the Model Houses for Families Erected by His Royal Highness the Prince Albert, K.G., in Connection with the Exposition of the Works of Industry of all Nations, 1851 (London: The Society for Improving the Conditions of the Labouring Classes, 1851). (A block of model housing for the poor was built at the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London by Henry Roberts at the suggestion of Queen Victoria’s husband Albert of Saxe-Co-burg-Gotha (Prince Albert, 1819-61).

“Somerville, Henderson Middleton.” Who Was Who in America (Chicago: A. N. Marquis Co., 1943), Vol. 1 (This PEF trustee from 1890 was born in Madison County, Va., educated at the Univ. of Ala. [B.A., 1856, M.A., 1859], Cumberland Law School [LL.B., 1859], and received honorary degrees from Georgetown, Ky. College [LL.D., 1886], Southwestern Univ., Tenn. [LL.D., 1887], and Univ. of Ala. [LL.D., 1887]. He was editor of the Memphis, Tenn. Appeal [1859-62], was lecturer, Univ. of Ala. Law School [1873-90], and was Ala. Supreme Court Assoc. Justice [1880-90]).

South Carolina-a. Acts and Resolutions of the General Assembly of the State of South Carolina Passed at the Regular Session of 1896 (Columbia, SC: Charles A. Calvo, Jr., State Printer, 1896), p. 373 (A proposed GP statue in Statuary Hall, U.S. House of Representatives, U.S. Capitol Bldg., Washington, D.C., was first urged at a Va. conference of Superintendents of Education and recorded in Va.’s Superintendent of Public Instruction’s 1885 annual report. PEF administrator J.L.M. Curry tried but failed to further this proposal in other southern states, particularly S.C. and Tenn.).

South Carolina-b. Journal of the Senate of the General Assembly of the State of South Carolina Being the Regular Session Beginning January 14, 1896 (Columbia, SC: Charles A. Calvo, Jr., State Printer, 1896), pp. 6-46 (Similar to entry immediately above).

South Carolina-c. Journal of the House of Representatives of the General Assembly of the State of South Carolina Being the Regular Session Beginning January 14, 1896 (Columbia, SC: Charles A. Calvo, Jr., State Printer, 1896), pp. 12-51 (Similar to entry immediately above).

Southern Education Foundation Annual Report 1986-87. Toward Equity and Excellence; A 50 Year Commitment, 1937-1987 (Atlanta: Southern Education Foundation, 1987), pp. 8-10 (Illustration of GP in old age, p. 8; and illustrations of later philanthropists influenced by GP’s example whose gifts have aided the Southern Education Foundation: John L. Slater, p. 9; Anna T. Jeanes, p. 10; and others).

Spalding, J. Samuel. A Genealogical History of Edward Spalding of Massachusetts Bay and His Descendants (Boston: Alfred Mudge & Sons, 1872), p. 145 (After the May 31, 1811, fire in Newburyport, Mass., GP, then age 16, asked Newburyport merchant Prescott Spaulding, 1781- d. Feb. 13, 1864, for a letter of recommendation, on the basis of which Boston merchant James Reed gave GP $2,000 worth of merchandise on credit, enabling GP and his uncle John Peabody to leave Newburyport to open a store in Georgetown, D.C., May 15, 1812).

Spatz, H. Donald. “Fire Engines, Cow Pastures and Music,” Forecast! (Washington/Baltimore Entertainment Guide), Vol. 14, No. 11 (Jan. 1978), pp. 60-61 (Peter Mennin was the Peabody Conservatory of Music’s fifth director for four years, 1958-62. He left to become president of NYC’s Juilliard School of Music, where he had previously taught).

Spears, John Randolph. David G. Farragut (Philadelphia: George W. Jacobs & Co., 1905), pp. 370-373 (Adm. D.G. Farragut was ill with pneumonia when placed in charge of U.S. Naval reception of GP’s remains at Portland, Me., Jan. 25-Feb. 1, 1870, his last official act. He arrived in Portland Jan. 22 with his wife and secretary, was met by the Portland funeral committee, and was escorted to the Falmouth Hotel to rest, while Mrs. Farragut visited her son, Lt. Farragut, Third U.S. Artillery, at nearby Fort Preble. He died seven months later, Aug. 14, 1870).

Spencer, Richard Henry, ed. “Elisha Riggs,” Genealogical and Memorial Encyclopedia of the State of Maryland, ed. by Richard Henry Spencer (New York: American Historical Society, 1919), pp. 599-619 (Elisha Riggs [Sr.], born in Brookeville, Md., was age 35 and an experienced merchant when he first met 18-year-old fellow solder GP marching and drilling in the War of 1812. He took GP as junior partner in Riggs, Peabody & Co., 1814-29, moving from Georgetown, D.C., 1814, to Baltimore, 1815-29. While members of his family later worked with GP, Elisha Riggs Sr. became a NYC banker. His descendants established the Riggs National Bank in Washington, D.C.).

Spivey, Donald. Schooling for the New Slavery: Black Industrial Education, 1868-1915. Contributions in Afro-American and African Studies, No. 38 (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1978), pp. 28, 32, 37, 77-84 (Views on black education held by J.L.M. Curry, who was PEF trustee and second PEF administrator during 1881-85 and 1888-1903).

Spofford, Jeremiah. A Genealogical Record of John Spofford and Elizabeth Scott (Boston: Alfred Mudge & Son, 1888), pp. 15, 37-41, 47-48, 64 (Genealogy of GP’s maternal forebears include Spofford, Scott, Wheeler, Poor, Follansbee, and Dodge).

“SR Building to Return as Focal Point for Campus,” Peabody Columns , Vol. 3, No. 7 (March 1993), pp. 1-2 (During 1993-96 under second Dean James William Pellegrino PCofVU renovated and expanded its historic Social-Religious Building at a cost of $14.5 million to house central administration, Dept. of Teaching and Learning, and the Learning Technology Center to help improve public school teaching and learning in Nashville and elsewhere. Reprinted in Vanderbilt Register, May 3-16, 1993, pp. 1, 5).

[Standish, Paget]. Dictionary of National Biography (London: Smith, Elder & Co., 1909), Vol. 14, p. 946 (Seeking relief from gout attacks, GP fished for salmon on a lake he rented on the Standish O’Grady estate, County Limerick, Ireland, June-Aug. 1865, then believed to be managed by 4th Viscount, Paget Standish [1835-77]).

“Star and Garter Home, Richmond Hill [near London], England.” London Encyclopedia, ed. by Ben Weintreb and Christopher Hibbert (London: Macmillan, 1983), p. 812 (Set on Richmond Hill near London overlooking the Thames, the Star and Garter was the ideal place for a tavern, about eight miles from London. Several of GP’s July 4th and other public dinners were held there. Leased in 1738 from the Earl of Dysart who was a member of the Noble Order of the Garter, the Star and Garter, is variously described as “formerly one of the favorite residences of George III, as the place where Charles Dickens entertained, and from where one could clearly see Windsor Castle).

Starr, Elizabeth Ellen. “Asger Hamerik as I Knew Him as Teacher, Artist, Friend,” Peabody Bulletin (Baltimore), Fall 1923, pp. 6-7 (Recollections about respected PIB Conservatory of Music director for 27 years, during 1871-98; similar to “Asger Hamerick-a, April 8, 1843-July 13, 1923,” above).

Stern, Philip Van Doren. Secret Missions of the Civil War (New York: Bonanza Books, 1990), pp. 82, 297 (Confederate emissaries bought British-made ships and outfitted them as Confederate raiders).

Stevens, Henry (comp). An Account of the Proceedings at the Dinner Given by Mr. George Peabody to the Americans Connected with the Great Exhibition, at the London Coffee House, Ludgate Hill, On the 27th October, 1851 (London: William Pickering, 1851). (Henry Stevens, who attended this elaborate GP-sponsored dinner, was a Barnet, Vt.-born London resident book dealer, friend, and sometime GP agent. The elaborately printed book was distributed to distinguished participants and other dignitaries in London and the U.S.).

Stevenson, Burton. The Home Book of Quotations; Classical & Modern. Tenth Edition (New York: Greenwich House, 1984), p. 53, entry 3 (Excerpt from GP’s Feb. 7, 1867, letter founding the PEF).

[Stewart, Reginald-a, about]. “Reginald Stewart, the New Director,” Peabody Bulletin (Baltimore) (Fall 1941), pp. 1-3 (Son of a distinguished organist in Edinburgh, Scotland, Reginald Stewart founded and conducted the Toronto Philharmonic Orchestra, Canada, before becoming fourth Peabody Conservatory of Music director during 1941-58. He also conducted the Baltimore Symphony Orchestra, 1942-52. By employing World War II European refugee musicians he assembled the Conservatory’s largest and most illustrious faculty).

[Stewart, Reginald-b, about]. “Stewart and the Peabody,” Gardens, Houses and People (Baltimore) (April 1952). (Similar to entry immediately above).

Strickland, Walter George. A Dictionary of Irish Artists. 2 Vols. (New York: Hacker Arts Books, 1913, 1968), Vol. 1 (A-K), pp. 557-559 (Irish-born sculptor John Edward Jones made a bust of GP in 1856 and attended GP’s July 4, 1856, dinner at the Star and Garter Hotel, Richmond, near London. Also present were U.S. Minister to Britain George Mifflin Dallas who spoke and U.S. inventor Samuel F.B Morse who responded to a toast to his invention, the telegraph. J.E. Jones’s busts, including one of Queen Victoria in 1854, were exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1844 to his death).

Strouse, Jean. Morgan, American Financier (New York: Random House, 1999), pp. 1-15 (John Pierpont Morgan, Sr.’s life and financial career, with basic information about his father, Junius Morgan, whom GP took as partner, 1854. Pp. 71-72 on GP’s financial difficulties in the Panic of 1857. Pp. 278-281 described Junius Morgan’s death).

“Stuart, Alexander Hugh Holmes,” Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume 1607-1896 (Chicago: Marquis Who’s Who, 1963), p. 153. (PEF trustee A.H.H. Stuart during 1871-89 was born in Staunton, Va., was a graduate of the Univ. of Va., was a lawyer, member of the Va. House of Delegates, Va. member of U.S. House of Representatives, and U.S. Secty. of the Interior under U.S. Pres. Fillmore, and member of Va. Senate. He opposed secession and was rector of the Univ. of Va.).

Sully, Thomas. A Register of Portraits Painted by Thomas Sully, 1801-1871, ed. by Charles Henry West (Philadelphia: privately printed, 1909), p. 68 (On the GP-Esther Elizabeth Hoppin broken engagement. Artist Thomas Sully painted a portrait of E.E. Hoppin; similar to Biddle, Edward, and Mantle Field, entry above).

Sumner, Charles. “Speech in the Senate, on a Joint Resolution Giving Thanks of Congress to George Peabody, March 8, 1867.” Charles Sumner: His Complete Works, With an Introduction by Hon. George Frisbie Hoar (New York: 1900, reprint Negro Universities Press, 1969), Vol. 14, pp. 317-320 (U.S. Sen. Charles Sumner, R-Mass., introduced a joint congressional resolution of thanks and a gold medal to GP for his PEF; debated and passed that day, 36 yeas and 2 nays, the nays charging GP with Civil War Confederate sympathy; debated March 9, 1867, in U.S. House of Representatives, passed despite the same charge, and sent to U.S. president for signature, March 16, 1867).

Sweat, Joseph, “Uncommon Men,” Vanderbilt Magazine, Vol. 81, No. 3 (Fall 1999), pp. 11-15 (Founding [1875] by Methodist Bishop Holland N. McTyeire of Central Methodist Univ., Nashville, which, endowed by Cornelius Vanderbilt, became Vanderbilt Univ., led by Chancellors Landon C. Garland, during 1875-93; James H. Kirkland, 1893-1937; Oliver C. Carmichael, 1937-46; Harvie Branscomb, 1946-63; Alexander Heard, 1963-83; and Joe B. Wyatt, 1983-2000. From 1914 Vanderbilt Univ. cooperated with neighboring GPCFT, which became PCofVU on July 1, 1979).

Tapley, Harriet Silvester-a. “Joshua Silvester–His Life and Times in Danvers,” Historical Collections of the Danvers Historical Society, Vol. 2 (1914), pp. 45-46 (Cambridge, Mass.-born poet Oliver Wendell Holmes composed and read his “George Peabody” poem at July 16, 1869, dedication of the Peabody Institute Library, Danvers, Mass.).

Tapley, Harriet Silvester-b. Chronicles of Danvers (Old Salem Village) Massachusetts 1632-1923 (Danvers, Mass.: Danvers Historical Society, 1923), pp. 166-167. (Described GP celebration, Oct. 9, 1856, Danvers, Mass., on his first U.S. visit after nearly 20 years’ absence in London. Pp. 169-171: Cambridge, Mass.-born poet Oliver Wendell Holmes composed and read his “George Peabody” poem at July 16, 1869, dedication of the Peabody Institute Library, Danvers, Mass.).

Tate, William Knox. “Elementary Education in the South,” The South in the Building of a Nation, A History of the Southern States (Richmond, Va.: Southern Historical Publication Society, 1909), p. 291 (Praised the PEF’s influence on public education in the 11 former Confederate states plus W.Va., added because of its poverty).

Taylor, Hoy. An Interpretation of the Early Administration of the Peabody Education Fund; Contributions to Education No. 114 (Nashville: George Peabody College for Teachers, 1933) (Analyzed the PEF’s activities and influence on public education in the South).

“Technology Can Reconstruct Classroom Instruction,” Vanderbilt Register (Dec. 8, 1989), n.p. (From merger on July 1, 1979, PCofVU sought Ed. Tech. grants, faculty improvement, and contract links to upgrade Nashville and other public school systems through computer-based learning and teaching and in special education).

Teloh, Mary H., and James Thweatt, compilers. “Tennessee Notes: Tennessee Medical Imprints of the Nineteenth Century,” Tennessee Historical Quarterly, Vol. 53, No. 3 (Fall 1994), pp. 208-217 (Has photo of John Berrien Lindsley, M.D., p. 211, from the Annette and Irwin Eskind Biomedical Library, Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, p. 213, and lists seven publication by Dr. Lindsley).

Tennessee. Acts of the State of Tennessee Passed by the First Session of the Thirty-Sixth General Assembly, for the years 1869-1870 (Nashville: Jones Purvis and Co.), 1870. Resolution No. XV, p. 667 (“…Resolved by the General Assembly of the State of Tennessee, that, in the death of this distinguished American, we deplore the loss of a benefactor of our race, whose memory deserves to be held in perpetual and grateful reverence–not alone by those who have been the recipients of his charities–but all mankind who have been blessed by his example”).

Thayer, William Roscoe. Theodore Roosevelt An Intimate Biography (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1919), p. 4 (Confederate Naval Commander James Dunwody Bulloch, who purchased the British-built Confederate raider CSS Alabama, was the uncle of U.S. Pres. Theodore Roosevelt, who was a trustee, 1901-14, of Peabody Normal College and its successor GPCFT).

Thomas, Emory M. Robert E. Lee; A Biography (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1995), pp. 391-392, 447, quoting Christina Bond, “Recollections of Robert E. Lee,” South Atlantic Quarterly, Vol. 24 (1925), pp. 333-348 (Asked at White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., summer 1868, if he ever resented the North, Lee replied, “I believe I may say, looking into my own heart, and speaking as in the presence of my God, that I have never known one moment of bitterness or resentment”).

“Thornton, Edward (1817-1906),” Dictionary of National Biography, Supplement 1901-1906 (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1906), pp. 518-519 (British ambassador to the U.S. Edward Thornton received Queen Victoria’s approval for her son Prince Arthur, then on a royal tour of Canada, to visit in the U.S. Prince Arthur attended GP’s final funeral service Peabody, Mass., and burial, Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Mass., Feb. 8, 1870).

Time, Vol. 156, No. 4 (July 24, 2000), p. 52, “Giving Billions Isn’t Easy” (At his death on Nov. 4, 1869, news reports estimated that GP’s philanthropy totaled $10 million, largest amount given up to that time, but considerably less than the total given by philanthropists Andrew Carnegie, $4.8 billion, and John D. Rockefeller, Sr., $5.8 billion, both in 1999 dollars).

Thwing, Charles Franklin. “Peabody Museum of Archaeology, Cambridge, Massachusetts,” Harper’s New Weekly Magazine, Vol. 63 (Oct. 1881), pp. 670-677 (Anthropologist-historian Thwing wrote that the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard began the systematic study of anthropology in U.S. higher education. Frederic Ward Putnam, its curator during 1874-1909, called by his peers the “Father of American Anthropology,” wrote over 400 anthropological reports, many of them on the culture of the “mound builders,” ancient ancestors of the American Indians).

Time-Life Books. Emergence of Man: Life Before Man (New York: Time-Life Books, 1972), pp. 75-83 (On GP’s nephew O.C. Marsh’s science career; similar to Bakker, Robert T., entry above).

Towse, J. Wrench. Worshipful Company of Fishmongers’ of London (London: William Clowes & Sons, Ltd., 1907), pp. 4, 7 (GP was the first U.S. citizen and the 41st person to be made an honorary member of the Fishmongers’ Co. of London, April 19, 1866, before leaving on his May 1, 1866, to May 1, 1867, U.S. visit).

Trevelyan, Francis, ed. The Photographic History of the Civil War; the Navies (New York: Castle Books, 1957), X, pp. 288-289 (Photos and careers of Capt. R.H. Semmes and his next in command of CSS Alabama, John McIntosh Kell).

Tucker, Louis Leonard. Massachusetts Historical Society: A Bicentennial History, 1791-1991 (Boston: Northeastern Univ. Press, 1996). (Pp. 77 and 517, listed GP as honorary member, Aug. 9, 1866; and his $20,000 MHS publication fund gift, Jan. 1, 1867, its largest gift to that date. P. 537 listed tributes to Robert C. Winthrop at his death, June 5, 1894).

Tucker, Phillip B. “A Passion for the Mind,” Peabody Reflector , Vol. 68, No. 1 (Summer 1998), pp. 11-13 (PCofVU second Dean James William Pellegrino during Jan. 1992-July 1998 was succeeded in Aug. 1998 by PCofVU’s third dean, Camilla Persson Benbow, interim dean of Iowa State Univ.’s College of Education and an authority on academically talented children. Pellegrino’s six and a half years as dean are evaluated. He returned to research duties as Vanderbilt’s Frank W. Mayborn Professor of Cognitive Studies).

Tunis, Dorothy. “Muskingum County, Ohio Marriages, Book IV, 1848-1865 / Copied by Dorothy Tunis, Betty Hutchins, and Anita Rich; Proofed by Anita Rich. (P.O. Box 3066, Zanesville 43791:” Muskingum County Genealogical Society, 1983. (Marriage entry alphabetical under Chandler reads: “Chandler, Charles W. to Julia A. Peabody [GP’s niece], Oct. 16, 1861, by W.A. Newbold [?court clerk?].”

“Uhler, Philip Reese-a.” Biographical Cyclopedia of Representative Men of Maryland and District of Columbia (Baltimore: National Biographical Publishing Co., 1879), pp. 576-577 (Life and career of P.R. Uhler, the PIB’s third librarian during 1890-1913).

“Uhler, Philip Reese-b.” Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, edited by James Grant Wilson and John Fiske (New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1889), VI, n.p. (Similar to entry immediately above).

“Uhler, Philip Reese-c.” National Cyclopaedia of American Biography Being the History of the United States (New York: James T. White & Co., 1900), VIII, p. 251 (Similar to entry immediately above).

“Uhler, Philip Reese-d.” Who Was Who in America (Chicago: A. N. Marquis Co., 1943), Vol. 1, p. 1263 (Similar to entry immediately above. Also see Leland Ossian Howard’s biography of P.R. Uhler in Dictionary of American Biography ).

Uhler, Phillip Reese-e. “The Peabody Institute,” History of Baltimore, Maryland (Baltimore: Nelson, 1898), pp. 61-64 (Early history of the PIB, GP’s founding letter Feb. 12, 1857; cornerstone laid April 16, 1859; building finished autumn 1861; opened Oct. 25, 1866; p. 62: Items placed in the PIB cornerstone, April 16, 1859: 1-Hunt’s Merchants’ Magazine, Vol. 36, No. 4 [April 1857] containing the “George Peabody” biographical sketch with an engraving of GP “engraved by J.C. Buttre from a daguerreotype,” pp. 428-437. 2-Proceedings at the Reception and Dinner in Honor of George Peabody, Esq., of London, by the Citizens of the Old Town of Danvers, October 9, 1856 (Boston: H.W. Dutton & Son, 1856). 3-Some gold and silver coins. 4-Reports of the Baltimore public schools. 5-Md. Institute reports. 6-Md. Historical Society reports. 7-B&O RR reports. 8-Baltimore Board of Trade reports. 9-Baltimore city government reports. 10-That day’s Baltimore newspapers. 11-A piece of the Atlantic Cable).

