4 of 14 Parts: George Peabody (1795-1869): A-Z Handbook…, By Franklin Parker & Betty J. Parker, bfparker@frontiernet.net

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4 of 14 Parts: George Peabody (1795-1869): A-Z Handbook of the Massachusetts-Born Merchant in the South, London-Based Banker, and Philanthropist’s Life, Influence, and Related People, Places, Events, and Institutions. ©2007, By Franklin Parker & Betty J. Parker, bfparker@frontiernet.net

This work updates and expands Franklin Parker, George Peabody, A Biography (Nashville, Tenn.: Vanderbilt Univ. Press, ©1971, revised with illustrations ©1995), and the authors’ related George Peabody publications.

Note: To read on your computer most pages of Franklin Parker’s out-of-print George Peabody, A Biography, 1995, as a free Google E-book: copy and paste on your browser:

http://books.google.com/books?id=OPIbk-ZPnF4C&pg=PP1&lpg=PR4&dq=Franklin+Parker,+George+Peabody,+a+Biography&output=html&sig=6R8ZoKwN1B36wtCSePijnLaYJS8

Background: Why these 1 to 14 blogs on George Peabody? The authors attended George Peabody College for Teachers, Nashville (renamed Peabody College of Vanderbilt Univ. July 1, 1979). Franklin Parker’s doctoral dissertation, “George Peabody, Founder of Modern Philanthropy,” 1956, has been an ongoing research and writing interest for over 50 years. The authors’ intent is to perpetuate public memory of him.

George Peabody, now largely forgotten by scholars and the public, was significant as: 1-a Massachusetts-born merchant in the U.S. South, beginning as junior partner in Riggs, Peabody & Co. (1814-29); then head of Peabody, Riggs & Co. (1829-43), importing dry goods and other commodities worldwide for sale to U.S. wholesalers. He transformed himself from merchant into: 2-a London-based merchant-banker, George Peabody & Co. (1838-64), which helped finance the B&O RR, the 2nd Mexican War Loan, the Atlantic Cable, and by choosing Junius Spencer Morgan (1813-90) as partner Oct. 1, 1854, was a root of the JP Morgan international banking firm.

Merchant-turned-banker George Peabody finally became: 3-the best known U.S. philanthropist of the 1850s-60s, founding the Peabody Homes of London for the working poor; founder in the U.S. of 7 Peabody Libraries and Lecture Halls; the Peabody Conservatory of Music, Baltimore; three Peabody Museums at Harvard (Anthropology), Yale (Paleontology), and the Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA (maritime history); and founder of the Peabody Education Fund for the South (1867-1914), a model for all later larger U.S. funds and foundations.

Two tributes to George Peabody:

Historian John Steele Gordon called George Peabody the “Most Underrated Philanthropist…. Peabody is unjustly forgotten today, but his unprecedented generosity was greatly appreciated in his time.” Ref.: American Heritage. Vol. 50, No. 3 (May-June 1999), pp. 68-69.

“The Peabody Fund, established in 1867 by George Peabody to assist southern education, is often credited with being the first foundation….” Ref.: Reader’s Companion to American History, ed. by Eric Foner and John A. Garraty (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1991). Internet: http://HistoryChannel.com/

End of Background. HTML symbols are intended for blogging (ignore). This 4 of 14 blogs covers alphabetically entries from: Eaton to Hapsburgs.

E

C.J.M. Eaton & the PIB

Eaton, Charles James Madison (1808-93). 1-PIB Creation. C.J.M. Eaton was a public spirited Baltimorean, art collector, GP’s long time friend, and an original PIB trustee connected with its origins. He worked with other early PIB planners, particularly John Pendleton Kennedy (1795-1870). Kennedy was largely responsible for planning the five part PIB, modeled in part on the British Museum, consisting of: 1-a reference library, 2-lecture hall and lecture fund, 3-art gallery, 4-music conservatory, and 5-prizes to the best Baltimore public school students, all jointly governed by both the PIB trustees and the Md. Historical Society trustees, with the Md. Historical Society housed in the PIB building. For early PIB plans and trustees, with sources, see also Kennedy, John Pendleton. PIB.