United States Census (N.Y.) 1840 Index, p. 494, and U.S. Census (N.Y.)1850 Index, Vol. 1, p. 933 (Listed geologist Col. Ezekiel Jewett, living near Lockport, N.Y., who befriended GP’s young nephew Othniel Charles Marsh. Their fossil hunting in the recently excavated Erie Canal helped spark Marsh’s science interest and his becoming the first U.S. paleontologist at Yale Univ. and the second such professor in the world. GP paid for Marsh’s education in the U.S. and in German universities; similar to Bakker, Robert T., entry above).

U.S. Census (Augusta County, Va.) 1870 (p. 219, covering Staunton District 1, Va., listed Barnes Sears, first PEF administrator during 1867-80; p. 220 listed his son, Edward Dwight Sears, 1852-82, and a Mary Sears).

U.S. Govt.-a. U.S. Senate Document No. 610 (1840), pp. 174-194. (GP’s difficulties in selling Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Co. part of Md.’s 1837 $8 million bond issue abroad).

U.S. Govt.-b. Proceedings of Thirty-third Congress, First Session, House of Representatives, Tuesday, August 1, 1854 (GP won praise for his $15,000 loan to U.S. exhibitors, Great Exhibition, 1851, London. The U.S. Congress had not provided funds to display U.S. art and industrial products. U.S. Congress repaid GP three years later. Quoted in Washington, D.C.’s Daily Globe, Aug. 24, 1854, p. 1, c. 6-7).

U.S. Govt.-c. Congressional Globe, 40th Congress, 1st Session, March 4-December 2, 1867 (Washington, D.C.: Rives and Bailey, 1867), Vol. 89, pp. 28-30, 38-75, 83, 94, 108 (U.S. Sen. Charles Sumner’s joint congressional resolution of thanks and a gold medal to GP for his PEF, introduced March 8, 1867; debated March 9, 1867, and sent to the U.S. president for signature, March 16, 1867; similar to Sumner, Charles, entry above).

U.S. Govt.-d. Journal of the United States Senate, 40th Congress, 1st and Special Session (1867), pp. 6, 19, 20, 40, 45, 47, 63, and Index 228 (Similar to entry immediately above).

U.S. Govt.-e. Biographical Directory of the American Congress 1774-1949 (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1950). (Biographies of congressmen involved in above mentioned March 8-17, 1867, debate on joint congressional resolution of thanks and gold medal to GP for creating the PEF as a national gift. Also, biographical sketches of congressmen involved in Dec. 15-21, 1869, House resolution which praised deceased GP and asked Pres. U.S. Grant to order a naval reception to meet HMS Monarch with GP’s remains aboard then crossing the Atlantic from England toward a New England receiving port [U.S. representatives involved were: 1-Benjamin Franklin Butler, 2-Thomas Laurens Jones, who introduced the resolution, 3-William Henry Kelso, 4-Robert Cumming Schenck, who opposed the resolution in the belief that GP had been pro-Confederate and anti-Union, 5-Thomas Swann, and 6-Daniel Wolsey Voorhees])

U.S. Govt.-f. Biographical Directory of the American Congress 1774-1989 (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1989), p. 834. (Biographical sketch of U.S. Sen. Edgar Cowan [R-Penn.], suggested by political advisor Francis Preston Blair as U.S. Atty. Gen. in a cabinet reshuffle to forestall impeachment of U.S. Pres. Andrew Johnson. Loyalty to his old cabinet kept Johnson from this action. GP had been suggested as Treasury Secty.). P. 1139 (Biographical sketch of Md. Rep. James Morrison Harris who praised GP at Md. Historical Society’s reception for GP in Baltimore, Jan. 30, 1857).

U.S. Govt.-g. Congressional Globe, 41st Congress, 2nd Session, Part I, December 6-February 1, 1869-1870, XC, pp. 294-295 (U.S. House Resolution No. 96, introduced Dec. 15, 1869, debated and passed on Dec. 21, 1869, passed in the Senate on Dec. 23, 1869, and signed into law by Pres. Grant on Jan. 10, 1870, asked Pres. U.S. Grant to order a naval reception of GP’s remains from England on U.S. territory “with the…dignity of a great people”).

U.S. Govt.-h. Journal of the United States House of Representatives, 41st Congress, 2nd Session, 1869-1870, pp. 66, 100, 101, 103, 104, 114; and index, 1524 (Similar to U.S. House Resolution No. 96 mentioned immediately above).

U.S. Govt.-i. Journal of the United States Senate, 41st Congress, 2nd Session, 1869-1870, pp. 67, 68, 70, 85; index, 1270 (Similar to U.S. House Resolution No. 96 mentioned immediately above).

U.S. Govt.-j. Works Progress Administration. Washington, City and Capitol (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1940), pp. 744-745 (On April 20, 1867, GP gave $15,000 to five trustees toward a free public library building fund in Georgetown, D.C. In 1876 his gift became the George Peabody Library Association of Georgetown, D.C., later merged with the public library system of Washington, D.C., and still exists as the George Peabody Room of the Public Library of Washington, D.C., containing Georgetown, D.C., historiana).

U.S. Govt.-k. National Archives, College Park, Md. has the records of Joshua Nunn, U.S. Deputy Consul, London, from April 9, 1863, Vice-Consul, London, from Sept. 18, 1869, who rode in the second coach of the official horse-drawn vehicles to attend GP’s funeral service at Westminster Abbey, Nov. 12, 1869. With Nunn in this second coach was U.S. Consul in London Freeman Harlow Morse (1807-91), George Lampson (1833-99), and Henry Lampson (sons of Sir Curtis Lampson [1806-85], longtime GP business friend, trustee of the Peabody Donation Fund, London, in whose home at 80 Eaton Square, London, GP died on Nov. 4, 1869). See: Death and Funeral, GP’s. Persons named.

U.S. Navy Dept. Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Volume IV (Washington, D.C.: Navy Dept., Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, Navy History Div., 969), p. 186 (U.S. Navy ship named after Commodore William H. Macomb who was captain of the corvette USS Plymouth, ordered by the U.S. Navy during Nov. 12-15, 1869, from Marseilles, France, to join British warship HMS Monarch at Portsmouth, England, and to accompany the Monarch in returning GP’s remains from Portsmouth, England, to Portland, Maine, for burial in Salem, Mass. USS Macomb, launched Sept. 23, 1941, received 5 battle stars for action in W.W. II).

Untermeyer, Louis. The Inner Sanctum Edition of the Poetry and Prose of Walt Whitman (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1949), pp. 358-359. (Walt Whitman’s poem on GP’s death and funeral).

Vanderbilt Univ. Vanderbilt University Centennial: The Program and Addresses Given on October 3, 1975, Celebrating the One Hundredth Anniversary of the Ceremonies that Opened the University (Nashville: Vanderbilt University, 1976). (Vanderbilt Univ. history and relationship with adjoining GPCFT).

Van Deusen, Glyndon Garlock. Thurlow Weed, Wizard of the Lobby (Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1947), p. 279 (Weed was in London in Nov. 1861 as one of Pres. Lincoln’s emissaries to keep Britain neutral in the U.S. Civil War. GP introduced Weed to Sir Emerson Tennent at whose London home Weed met some British government leaders).

Van Riper, Robert. A Life divided: George Peabody, Pivotal Figure in Anglo-American Finance, Philanthropy and Diplomacy (published in 2000 by electronic publisher Xlibris, http:www.Xlbris.com). (GP’s recent biographer is described as a retired “executive in public relations and advertising” who has written two novels and two non fiction books. His GP biography lacks footnotes to show sources used).

Vaugh, Dara. “Preserving Peabody’s Past: J.E. Windrow, Whom Many Call ‘Mr. Peabody,’ now Presides over the College’s Archives,” Peabody Reflector , Vol. 54, No. 4 (Winter, 1981), pp. 10-12 (As GPCFT student, faculty member, and administrator for 60 years, John Edwin Windrow was an indefatigable GPCFT publicist. His GPCFT dissertation and book were on the life of Univ. of Nashville Chancellor John Berrien Lindsley).

Vaughn, William P.-a. “Partners in Segregation: Barnas Sears and the Peabody Fund,” Civil War History, Vol. 10, No. 3 (1964), pp. 260-274 (Critical of the PEF’s black public education policy).

Vaughn, William P.-b. Schools for All: The Blacks and Public Education in the South, 1865-1877 (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1974). (Similar to entry immediately above).

Virginia, Commonwealth of-a. Journal of the House of Delegates of the State of Virginia for the Session of 1869-70 (Richmond, Va.: Clemmett & Sons, 1870), p. 112 (After talking to Robert E. Lee at White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., Aug. 1869, GP gave Lee’s Washington College, Lexington, Va. [Lee was then its president], Va. bonds for a mathematics professorship, bonds which had been lost when the Arctic sunk off Newfoundland in winter 1854. In 1883 the state of Va. gave $60,000, the value of the bonds plus accrued interest, to the renamed Washington and Lee Univ.).

Virginia, Commonwealth of-b. Journal of the Senate of the State of Virginia for the Session of 1869-70 (Richmond, Va.: James E. Goode’s, 1870), pp. 453-454 (Similar to entry immediately above).

Virginia, Commonwealth of-c. Journal of the Senate of the Commonwealth of Virginia, Begun and Held at the Capitol in the City of Richmond, On Wednesday, December 5, 1895 (Richmond, Va.: Superintendent of Public Printing, 1895), pp. 341, 380, 392 (appended as Senate Document No. XI). (A GP statue in Statuary Hall, U.S. House of Representatives, U.S. Capitol Bldg., Washington, D.C., was first proposed at a Va. conference of superintendents of education and recorded in Va.’s Superintendent of Public Instruction’s 1885 annual report. PEF administrator J.L.M. Curry tried but failed to further this proposal in other southern states, particularly S.C. and Tenn. S.C. Gov. John Gary Evans’ annual message, Jan. 25, 1896, reported S.C.’s effort, including $1,500 appropriated).

Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond, Virginia. A Souvenir of the Exhibition Entitled Healy’s Sitters (Richmond, Va.: Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, 1950), p. 43 (George Peter Alexander Healer’s portrait of GP, made in 1854, is in the National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., with prints published in Burk, facing p. 80 and Kenin, p. 94).

Virkus, Frederick A., ed. Abridged Compendium of American Genealogy. First Families of America. A Genealogical Encyclopedia of the United States (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1987), Vol. 1 (1925), p. 691 (Listed Dr. Elbridge Gerry Little, born 1807, died 1880, married Sophronia Phelps, daughter of Thomas Peabody, father of GP).

Vital Records of Newburyport, Massachusetts, to the End of the Year 1849. Marriages and Deaths (Salem, Mass.: Essex Institute, 1911), II, p. 360 (On Jan. 20, 1814, GP’s oldest brother David Peabody married Sally Caldwell who died soon after 1815, leaving a son named after his uncle GP. Young George died of scarlet fever at age 17, born 1815, died 1832).

Vital Records of Rowley, Massachusetts, To the End of the Year, 1849 (Salem, Mass.: Essex Institute, 1929), p. 282 (GP’s parents, Thomas Peabody and Judith Dodge, were married in the First Congregational Church of Rowley, later Georgetown, Mass., July 6, 1789).

“VU’s Peabody Holds Top Ranking Again,” Nashville Banner (February 18, 1991), p. B-5 (PCofVU ranked among top U.S. graduate schools of education in the 1990s).

Wallace, David Rains. The Bonehunters’ Revenge; Dinosaurs, Greed, and the Greatest Scientific Feud of the Golden Age (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1999), pp. 24-32 , 54, 59 , 134, 173-174, 258-259 (Lives, rivalry, and influence in finding dinosaur fossil remains between paleontologists E.D. Cope and GP’s nephew O.C. Marsh).

Wallace, Sarah Agnes, and Frances Elma Gillespie, eds. The Journal of Benjamin Moran 1857-1865 (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1948), Vols. I and II (Penn.-born U.S. Legation in London clerk, 1853-57, asst. secty., 1857, and secty., 1857-75, Benjamin Moran kept a 41-volume journal of his observations of people and events at the Legation and in his London circle. Generally critical, he disliked GP [and others] but his better nature emerged in a rare tribute written after attending GP’s Nov. 12, 1869, Westminster Abbey funeral service. Benjamin Moran Papers and Journal, covering 1857-65, are in the Library of Congress Manuscript Division, with 1857-65 journal entries published in Vol. I, Preface, pp. vii-xxxiv, covering Jan. 1857-May 1861, pp. 1-812; Vol. II, Introduction, pp. v-xx, covering May 1861-May 1865, pp. 815-1489).

Wallis, Charles L. Stories on Stone, A Book of American Epitaphs (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1954), p. 5 (William Paybody, who arrived in New England with his father and sister, 1636, and lived first in Plymouth and then Duxbury, Mass., married Elizabeth Alden, third child and eldest daughter of John Alden and Priscilla Mullins. The Alden-Mullins romance was made famous in Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s The Courtship of Miles Standish., 1858. The gravestone of their daughter, Elizabeth Alden Pabodie, in Old Burying Ground, Little Compton, R.I., reads: “wife of William Pabodie, who dyed may ye 31st: 1717: and in the 94th year of her age”).

Wallis, Severn Teackle. Discourse on the Life and Character of George Peabody, Delivered February 18, 1870 (Annapolis, Md.: Wm. Thompson, State Printer, 1870).

Ward, Emma Louise. George Foster Peabody; Banker, Philanthropist, Publicist (Athens: Univ. of Georgia Press, 1951). (Distantly related to GP, George Foster Peabody was an investment banker, railroad and utility organizer, and philanthropist connected with the Southern Education Board and the General Education Board, both influenced by GP’s PEF).

Ward, Humphrey. History of the Athenaeum, 1824-1925 (London: William Clowes and Sons, 1926), pp. 195-198 (GP’s election to the Athenaeum Club, London, Feb. 3, 1863, after his March 12, 1862, Peabody Donation Fund gift for London housing, total $2.5 million, 1862-69).

“Ward, Thomas Wren (20 Nov. 1786- 4 March 1858).” American National Biography, ed. By John A Garraty and Mark C. Carnes (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1999), Vol. 22, pp. 653-654 (Salem, Mass.-born merchant banker who, while visiting England, 1828, was invited by Joshua Bates to be U.S. agent for the Barings Brothers, from 1829).

Waugh, John C. Reelecting Lincoln: The Battle for the 1864 Presidency (New York: Crown Publishers, 1997), pp. 138-139 (Characterized N.Y. Herald editor James Gordon Bennett, critical and sarcastic in reporting on GP, 1856-57, as: “The Herald was the spiciest paper in America, laced with sex, scandal, and James Gordon Bennett’s erratic opinions).

Webber, C.H., and W.S. Nevins. Old Naumkeag; An Historical Sketch of the City of Salem and the Towns of Marblehead, Peabody, Beverly, Danvers, Wenham, Manchester, Topsfield, and Middleton (Salem, Mass.: A.A. Smith & Co., 1877), p. 187 (Description of Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Mass., where GP was buried, Feb. 8, 1870).

Weed, Thurlow-a. “The Late George Peabody; A Vindication of his Course During the Civil War,” Historical Collections of the Danvers Historical Society, Vol. 19 (1931), pp. 9-15 (First appeared in:
1-New York Times, Dec. 23, 1869, p. 2, c. 3-4.
2-Boston Journal, Dec. 21, 1869.
3-New Haven Daily Palladium [Conn.], Dec. 22, 1869, p. 2, c. 2-3. Some press reports after GP’s death charged GP with Confederate sympathy for his 1867-69 $2 million PEF to aid Southern public education. GP’s friend and early philanthropic advisor Thurlow Weed, N.Y. state newspaper editor and influential politician, defended GP’s Union loyalty with specific examples, endorsed by another GP friend, Ohio Episcopal Bishop Charles Pettit McIlvaine’s letter to Weed, Dec. 24, 1869, quoted in New Haven Daily Palladium [Conn.], Jan. 6, 1870, p. 2, c. 2-3. Both told how GP helped them make contacts in London when they were Pres. Lincoln’s emissaries in late 1861 to keep Britain neutral in the Civil War).

Weed, Thurlow-b. Autobiography of Thurlow Weed, ed. by Harriet A. Weed. 2 Vols. (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1884). (Born in Cairo, N.Y., printer, editor of various newspapers including the Albany Evening News, leading voice of the Whig and later Republican parties, Weed was a political king maker, guiding the careers of U.S. Pres. William H. Harrison and U.S. Secty. of State W.H. Seward. Weed, GP’s early philanthropic advisor, suggested R.C. Winthrop as his successor in guiding GP’s PEF and other gifts, and publicly vindicated GP as a Union supporter in the Civil War).

Weisberger, William. “Peabody, George (1795-1869),” Encyclopedia of the American Civil War; A Political, Social, and Military History, Volume III. Eds. David S. Heidler and Jeanne T. Heidler (Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 2000), Vol. III, pp. 1468-1469 (Described GP’s position in the Civil War as “privately an abolitionist” who “adopted a stance of nonalignment, for he believed that the war was destroying American political and economic institutions”).

Welch, Allen Howard. “George Peabody’s Funeral Voyage: A Tarnished Homecoming,” Essex Institute Historical Collections , Vol. 109, No. 2 (April 1973), pp. 116-137 (Author, with the Mid-Continental Public Library, Independence, Mo., used original sources and has detailed insights. His four GP funeral illustrations from the Peabody Essex Museum collection, Salem, Mass., pp. 128-129, are described under GP Illustrations).

Welch, Charles. “Sir Sidney Hedley Waterlow, first baronet (1822-1906),” Dictionary of National Biography (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1901-1907), Supplement 2, Vol. III, pp. 600-601 (Sidney Waterlow praised GP’s example and first proved that low rent housing could be a philanthropic and commercial success in his block of model housing opened in Mark St., Finsbury borough, London, soon after publication of GP’s March 12, 1862, letter founding the Peabody Homes of London).

Welcome to–Peabody, Massachusetts: ‘The World’s Largest Leather City’ (tri-fold pamphlet). [Peabody, Mass.: Chamber of Commerce and Peabody Historical Society), n.d (Two GP-related illustrations are described under George Peabody Illustrations).

Wells, John A. The Peabody Story: Events in Peabody’s History, 1626-1972 (Salem, Mass.: Essex Institute, 1972), pp. 6-7, 17-18, 22-25 (Fifteen GP-related illustrations are described under George Peabody Illustrations. GP’s 1835 gift of $300 for the Lexington Monument, Mass., p. 4. Physician Andrew Nichols removed a growth above GP’s left eyebrow in 1807, p. 286).

Wells, John W. “James Hall’s Amateurs,” Earth Sciences History, Vol. 6, No. 1 (1987), pp. 34-39 (Described geologist Col. Ezekiel Jewett who about 1845 collected fossils with GP’s nephew Othniel Charles Marsh, then about age 14, around Lockport, N.Y., and first interested young Marsh toward science and paleontology).

West, Earle W.-a. “The Life and Educational Contributions of Barnas Sears” (Ph. D., George Peabody College for Teachers, 1961) (On Sears’s life and work, especially as the PEF’s first administrator, 1867-80). Also listed in References a: Doctoral dissertations.

West, Earle W.-b. “The Peabody Fund and Negro Education, 1867-1880,” History of Education Quarterly, Vol. 6, (Summer 1966), pp. 3-21 (Critical of the PEF’s activities and influence on black public education in the South).

Wheeler, Joseph L. “Mayer, Brantz (Sept. 27, 1809-Feb. 23, 1879),” Dictionary of American Biography , ed. by Dumas Malone (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1933, 1961), VI, Part 2, p. 449 (Branz Mayer was president of the Md. Historical Society, Baltimore, when he wrote in 1870 after GP’s death: “George Peabody’s fame or ignominy lies with the men and their successors who guide and direct his philanthropic bounty. If they catch his vision they will elevate the race. If they fail they doom his substance and memory to ruin and ignominy”).

Whipple, G.M., and A.A. Smith. Harmony Grove Cemetery (Salem, Mass.: Salem Observer Press, 1866), p. 61 (Peabody family plot, Anemone Ave., lot number 51, Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Mass.).

“Whipple, Henry Benjamin.” Columbia Encyclopedia/, Third Edition. Ed. by William Bridgwater and Seymour Kurtz. (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1964), p. 2317 (Episcopal Bishop of Minn., and a PEF trustee).

White, Alden Pereley. “Peabody: A Retrospect from the Viewpoint of His Birthplace,” The Historical Collections of the Danvers Historical Society, Vol. 13 (1925), p. 13 (Robert C. Winthrop’s GP eulogy, South Congregational Church, Peabody, Mass., Feb. 8, 1870, and burial that day at Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Mass.).

White, Andrew Dickson. Autobiography of Andrew Dickson White/ (New York: Century Co., 1906), II, pp. 424-426 (A.D. White, Cornell Univ. president, related comical account he heard from sculptor W.W. Story: R.C. Winthrop introduced GP to Pope Pius IX, Feb. 24 or 25, 1868, “as a gentleman who though unmarried, had hundreds of children; whereupon the Pope, taking him literally, held up his hands and answered, ‘Fi donc! Fi donc!'”[French expression of disapproval]).

White, Edward Lucas. “Reminiscences of Sidney Lanier,” Johns Hopkins Alumni Magazine, Vol. 17, No. 4 (Nov. 1928-June 1929), pp. 329-331 (On poet Sidney Lanier, first flutist, PIB Conservatory of Music, who also taught English literature at Johns Hopkins Univ., about 1880; similar to Kelly, Frederick, entry above).

White, Robert H. Messages of the Governors of Tennessee 1869-1883. Vol. Six (Nashville: Tennessee Historical Commission, 1963), p. 428 (In 1909, on retiring as Peabody Normal College’s third president, former Tenn. Gov. James Davis Porter told how first PEF Administrator Barnas Sears asked his help, just after Porter’s inauguration as Tenn. governor, to secure buildings in Nashville to create the Peabody Normal College. Porter successfully contacted trustees and legislators who amended the Univ. of Nashville charter to transform its moribund “Literary Dept.” into State Normal School [1875-89], renamed Peabody Normal College [1889-1909]).

Whitehill, Walter Muir. “Museums,” Dictionary of American History. Rev. ed. (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1976), IV, p. 436 (Museum historian wrote that GP’s Peabody Academy of Science, founded Feb. 26, 1867, $140,000, renamed the Peabody Museum of Salem [1915-92] and the Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Mass., since 1992, is the oldest museum in continuous operation in the United States, having perpetuated the collections of the East India Marine Society, founded in 1799).

Whittier, John Greenleaf. The Poetical Works of John Greenleaf Whittier (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1892), IV, pp. 188-189 (John Greenleaf Whittier later wrote that he would not have written “Memorial Hymn,” a poem read Jan. 8, 1868, at the dedication of Memorial Church, Georgetown, Mass., GP built in his mother’s memory in her hometown, had he known of GP’s condition, that the church “exclude political and other subjects not in keeping with its religious purpose.” See: Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, entry above).

Wilcoxon, Hardy C. “Continuing Our Mission,” Peabody Reflector , Vol. 52, No. 2 (Summer 1979), pp. 2-3 (Aftermath of GPCFT-Vanderbilt July 1, 1979, merger by acting dean of PCofVU).

“William Shepard Wetmore.” Representative Men and old Families of Rhode Island: Genealogical Records and Historical Sketches of Prominent and Representative Citizens and of Many of the Old Families…(Chicago: J.H. Beers & Co., 1908), p. 25 (GP’s close commercial friend who retired to a palatial Newport, R.I., home where he gave an Aug. 10, 1857, elaborate farewell banquet nine days before GP’s Aug. 19, 1857, NYC departure and return to England. W.S. Wetmore was the father of George Peabody Wetmore, R.I. governor, U.S. senator, and trustee of PEF and the Peabody Museum of Yale).

Williams, David A. “George Peabody,” McGraw Hill Encyclopedia of World Biography (New York: McGraw Hill Book Co., 1973), VIII, p. 334 (Has engraving of GP in mid life, from the Library of Congress).

Williams, Harold A. Robert Garrett & Sons Incorporated: Origin and Development: 1840-1965 (Baltimore: 1965), pp. 27, 30, 32-33, 52-53, 56, 65 (Described GP’s direct influence on Johns Hopkins’ philanthropy during GP’s 1866-67 U.S. visit [see Garrett, John Work (1820-84). Address…, entry above] and the placing of a copy of W.W. Story’s London seated GP statue in front of the PIB in 1890).

Willis, William. Guide Book for Portland and Vicinity… (Portland, Me.: B. Thurston & J.F. Richardson, 1859). (Author was prominent Portland, Me., lawyer, state senator, Portland, Me., mayor [1857], historian, and businessman. He was pallbearer of GP’s remains, Feb. 1, 1870, the day they were taken from Portland by train to Peabody, Mass. William Willis’s diary, now in the Portland, Me., public library archives, commented on the Portland reception of GP’s remains).

Willoughby, Charles G. “The Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University,” Harvard Graduates’ Magazine, Vol. 31, No. 124 (June 1923), pp. 495-503 (Anthropologist-historian Willoughby wrote that the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard began the systematic study of anthropology in U. S. higher education. Pre-Columbian life in North America was largely unexplored; existing collections were slight and fragmentary. Frederic Ward Putnam, its curator during 1874-1909, called by his peers the “Father of American Anthropology,” wrote over 400 anthropological reports, many of them on the culture of the “mound builders,” ancient ancestors of the American Indians).

Willoughby, Ernest. “The Peabody Museum at New Haven,” Science, Vol. 5, No. 103 (Jan. 23, 1885), pp. 67-72 (Yale’s Peabody Museum: origin, growth, work, and influence in natural science).

Wills, Ridley, II. “Montgomery Bell Academy,” Tennessee Encyclopedia of History & Culture, ed. by Carroll Van West (Nashville: Tennessee Historical Society, Rutledge Hill Press, l998), p. 638 (Still existing Montgomery Bell Academy was founded in 1867 as the Univ. of Nashville’s preparatory dept., named after Tenn. ironmaster Montgomery Bell who left $20,000 for a boys’ school in his will).

Wilson, Charles Reagan, and William Ferris, eds. Encyclopedia of Southern Culture. 2 vols. (New York, Doubleday Anchor Books, 1989), I, pp. 158-159 (On photographer George Smith Cook who photographed GP, probably Aug. 1869).

“Wilson, John Morrillyon.” Dictionary of National Biography, ed. by Sir Lesley Stephen and Sir Sidney Lee (London: Oxford University Press, 1921-22), Vol. XXI, pp. 588-589 (Thurlow Weed was in London in Nov. 1861 as one of Pres. Lincoln’s emissaries to keep Britain neutral in the U.S. Civil War. GP introduced Weed to Sir James Emerson Tennent at whose London home Weed met some British government leaders, among them a Maj. Gen. Sir John Wilson, believed to be John Morrillyon Wilson. See: annotation for Glyndon Garlock Van Deusen’s book above).

Wilson, Philip Whitwell. George Peabody, Esq., An Interpretation (Nashville: George Peabody College for Teachers, 1926), p. 45 (Getting the Duke of Wellington to attend as honored guest at GP’s first large-scale U.S.-British July 4, 1851, friendship dinner, Willis’s Rooms, London, in connection with the Great Exhibition of 1851, made it a huge success, attracted a good press, marked GP’s social emergence, and the next year, 1852, his philanthropic emergence in establishing his first Peabody Institute Library. On p. 49 is a story connected with GP’s $10,000 gift for scientific equipment to the Second U.S. Grinnell Expedition’s [1853-55] unsuccessful search for lost British Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin. The British Resolute, ice-bound in its search for Franklin, was found by a U.S. whaler; was bought, repaired, and returned as a gift by the U.S. government to Britain. When the Resolute was broken up, a desk was made of its timbers which Queen Victoria gave as a gift to the U.S. government. The desk, found in a White House storeroom by Jacqueline Kennedy and used by Pres. John F. Kennedy, was often photographed with their son playing under it). See: Peabody, George, Biographies.

Windrow, John E., ed. Peabody and Alfred Leland Crabb: The Story of Peabody as Reflected in Selected Writings of Alfred Leland Crabb(Nashville: Williams Press, 1977). (Windrow, longtime GPCFT faculty member and administrator, reprinted his senior colleague and doctoral advisor Alfred Leland Crabb’s writings on GPCFT history. U.S. Gen. and seventh U.S. Pres. Andrew Jackson was trustee during 1792-1845 of Davidson Academy and its successor institutions Cumberland College and the Univ. of Nashville. The Univ. of Nashville’s charter was revised in 1875 so that its moribund Literary Dept. could be transformed into Peabody Normal College, then GPCFT, and PCofVU since 1979, p. 29. James Priestley was Cumberland College’s second president, Oct. 24, 1809-Feb. 24, 1821, pp. 267-273).

Windrow, John Edwin. See: “John Edwin Windrow (1899-1984),”

Winthrop, Robert Charles-a. Addresses and Speeches on Various Occasions (Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1879), II, pp. 312-315 (In June-early July 1866 Winthrop consulted with and reported back to GP the general approval of Harvard Univ. scientist Louis Agassiz and former Harvard Pres. James Walker to GP’s intended $150,000 gift which founded the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard, Oct. 8, 1866; it greatly advanced the study of anthropology in the U.S.).

Winthrop, Robert Charles-b. Eulogy, Pronounced at the Funeral of George Peabody, at Peabody, Massachusetts, 8 February, 1870 (Boston: John Wilson & Son, 1870), pp. 21-22 (Winthrop told of GP’s last words and death as related to him by Ohio Bishop Charles Pettit McIlvaine, who had the details from his daughter who was at GP’s deathbed, 80 Eaton Sq., London. Winthrop’s widely reprinted eulogy was given at South Congregational Church, Peabody, Mass., followed by burial in Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Mass.).

Winthrop, Robert Charles-c. Reminiscences of Foreign Travel; a Fragment of Autobiography (Boston: John Wilson & Son, 1894), pp. 97, 100 (GP and R.C. Winthrop’s audience with Pope, Rome, Feb. 24 or 25, 1868; GP’s gift to San Spirito Hospital, Rome; GP at U.S. sculptor W.W. Story’s Rome studio, Feb. 19-27, 1868; met Baltimorean J.P. Kennedy, Nice, France, March 3, 1868; visited George Eustice [friend W.W. Corcoran’s son-in-law], Cannes, France, March 16, 1868; and both were received by Napoleon III [Louis Napoleon Bonaparte] and Empress Eugénie, Paris, France, about March 17, 1868; similar to Massachusetts Historical Society Proceedings, Vol. 10 [1867-1869], pp. 339-340, entry above).

Wish, Harvey-a. Society and Thought in Modern America (New York: Longmans Green & Co., 1952), II, p. 37 (Praised the PEF’s influence on public education in the 11 former Confederate states plus W.Va., added because of its poverty).

“Wish, Harvey-b.” Who Was Who in America with World Notables (Chicago: Marquis Who’s Who, 1973), Vol. V (1969-1973) (Biographical sketch of historian; similar to entry immediately above).

Wooldridge, J., ed. History of Nashville, Tenn.,… (Nashville: Published for H.W. Crew by Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 1890, reprinted by Charles Elder, Nashville, n.d.), pp. 89, 776 (On Davidson Academy, pp. 96, 379; Davidson College proposed by Tenn. legislature Oct. 2, 1803, and declined by Davidson Academy trustees Jan. 19, 1804, pp. 89, 381, 385; Cumberland College, pp. 387, 615-619; Univ. of Nashville, pp. 379-380, 465; on Thomas B. Craighead, pp. 386, 615-619; Philip Lindsley, pp. 531-532; and J. Berrien Lindsley, M.D.).

Wrege, Charles D. “J.W. Starr: Cincinnati’s Forgotten Genius,” Cincinnati Historical Society Bulletin, Vol. 34, No. 2. (Summer 1976), pp. 102-122 (Carefully researched, near-definitive article, on John Wellington Starr of Cincinnati, Ohio, inventor of a light source [bulb] powered by electricity. Starr perfected his invention in England where his lawyer, Edward Augustin King, Warwick St., Charing Cross, London, obtained for Starr [but in King’s name] English Patent No.10,919 in London in 1845. GP, among others, was allegedly asked to finance the invention. Starr’s death on Nov. 21, 1846, Birmingham, England [where he was buried, Nov. 24, 1856] halted exploitation of his invention, perfected in 1879 By Thomas Alva Edison [1847-1931]. See: persons named.

Wunder, Richard P. Hiram Powers: Vermont Sculptor, 1805-73 (Newark : University of Delaware Press ; London ; Cranbury, N.J. : Associated University Presses, 1989-1991). 2 Vols. (GP aided Powers in mail, materials, and funds for his Florence, Italy, studio; and helped sell and collect for Powers The Greek Slave, They had a falling out over Powers busts of GP. Note: Page. 319 photo figure described as GP is not GP but another person).

(References Cont’d.

a. Doctoral dissertations and master’s theses in U.S. library depositories.

b. U.S. library unpublished letters and documents.

c. British library unpublished letters and documents.

d. Canadian newspaper.

e. U.S. newspapers (alphabetically by state and city).

f. British newspapers (alphabetically by country and city).

g. Internet (World Wide Web).

a. Doctoral dissertations and master’s theses in U.S. library depositories.

Brouilette, Joseph Walter. “The Third Phase of the Peabody Education Fund, 1904-1914” (Ph.D., George Peabody College for Teachers, 1940). (Analyzed the PEF’s activities and influence on public education in the 11 former Confederate states plus W.Va., added because of its poverty).

Carson, Suzanne Catherine. “J.L.M. Curry; Administrator of the Peabody Education Fund” (M.A., Johns Hopkins University, 1948). (Second PEF Administrator during 1881-85 and 1888-1903. During 1885-88, as U.S. Minister to Spain, his PEF replacement was Samuel Abbott Green).

Cullum, Edward Neely. “George Peabody College for Teachers, 1914-1937” (Ed.D., George Peabody College for Teachers, 1963). (Early history of GPCFT under its first Pres. Bruce R. Payne).

Drake, Thomas Michael. “The Impact of the Peabody Education Fund on the Development of Tax-Supported Education in Tennessee, 1867-1880” (Ed.D., Tennessee State University, 1990). (The PEF’s activities and influence on public education in Tenn.).

Kahn, Roseann. “A History of the Peabody Institute Library, Baltimore, Maryland, 1857-1916” (Master’s thesis, Catholic University of America, 1953), published as ACRL Microcard Series No. 16 (Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press for the Association of College and Reference Libraries, 1954), pp. 2-4. (On the PIB’s founding, Feb. 12, 1857, Baltimore had no library significantly superior to its libraries of 50 years before. Described eight Baltimore cultural centers and libraries, 1790-1852, before the 1857 PIB).

Kasprzak, John F. “George Peabody and the Peabody Education Fund: A Study in Reconciliation” (Master’s thesis, American University, June 1966). (Analyzed the PEF’s work and influence on public education in the 11 former Confederate states plus W.Va., added because of its poverty).

Lester, Noel K. “Richard Franko Goldman: His Life and Works” (Doctor of Musical Arts, Peabody Conservatory of Music of The Johns Hopkins University, 1984). (Goldman was the seventh PIB Conservatory of Music director during 1968-77 and oversaw its merger with Johns Hopkins Univ., completed in 1982).

Lewis, William J. “The Educational Speaking of Jabez L.M. Curry” (Ph.D., Univ. of Florida, 1955). (A persuasive speaker, J.L.M. Curry, as trustee and second PEF administrator during 1881-85 and 1888-1903, was a vibrant crusader for public education in the South).

Parker, Franklin. “George Peabody, Founder of Modern Philanthropy” (Ed.D., George Peabody College for Teachers, 1956). (Three volumes, 1219 pp., available as Doctoral Dissertation No. 19,758, from University Microfilms, 300 N. Zeeb Rd., Ann Arbor, Mich. 48106-1346. Copies are also in major Peabody Institute libraries and in other libraries listed in these two Library of Congress indexes: 1-National Union Catalog, Author List [N.Y.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1963], Vol. 35, p. 146; and in 2-National Union Catalog, Author List [Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1964)], Vol. 4, p. 615).

Peck, Richard Connelly. “Jabez Lamar Monroe Curry, Educational Crusader” (Ph.D., George Peabody College for Teachers, 1942). (Curry’s life and career, especially as PEF trustee and second PEF administrator during 1881-85 and 1888-1903).

Roberts, Edward Bane. “The Administration of the Peabody Education Fund from 1880 to 1905” (Ph.D., George Peabody College for Teachers, 1936). (Covers PEF events under second administrator J.L.M. Curry).

Robinson, Ray Edwin. “A History of the Peabody Conservatory of Music” (Doctor of Music Education, Indiana University, 1969). (Raymond Edwin Robinson was Peabody Conservatory of Music’s dean, 1963-67, acting director, 1967-68, then Westminster Choir College president, and distinguished music professor, Palm Beach Atlantic Univ., Fla.).

Turner, Howard. “Robert M. Lusher, Louisiana Educator” (Ph.D., Louisiana State University, 1944). (La. educator who cooperated with the PEF).

West, Earle W. “The Life and Educational Contributions of Barnas Sears” (Ph.D., George Peabody College for Teachers, 1961). (Mass.-born, Brown Univ. graduate and its president, 1855-67, graduate of Newton Theological Seminary, later a professor there and its president, an ordained Baptist minister, professor at what is now Colgate Univ., N.Y., a student in German universities, Horace Mann’s successor as Mass. School Board Secty., and the first PEF administrator during 1867-80).

b. U.S. libraries: unpublished letters and documents.

A. Boston Public Library, Manuscript Collection. GP Papers (including GP’s April 16, 1828, letter to a sister describing his first transatlantic crossing and seasickness on the Florida).

B. Chicago Historical Society. Horace Greeley Collections (GP’s Aug. 24, 1852, letter to NYC Tribune editor Horace Greeley).

C. Cornell Univ. Library, Ithaca, N.Y. The Ezra Cornell (1807-74) papers have some letters pertaining to GP.

D. Enoch Pratt Free Library, Baltimore, Md. Room, 400 Cathedral St., Baltimore, Md. 21201-4484 (GP news clipping albums).

E. Greenbrier Hotel Archives, White Sulphur Springs, W.Va. (Newspaper and other records of GP’s July 23-Aug. 30, 1869, visit with Robert E. Lee and others. Records, papers, and “Memoir” of John Jennings Moorman, M.D., resident physician who attended GP and published his 1869 interview with GP).

F. Harvard Univ., Cambridge, Mass. (Alumni Office has records of GP’s nephews and other GP-connected persons who attended as students. See: also Z., below, Harvard’s Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology archives).

G. Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Phila. 1-James Buchanan Papers. 2-GP Papers.

Ha. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., has references to GP in the following papers: 1-William Wilson Corcoran Papers. Controversy over Robert E. Lee’s attendance at GP’s final funeral service, Peabody, Mass., and burial, Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Mass., Feb. 8, 1870. Invitation to GP’s funeral by Committee on Invitation, Peabody, Mass., to William Wilson Corcoran, no date, Corcoran Papers XVI, Accession No. 105113, also quoted in Corcoran, pp. 310-311.

Hb. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 2-Hamilton Fish Papers. “Correspondence of Hamilton Fish,” LXVII (Jan. 6-Feb. 22, 1870), Accession Nos. 9512, 9513, 9514, and 9517: Charles Pettit McIlvaine and Robert Charles Winthrop, both Brookline, Mass., to Hamilton Fish, Feb. 2, 1870 (Described Portland, Me., naval reception of GP’s remains and lying in state, Portland City Hall, Jan. 25-Feb. 1, 1870. In view of anticipated British representation of Prince Arthur, British ambassador to the U.S., and others, both expressed concern at lack of U.S. government representation at GP’s final funeral service and burial, Feb. 8, 1870, Peabody and Salem, Mass.).

Hc. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 3-Garrett Family Papers. 4-Andrew Johnson Papers (To avert impending impeachment proceedings, Francis Preston Blair, Sr.’s Feb. 12 and 24, 1867, letters to Pres. Andrew Johnson suggested a complete change of cabinet officers with GP as Treasury Secty. Loyalty to his cabinet kept Johnson from this course. Letters quoted in Oberholtzer, I, pp. 469-470).

Hd. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 5-William Dawson Johnson Papers. William Dawson Johnson, “Peabody Library” (On April 20, 1867, GP gave $15,000 to five trustees for a free public library building fund in Georgetown, D.C. In 1876 his gift became the George Peabody Library Association of Georgetown, D.C. It was later merged with the Public Library system of Washington, D.C., and still exists as the George Peabody Room of the public library of Washington, D.C., containing Georgetown, D.C., historiana); also quoted in District of Columbia, Board of Trustees of Public Schools. Second Report of the Board of Trustees of the Public Schools of the District of Columbia, 1875-1876 (Washington, D.C.: R. Beresford, 1877), pp. 62-66.

He. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 6-Benjamin Moran Papers and Journal (41 volumes covering 1857-65, of U.S. Legation Secty. in London Benjamin Moran’s Journal, partly published in Sarah Agnes Wallace and Frances Elma Gillespie, eds., The Journal of Benjamin Moran, 1857-1865 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1948), I and II. 7-GP Papers. 8-Riggs Family Papers.

I. Maine Historical Society, Portland, Maine. Documents on the Portland, Me., reception of GP’s remains, Jan. 25-Feb. 1, 1870.