Eaton, C.J.M. 2-PIB Trustee. This joint governance never materialized. Both sets of trustees disagreed over building site, design, cost; and which set of trustees made final decisions. Some Md. Historical Society trustees feared that their older organization would be submerged in the new PIB. Civil War angers aggravated these differences. Before the PIB dedication and opening, Oct. 25, 1866, at GP’s request, the Md. Historical Society withdrew from this arrangement, compensated by GP’s $20,000 gift to its publication fund. Ref. (Early Baltimore and its libraries): Hubbell, p. 481. Kahn (Master’s thesis), pp. 2-4. Scharf-a, pp. 280, 403, 405. Uhler-f, pp. 61-64.

Eaton, C.J.M. 3-Eaton in London, 1851. But all this lay in the future. In 1851, C.J.M. Eaton was in London. GP asked Eaton for ideas for a cultural institution in Baltimore GP wished to endow. Eaton was then president of the Library Company of Baltimore, begun about 1790 and the only reference library available to the Baltimore public. Eaton explained his idea of transferring the Library Company of Baltimore’s 11,000 volumes to the Md. Historical Society. This move would bring together some 500 members of both groups. Eaton hoped that the Md. Historical Society might raise $25,000 as a permanent library fund. Ref.: Ibid.

Eaton, C.J.M. 4-Eaton to GP, 1855. Four years later, in 1855, Eaton was about to merge his Library Company of Baltimore’s 11,000 volumes with the Md. Historical Society’s library. He wrote to GP in London, reminded him of their 1851 talks, and wondered if GP would like to finance the permanent library fund. Eaton wrote: “I remember with pleasure our téte a téte over anchovy toast and something to moisten it after the opera during my last visit to England four years ago. I expressed a hope that I might be present and helpful should the ground work be laid for your projected munificence to Baltimore. I spoke of the plan, then only an idea but since adopted, of transferring the property of the Library Company of Baltimore (of which I am the President) to the Maryland Historical Society, thus bringing together about 500 members representing the cultural forces of our community.” Ref.: Charles James Madison Eaton to GP, Sept. 15, 1855, Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass.

Eaton, C.J.M. 5-Eaton to GP, 1855 Cont’d.: “The conditions of transfer are for the library of more than 11,000 volumes to circulate to members, be freely open to the public for reference, and that the Maryland Historical Society raise $25,000 as a permanent fund to improve the library collection. “The Maryland Historical Society’s function is to record manuscripts and antiquities of Maryland. It has a library, reading room, and gallery of paintings. I believe that its members will, in time, raise the fund desired. Yet I would rejoice if you would take over the venture in your name. Many Baltimore friends would also consent to help.” Ref.: Ibid.

Eaton, C.J.M. 6-GP Asked Others for a PIB Plan. In London in 1854 GP also asked visiting Baltimorean lawyer and statesman Reverdy Johnson (1796-1876) to discuss with John Pendleton Kennedy and William Edwards Mayhew (1781-1860) plans for his intended Baltimore cultural institution. Kennedy’s journal entries (Dec. 8 and 19, 1854) described Kennedy’s talks with Reverdy Johnson and Mayhew about GP’s proposed Baltimore cultural institution. Kennedy was in London and attended GP’s June 13, 1856, dinner honoring incoming U.S. Minister to Britain George Mifflin Dallas (1772-1864). They talked about GP’s forthcoming Sept. 1856-Aug. 1857 U.S. visit when GP planned to found the PIB. See Dinners, GP’s, London. Persons named.

J.P. Kennedy, Chief PIB Planner

Eaton, C.J.M. 7-PIB Plan Unfolded. Kennedy’s journal described his 1-Feb. 5, 1857, meeting with Mayhew in Baltimore, 2-Kennedy’s preliminary plan for the PIB, 3-his [Kennedy’s] visit together with Mayhew on Feb. 7, 1857, to GP, then ill with gout in his Baltimore hotel room, 4-GP’s offer of $300,000 with more money later, 5-GP’s urging purchase soon of a large lot permitting future building expansion, 5-GP’s mention of “Charles Eaton as an active coadjutor…,” and 6-GP’s proposed large gift to the city of London. Kennedy, Eaton, and Mayhew met with GP again, Feb. 9, 1857 (GP was in bed with a swollen knee). They selected trustees from a long list. GP signed the Feb. 12, 1857, PIB founding letter before he left Baltimore for Washington, D.C., Feb. 13. The news broke upon Baltimore with great excitement. See: Kennedy, John Pendleton.