J. Maine State Library, Augusta, Maine. 1-Maine, State of, General Order No. 6, Dec. 18, 1869 (Recorded preliminary plans to receive GP’s remains from HMS Monarch at Portland harbor; also quoted in Boston Daily Advertiser, Dec. 23, 1869, p. 2, c. 3; and Hampshire Telegraph (Portsmouth, England), Jan. 8, 1870, p. 4, c. 3. 2-Maine, State of, Executive Council, “Register of the Council,” XXXIV (1870), pp. 110, 180-18l, 314, 318-319, 598-599, Maine State Library, Augusta (cost of GP’s funeral to the state of Maine was $2,802.80, of the total known $8,496.30 funeral cost, plus unknown U.S. government and British government costs).

K. Maryland Historical Society, 201 West Monument St., Baltimore, Md. 21201. 1-Jerome Bonaparte Papers. 2-Corner Collection (GP’s relation with Thurlow Weed). 3-John Pendleton Kennedy Papers. 4-GP Papers. 5-Prints and Photographs Division (Has extensive photos and prints of GP, including 1866 photo of GP and various dignitaries on the steps of the PIB watching parade in GP’s honor. Also has photos of PIB).

La. Maryland State Library, Annapolis, Md. 1-Laws Made and Passed by the General Assembly of the State of Maryland,… Monday, 28th day of December, 1835, and Ended on Monday the 4th day of April, 1836… (Authorizing Md.’s $8 million bond issue for internal improvements). 2-Annual Message of the Executive (Governor Thomas G. Pratt) to the General Assembly of Maryland, December Session, 1847, Document A, p. 11 (Reported GP’s service as Md.’s fiscal agent in selling Md.’s bonds abroad during financial Panic of 1837 stoppage of interest payments).

Lb. Maryland State Library, Annapolis, Md. 3-Journal of Proceedings of the House of Delegates of the State of Maryland, 1847 (Unanimous praise voted to GP for selling Md.’s bonds abroad under difficult conditions). 4-Journal of the Proceedings of the House of Delegates of Maryland. January Session, 1870…. (Md.’s resolutions of praise on GP’s death).

M. Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston. 1-GP Papers. 2-Horatio Gates Somerby Papers. 3-Robert Charles Winthrop Papers.

N. Morgan Guaranty Trust Company of New York. 1-John Pierpont Morgan, Jr.’s “Reminiscences,” March 1938, with copy also in Deutsche Morgan Grenfell, London; mentioned in Frederick Lewis Allen, The Great Pierpont Morgan (New York: Harper & Bros., 1949), p. 234; and in Kathleen Burk, Morgan Grenfell 1838-1988: The Biography of a Merchant Bank (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989), pp. 23, 287-288. 2-GP’s Oct. 1, 1864, retirement records, George Peabody & Co. records (1838-64), and records of the firm under later names to the present.

Oa. National Archives, Washington, D.C. has official U.S. and British government agencies’ messages on GP’s Nov. 4, 1869, death in London, decisions about the transatlantic crossing of his remains, and attendant events, Dec. 1869 to Feb. 1870, including: 1-Naval Records, “Admirals and Commodores’ Letters, Jan.-June 1870” (Adm. D.G. Farragut, NYC, to U.S. Navy Secty. George M. Robeson, Washington, D.C., Jan. 15, 1870, “I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 14th inst. in which you…tender me the management of the Naval part of the obsequies in honor of the late Mr. Peabody”).

Ob. National Archives, Washington, D.C. 2-“Dispatches from United States Ministers, Great Britain,” including U.S. Minister to Britain Charles Lothrop Motley to U.S. Secty. of State Hamilton Fish, Nov. 6, 1869, Dispatch No. 142 (GP’s deathbed description). “Dispatches from United States Ministers, Great Britain.” U.S. Minister to Britain J.L. Motley, Dispatch No. 148, Nov. 11, 1869, to U.S. Secty. of State Hamilton Fish, described Prime Minister W.E. Gladstone’s Nov. 9, 1869, Lord Mayor’s speech, London, “… With the country of Mr. Peabody we are not likely to quarrel,” suggested easing of U.S.-British tension over and likely settlement of the Alabama Claims.

Oc. National Archives, Washington, D.C. 3-U.S. Naval Records. Log of USS Plymouth. which accompanied HMS Monarch as funeral ship. 4-Veterans’ Records of the War of 1812. GP’s military record and land-bounty warrant application, Feb. 5, 1857, Record Group No. 15A, BL wt. 56 861-160-55. GP served July 15-26, 1813, Capt. George Peter’s Co., Military District of Columbia (11 days), plus Oct. 5-7, 1814, while visiting Newburyport, Mass., Capt. Joseph T. Pike’s Co., Col. Merrill’s Regiment (three days), total 14 days.

Od. National Archives, Washington, D.C. 5-Washington National Monument, Washington, D.C., Board of Managers, “Journal of the George Washington National Monument, Washington, District of Columbia,” July 25, 1854, has record of GP’s $1,000 contribution, July 4, 1854, at the suggestion of Washington, D.C., business friend William Wilson Corcoran).

Oe. National Archives at College Park, Md., has U.S. Dept. of State records mentioning U.S. Consul William Slade at Nice, France, whom GP consulted for a mid-March 1863 GP-sponsored dinner and concert in Nice; and former U.S. Legation in Rome Secty. James Clinton Hooker who, on Feb. 24 or 25, 1868, introduced GP and his philanthropic advisor Robert Charles Winthrop to Pope Pius IX (Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, 1792-1878, Pope during 1846-78).

P. New York Historical Society, NYC, N.Y. GP Papers, Miscellaneous Manuscripts.

Q. New York Public Library Manuscript Division, NYC, N.Y. 1-Miscellaneous papers. 2-GP Papers.

R. Peabody College Library of Vanderbilt Univ. archives, Nashville, Tenn.

Sa. Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Mass. 1-Has most of the GP Papers (including news clipping albums, 1827 passport and will, June 28, 1813, letter to sister Judith Dodge Peabody (1799-1879), with a newspaper clipping of this letter mounted on the back of a GP portrait in the Print Department, and GP’s $1,000 contribution to Washington Monument, Washington, D.C. 2-Riggs, Peabody & Co. Papers and account books, 1814-29. 3-Peabody, Riggs & Co. Papers and account books, 1829-48. 4-George Peabody & Co. Papers and account books, 1838-64.

Sb. Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Mass. 5-Fitch Poole’s diary. First librarian, Peabody Institute Library, Peabody, Mass., diary entries covering GP’s death, Nov. 4, 1869, to eulogy, funeral, and burial, Feb. 8, 1870. 6-George Peabody Russell Papers (GP’s nephew). 7-GP illustrations: a-Oil portrait of GP by A. Bertram Schell. b-Three photos of GP in old age. c-One engraved portrait of GP. d-GP London dinner menus of Oct. 27, 1851, and July 4, 1856. e-Two photos of GP’s birthplace, 205 Washington Street, Peabody, Mass., now GP House Civic Center. f-Photo closeup of marker at GP’s birthplace, 205 Washington Street, Peabody, Mass; now GP House Civic Center, placed June 13, 1902. For brief history of GP papers, see Andover, Mass.

T. Peabody Historical Society, Peabody, Mass. Archives has some GP Papers (including news clipping albums). Internet URL: http://www.peabodyhistorical.org/gpeabody.htm

U. Peabody Institute Library of Baltimore Archives, Johns Hopkins Univ. Library. 1-John Pendleton Kennedy Papers and Journal. 2-GP Papers, including news clipping albums, “In Memoriam, Newspaper Notices of the Death of George Peabody” (New York, 1870), collected by George Harmon Peabody and presented by Charles Breckinridge Peabody (GP’s nephews) to the PIB. 3-Jones-b, p. 7 (see References) lists undated manuscript by James Wilson Leakin (1857-1922), “Family Tree of the Knoxes and Their Connections,” given in 1958 to the PIB Library by Mrs. Charles Rieman relating a GP marriage proposal declined on the advice of her father by Elizabeth Knox, daughter of Samuel and Grace (née Gilmore) Knox of Baltimore.

V. Peabody Institute Library of Peabody, Mass. Archives (including GP news clipping albums. GP’s June 28, 1813, letter to sister Judith Dodge Peabody (1799-1879), with newspaper clipping of this letter also mounted on the back of a Peabody portrait in the Peabody Essex Museum Print Department).

W. Peabody Library Association of the Public Library of Washington, D.C. Archives.

X. Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard Univ., ). 21 Divinity Ave., Cambridge, MA 02138. The Archives include GP news clipping albums.

Y. Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale Univ., 170 Whitney Ave., Box 6666, New Haven, CT 06511-8161. 1-Archives (including GP news clipping albums). 2-Othniel Charles Marsh Papers (GP’s nephew, first U.S. prof. of paleontology at Yale, whose education and science career GP made possible). Internet URL: http://www.peabody.yale.edu/collections/ant/

Z. Pierpont Morgan Library of New York, 29 East 36 St., New York, N.Y. 10016. 1-John Pierpont Morgan, Sr., and Jr., Papers. 2-Junius Spencer Morgan Papers. 3-GP Papers (including 1864 retirement, J.S. Morgan & Co., London, and the record of its successors). See: N. Morgan Guaranty Trust Company of New York, above.

Za. Portland, Maine, Public Library. Prominent Portland, Me., lawyer, civic leader, historian, and businessman William Willis’s (1794-1870) diary, four volumes, covering Oct. 14, 1844 to Feb. 13, 1870. Vol. 4, pp. 215-217 described the Portland, Me., reception of GP’s remains, Jan. 25-Feb. 1, 1870. William Willis, then age 76, a year older than the deceased GP, was a pallbearer on Feb. 1, 1870, the day GP’s remains left Portland by train for Peabody, Mass. See: Death and Funeral, GP’s.

Zb. Princeton Univ. Library, Ms. Division, Dept. of Rare Books and Special Collections, Lawrence Hutton Photographic Albums, Box 3, Album 6, Princeton Univ. Library, N.J. One photo of white-haired GP, three-quarter pose, taken on Fifth Ave., NYC, date, photographer, studio unknown. Ref.: Email (received Feb. 22, 2000): mmsherry@Princton.EDU

Zc. St. Louis Public Schools, Mo. Sharon A. Huffman, Records Center Supervisor/Archivist, 1615 Hampton Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 63139, to Edward F. Nevins, 365 Mountain Ave., North Plainfield, NJ 07062-2304, June 21, 2002, has records of Peabody School, 1606 S. 18 th St., St. Louis, Mo., built in 1872, named after GP probably in connection with PEF grants.

Zd. Salem, Mass., Courthouse. Probate Office. Has Book 211, Leaf 278, dated Nov. 22, 1816; and Book 215, Leaf 88, dated Jan. 23, 1817 (GP’s father Thomas Peabody died May 13, 1811, age 49, in debt with the family home at 205 Washington Street, Danvers, Mass., later South Danvers, renamed Peabody, April 13, 1868, heavily mortgaged. By 1814 GP’s mother and six of his siblings, without resources, had to live separately with relatives, mostly in Salem, Mass. By 1817, GP, then aged 22 and traveling junior partner in Riggs & Peabody, paid off all debts and restored the family home).

Ze. U.S. Congress, Washington, D.C. Documents on Congressional authorization repaying GP’s $15,000 loan to U.S. exhibitors, Great Exhibition of 1851, London, include: 1-“Memorials for expenses incurred by American contributors to Industrial Exhibition on London. Senate Rep. 114 (32nd Congress, First Session) Reel 630,” 1851-52. 2-Washington, D.C., Congressional Globe, July 25, 1854, pp. 1902-1903. 3-Internet (seen August 31, 2003): http//memory.loc.gov/ammem/amlaw/lawhome.html.

Zf. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI., William L. Clements Library, Early Americana Collection, has the John Eaton (1829-1906) Papers. He was Tenn. Supt. of Education when he attended and wrote about GP at White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., July 23-Aug. 30, 1869.

Zg. Univ. of Rochester, N.Y. 1-William Henry Seward Collection. 2-Thurlow Weed Collection.

c. British library unpublished letters and documents.

A. Athenaeum [Club], London, The Picture Room. Menu: “Dinner Given by Mr. Peabody, at the Clarendon Hotel, Bond Street, on the Anniversary of George Washington’s Birth-Day, Feb. 22, 1854, to His Excellency Minister, Mr. Buchanan.” Front of menu, GP Bicentenary Dinner, Wednesday, 15 Feb. 1995.

B. British Library Manuscript Division, London. 1-Gladstone Papers, Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone Cabinet Minutes, Nov. 10, 1869 (from suggestion said to be made by Queen Victoria, the decision was made to use HMS Monarch as transatlantic funeral ship to transport GP’s remains from Portsmouth, England, to Portland, Maine, for burial in Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Mass., Feb. 8, 1870).

C. Clothworkers’ Co., London. “Court Orders of the Clothworkers’ Company, London,” July 2, 1862. (On July 2, 1862, GP was made an honorary member of the Clothworkers’ Co., an ancient guild, for his March 12, 1862, Peabody Donation Fund for apartments for London’s working poor, total gift $2.5 million, 1862-69).

D. Cunard Steamship Co., Ltd. Edward Cunard was one of the NYC delegation which greeted GP on arrival on the Atlantic, Sept. 15, 1856. GP also traveled on Cunard liner Scotia.

E. Deutsche Morgan Grenfell, London. GP’s Oct. 1, 1864, retirement and the history of George Peabody & Co. (1838-64). See: in unit above: N. Morgan Guaranty Trust Company of New York, and in unit above: Z. Pierpont Morgan Library of New York, both above.

F. Fishmongers’ Co., Fishmongers’ Hall, London, “Extracts from Court Minutes,” April 19, 1866, Fishmongers’ Co., Fishmongers’ Hall, London. Guildhall Library Ms 5571/25 (GP was the first U.S. citizen and the 41st person to be made an honorary member of the Fishmongers’ Co. of London, April 19, 1866, before leaving on his May 1, 1866, to May 1, 1867, U.S. visit). See: Id. below.

G. General Register Office, Somerset House, London (GP’s official death certificate 277; died Nov. 4, 1869, Belgrave District, Middlesex County, registered Nov. 6, 1869, information supplied by Simon Winter, mentioned in news accounts as GP’s valet during GP’s last weeks).

H. Leicestershire County Record Office. Has records of wills of Paybody, Paybodie, Peboddy persons from 1520, indicating Leicestershire as family home of GP’s paternal ancestors.

Ia. London, Corporation of. Guildhall Library. 1-“Journals of the Court of Common Council,” July 10, 1862, Guildhall Record Office, London (London Court of Common Council member Charles Reed introduced and defended [against doubters] the resolution to offer GP the Freedom of the City of London, bestowed on July 10, 1862, in appreciation for his March 12, 1862, Peabody Donation Fund for homes for London working poor, total gift $2.5 million. That evening he was guest of honor at the Lord Mayor of London’s Mansion House dinner).

Ib. London, Corporation of. Guildhall Library. 2-“Minutes of the Committee for Erecting a Statue to Mr. George Peabody, 1866-1870,” Manuscript 192 (First suggestion, meetings held, amounts raised by public subscription, and other details of U.S. sculptor W.W. Story’s GP seated statue near London’s Royal Exchange, unveiled July 23, 1869, by the Prince of Wales).

Ic. London, Corporation of. Guildhall Library. 3-Record Office, City Archivist to authors, March 24, 1995, Corporation of London Record Office, Guildhall, London confirmed that these U.S. citizens were offered the Freedom of the City of London: U.S. Minister to Britain Andrew Stevenson, declined Feb. 22, 1838; George Peabody, accepted July 10, 1862; Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, accepted June 15, 1877; Theodore Roosevelt, accepted May 31, 1910; Gen. John J. Pershing, accepted July 18, 1919; and Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower, accepted June 12, 1945.

Id. London, Corporation of. Guildhall Library. 4-Fishmongers’ Co., London, Court Minutes granting GP honorary membership on April 19, 1866 (Guildhall Library Ms 5571/25, pp. 9-10), See: F. above.

Ja. Public Record Office, London. 1-Aliens Entry Books (recorded every time GP entered a British port). 2-Admiralty Records, “Log of HMS Monarch,” Admiralty 53/9877, from Dec. 11, 1869, when GP’s remains put on board at Portsmouth harbor, England; HMS Monarch, accompanied by USS Plymouth, left Spithead near Portsmouth, England, 1:00 A.M., Dec. 21, 1869, to Funchall Bay, Madeira, Portugal, for coaling; to Bermuda; reached Portland, Maine, Jan. 25, 1870; remains kept on board HMS Monarch two days as last mark of respect, Jan. 25-26, 1870; transfer ceremonies to Portland City Hall, Me., Jan. 27, 1870.

Jb. Public Record Office, London. 3-Foreign Office. Draft of letter, British Ambassador to the U.S. Edward Thornton to Foreign Office, Foreign Office 5/1163, No. 399 (Acknowledged Queen Victoria’s permission for her son, Prince Arthur and retinue, on a Canadian tour, to visit the U.S. Prince Arthur attended R.C. Winthrop’s eulogy and GP’s funeral service in Peabody, Mass., Feb. 8, 1870, followed by burial that day in Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Mass.).

K. Royal Archives, Windsor Castle. Lt. Col. H. Elphinestone, British Legation, Washington, D.C., to Gen. Charles Grey for Queen Victoria, Jan. 27, 1870, Additional Ms. A/15/1557 (“Should Mr. Peabody’s funeral take place soon after that, Col. Elphinestone thought that it would be a gracious act on the part of the Prince to attend.”). Lt. Col. H. Elphinestone, Railway Station, Peabody, Mass., to Gen. Charles Grey for Queen Victoria, Feb. 8, 1870, Additional Ms. A/15/1571 (Queen Victoria’s son Prince Arthur and retinue attended R.C. Winthrop’s eulogy and GP’s funeral service in Peabody, Mass., Feb. 8, 1870, followed by burial that day in Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Mass.).

L. Treasurer-Solicitor’s Office, London. “George Peabody Escheat Papers, 1869-1870.” Property (13 acres, one rod, 14 perches) GP bought for ƒ15,622 in 1866 at Stockwell near London, south of the London, Chatham, and Dover Railway, in an arrangement with naturalized British subject Sir Curtis Miranda Lampson, was intended as a gift to the Peabody Donation Fund for building Peabody apartments for London’s working poor. At GP’s Nov. 4, 1869, death, the property was escheated to the Crown (because GP was an alien) which, after establishing the facts in law, gave the property to the Peabody Donation Fund.

M. Westminster Abbey, London. 1-Stanley, Arthur Penrhyn. “Recollections by Dean Stanley of Funerals in Westminster Abbey 1865-1881,” pp. 21-22, manuscript Gal.L.1.23 (Dean of Westminster Abbey A.P. Stanley recorded that he was in Naples, Italy, read in a newspaper on Nov. 5, 1869, of GP’s death on Nov. 4, 1869, in London, and recalling GP’s benefactions to London, telegraphed his colleagues to offer the Abbey for a funeral service, which was done). 2-Westminster Abbey Muniments, “Funeral Fee Book 1811-1899,” p. 231 (Cost of GP’s funeral service at Westminster Abbey, London, Dec. 12, 1869, was ƒ130.13s.10p., or about $653.50, of the total known funeral cost [$8,496.30], although U.S. and British government costs are not known).

d. Canadian Newspaper
Montreal Gazette, July 10, 1866, p. 4, c. 5 (GP visited Montreal, Canada, July 7-9, 1866, and fished for salmon on a Marguerite River stream to mid-July 1866).

e. U.S. Newspapers alphabetically by state and city.

Ala., Mobile Daily Tribune

Daily Tribune, March 15, 1857 (GP’s Sept. 1856 to Aug. 1857 U.S. visit, his first return to the U.S. after nearly 20 years’ absence in London [since Feb. 1837], was to found the PIB, Feb. 12, 1857, and to observe as an investment banker recent growth in the U.S. South and West. He visited Charleston, S.C. [March 7]; Augusta, Ga.; Mobile, Ala. [March 15]; New Orleans, La., where he declined a public dinner, attended a private dinner, and was made a Chamber of Commerce member [March 19-23]; Cairo, Ill.; St. Louis, Mo. [April 3], Terre Haute and Indianapolis, Ind., where he stayed with Ind. Gov. Ashbel P. Willard; Cincinnati, Ohio, where he again declined a public dinner, met citizens at the Merchants’ Exchange, and received and acknowledged resolutions of praise [April 10]; Pittsburgh, Penn. [April 14-16]; and Oswego, N.Y. [April 25]).

Conn., New Haven New Haven Daily Palladium

New Haven Daily Palladium, Dec. 22, 1869, p. 2, c. 2-3 (Thurlow Weed’s vindication of GP as Civil War Union supporter; similar to Weed, Thurlow-a, entry under References: books, above).

New Haven Daily Palladium, Jan. 6, 1870, p. 2, c. 2-3 (Ohio Episcopal Bishop Charles Pettit McIlvaine’s letter to Weed, Dec. 24, 1869, in this article corroborated N.Y. state newspaper publisher and political figure Thurlow Weed’s vindication of GP as a Union supporter in the Civil War, which appeared earlier in the New York Times, Dec. 23, 1869, p. 2, c 3-4).

District of Columbia, Georgetown.

Federal Republican and Commercial Gazette issues, VI, Nos. 872 ff., Sept. 28 and 30; Oct. 2, 7, and 9, 1812. Second series, VII, Nov. 9, 11, 13, 18, 20, 23, 25, 27, 30; and Dec. 2, 4, 7, 11, 16, 18, 21, 23, 1812 (First advertisement series of dry goods available for sale in GP’s store on Bridge St., Georgetown, D.C.).

Georgetown Courier, March 2, 1867, p. 3, c. 1 (GP’s intended $15,000 gift for a free public library fund, Georgetown, D.C., April 20, 1867; similar to William Dawson Johnson Papers, Library of Congress, entry above).

District of Columbia, Washington. Daily National Intelligencer

Daily National Intelligencer, Nov. 27, 1848, p. 3, c. 4 (Md. Gov. P.F. Thomas wrote GP, London, “To you, Sir,…the thanks of the State were eminently due,” regarding resolutions of praise from Md.’s legislature and governor for GP’s marketing of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal portion of Md.’s bonds abroad despite Panic of 1837 disruptions; for assuring foreign investors that Md. would resume its bond interest payments, and for declining his $60,000 commission because of Md.’s financial difficulty).

Daily National Intelligencer, Feb. 1, 1853, p. 3, c. 4 (Responding to Lady Franklin’s appeal to the U.S. President and Congress, GP gave $10,000 for scientific equipment for the Second U.S. Grinnell Expedition’s [1853-55] unsuccessful search for British Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin, lost in May 1847 with 137 seamen. NYC merchant Henry Grinnell’s two ships, commanded by U.S. Naval Capt. Elisha Kent Kane, M.D. [medical officer on the First U.S. Grinnell Expedition], marked the U.S.’s first Arctic exploration and the naming of Peabody Bay off Greenland for GP’s aid).

Daily National Intelligencer, June 7, 1853, p. 3, c. 1-3 (Described GP’s May 18, 1853, U.S.-British friendship dinner, Star and Garter Hotel, Richmond, near London, which provided more contact with London society for U.S. Minister to Britain J.R. Ingersoll and his niece Miss Wilcocks. Among the 150 guests were Harvard Prof. and later Pres. [1860] C.C. Felton, eighth U.S. Pres. Martin Van Buren, Ohio Episcopal Bishop C.P. McIlvaine, and Boston merchant J.S. Morgan, then considering becoming GP’s partner).

District of Columbia, Washington.Republic

Republic, July 10, 1852, p. 2, c. 5 (GP’s June 17 and July 4, 1852, London dinners and speeches, both at the Brunswick Hotel, Blackwall, opposite Greenwich Hospital, six miles from St. Paul’s overlooking the Thames, attended by John Charles Frémont, U.S. Minister to Britain Abbott Lawrence and Mrs. Lawrence, MP from Liverpool William Brown, Thomson Hankey of the Bank of England, N.Y. state editor and political leader Thurlow Weed [1797-1882], and others. Lawrence, Brown, and Hankey spoke. J.C. Frémont and his wife, Jesse [née Benton] Frémont, U.S. Sen. from Missouri Thomas Hart Benton’s daughter, were in London to finance their California Mariposa Estate mining. Frémont was arrested April 7, 1852, for debts incurred to meet territorial expenses when he was California’s acting governor at the Mexican War outbreak, 1846-47. Frémont appealed to GP, who deposited the bail needed for his release the next day, April 8, 1852).

Republic, Feb. 4, 1853, p. 2, c. 5 (GP’s $10,000 gift for scientific equipment in 1853-55 U.S. search for lost British Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin; similar to Washington, D.C., Daily National Intelligencer, Feb. 1, 1853, p. 3, c. 4 , entry above).

Washington Post National Weekly Edition, Vol. 18, No. 30 (May 21-27, 2001), p. 33 (Edwin M. Yoder, Jr.’s review of Jean Edward Smith’s Grant [N.Y.: Simon & Schuster, 2001], commenting on Pres. U.S. Grant’s sponsorship through his Secty. of State Hamilton Fish on settling U.S. grievances over the Alabama Claims, 1872-73 [for British-built ships equipped as warships which sank U.S. ships and cost lives and treasure], agitation for which was at its height at GP’s death).

Ill., Springfield Illinois State Journal.

Illinois State Journal, April 6, 1857, p. 3, c. 1 (GP’s Mar.-April 1857 visits to U.S. southern and western cities. He was in Terre Haute and Indianapolis, Ind., where he stayed with Ind. Gov. Ashbel P. Willard; similar to Mobile, Ala., Daily Tribune, March 15, 1857, entry above).

Ind., Indianapolis,Indianapolis Daily Journal.

Indianapolis Daily Journal, April 8, 1857, p. 3, c. 3 (GP’s Mar.-April 1857 visits to U.S. southern and western cities; similar to Mobile, Ala., Daily Tribune, March 15, 1857, entry above).

La., New Orleans,Daily Delta

Daily Delta, March 20, 1857, p. 2, c. 4; and March 21, 1857, p. 2, c. 1 (GP’s Mar.-April 1857 visits to U.S. southern and western cities; similar to Mobile, Ala., Daily Tribune, March 15, 1857, entry above).

La., New Orleans, Daily Picayune

Daily Picayune, March 20, 1857, p. 3, c. 1; March 24, 1857, p. 1, c. 7; and March 25, 1857, p. 3, c. 1 (GP’s Mar.-April 1857 visits to U.S. southern and western cities; similar to Mobile, Ala., Daily Tribune, March 15, 1857, entry above).

Maine, Portland, Eastern Argus

Eastern Argus, Jan. 15, 1870, p. 3, c. 2 (Maine officials’ plan announced to transfer GP’s coffin from the Monarch to Portland City Hall, Me., for visitors to view the lying in state in the Portland City Hall auditorium, specially decorated by marine artist Harrison Bird Brown).

Eastern Argus, Feb. 2, 1870, p. 3, c. 2-3 (The GP funeral train going from Portland, Me., to Peabody, Mass., on Feb. 1, 1870, was named “George Peabody,” not for the deceased GP but for a distant cousin of the same name, born 1804, died 1892, who was president of the Eastern Railroad, the son of Joseph Peabody, Salem, Mass.).

Eastern Argus, Feb.18, 1870 (Prominent Portland, Me., lawyer and civic leader William Willis’s diary described the Portland reception of GP’s remains. He was a pallbearer Feb. 1, 1870, the day GP’s remains left Portland by train for Peabody, Mass.).

Md., Baltimore. American and Commercial Daily Advertiser

American and Commercial Daily Advertiser, June 8, 1818, p. 3, c. 1 (Riggs & Peabody advertisement).

American and Commercial Daily Advertiser, Dec. 29, 1847, p. 2, c. 3-6 (Quoted Md. Gov. Thomas G. Pratt’s annual message to Md.’s General Assembly, December 1847, thanking GP for marketing abroad the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal portion of Md.’s $8 million bond issue during the Panic of 1837, for GP’s assuring foreign investors that Md. would resume its defaulted bond interest payments retroactively, and for GP’s declining his $60,000 commission because of Md.’s financial difficulty. Also quoted in Scharf-b, III, pp. 216-217).

American and Commercial Daily Advertiser, Nov. 27, 1851, p. 2, c. 1 (Baltimore newspapers praised GP’s Oct. 27, 1851, U.S.-British friendship dinner, with some 125 guests, London Coffee House, Ludgate Hill, many connected with the Great Exhibition of 1851, the first world’s fair. This dinner may have prompted the Md. Inst. for the Promotion of Mechanic Arts to make GP an honorary member. Having read that the Md. Inst. was raising funds for a chemistry school, GP sent a $1,000 gift to its Pres. William H. Keighler Oct. 31, 1851. This still little known gift preceded GP’s June 1852 founding of his first Peabody Institute Library, when his hometown of Danvers celebrated its 100th year of separation from Salem, Mass. GP, unable to attend, sent his first check to found his first Peabody Institute Library [total gift, $217,600], accompanied by a motto, “Education–a debt due from present to future generations”).

American and Commercial Daily Advertiser, June 3, 1853, p. 2, c. 3-4 (GP’s May 18, 1853, U.S.-British friendship dinner, London; similar to Washington, D.C., Daily National Intelligencer, June 7, 1853, p. 3, c. 1-3, entry above).

American and Commercial Advertiser, Sept. 23, 1869, p. 1, c. 6 (GP’s last $400,000 PIB gift and last Baltimore departure, Sept. 22, 1869, then to Philadelphia, and NYC where some PEF trustees saw him board the Scotia, Sept. 29, 1869, for London where he died Nov. 4, 1869).

Md., Baltimore American

Baltimore American Feb. 19, 1857, p. 1, c. 4 (On May 1, 1856, the Powhatan Steamship Co., Baltimore, laid the keel of their third 1,200 ton $90,000 freighter to carry goods between Baltimore and Richmond, Va. It was to be named the Hiawatha but instead, following favorable press publicity on GP’s Feb. 12, 1857, PIB founding, the board of directors named it George Peabody to honor GP’s gift to Baltimore and to gain good company advertisement. Used as a Federal steamship in the Civil War, it collided with another Federal steamship, West Point, on the Potomac River, Aug. 13, 1862, in an accident in which 83 lives were lost).

Baltimore American, May 14, 1883 (GP’s Va. bonds worth $35,000 were lost when the Arctic, a Collins Line ship, sank in the winter of 1854 off Cape Race, Newfoundland. After unsuccessfully trying to get Va. to redeem the lost bonds, GP gave their value in 1869 to Pres. Robert E. Lee’s Washington College [renamed Washington and Lee Univ., 1871] for a mathematics professorship. In 1883 Va. gave the university $60,000, the value of the bonds with accrued interest).

Baltimore American, Jan. 24, 1943 (Clipping in GP folder, Md. Room, Enoch Pratt Free Library, Baltimore, reported Va. lawyer and Washington and Lee Univ. alumnus C.S. McNulty’s research on GP’s Va. bonds. McNulty found that in 1881 the Va. legislature permitted suit for $17,000 interest on the lost bonds, making GP’s gift total $60,000. This clipping referred to Baltimore American article, May 14, 1883, which stated that the State of Va. gave Washington and Lee Univ. GP’s $60,000 gift in 1883).

Md.Baltimore Dispatch

Baltimore Dispatch Feb. 7, 1857 (Public receptions and speeches which accompanied GP’s Sept. 15, 1856 to Aug. 19, 1857, U.S. visit after nearly 20 years in London, included two in Baltimore, Jan. 30, 1857, at the Md. Historical Society; and Feb. 2, 1857, at the Md. Institute, before his Feb. 12, 1857, PIB founding letter).

Md.Baltimore Gazette

Baltimore Gazette, April 25, 1867, p. 1, c. 6 (GP attended the wedding of Baltimorean Reverdy Johnson’s daughter).

Md., Baltimore News

Baltimore News, March 6, 1928, “Baltimore in Pictures” (Photo of GP’s seated statue in front of the PIB; the statue was given to Baltimore by Robert Garrett, April 7, 1890, copied after William W. Story’s GP seated statue in Threadneedle Street, near London’s Royal Exchange).

Md., Baltimore News American

Baltimore News American, July 3, 1966, p. 9B, “Pratt Takes Over Peabody,” B-9 (Early legal and other controversies on PIB Library-Enoch Pratt Free Library merger, July 2, 1966 to July 1, 1982).

Md., Baltimore News-Post

Baltimore News-Post, May 30, 1942 (On Louis Henry Dielman, fifth PIB Librarian during 1926-42).

Baltimore News-Post, May 19, 1961, “Succeeds Cooper: Peabody Conservatory Names Kent as Dean” (Charles Stanton Kent was the Peabody Conservatory of Music’s dean, 1961-63, and director for four years, 1963-67).

Md., Baltimore Patriot and Baltimore Weekly Patriot

Baltimore Patriot, Nov. 21, 1848 (Resolutions of praise from Md.’s legislature and governor for GP’s marketing of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal portion of Md. bonds during the Panic of 1837, for GP’s assuring foreign investors that Md. would resume its bond interest payments, and for GP’s declining his $60,000 commission because of Md.’s financial difficulty).

Baltimore Patriot & Gazette, Oct. 28, 1851, p. 2, c. 1 (On Oct. 6, 1851, U.S. commissioner to the Great Exhibition of 1851 Charles F. Stansbury and other exhibitors, about to return to the U.S., invited GP to be guest of honor at a farewell dinner, in thanks for his $15,000 loan that enabled them to show U.S. products to best advantage to 6.7 million visitors. GP gratefully declined on Oct. 11, said they had overestimated his services, added that his 15 years in London had erased sectional and political difference, and that he did what he could do to further the U.S. as a whole. This invitation may have prompted GP’s own Oct. 27, 1851, dinner to the departing exhibitors at the London Coffee House, Ludgate Hill, grander and better received than GP’s July 4, 1851, dinner. The proceedings and speeches, compiled by Henry Stevens, printed in beautifully bound books, were selectively distributed to U.S. and British officials).

Baltimore Patriot, Feb. 1, 1853, p. 2, c. 4 (GP’s $10,000 science equipment gift for the 1853-55 Second U.S. Grinnell Expedition’s search for lost British Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin; similar to Washington, D.C., Daily National Intelligencer, Feb. 1, 1853, p. 3, c. 4 entry above).

Baltimore Weekly Patriot, Feb. 21, 1857, p. 2, c. 1 (Freighter named George Peabody carried goods between Baltimore and Richmond, Va., from 1857; similar to Baltimore American, Feb. 19, 1857, p. 1, c. 4, entry above).

Md., Baltimore Times

Baltimore Times, Nov. 6, 1869, p. 4, c. 3-5 (GP and R.C. Winthrop visited Rome, Italy, had an interview with the Pope, and about Feb. 24 or 25, 1868, met Cardinal Antonelli, to whom GP gave $19,300 about April 5 or 6, 1868, for the Vatican’s charitable San Spirito Hospital. This article inaccurately listed the gift as $1 million for Pontifical charities).

Md., Sun (Evening Sun, and Morning Sun)

Sun, July 10, 1852, p. 2, c. 1 (GP’s June 17 and July 4, 1852, London dinners and speeches, attended by U.S. Minister Abbott Lawrence, Wm. Brown, Thomson Hankey, Thurlow Weed, and J.C. Frémont, recently arrested in London with bail paid by GP; similar to Washington, D.C., Republic, July 10, 1852, p. 2, c. 5, entry above).

Sun, Nov. 13, 1854, vol. 35, no. 154, p. 2, c. 1 (Obituary of David Hoffman, Baltimore-born lawyer and professor [he helped found the Univ. of Md. Law School] and land agent for Calif. leader John Charles Frémont. While in England in 1850 Hoffman wrote two letters asking GP ‘s financial help in an escape plan to free imprisoned Hungarian freedom fighter Lajos Kossuth. Obituary and other information about Hoffman is on the Internet: http://law.umaryland.edu/marshall/Hoffman/hoffa.htm).

Sun, Jan. 30, 1857, p. 3, c. 1 (GP’s arrival in Baltimore and plans for Md. Historical Society’s Jan. 30, 1857, reception and speeches for him).

Sun, Jan. 31, 1857, p. 1, c. 5 and p. 2, c. 5 (Md. Historical Society’s Jan. 30, 1857, reception for GP, including remarks about him by John Hazlehurst Bonval Latrobe, the society’s founder [1847] and Baltimore & Ohio Railroad lawyer).

Sun, Feb. 2, 1857, p. 1, c. 4-5, and p. 2, c. 1 (GP in Baltimore after nearly 20 years’ absence in London, included public receptions and speeches for him: Jan. 30, 1857, at the Md. Historical Society; and Feb. 2, 1857, at the Md. Institute; both before his Feb. 12, 1857, PIB founding letter).

Sun, Feb. 3, 1857, p. 1, c. 4-7; and Feb. 4, 1857, p. 1, c. 1-4 (Similar to Sun, Feb. 2, 1857, p. 1, c. 4-5, entry immediately above).

Sun, Feb. 21, 1857, p. 1, c. 5 (Freighter named George Peabody carried goods between Baltimore and Richmond, Va., from 1857; similar to Baltimore American, Feb. 19, 1857, p. 1, c. 4, entry above).

Sun, March 31, 1857, p. 1, c. 3 (GP’s March-April 1857 tour in the U.S. South and West; similar to Mobile (Ala.) Daily Tribune, March 5, 1857, entry above).

Sun, Oct. 23, 1866, p. 4, c. 2; Oct. 24, 1866, p. 1, c. 7, and p. 2, c. 1; and Oct. 25, 1866, p. 1, c. 3-4, 6 (GP’s arrival in Baltimore for the PIB dedication, with names of speakers).

Sun, April 27, 1867, p. 4 (GP’s April 25, 1867, visit with U.S. Pres. Andrew Johnson in the Blue Room, White House, Washington, D.C.).

Sun, Sept. 21, 1869, p. 1, c. 8 (GP at B&O RR Pres. John Work Garrett’s home near Baltimore, Sept. 20-22, 1869).

Sun, Sept. 23, 1869, p. 1, c. 2 (GP’s last $400,000 PIB gift and last Baltimore departure, Sept. 22, 1869).

Sun, Nov. 6, 1869, p., 1, c. 4-5 (After his last four months U.S. visit, June 8-Sept. 29, 1869, GP reached London to rest at business friend Curtis M. Lampson’s 80 Eaton Sq. home, where he died Nov. 4, 1869).

Sun, Dec. 2, 1869 (Quoted Aug. 22, 1869, letter, from Greenbrier Hotel, White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., resident physician John Jennings Moorman, who attended and interviewed GP. Moorman asked, “When did you make your money, Mr. Peabody?” GP replied, “I made pretty much of it in 20 years from 1844 to 1864. Everything I touched within that time seemed to turn to gold. I bought largely of United States securities when their value was low and they advanced greatly.” Sun article is in the Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass.).

Sun, Jan. 31, 1883, p. 1, c. 4 (GP’s philanthropic example and talk with Johns Hopkins at B&O RR Pres. John Work Garrett’s home near Baltimore during GP’s 1866-67 U.S. visit, influenced Johns Hopkins to write his will founding the Johns Hopkins Univ., medical school, and hospital. Best account is in Garrett, John Work (1820-84). Address…, entry under References: books, above).

Sun, Jan. 10, 1885, p. 2 (Death notice of William H. Keighler, age 81, Md. Institute president to whom GP donated $1,000 for a Chemistry Laboratory and School, Oct. 31, 1851).

Sun, Nov. 1, 1915, p. 7, c. 5 (During Jan. 10-18, 1857, artist James Read Lambdin, whose portrait of GP is in the Md. Historical Society, Baltimore, invited GP and his guests [GP’s 21-year-old niece Julia Adelaide Peabody and Baltimore art collector and PIB trustee Charles James Madison Eaton] to tour the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia. Lambdin was director. GP preferred to sit on a bench while the others went on the tour. Lambdin quoted GP as saying, “I do not feel much interested in such matters. You may be surprised when I tell you that, although I have lived for twenty years within pistol shot of the Royal Academy and the National Gallery in London, I have never been within their walls.” Lambdin, who thought to ask GP for a donation for the Academy, never asked. From Lambdin’s unpublished manuscript dated 1869, intended for publication in the Germantown, Penn. Chronicle, founded by grandson John Oldmixon Lambdin, and quoted in this Sun article).

Sun, April 15, 1922, Simon, Otto T. [Letter], “Thinks Asger Hamerik should be Honored by Some Memorial at the Peabody and That His Music Should be Frequently Heard There.” (Much respected PIB Conservatory of Music director for 27 years, during 1871-98. Similar to “Asger Hamerick-a, April 8, 1843-July 13, 1923,” above under References: books).

Sun, May 9, 1926, Part 2, Sect. 1, p. 10, c. 2-5 (GP was one of 29 most famous Americans elected to the N.Y.U. Hall of Fame, 1900, tying for 16th place from the top with Henry Clay. In 1901 a tablet was unveiled and on May 12, 1926, a GP bust was unveiled, made by sculptor Hans Schuler, with an address by GPCFT Pres. Bruce R. Payne).

Sunday Sun Magazine, April 8, 1928, p. 20, Mason Ancker, “Teaching the Beginnings of Music: Peabody Preparatory Department Has a Thirty-Four-Year Record” (About PIB Prep School founder May Garrettson Evans).

Sun, Sept. 6, 1931, John C. French, “Sidney Lanier’s Life in Baltimore: ‘The Beautiful City’ Has Yet to Discover Him Fully” (Poet Sidney Lanier as PIB Conservatory of Music’s first flutist who also taught English literature, Johns Hopkins Univ.; similar to Kelly, Frederick, entry above under Reference: books).