Clash over Building Site

Eaton, C.J.M. 8-Building Site Differences. Mayhew was elected PIB trustee president, Kennedy was trustee vice president, and Eaton trustee building committee chairman. Kennedy’s journal entries record his frustrations at PIB trustees meetings because members differed on the PIB’s purposes. Kennedy recorded (March 12, 1857): “We have got to wrangling about the object and the plan. One portion of the Board are narrow in their views and do not appreciate the object as they ought to. They would make it a kind of literary and gossiping Club house. I want a large lot and arrangement for an Institution that will be national as well as local. My impression is that for the sake of ample accommodations we should get a few acres of grounds in the suburbs–and there build on them according to our means.–I have no opinion of a Board to do any good work.–I begin to fear we shall not get on well.” Ref.: Kennedy’s journal, VIIk (March 15, 1857-Dec. 6, 1859), entry Tues., March 14, 1857, Kennedy Papers, PIB.

Eaton, C.J.M. 9-Building Site Differences Cont’d. News that PIB property was being sought, Kennedy heard, had raised land costs. Lots outside Baltimore were offered free in hope that adjacent property would rise in value. Kennedy recorded (April 2, 1857): “I go to the Athenaeum rooms at 12 where I meet the Trustees of the Peabody Institute. The proposals to sell lots are reported–twenty-three offers–but all that are most desirable [are] so exorbitant they are inadvisable. We decline them all. Real property has gone up a hundred per cent since the Peabody donation. The committee are directed to continue their search in their own way.” Ref.: Ibid., entry Thurs., April 2, 1857, Kennedy Papers, PIB.

Eaton, C.J.M. 10-Building Site Differences Cont’d. To GP, touring southern cities, Eaton wrote of PIB event and trustee differences (March 21, 1857): “…strange and extreme ideas are now in conflict without any hard or improper feelings,–[some] hints from you are all that is wanted to keep us prudent.” Kennedy wanted a large lot of 200 or more square feet for later expansion. He proposed an available city reservoir lot outside Baltimore. Eaton objected, wanting a small lot of 100 square feet in the city. Ref. Charles James Madison Eaton, Baltimore, to GP, March 21 and 26, 1857, Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass.

Eaton, C.J.M. 11-Building Site Differences Cont’d. Kennedy recorded (April 23, 1857): “My offering this proposition kindles great irritation in Eaton, the Chairman of the Building Committee, who treats it very rudely. He is in a most ridiculous state of petulance and nervous agitation, and makes some silly speeches today, in reply to [Mayor] Swann, who supports my resolution. He has been electioneering amongst the members of the Board and seems to have persuaded them that he can build and organize the institute upon a plan which will not require over 100 ft. lot…. After a great deal of wrangling we adjourn until tomorrow.” Ref. Charles James Madison Eaton, Baltimore, to GP, March 21 and 26, 1857, Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass. Ref. Kennedy’s journal, op cit., entry Thurs., April 23, 1857, Kennedy Papers, PIB.

Eaton, C.J.M. 12-Building Site Differences Cont’d. GP was on his southern tour when on March 7, 1857, in the presence of Charleston, S.C.’s, mayor, he signed and returned the PIB letter of deed which Eaton had sent him. Returning to Baltimore, GP went with Kennedy to see possible PIB building sites, which included 1-the city-owned reservoir lot, 2-Loyola College property, and 3-a corner lot at Mt. Vernon and Washington Place. Kennedy’s journal (May 12, 1857): “Peabody arrives here today. He sends for me and we have a good deal of conversation in reference to the proceedings of the Board of Trustees. The difficulties are in the selection of a site. We visit the several lots spoken of. He is greatly pleased with the lot at the corner of Mt. Vernon and Washington Place… The whole would cost upwards of $100,000.” Ref.: (GP returned signed PIB letter of deed): GP, Charleston, S.C., to William Edwards Mayhew, March 7, 1857, PIB Archives.

Eaton-Kennedy Differences

Eaton, C.J.M. 13-Building Site Differences Cont’d. Kennedy quoted GP’s concern over trustee differences: “You know, my letter inculcates harmony of action, and I want you all to be satisfied.” GP also said: “They talk of making the building a monument to me. I do not want a monument. The monument will be in the usefulness of the Institute.” Kennedy’s journal continued to show disagreement with Eaton. Kennedy recorded the May 16, 1857, trustees’ decision to purchase the Howard lot, Charles St. and Mt. Vernon Place, the PIB’s present location. Kennedy wrote (May 16, 1857): “Eaton has gone to work to reverse the decision of Thursday and to my utter astonishment succeeds. He represents Mr. Peabody as discontented with our decision for the college lot–that is to say disappointed.” Ref. Kennedy’s journal, op cit., entries May 12 and 16, 1857, Kennedy Papers, PIB.