Sun, Nov. 11, 1934 (Otto Rudolph Ortmann, third Peabody Conservatory of Music director, 1928-41; similar to “Otto Ortmann-a,” entry under References: books, above).

Evening Sun, Nov. 29, 1934 (Baltimorean May Garrettson Evans started the Peabody Conservatory of Music’s Preparatory Dept., Oct. 1894; similar to Luckett, Margie H., above in References: books).

Sun, May 24, 1935 (Evangelist Dwight Lyman Moody heard from B&O RR. Pres. J.W. Garrett’s son how Garrett brought together in his home GP and Johns Hopkins, 1866-67, and how GP influenced Hopkins’ philanthropy; similar to Gilman, Daniel Coit-b, entry in References: books above. See: also Garrett, John Work [1820-84]. Address…, entry under References: books, above).

Sun, Jan. 5, 1936 [William Henry Rinehart], (PIB Gallery of Art owned and displayed 42 of Md.-born Baltimore resident sculptor William Henry Rinehart’s figures, reliefs, busts, and three marble originals, including his masterpiece, Clytie).

Sun, May 17, 1936 (Otto Rudolph Ortmann, third Peabody Conservatory of Music director, 1928-41; similar to “Otto Ortmann-a,” entry under References: books, above).

Evening Sun, Aug. 5, 1941, “Director Change [Otto Ortmann, Reginald Stewart].” (Transition from Otto Rudolph Ortmann, third Peabody Conservatory of Music director during 1928-41, to fourth director Reginald Stewart during 1941-58. The son of a distinguished organist in Edinburgh, Scotland, Stewart founded and previously conducted the Toronto Philharmonic Orchestra, Canada).

Sun, Jan. 19, 1942, “Progress at the Peabody” (Transition late 1941 from PIB Conservatory of Music third Dir. Otto Ortmann to fourth Dir. Reginald Stewart).

Sun, Sept. 27, 1942, Sect. 1, p. 5, c. 6 (Recollection of GP’s last visit to Baltimore when he stayed at B&O RR Pres. John Work Garrett’s home near Baltimore, Sept. 20-22, 1869, then went to Philadelphia, and NYC, Sept. 29, 1869, where some PEF trustees saw him board the Scotia to London, where he died Nov. 4, 1869).

Sun, Feb. 9, 1947, Kellman, Naomi. “Mr. Peabody’s Pet Project” (Described the PIB Library).

Sun, May 21, 1947, “Peabody Preparatory School Founder to be Honored Sunday.” (Baltimorean May Garrettson Evans started the Peabody Conservatory of Music’s Preparatory Dept., Oct. 1894; similar to Luckett, Margie H., above in References: books).

Sun, May 16, 1948, Lynn D. Poole, “Mantle of Success” (PIB Gallery of Art’s holdings of sculptor William Henry Rinehart’s figure; similar to Sun, Jan. 5, 1936, entry above).

Sun, Nov. 20, 1949, William Stump, “Man in the Street: Sidney Lanier” (Poet Sidney Lanier as PIB Conservatory of Music’s first flutist who also taught English literature, Johns Hopkins Univ.; similar to Kelly, Frederick, entry above under Reference: books).

Evening Sun, July 12, 1950, Howard R. Thatcher, “A Teacher Glances Back–Notes on Music in Baltimore.” (Simon, Otto T. [Letter], “Thinks Asger Hamerik should be Honored by Some Memorial at the Peabody and That His Music Should be Frequently Heard There;” similar to Sun, April 15, 1922, entry above).

Sun, Nov. 24, 1951, “Stewart Defends Symphony Setup, Says He is Underpaid” (Fourth Peabody Conservatory of Music Director Reginald Stewart during 1941-58 also conducted the Baltimore Symphony Orchestra during 1942-52. He built good relations by having orchestra members teach in the conservatory. By employing World War II European refugee musicians he formed a distinguished Conservatory faculty).

Sun, Jan. 6, 1952, James H. Bready, “Peabody Institute Library” (Less used during 1949-52, serving an average of 15 researchers a day, the PIB Library hours were extended. Deficits led to talk of possible merger with Baltimore’s Enoch Pratt Free Library).

Evening Sun, Jan. 10, 1952, “Peabody Library Starts 260,000-Card Index” (Supplementing its historically important printed book catalogs of its holding, newer acquisitions were made accessible through author-title-subject catalog cards).

Sun, Jan. 14, 1952, “Fifty Turn Out for First Sunday Open-Day at Peabody Library.” (Similar to Sun, Jan. 6, 1852, James H. Bready, “Peabody Institute Library,” entry above).

Sun, Jan. 31, 1952, “Seventy of Symphony Urge Longer Season to Keep Stewart Here” (About PIB Conservatory of Music’s fourth Dir. Reginald Stewart; similar to Sun, Feb. 7, 1958, below).

Sun, Feb. 4, 1952, “The Human Complexities of a Conductor’s Job” (Fourth Peabody Conservatory of Music director Reginald Stewart during 1941-58 also conducted the Baltimore Symphony Orchestra during 1942-52).

Sun, Feb. 8, 1952, Robert G. Breen, “A Carroll Colloquy: College Left Its Cachet” (On the PIB Library).

Sun, March 13, 1952, “Conductor Makes Farewell Speech” (Son of a distinguished organist in Edinburgh, Scotland, Reginald Stewart founded and conducted the Toronto Philharmonic Orchestra, Canada, before becoming fourth Peabody Conservatory of Music director during 1941-58. He also conducted the Baltimore Symphony Orchestra, 1942-52. By employing World War II European refugee musicians he assembled the Conservatory’s largest and most illustrious faculty).

Sun, April 1, 1952, “Reginald Stewart’s Final Performance as Conductor.”

Sun, Jan. 25, 1953, William Stump, “Man in the Street: Peabody” (Photo of portrait of GP in middle age, from Enoch Pratt Free Library, Baltimore).

Sun, Feb. 13, 1955, Bissell Brooke, “Peabody Outwitted a Queen” (GP portrait, middle aged, from Enoch Pratt Free Library, Baltimore).

Evening Sun, June 22, 1956, “Three Goucher Faculty Members Retiring” (Third Peabody Conservatory of Music director Otto Rudolph Ortmann, during 1928-41, retired as chairman of Goucher College Music Department chairman, 1943-56).

Sun, June 17, 1957, “New Library Director” (Biographical sketch of Frank Nicholas Jones, seventh PIB Librarian during 1956-66).

Sun, Nov. 19, 1957, “Stewart to Leave Peabody Conservatory Post in 1958” (Fourth Peabody Conservatory of Music director Reginald Stewart resigned after a distinguished 17-year career, 1941-58).

Evening Sun, April 8, 1958 (Peter Mennin was the Peabody Conservatory of Music’s fifth director for four years, 1958-62. He later left to become president of NYC’s Juilliard School of Music, where he had previously taught).

Evening Sun, June 24, 1958, “Bon Voyage–Dr. Reginald Stewart,” (Similar to Sun, Nov. 19, 1957, entry above).

Evening Sun, Aug. 12, 1958, George Kent Bellows, “Music Master: Whirlwind Tempo for Peabody Chief,” (On Peabody Conservatory of Music’s fifth Dir. Peter Mennin; similar to Evening Sun, April 8, 1958, entry above).

Sun, Feb. 18, 1959, “New Peabody Dean Named” [Peabody Conservatory of Music Dean David S. Cooper].

Evening Sun, Oct. 31, 1960, “Kerr Gets Post in Annapolis” (On personnel connected with PIB and PIB Library).

Evening Sun, Nov. 30, 1960, Peter Young, “Back to the Stacks: Lloyd Brown to Assemble Historical Annapolis Data” (On Lloyd Brown, sixth PIB Librarian during 1942-56. He left to become Chicago Historical Society director, 1956-58, and then was research director of Historic Annapolis, Inc.).

Sun, Dec. 31, 1961, Kathryn Geraghty, “Variations on a Theme in Blue, Green” (On PIB Conservatory of Music’s fifth Dir. Peter Mennin; similar to Evening Sun, April 8, 1958, entry above).

Sun, June 11, 1962, “Mennin Leaving as Peabody Head,” (Similar to Evening Sun, April 8, 1958, entry above).

Sun, April 21, 1963, “Peabody Names New Director,” (Charles Stanton Kent was the Peabody Conservatory of Music’s dean, 1961-63, and director for four years, 1963-67).

Evening Sun, May 9, 1963, Peter Young, “New Peabody Director: Symphony Could Draw Teachers, He Believes” (Similar to Sun, April 21, 1963, entry immediately above).

Sun, July 2, 1963, “Peabody Conservatory Lists R. E. Robinson as New Dean” (Raymond Edwin Robinson was Peabody Conservatory of Music’s dean, 1963-67, acting director, 1967-68, then was Westminster Choir College president, and distinguished music professor, Palm Beach Atlantic Univ., Fla.).

Sun, Nov. 12, 1963 (Some Baltimoreans objected to PIB Library-Enoch Pratt Free Library merger talks. Others saw it as keeping the PIB’s unique 250,000 volume reference collection intact. Amalgamation occurred July 2, 1966-July 1, 1982, 16 years).

Sun, Jan. 22, 1966, Frank P. L. Somerville, “Pratt Board is Silent on Peabody Plan” and “Peabody-Pratt Tie-Up Weighed” (Early legal and other controversies on PIB Library-Enoch Pratt Free Library merger, July 2, 1966-July 1, 1982).

Sun, April 22, 1966, Gerald W. Johnson, “The Real Question About the Library [letter]” (Early legal and other controversies on PIB Library-Enoch Pratt Free Library merger, 1966-82).

Morning Sun, June 14, 1966, Arthur Joseph Gutman, “Peabody Library [letter]” (Similar to Sun, April 22, 1966, entry immediately above).

Evening Sun, June 23, 1966, George Rodgers, “Some of Peabody Library Books Set for Disposal” (Failed 1963-64 PIB Library-Johns Hopkins Univ. merger talks gave way to possible PIB Library-Enoch Pratt Free Library merger in March 1966, requiring the sale of some 100,000 PIB Library book. The book sale, to which many objected, never occurred. The PIB Library-Enoch Pratt merger lasted from July 2, 1966 to July 1, 1982, 16 years).

Sun, Oct. 1, 1966, Frank P. L. Somerville, “Peabody’s Shift of Books Fought” (PIB Library-Enoch Pratt Free Library merger, 1966-82; legal and other controversies; similar to Sun, April 22, 1966, entry above).

Sun, Feb. 4, 1968, Weimer Jones, “The Last Days of Sidney Lanier” (Poet Sidney Lanier as PIB Conservatory of Music’s first flutist who also taught English literature, Johns Hopkins Univ.; similar to Kelly, Frederick, entry above under Reference: books, above).

Sun, Feb. 7, 1968, Stephen A. Bennett, “Kent in Doubt, Peabody Scans Field for Director” (Charles Stanton Kent was the Peabody Conservatory of Music’s dean, 1961-63, and director for four years, 1963-68).

Sun, May 1, 1968, “Illness Obliges Charles Kent to Leave Peabody” (Similar to Sun, Feb. 7, 1968, immediately above).

Sun, Aug. 25, 1968, “New Peabody Head Named” (Richard Franko Goldman was appointed both PIB president and the Peabody Conservatory of Music’s seventh director for nine years during 1968-77. He had succeeded his father, Edwin Franko Goldman, as conductor of the Goldman Concert Band, NYC, taught at the Juilliard School of Music, 1947-60, and elsewhere. Serious Peabody Conservatory deficits were made public by Goldman. There was talk then of affiliation with Johns Hopkins Univ. which occurred in 1982).

Evening Sun, Aug. 27, 1968, John Pappenheimer, “Goldman Wants Things to Happen” (Similar to Sun, Aug. 25, 1968, immediately above).

Evening Sun, June 2, 1969 (Obituary of Charles Stanton Kent, who was the Peabody Conservatory of Music’s dean, 1961-63, and director for four years, 1963-68).

Sun, Nov. 4, 1971, p. B-2, “At the Maryland Historical Society” (Portrait of GP in old age).

Sun, April 20, 1973, p. B-1, Earl Arnett, “Richard Franko Goldman Found a Good School That Needed a Little Shaking Up” (Richard Franko Goldman was appointed both PIB president and the Peabody Conservatory of Music’s seventh director. Serious deficits were made public when Goldman said that since 1971 the PIB’s $6 million endowment had shrunk to $3 million. There was talk then of affiliation with Johns Hopkins Univ., which occurred in 1982).

Sun, Dec. 23, 1973, “Johns Hopkins, Bachelor Father to a Great University” (GP’s philanthropic example and talk with Johns Hopkins at B&O RR Pres. John Work Garrett’s home near Baltimore sometime in 1866-67, influenced Johns Hopkins to write his will founding the Johns Hopkins Univ., medical school, and hospital. Best account is in Garrett, John Work (1820-84). Address…, entry under References: books, above).

Sun, Dec. 21, 1976, p. A-1, c. 1, and p. A-8, c. 2-c. 5 (Late 1940s-early 1950s PIB Library financial difficulties led to failed merger talks in 1953 and 1963-64 with the Johns Hopkins Univ. library system. The PIB Library merged with Baltimore’s Enoch Pratt Free Library during July 2, 1966-July 1, 1982 [16 years], and has been part of the Johns Hopkins Univ. Eisenhower Reference Library Collection since July, 1982).

Sun, Jan. 3, 1977, Richard W. Case, “How the Hopkins and Peabody Got Together” (PIB Pres. and the Peabody Conservatory of Music’s seventh director Richard Franko Goldman, during 1968-77, said that the PIB’s endowment shrank from $6 million in 1971 to $3 million in Jan. 1976)

Sun, Feb. 19, 1977, “Soot Hides Treasures. Peabody Library Spruced Up” (Successful campaign in the early 1970s raised funds to clean, refurbish, provide better lighting and air conditioning of the main PIB reading room in early 1977, cost $27,000. Removal of a century of soot revealed gold leaf rosettes on the five-tier library cast iron grillwork).

Sun, July 7, 1978, “Gifts to the Peabody Double Last Year’s.”

Sun, July 4, 1982, James H. Bready, “What’s Ahead for Peabody Library Now That Hopkins Owns It?” (Since July 1, 1982, the PIB library has been the Peabody Library of the Milton S. Eisenhower Special Collections of the Johns Hopkins Univ. Library).

Evening Sun, June 9, 1989, Gunther Wertheimer, “Disgrace at the Peabody” (A 1989 proposal to get needed PIB Library funds by selling ten sets of rare books, including Audubon’s Birds of America, raised a lament in a letter to the Sun that the collection “is a time capsule of 19th century intelligence whose integrity deserves respectful maintenance”).

Sun, Feb. 16, 1995, Carl Schoettler, “Peabody’s Legacy: Banker gave Baltimore a Musical Institute–and the Gift of Giving” (Photo of GP standing amid crowd outside PIB at its dedication, Oct. 25, 1866; and painting of elderly GP, head and shoulders).

Mass., Belmont, Belmont Citizen

Belmont Citizen, Oct. 24, 1985 (Obit., Muriel Emmie Hidy who wrote a history of GP’s early business years).
Belmont Herald, Oct. 26, 1985 (Obit., same as immediately above).

Mass., Boston,Boston Courier

Boston Courier, March 8, 1861 (GP’s letter to editor as Civil War neared: “The threat of war has already lost the European market for United States securities. Concession and compromise alone would reinstate our credit abroad. I hope conciliation will prove successful. If not and war comes it will destroy the credit of North and South alike in Europe. Worse, our prestige and pride will disappear. Second rate powers may insult our flag with impunity and first rate powers wipe away the Monroe Doctrine. May Providence prevent this”).

Boston Sunday Courier, July 18, 1869, p. 2, c. 1-2 (Three months before his Nov. 4, 1869, death, an ailing GP spoke at July 14, 1869, dedication of Peabody Institute Library, Danvers, Mass., to which he gave a total of $100,000, begun Dec. 22, 1856, as branch library of Peabody Institute Library, Peabody, Mass., to which he gave a total of $217,600, begun June 16, 1852).

Mass.,Boston Daily Advertiser

Boston Daily Advertiser, July 26, 1862, p. 2, c. 3-6 (GP was given the Freedom of the City of London, July 10, 1862, and that evening was guest of honor at the Lord Mayor of London’s Mansion House dinner, in appreciation for his March 12, 1862, Peabody Donation Fund for model homes for London working poor, total gift $2.5 million).

Boston Daily Advertiser, Oct. 19, 1866, p. 2, c. 3-4 (GP’s Oct. 8, 1866, letter founding the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard, which greatly advanced the study of anthropology in the U.S.).

Boston Daily Advertiser, April 19, 1867, p. 1, c. 7 (GP’s April 18, 1867, farewell speech in Georgetown, Mass.: “Here, since the earliest days of New England, my maternal ancestors lived and died. More of my family connections live here now than any other place. More than sixty years ago, I distinctly remember, a promised visit to Rowley was one of my brightest anticipations. Here my mother was born, she whom I loved so much, whose memory I revere. Here she passed her childhood and therefore these scenes are to me consecrated ground”).

Boston Daily Advertiser, July 18, 1867, p. 2, c. 2-5 (Harvard Univ.’s honorary Doctor of Laws degree awarded to GP [in London] in absentia on July 17, 1867, in appreciation for his $150,000 gift founding the Harvard Univ. Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Oct. 8, 1866).

Boston Daily Advertiser, Jan. 9, 1868, p 1, c. 8-9 (A doctrinal dispute with their minister in Georgetown, Mass., led some 85 members including GP’s sister [it had been their mother’s church] to meet in an inadequate chapel. Asked to help, GP built a $70,000 Memorial Church in his mother’s memory. John Greenleaf Whittier’s specially written poem “Memorial Hymn” was read at the Jan. 8, 1868, dedication. He later objected in The Independent [NYC], Jan. 24, 1868, p. 2, c. 1-2, “A Marred Memorial,” that he would not have written it had he known of the condition in GP’s Oct. 18, 1867, letter from London that the church “exclude political and other subjects not in keeping with its religious purpose.” See: Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, entry above).

Boston Daily Advertiser, Dec. 23, 1869, p. 2, c. 3 (Contained State of Maine’s preliminary plans to receive GP’s remains from HMS Monarch at Portland harbor; also quoted in Hampshire Telegraph [Portsmouth, England], Jan. 8, 1870, p. 4, c. 3).

Boston Herald, Feb. 16, 1895 (Report of the centennial celebration of GP’s birth, held at Peabody, Mass., Monday, February 8, 1895, with speeches by Francis H. Appleton, Mass. Lt. Gov. Roger Wolcott, Harvard Prof. F.G. Peabody; with Queen Victoria’s cablegram and messages from Johns Hopkins Univ. Pres. D.C. Gilman and others).

Mass., Boston Daily Journal (and Boston Journal)

Boston Daily Journal, Nov. 1, 1852, p. 2, c. 3 (GP’s Oct. 12, 1852, dinner, London, introducing incoming U.S. Minister to Britain J.R. Ingersoll and his niece Miss Wilcocks, and honoring departing minister Abbott Lawrence).

Boston Journal, Nov. 5, 1869, p. 4, c. 3-5 (Publicity at GP’s Nov. 4, 1869, death, included an account of his winter of 1810 visit at age 15 on horseback to his maternal grandparents, the Dodges, Post Mills Village near Thetford, Vt.; his stopover at Stickney’s Tavern, Concord, N.H., playing with the landlord’s sons and helping them saw and split wood. The next day GP was ready to pay and depart. Mr. Stickney declined payment saying that GP had earned his night’s stay. GP also visited his maternal aunt and her physician husband, Temperance Dodge Jewett and Dr. Jeremiah Jewett, Barnstead, N.H., and did chores during the uncle’s absence on medical calls).

Boston Journal, Dec. 21, 1869 (Thurlow Weed’s vindication of GP as a Union supporter in the Civil War; similar to Weed, Thurlow-a, entry under References: book, entry above).

Boston Journal, Dec. 28, 1869, p. 1, c. 1 (On Dec. 27, 1869, George Francis Train, pro-Irish anti-British extremist, spoke in Boston, mentioning GP: “I regard the fact of George Peabody’s remains being brought over on a British ship of war [HMS Monarch, accompanied by the USS corvette Plymouth] the greatest insult ever offered to America. George Peabody was a secessionist. The Alabama Claims is still unsettled and American citizens are dying in British prisons”).

Mass., Boston Post

Boston Post, July 21, 1854, p. 2, c. l (Controversial U.S. Legation Secty. Daniel Edgar Sickles walked out in anger from GP’s July 4, 1854, U.S.-British friendship dinner, charging GP in the press with toadying to the British by toasting Queen Victoria before the U.S. President. Pro and con letters appeared in the press for months; fuller account in New York Times, Sept. 6, 1854, p. 3, c. 3-5, entry below).

Boston Post, April 19, 1867 (GP’s April 18, 1867, speech, Georgetown, Mass.; similar to Boston Daily Advertiser, April 19, 1867, p. 1, c. 7, entry above).
Boston Post, June 21, 1869, p. 3, c. 4 (Rev. William R. Alger’s Sunday sermon, June 20, 1869, marking close of Boston’s National Peace Jubilee and Great Music Festival, mentioned GP’s unannounced visit to the festival and praised his U.S.-British friendship activities).

Mass., Boston Times

Boston Times, Jan. 30, 1870, p. 2, c. 1 (Explained the Maine legislative wrangle about members and other officials attending en masse the reception of GP’s remains from HMS Monarch, Portland harbor: “It may explain many things…when it is known that Mr. Peabody, although applied to, refused to subscribe to the Portland fund after the great fire of July 4, 1866. At least it is whispered that this fact…[disturbed] harmonious action concerning the funeral”).

Boston Transcriptand Boston Daily Evening Transcript)

Boston Transcript, Oct. 9, 1856, p. 9, c. 4 (Danvers, Mass., Oct. 9, 1856, reception for GP on his first U.S. visit after 20 years’ absence in London; also in Proceedings, 1856, pp. 115-119, under References: books, entry above).

Boston Daily Evening Transcript, Jan. 24, 1868, p. 2, c. 1-2 (A doctrinal dispute with their minister in Georgetown, Mass., led some 85 members including GP’s sister [it had been their mother’s church] to meet in an inadequate chapel. Asked to help, GP built a $70,000 Memorial Church in his mother’s memory. John Greenleaf Whittier’s specially written poem “Memorial Hymn” was read at the Jan. 8, 1868, dedication. He later objected in The Independent [NYC], Jan. 24, 1868, p. 2, c. 1-2, “A Marred Memorial,” that he would not have written it had he known of the condition in GP’s Oct. 18, 1867, letter from London that the church “exclude political and other subjects not in keeping with its religious purpose.” Similar to Boston Daily Advertiser, Jan. 9, 1868, p. 1, c. 8-9; and Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, entries above).

Mass., Boston Traveler

Boston Traveler, Oct. 9, 1856, p. 2, c. 3; and Oct. 10, 1856 (Danvers, Mass., Oct. 9, 1856, reception for GP on his first U.S. visit after 20 years’ absence in London; similar to Boston Transcript, Oct. 9, 1856, p. 9, c. 4, entry above, and in Proceedings, 1856, pp. 115-119, under References: books, entry above).

Mass., BostonGlobe

Globe, Dec. 17, 1971, Herbert A. Kenny, “The Old Tycoons” (Review of Franklin Parker, George Peabody, A Biography [Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1971], with photo of a profile of GP as a young man, taken from the dust jacket, portrait made from an original silhouette by Gary Gore, then design and promotion manager, Vanderbilt Univ. Press. His design was awarded a Gold Medal by the Art Directors’ Club, Nashville, 1971).

Mass., Danvers

Danvers Courier, April 21, 1849, p. 1, c. 4-6 (Contained much of the Md. legislature’s March 7, 1848, resolution of praise to GP for upholding the state’s credit abroad in the post-Panic of 1837 economic recession when Md. and eight other states temporarily stopped interest payments on their bonds sold abroad for internal improvements. Also contained Md. Gov. Philip Francis Thomas’ letter of transmittal to GP, adding: “To you, sir, …the thanks of the State were eminently due”).

Danvers Herald, Feb. 16, 1995, p. 3, Robert Branch, “Happy birthday, George! Danvers and Peabody to celebrate noted philanthropist’s 200th birthday” (Plans in Danvers and Peabody, Mass., for the bicentennial of GP’s birth).

Mass., Haverhill, Haverhill Gazette

Haverhill Gazette, Sept. 28, 1866, p. 1, c. 6, and p. 2, c. 1 (Mention of GP’s father Thomas Peabody’s military service in the American Revolution. Thomas Peabody died in debt on May 13, 1811. Reported that in 1814 GP’s mother and five of his siblings had lost their mortgaged Danvers, Mass., home and were forced to live with Spofford relatives in Salem, Mass., and elsewhere. By 1817 GP, working in Riggs & Peabody, had paid his deceased father’s debts and bought back the family homestead).

Haverhill Gazette, Jan. 10, 1868, p. 2, c. 2 (GP’s $70,000 Memorial Church in his mother’s memory, Georgetown, Mass., 1867-68; similar to Boston Daily Evening Transcript, Jan. 24, 1868, p. 2, c. 1-2, entry above).

Mass., Newburyport, Daily Herald

Daily Herald, Oct. 7, 1856, p. 1, c. 2 (GP’s Oct. 2, 1856, visit to the Essex County Agricultural Fair, Newburyport, Mass. He recognized and greeted former mayor Moses Davenport and Prescott Spaulding, telling the crowd that Spaulding was the merchant who gave him his first consignment of goods in 1812, when at age 17, after the Great Newburyport Fire, he left Newburyport with paternal uncle John Peabody to open a store in Georgetown, D.C.).

Mass., Peabody (named South Danvers, Mass., before March 13, 1868)Peabody Press

Peabody Press, Feb. 24, 1869, p. 2, c. 2 (Annual GP birthday dinner in Peabody, Mass.).

Peabody Press, July 14, 1869, p. 2, c. 2, 4-5 (Three months before his Nov. 4, 1869, death, an ailing GP spoke at July 14-16, 1869, dedication of Peabody Institute Library, Danvers, Mass., to which he gave a total of $100,000, begun Dec. 22, 1856, as branch library of Peabody Institute Library, Peabody, Mass., to which he gave a total of $217,600, begun June 16, 1852).

Peabody Press, July 21, 1869, p. 2, c. 2-5; and July 28, 1869, p. 2, c. 2-5 (Similar to Peabody Press, July 14, 1869, p. 2, c. 2, 4-5, immediately above. Also, poet Oliver Wendell Holmes composed and read his “George Peabody” poem at the dedication of the Peabody Institute Library, Danvers, Mass.).

Peabody Press, Oct. 6, 1869, p. 2, c. 3 (A sick GP at age 74, after amending his will and arranging for burial at Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Mass., left NYC on the Scotia, ending his last four months’ U.S. visit, June 8-Sept. 29, 1869. He reached London to rest at business friend Curtis M. Lampson’s home, where he died Nov. 4, 1869).

Peabody Press, Dec. 8, 1869, p. 2, c. 3 (GP’s last will, written and witnessed in NYC, Sept. 9, 1869, and recorded in Salem, Mass., Sept. 10, 1869).

Peabody Press, Jan. 19, 1870, p. 2, c. 2 (Described Boston’s C.W. Barth and staff’s solemn decoration of the Peabody Institute Library’s main reading room for GP’s lying in state, Peabody, Mass., Feb. 1-8, 1870, and Barth’s decoration of funeral hearse carrying GP’s remains to Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Mass., Feb. 8, 1870).

Peabody Press, Feb. 23, 1870 (Account after GP’s death of his winter 1810 visit to maternal grandparents near Thetford, Vt., stopover at Stickney’s Tavern, Concord, N.H., and visit to maternal aunt, Barnstead, N.H.; similar to Boston Journal, Nov. 5, 1869, p. 4, c. 3-5, entry above).

Peabody Press, March 23, 1870, p. 2, c. 5 (Proposal made and defeated at Peabody, Mass., town meeting to repudiate GP’s funeral cost to the town of Peabody of $4,800. Total known cost of GP’s funeral was $8,584.05, although U.S. and British government costs are not known).

Peabody Press, Feb. 22, 1871, p. 2, c. 1; Feb. 21, 1872, p. 2, c. 2; and Feb. 23, 1876, p. 2, c. 3 (All are about annual GP birthday dinners held at Simonds Hotel or elsewhere in Peabody, Mass.).

Mass., Peabody & Lynnfield Weekly News

Peabody & Lynnfield Weekly News, Nov. 9, 1995, p. 2, S.M. Smoller, “City Has a Ball in Honor of GP’s Birthday” (Portrait of GP as young man, said to be a recent [1995?] gift from the Peabody Trust in London to the “local museum,” Peabody, Mass).

Mass., Salem, Essex County Mercury & Danvers Courier

Essex County Mercury & Danvers Courier, Feb. 9, 1853, p. 3, c. 3 (GP’s $10,000 science equipment gift for 1853-55 Second U.S. Grinnell Expedition’s search for lost British Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin; similar to Washington, D.C., Daily National Intelligencer, Feb. 1, 1853, p. 3, c. 4 entry above).

Mass., Salem Evening News

Salem Evening News, Aug. 31, 1963, p. 3, “A World Benefactor is Peabody’s Pride” (Four GP-related illustrations are described under George Peabody Illustrations).

Salem News, Nov. 4, 1971, “New Book on Life of GP” (Review of Franklin Parker, George Peabody, a Biography [Nashville: Vanderbilt Univ. Press, 1971] with portrait of GP in old age; similar to Boston Globe, Dec. 17, 1971).

Salem Evening News, March 10, 1995, p. 9, “Peabody Today. Curious About George? Revised Book Details Life, Times of Peabody Namesake” (Profile of youthful GP silhouette, from the dust jacket of Franklin Parker, George Peabody, A Biography [Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1971 and 1995 rev. ed.]. The dust jacket design was made from an original GP silhouette by Gary Gore, then the design and promotion manager, Vanderbilt University Press).

Salem Evening News, Dec. 16, 1999, p. A10, S.M. Smoller, “Was George Peabody a Character Model for Dickens?” (Three GP illustrations from Peabody Historical Society, Peabody, Mass.).

Salem Evening News, Dec. 4, 2001, p. A8, Alan Burke, “George Peabody biography—with a hint of scandal” (Review of and commentary on Robert Van Riper, A Life divided: George Peabody, Pivotal Figure in Anglo-American Finance, Philanthropy and Diplomacy [Xlibris electronic publisher http:www.Xlbris.com, 2000]).

Salem Evening News, Dec. March 8, 2002, p. B4, Edward F. Nevins, letter to the Editor, “More on George Peabody” (Same as immediately above).

Salem News, Jan. 7, 2005, p. A4, Alan Burke & Jamie Jamieson, “George Peabody rescued.” (2004 charge and refutation that GP profited from the U.S. slave trade).

Mass., Salem Gazette

Salem Gazette, (Salem, Mass.), Nov. 30, 1869, p. 2, c. 1 (Robert E. Lee’s letter of Nov. 10, 1869, to GP’s nephew George Peabody Russell expressing regret and appreciation on learning of GP’s Nov. 4, 1869, death in London, on behalf of himself, as president and of the trustees of Washington College, Va. GP had given the college Va. bonds later worth $60,000 for a professorship of mathematics).

Mass., Salem Observer

Salem Observer, Jan. 15, 1870 (GP’s last will was written and witnessed in NYC, Sept. 9, 1869, and recorded in Salem, Mass., Sept. 10, 1869).

Mass., Salem Register

Salem Register, Jan. 10, 1870, p. 2, c. 3 (Similar to Salem Observer , Jan. 15, 1870, immediately above).

Mass., South Danvers (renamed Peabody, Mass., March 13, 1868)

South Danvers Wizard


South Danvers Wizard, March 25, 1868, p. 2, c. 5 (GP, in Europe with Robert Charles Winthrop, interviewed Pope Pius IX, Rome, Feb. 24 or 25, 1868. GP gave a $19,300 gift to San Spirito Hospital, Vatican charitable hospital, Rome. GP sat for his intended London statue in U.S. sculptor W.W. Story’s Rome studio, Feb. 19-27, 1868. GP met Baltimorean J.P. Kennedy, Nice, France, March 3, 1868. GP visited George Eustice [W.W. Corcoran’s son-in-law], Cannes, France, March 16, 1868. GP and Winthrop were received by Napoleon III [Louis Napoleon Bonaparte] and Empress Eugénie, Paris, France, about March 17, 1868).

South Danvers Wizard, April 1, 22, 1868, p. 2, c. 2; and May 6, 1868, p. 1, c. 7 and p. 2, c. 1 (Change of name from South Danvers to Peabody, Mass, March 13, 1868; opposition and other details).

Mass., Springfield Daily Republican

Springfield Daily Republican, Oct. 27, 1866, p. 4, c. 2 (The Civil War stopped the sale of U.S. securities abroad from 1861 until Union victory was assured in 1864. In this context critics, without proof, charged GP with profiting at Federal expense: John Bigelow, U.S. Consul in Paris, and Springfield Daily Republican owner-editor Samuel Bowles, repeated in Springfield [Mass.] Semi-Weekly Republican, same date, same p. and c.; and Springfield [Mass.] Weekly Republican, Nov. 3, 1866, p. 2, c. 5. This charge was uncritically repeated in Myers, History of Great American Fortunes, 1910, 1936; Josephson’s Robber Barons, 1934; Sandburg’s Abraham Lincoln, 1939, III, pp. 124-125; and in Baldwin’s Stream of American History, 1952, II, p. 121. For doubt on Bigelow’s original criticism about GP’s loyalty, See: John Bigelow and “Bigelow, John…” in References).

Springfield Weekly Republican, Nov. 3, 1866, p. 2, c. 5 (The tempestuous Civil War stopped the sale of U.S. securities abroad from 1861 until Union victory was assured in 1864. Critics, without proof, charged GP with profiting at Federal expense; Semi-Weekly Republican, same date, same p. and c.; and in this issue).

Mass., Worcester Daily Spy

Daily Spy, July 26, 1867, p. 2, c. 6 (Criticism of Harvard Univ.’s honorary Doctor of Laws degree awarded to GP [in London] in absentia on July 17, 1867, in appreciation for his $150,000 gift founding the Harvard Univ. Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology. Of the GP degree the article concluded: “If it is not selling titles of honor what is it?”).

Mo., St. Louis St. Louis Daily Evening News

St. Louis Daily Evening News, April 3, 1857, p. 2, c. 2 (GP’s March-April 1857 tour in the U.S. South and West; similar to Mobile (Ala.) Daily Tribune, March 5, 1857, entry above).

Mo., St. Louis, St. Louis Daily Missouri Republican

St. Louis Daily Missouri Republican, April 4, 1857, p. 2, c.3 (GP’s March-April 1857 tour in the U.S. South and West; similar to Mobile (Ala.) Daily Tribune, March 5, 1857, entry above).

N.H., Concord Congregational Journal

Congregational Journal, Dec. 17, 1851, p. 1, c. 6-7 (Described GP’s Oct. 27, 1851, dinner at London Coffee House, Ludgate Hill, for some 150 U.S. and British guests, many connected with the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London, the first world’s fair).

N.H., Concord Independent Democrat

Independent Democrat, Feb. 10, 1870, p. 2, c. 8 (Publicity at GP’s Nov. 4, 1869, death, transatlantic funeral, and Feb. 8, 1870, burial included an account of his winter of 1810 visit at age 15 on horseback to his maternal grandparents, the Dodges, Post Mills Village near Thetford, Vt.; similar to Peabody Press, Feb. 23, 1870, entry above).

N.H., Concord Republican and Statesman

Republican and Statesman, Nov. 12, 1869, p. 1, c. 2 (Similar to Independent Democrat, Feb. 10, 1870, p. 2, c. 8, immediately above).

N.J., Newark Newark Daily Advertiser

Newark Daily Advertiser, Jan. 27, 1870, p. 2, c. 2 and 5 (Press reports at GP’s death and funeral included his broken engagement to Esther Elizabeth Hoppin from Providence, R.I., 1838-39, in London when she attended Queen Victoria’s coronation. She broke the engagement, married an earlier beau, Alexander Lardner, who died in 1848. They lived in Philadelphia and had two children. She died in 1905. Artist Sully’s portrait of her, made in 1840, is in NYC’s Frick Art Reference Library).

N.J., Newark Newark Daily Journal

Newark Daily Journal, April 29, 1867, p. 2, c. 3-4 and April 30, 1867, p. 2c. c. 5 (“A Visit to Mr. George Peabody: From a Special Correspondent, New York,” a few days before he left NYC, May 1, 1867, to return to London).

New York, Albany, Albany Evening Journal

Albany Evening Journal, July 3, 1852, p. 3, c. 4 and July 7, 1852, p. 2, c. 2 (GP’s June 17 and July 4, 1852, London dinners and speeches, attended by U.S. Minister Abbott Lawrence, Wm. Brown, Thomson Hankey, Thurlow Weed, and J.C. Frémont, recently arrested in London, with bail paid by GP; similar to Washington, D.C., Republic, July 10, 1852, p. 2, c. 5, entry above).

New York, NYC Albion; or British, Colonial. and Foreign Gazette

Albion, April 11, 1863, p. 178, c. 2 (In Nice, France, March 1863, GP gave a lavish dinner and a concert in honor of the marriage of the Prince of Wales, with King Louis [Ludwig] of Bavaria attending).

Albion, May 7, 1864, p. 224, c. 2 (GP gave a total of $10,000 to the U.S. Sanitary Commission to aid Civil War military sick and wounded and their dependents).

Albion, May 19, 1866, p. 25, c. 3 (GP paid huge U.S. tax soon after NYC arrival, on his May 1, 1866-May 1, 1867, U.S. visit).

Albion, July 14, 1866, p. 332, c. 1 (GP visited Montreal, Canada, July 7-9, 1866, and fished for salmon on a Marguerite River stream to mid-July 1866).

Albion, Oct. 27, 1866, p. 511, c.1 (On the night GP spoke at the PIB dedication, Oct. 25, 1866, an anonymous letter, signed “S.P.Q.,” in NYC Evening Post, Oct. 25, 1866, p. 2, c. 2, called GP a Civil War profiteer who did not contribute to the U.S. Sanitary Commission and gave to the London poor rather than help to clothe and raise a single Union recruit).

Albion, March 21, 1868, p. 140, c. 2 (GP, in Europe with R.C. Winthrop, interviewed Pope Pius IX, Rome, Feb. 24 or 25, 1868. GP gave a $19,300 gift to San Spirito Hospital, Vatican charitable hospital, Rome. GP sat for his intended London statue in U.S. sculptor W.W. Story’s Rome studio, Feb. 19-27, 1868. GP met Baltimorean J.P. Kennedy, Nice, France, March 3, 1868. GP visited George Eustice [W.W. Corcoran’s son-in-law], Cannes, France, March 16, 1868. GP and Winthrop were received by Napoleon III [Louis Napoleon Bonaparte] and Empress Eugénie, Paris, France, about March 17, 1868.

Albion, Sept. 19, 1868, p. 452, c. 1 (In Nov. 1868 GP was in Brighton, England, with Reverdy Johnson and Sir James Emerson Tennent).

Albion; Aug. 21, 1869, p. 495, c. 1 (GP gave his lost Va. bonds, 1869, to R.E. Lee’s Washington College, later redeemed at $60,000; similar to Baltimore American, May 14, 1883, entry above).

New York, NYC Brooklyn Daily Eagle

Brooklyn Daily Eagle, Feb. 2, 1896, p. 24, c. 2 (A proposed GP statue in Statuary Hall, U.S. House of Representatives, U.S. Capitol Bldg., Washington, D.C., was first urged at a Va. conference of superintendents of education and recorded in Va.’s Superintendent of Public Instruction’s 1885 annual report. PEF administrator J.L.M. Curry tried but failed to further this proposal in other southern states, particularly S.C. and Tenn. S.C. Gov. John Gary Evans’ annual message, Jan. 25, 1896, reported S.C.’s effort, including $1,500 appropriated).

New York, NYC. Commercial Advertiser

Commercial Advertiser, July 9, 1852, p. 2, c. 1-2 (GP’s June 17 and July 4, 1852, London dinners and speeches, attended by U.S. Minister Abbott Lawrence, Wm. Brown, Thomson Hankey, Thurlow Weed, and J.C. Frémont; similar to Washington, D.C., Republic, July 10, 1852, p. 2, c. 5, entry above).

New York, NYC. Courier & Enquirer

Courier & Enquirer, Jan. 21, 1848, Supplement, p. 1, c. 4-6 (Baltimore lawyer John Joseph Speed, involved in Md.’s 1837 $8 million bond sale abroad for internal improvements, relayed to GP, London, the resolutions of praise from Md.’s legislature and governor for his [GP’s] marketing of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal portion of the bonds during the Panic of 1837 and for declining his $60,000 commission because of Md.’s financial difficulty).

New York, NYC. Evening Post

Evening Post, July 15, 1851, p. 1, c. 5-6 (Mentioned London Punch‘s satirical remarks on U.S. exhibitors’ large promise and little performance before GP’s $15,000 loan to help exhibitors display their wares).

Evening Post, Aug. 12, 1857, p. 1, c. 1; and p. 2, c. 2-3 (Elaborate farewell banquet, Aug. 10, 1857, at William Shepard Wetmore’s fashionable Newport, R.I., home, nine days before GP left NYC, Aug. 19, 1857, to return to England; similar to New York Daily Times, Aug. 12, 1857, p. 1, c. 6; and R.I. Newport Mercury, Aug. 15, 1857).

Evening Post, Oct. 25, 1866, p.2, c. 2 and 4 (On the night of PIB dedication, Oct. 25, 1866, anonymous letter, signed “S.P.Q.,” charged GP as a Civil War profiteer; similar to Albion, NYC, Oct. 26, 1866, entry above).

Evening Post, Oct. 26, 1866, p. 2, c. 4 (Rebuttal to “S.P.Q.”‘s charges, Oct. 25, 1866, against GP as a Civil War profiteer).

Evening Post, Jan. 21, 1870 (N.Y. state newspaper publisher and political figure Thurlow Weed’s vindication of GP as a Union supporter, corroborated by Ohio Episcopal Bishop C.P. McIlvaine, was challenged by Mass.-born type setter inventor Charles Wilson Felt, who said he talked to GP in London in 1861 and heard GP speak of separation of North and South. Felt concluded: “It would have been better if Mr. Peabody had remained in the United States instead of coming to England to die. His purpose in doing so was a bid for notoriety”).

New York, NYC. Independent

Independent, Nov. 11, 1869, p. 4, c. 1 (Critical obituary of GP in this abolitionist newspaper: “We cannot disguise ourselves, in surveying his character, a certain unlovely coldness and selfishness which…prompted him eagerly to amass, and grudgingly to disburse his abundant means for many years. Nor can we pay any warm tribute to the patriotism of an American who, during the war against the rebellion, divided his meager sympathy equally between slavery and liberty”).

Independent, Feb. 10, 1870, p. 1, c. 2-3, William Lloyd Garrison, “Honored Beyond His Deserts” (Abolitionist Garrison’s critical attack on GP after his death, charging GP as a Confederate sympathizer for his 1857 $1.4 million PIB gift “when Md. was rife with sedition”; for his 1867-69 $2 million PEF gift to aid public education in the South; for accepting friendly overtures from Southern leaders at the White Sulphur Springs health spa, W.Va., Aug. 1869, before his death; and for deliberately drawing public attention by hurrying to die in London when his will required burial in Mass.).

New York, NYC. New York Herald

New York Herald, June 29, 1852, p. 4, c. 3 (U.S. explorer-politician John Charles Frémont and his wife, Jesse [née Benton] Frémont, U.S. Sen. from Missouri Thomas Hart Benton’s daughter, were in London to finance their California Mariposa Estate mining. Frémont was arrested April 7, 1852, for debts incurred to meet territorial expenses when he was California’s acting governor at the Mexican War outbreak, 1846-47. Frémont appealed to GP, who deposited the bail needed for his release the next day, April 8, 1852).

New York Herald Edition for Europe Aug. 24, 1853, p. 1, c. 2 (Former U.S. Minister to Britain Abbott Lawrence’s cornerstone laying speech, Aug. 20, 1853, for GP’s first Peabody Institute Library, South Danvers, renamed Peabody, Mass., in 1868, to which GP gave a total of $217,600).

New York Herald, Sept. 16, 1856, p. 3, c. 6 (GP arrived in NYC on the Atlantic, Sept. 15, 1856, after nearly 20 years’ absence in London and was greeted on arrival by delegations from NYC, Boston, and South and North Danvers. GP told NYC greeters: “Like Rip Van Winkle I stare amazed at the changes before my eyes”).

New York Herald, Oct. 3, 1856, p. 4, c. 3, “Taking the Starch Out of Him” (Editor James Gordon Bennett’s critical-satirical reportage on GP’s 1856-57 U.S. visit: “For 20 years in London he has been in grand entertainments with high society, much publicized. In one month after Mr. Peabody arrived here, we have taken the starch out of him, and made him quite a respectable person. We shall send him back to John Bull quite a different man”).

New York Herald, Oct. 6, 1856, p. 4, c. 6 (Editor James Gordon Bennett’s critical-satirical reportage on GP’s 1856-57 U.S. visit: “…the purer air of this country is taking silly notions from Americans corrupted abroad. We wish his dinners, balls, feasts in Richmond Hill [in greater London] had been conducted with equal modesty and propriety. Had he done this he would not be the jest of London and the sorrow of thinking people here. But he grows wiser as he grows older”).

New York Herald, Oct. 10, 1856, p. 1, c. 4-6, continued p. 8 (Article covering the Oct. 9 GP celebration in Danvers had three columns on page 1 and continued inside. Editor James Gordon Bennett complained of paying between $200 and $300 in telegraph bills).

New York Herald, Oct. 11, 1856, p. 4, c. 3 (“Last spring we [Bennett] were in London and received one of the first invitations to Mr. Peabody’s entertainment at Richmond Hill on River Thames at which were Americans, a few silly baronets, and a noodle of a Lord. Ex-President Fillmore and W. W. Corcoran were there. We could not accept it, because about that time we were busy with Lord Palmerston and Lord Clarendon; but we have now the pleasure of returning the generous, though sometimes silly, Peabody…. Besides conferring on Danvers the favor of being born there, he gave thirty or forty thousand dollars for a lyceum. Peter Cooper gave a larger sum of $200,000 yet New York never made such a fuss over him as Danvers over George Peabody. His speech was good. He did not break down as he does in London, which shows he has acquired more strength in his backbone and more continuity in eloquence”).

New York Herald, Oct. 13, 1856, p. 4, c. 4 (“The philosophy of Mr. Peabody’s dinners is that he who gives the finest dinners to his customers makes the most money. Being a shrewd Yankee George Peabody does his own drumming, banquets his customers and their friends, sprinkles in a lord or two, a knight or baronet, sometimes a hungry member of Parliament. Inferior speeches and toasts do not matter as long as the turtle is good and the champagne sparkling. The immense sum spent for this purpose, to advertise the house of Peabody and bring trade to the shop, brings a hundred-fold return. The idea that his dinners had the least influence on Anglo-American diplomatic relations is so amusing that Edward Everett had to laugh when his speech touched upon it”).

New York Herald, Aug. 15, 1858, p. 1, c. 4-6 (GP’s July 22, 1858, dinner, toasts, speeches, Star and Garter, Richmond near London, attended by 30 Britons and 60 Americans, with U.S. Minister to France John Young Mason as guest of honor, and guests including Baltimorean John Pendleton Kennedy, and New York Times founder and first editor Henry Jarvis Raymond).

New York Herald, Sept. 20, 1859, p. 2, c. 2 (Editor James Gordon Bennett reported rumor of a rift between GP and partner J.S. Morgan during Panic of 1857, which GP later denied).

New York Herald, Oct. 12, 1859, p. 2, c. 2 (Editor James Gordon Bennett accused GP of using the London Times to attack business rivals).

New York Herald, March 27, 1861, p. 1, c. 4 (Quoted GP’s letter in the Boston Courier, March 8, 1861, as Civil War neared: “The threat of war has already lost the European market for United States securities. Concession and compromise alone would reinstate our credit abroad. I hope conciliation will prove successful. If not and war comes it will destroy the credit of North and South alike in Europe. Worse, our prestige and pride will disappear. Second rate powers may insult our flag with impunity and first rate powers wipe away the Monroe Doctrine. May Providence prevent this”).

New York Herald, July 26, 1862, p. 2, c. 4 (GP was given the Freedom of the City of London, July 10, 1862, in appreciation for his March 12, 1862, Peabody Donation Fund for model homes for London working poor, total gift $2.5 million).

New York Herald, April 16, 1866, p. 1, c. 4 (Queen Victoria’s March 28, 1866, letter to GP thanking him for his March 12, 1862, Peabody Donation Fund, London, to build model apartments for London’s working poor; and stating that she was having a miniature portrait of herself especially painted for him. Also, GP’s April 3, 1866, reply to Queen Victoria).

New York Herald, May 2, 1866, p. 5, c. 3-4 (GP, present at the prize-giving ceremony of the Workingmen’s Industrial Exhibition, was the first U.S. citizen and the 41st person to be made an honorary member of the Fishmongers’ Co. of London, April 19, 1866, before leaving on his May 1, 1866, to May 1, 1867, U.S. visit).

New York Herald, May 11, 1866, p. 4, c. 6; and May 20, 1866, p. 3, c. 6 (Described GP’s sister Judith Dodge [Peabody] Daniels’ home in the town of Georgetown, Mass., formerly called Rowley when their mother was born there. GP stayed with his sister during part of his May 1, 1866-May 1, 1867, U.S. visit. GP gave $30,000 toward a Peabody Institute Library, Georgetown, Mass., 1866).

New York Herald, July 9, 1866, p. 4, c. 6; July 10, 1866, p. 4, c. 6; July 11, 1866, p. 4, c. 6; July 22, 1866, p. 11, c. 6 (GP visited Montreal, Canada, July 7-9, 1866, and fished for salmon on a Marguerite River stream to mid-July 1866).

New York Herald, Oct. 26, 1866, p. 5, c. 1-2 (GP’s arrival in Baltimore and the PIB dedication and speeches).

New York Herald, Feb. 9, 1867, p. 4, c. 6 (First meeting of PEF trustees, Willard’s Hotel, Washington, D.C., Feb. 8, 1867).

New York Herald, Feb. 10, 1867, p. 8, c. 1, and April 29, 1867, p. 8, c. 2 (U.S. Pres. Andrew Johnson, his secretary William G. Moore, and three others visited GP, Feb. 9, 1867, at Willard’s Hotel, Washington, D.C., to thank him for the PEF as a national gift. With GP at the time were Robert Charles Winthrop, Charles Pettit McIlvaine, William Aiken, the Samuel Wetmores and their son, George Peabody Russell, George Washington Riggs, and three others).

New York Herald, March 23, 1867, p. 5, c. l (PEF trustees’ second meeting, March 19-22, 1867, and March 22, 1867, banquet GP hosted for 73 guests, NYC’s Fifth Avenue Hotel. Present besides the trustees and their wives was NYC store owner Alexander Turney Stewart, who had built a model community in Garden City, N.Y., based on the plan of GP’s London apartments for the working poor. Other guests were NYC financier William Backhouse Astor, historian George Bancroft, who had been U.S. Minister to Britain, and others).

New York Herald, April 20, 1867, p. 8, c. 6 (GP’s April 18, 1867, farewell speech in Georgetown, Mass.: “Here, since the earliest days of New England, my maternal ancestors lived and died. More of my family connections live here now than any other place. More than sixty years ago, I distinctly remember, a promised visit to Rowley was one of my brightest anticipations. Here my mother was born, she whom I loved so much, whose memory I revere. Here she passed her childhood and therefore these scenes are to me consecrated ground”).

New York Herald, April 29, 1867, p. 8, c. 2, and May 1, 1867, p. 4, c. 6 (GP visited U.S. Pres. Andrew Johnson at the White House, Blue Room, Washington, D.C., April 25, 1867).

New York Herald, May 7, 1867, p. 5, c. 6 (GP’s $15,000 gift for a free public library fund, Georgetown, D.C., April 20, 1867; similar to William Dawson Johnson Papers, Library of Congress, entry above).

New York Herald, May 28, 1867, p. 4, c. 2 (Described GP aboard the Scotia returning to England and resolutions of praise from U.S. passengers, May 8, 1867).

New York Herald, March 21, 1868, p. 4, c. 4 (GP’s $19,300 gift of April 5 or 6, 1868, given through Cardinal Antonelli to the Vatican charity San Spirito Hospital, is here listed as 1,000 francs).

New York Herald, March 22, 1868, p. 4, c. 5 (GP, in Europe with R.C. Winthrop, interviewed Pope Pius IX, Rome, Feb. 24 or 25, 1868. GP gave a $19,300 gift to San Spirito Hospital, Vatican charitable hospital, Rome. GP sat for his intended London statue in U.S. sculptor W.W. Story’s Rome studio, Feb. 19-27, 1868. GP met Baltimorean J.P. Kennedy, Nice, France, March 3, 1868. GP visited George Eustice [W.W. Corcoran’s son-in-law], Cannes, France, March 16, 1868. GP and Winthrop were received by Napoleon III [Louis Napoleon Bonaparte] and Empress Eugénie, Paris, France, about March 17, 1868).

New York Herald, March 22, 1868, p. 7, c. 4 (This account of GP’s $19,300 gift of April 5 or 6, 1868, given through Cardinal Antonelli to Vatican charity San Spirito Hospital, is here listed as 5,000 francs to the Pontifical treasury).

New York Herald, May 29, 1868, p. 3, c. 6 (U.S. Sen. Charles Sumner, R-Mass., introduced [March 5, 1867] joint congressional resolution of thanks and gold medal to GP for his Feb. 7, 1867, PEF gift. The resolution was debated and passed in the U.S. Senate, March 8, 1867, 36 yeas and 2 nays [the nays charging GP with Confederate sympathy]; debated in the U.S. House of Rep., March 9, 1867, passed, March 14, 1867, despite the same charge, and signed by U.S. Pres. Johnson, March 16, 1867. The gold medal was crafted by Starr and Marcus, NYC silversmiths and jewelers, seen by Pres. Johnson and cabinet and displayed in Washington, D.C., May 26, 1868, seen by GP in London, Dec. 25, 1868, and placed for display and permanent safekeeping in the Peabody Institute Library, Peabody, Mass.).

New York Herald, Jan. 31, 1869, p. 4, c. 3 (Described Congressional gold medal to GP for his PEF, similar to New York Herald, May 29, 1868, p. 3, c. 6, entry above).

New York Herald, June 10, 1869, p. 3, c. 6. (GP arrived NYC for his June 8-Sept. 29, 1869, last U.S. visit).

New York Herald, July 16, 1869, p. 5, c. 5-6 (Three months before his Nov. 4, 1869, death, an ailing GP spoke at July 14, 1869, dedication of Peabody Institute Library, Danvers, Mass., to which he gave a total of $100,000. The library was begun Dec. 22, 1856, as a branch library of Peabody Institute Library, Peabody, Mass., to which he gave a total of $217,600, begun June 16, 1852).

New York Herald, Aug. 1, 1869, p. 6, c. 6 (GP visited Greenbrier Hotel, White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., July 23-Aug. 30, 1869, where he spoke to and was photographed with Robert E. Lee, other former Civil War generals, and northern and southern educational and political leaders [Aug. 12], and where a Peabody Ball was held in his honor [Aug. 11]).

New York Herald, Aug 17, 1869, p. 7, c. 5; and Aug. 27, 1869, p. 5, c. 4 (GP gave his lost Va. bonds, 1869, to R.E. Lee’s Washington College, later redeemed at $60,000; similar to Baltimore American, May 14, 1883, entry above).

New York Herald, Sept. 23, 1869, p. 7, c. 2 (GP’s last $400,000 PIB gift and last Baltimore departure, Sept. 22, 1869).

New York Herald, Sept. 30, 1869, p.7, c. 4 (A sick GP at age 74, after amending his will and arranging for burial at Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Mass., left NYC on the Scotia, ending his last four months U.S. visit, June 8-Sept. 29, 1869. He reached London to rest at business friend Curtis M. Lampson’s 80 Eaton Sq. home, where he died Nov. 4, 1869).

New York Herald, Oct. 10, 1869, p. 3, c. 1 (GP’s acknowledgment of photo the GP Statue Committee sent him of the July 23, 1869, unveiling of his statue in Threadneedle St., London).

New York Herald, Nov. 24, 1869, p. 3, c. 4 (Erroneous reports of GP statues planned in Rome, Italy, and NYC. NYC meetings on Nov. 20 and 23, 1869, to propose a statue failed; the reason later given was that mounting honors for GP offended believers in republican simplicity).

New York Herald, Nov. 28, 1869, p. 3, c. 1; and Dec. 14, 1869, p. 7, c. 1 (Handing over ceremony of GP’s remains from Westminster Abbey, London, to Portsmouth harbor on Dec. 11, 1869, and placing the coffin aboard HMS Monarch for transatlantic crossing to New England).

New York Herald, Dec. 14, 1869, p. 7, c. 1; Jan. 5, 1870, p. 7, c. 2; and April 14, 1870, p. 10, c. 3 (GP’s last will was written and witnessed in NYC, Sept. 9, 1869, and recorded in Salem, Mass., Sept. 10, 1869; similar to Salem Observer [Mass.], Jan. 15, 1870, entry above).

New York Herald, Jan. 17, 1870, p. 5, c. 1 (Details of transatlantic voyage of HMS Monarch and USS Plymouth from Spithead near Portsmouth, England, Dec. 1, 1869; to Madeira, Portugal; to Bermuda; and to New England receiving port).

New York Herald, Feb. 9, 1870, p. 4, c. 1-4 (Philanthropic advisor Robert Charles Winthrop’s Feb. 8, 1870, eulogy described how GP first shared with him PEF and other gifts ideas, possibly on May 9, 1866, or in Oct. 1866, at Winthrop’s home, Brookline, Mass. Winthrop expressed amazement and quoted GP as saying: “Why Mr. Winthrop, this is no new idea to me. From the earliest of my manhood, I have contemplated some such disposition of my property; and I have prayed my heavenly Father, day by day, that I might be enabled, before I died, to show my gratitude for the blessings which he has bestowed upon me by doing some great good to my fellow-men”).

New York Herald, April 14, 1870, p. 10, c. 3 (Similar to New York Herald, Dec. 14, 1869, p. 7, c. 1; and Jan. 5, 1870, p. 7, c. 2, entries above).

New York Journal of Commerce

New York Journal of Commerce, Jan. 10, 1870 (Report of acrimonious debate over the Maine House of Representatives resolution of Jan. 6, 1870, for the entire legislature, governor, state council, and department heads to attend reception of GP’s remains in Portland. Some Maine legislators criticized GP for his alleged pro-Confederate and anti-Union activities. Clipping is in PIB news clipping album, “In Memoriam, Newspaper Notices of the Death of George Peabody” [New York: 1870]).

New York Timesand New York Daily Times

New York Times, Nov. 13, 1851, p. 4, c. 2-3 (Described GP’s Oct. 27, 1851, dinner at London Coffee House, Ludgate Hill, for some 150 U.S. and British guests, many connected with the Great Exhibition of 1851, London, the first world’s fair).

New York Daily Times, June 1, 1853, p. 8, c. 2-5 (GP’s May 18, 1853, U.S.-British friendship dinner, London; similar to Washington, D.C., Daily National Intelligencer, June 7, 1853, p. 3, c. 1-3, entry above).

New York Times, Sept. 6, 1854, p. 3, c. 3-5 (Controversial U.S. Legation in London Secty. Daniel Edgar Sickles walked out in anger from GP’s July 4, 1854, U.S.-British friendship dinner, charging GP in the press with toadying to the British by toasting Queen Victoria before the U.S. president. Pro and con letters appeared in the press for months; similar to Boston Post, July 21, 1854, p. 2, c. l, entry above).

New York Times, Sept. 7, 1854, p. 1, c. 6; Nov. 6, 1854, p. 3, c. 3-5; Nov. 28, 1854, p. 8, c. 1-2 (Sickles-GP controversy cont’d. from New York Times, Sept. 6, 1854, p. 3, c. 3-5, entry immediately above).

New York Daily Times, Oct. 12, 1855, p. 1 (GP’s $10,000 science equipment gift for 1853-55 Second U.S. Grinnell Expedition’s search for lost British Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin; similar to Washington, D.C., Daily National Intelligencer, Feb. 1, 1853, p. 3, c. 4, entry above).

New York Daily Times, July 4, 1856, p. 2, c. 4-5 (GP’s June 13, 1856, U.S.-British friendship dinner to introduce new U.S. Minister to Britain George M. Dallas. Among 130 guests: Lord Mayor and Mayoress of London, Vt.-born business friend and naturalized Briton C.M. Lampson, British architect Sir Joseph Paxton of Crystal Palace fame, Baltimore novelist and statesman J.P. Kennedy, and GP’s partner J.S. Morgan. Dinner held during 1855-56 Crimea War irritation when U.S. State Dept. demanded British ambassador to U.S. John Crampton’s recall for trying to recruit U.S. citizens).

New York Times, July 24, 1856, p. 2, c. 2-3 (GP’s July 4, 1856, Independence Day dinner for over 100 at Richmond near London. Speeches by U.S. Minister to Britain George M. Dallas and GP with U.S. inventor Samuel F.B. Morse replying to a toast to “The Telegraph”).

New York Daily Times, Sept. 16, 1856, p. 4, c. 4 (GP arrived in NYC on the Atlantic, Sept. 15, 1856, after nearly 20 years’ absence in London and was greeted on arrival by delegations from NYC, Boston, and South and North Danvers).
End of 13 of 14. Concluded on 14 of 14. George Peabody (1795-1869): A-Z Handbook…., by Franklin and Betty J. Parker. Send corrections, questions to: bfparker@frontiernet.net

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