Eaton, C.J.M. 14-Building Site Differences Cont’d. Kennedy thought the Mt. Vernon Place lot too expensive. He deplored Eaton’s talk of hiring out halls and having shops on the first floor of the PIB as “quite incompetent,” “not in keeping with Peabody’s wish,” and a “frivolous” [view ] “of mere ostentation.” Kennedy was disappointed but would not argue about the PIB trustees’ decision on the Howard lot. Kennedy wrote in his journal: “I fear this [decision]–and as the Board seems to be quite impracticable I shall give myself but little trouble about it. It is very difficult to infuse into the gentlemen any real appreciation of what they might accomplish with this munificent donation towards the highest culture of the community in such pursuits as are contemplated in the scheme disclosed in the [Feb. 12, 1857, founding] letter.” Ref. Ibid.

Eaton, C.J.M. 15-Eaton-Kennedy at Odds. Eaton, an art collector, wrote GP his thought that Kennedy wished to emphasize the library. Eaton wanted to emphasize equally the library, lectures, art gallery, music academy, prizes to best Baltimore scholars–all under the cooperative direction of the PIB trustees and the Md. Historical Society trustees, with the latter in rooms in the PIB. Kennedy confined his doubts to his journal. Eaton, not above slander, wrote to GP that a “disappointed politician makes an irritable trustee,” and again: “There are more personalities mixed up in this stuff unworthy to be put on paper, but exhibition of human weakness is better to laugh at than to make of consequence.” Of Kennedy’s planned trip to Europe in mid-Aug. 1857, Eaton wrote GP: “I understand that Mr. Kennedy will embark on the 15th August which gives me more satisfaction than pain. If he carries his peculiarities into English society he will not enjoy himself as much as he should.” Ref. Charles James Madison Eaton to GP, July 4, 9, 17, and Aug. 7, 1857, Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass.

Eaton, C.J.M. 16-PIB Clash Seen by Kennedy Biographer. Kennedy’s biographer, Charles H. Bohner, thus characterized the early PIB clash: “Forced by petty jealousy and snobbery to compromise, he [Kennedy] decided to resign but Peabody persuaded him to continue.” Bohner added: “Peabody, on his part, found that philanthropy embroiled him in the bickering of men who grew officious when invited to spend his money.” Kennedy persisted, serving as elected PIB board of trustees president (1860 to his death in 1870), weathering two storms that threatened to end the grand PIB experiment: 1-the Panic of 1857 and 2-a near fatal clash between PIB and Md. Historical Society trustees over which would rule. Ref. Bohner, p. 215. See: Kennedy, John Pendleton. See PIB. 17-GP’s Influence Through the PIB.

GP & Art in Philadelphia

Eaton, C.J.M. 17-GP in Philadelphia (on Art). GP was in Philadelphia Jan. 10-18, 1857, partly to sit for a portrait in artist James Read Lambdin’s (1807-89) studio, partly to see his 21-year-old niece Julia Adelaide Peabody (b. April 25, 1835), daughter of GP’s deceased oldest brother David Peabody (1790-1841) and his second wife. Niece Julia was in school in Philadelphia at uncle GP’s expense. C.J.M. Eaton, keen on art, was also with GP and niece Julia in Philadelphia. Artist Lambdin was also director of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. Wanting to ask GP for a donation, Lambdin took the group to visit the art gallery. GP preferred to wait for them on a bench in the academy. Ref.: James Read Lambdin’s unpublished manuscript dated 1869, intended for publication in the Chronicle (Germantown, Penn.), founded by grandson John Oldmixon Lambdin, and quoted in Baltimore Sun, Nov. 1, 1915, p. 7, c. 5.

Eaton, C.J.M. 18-GP in Philadelphia (on Art). Years after GP’s death (Nov. 4, 1869), Lambdin recorded GP as saying on that occasion, “I do not feel much interested in such matters. You may be surprised when I tell you that, although I have lived for twenty years within pistol shot of the Royal Academy and the National Gallery in London, I have never been within their walls.” Lambdin later commented in his manuscript: “Such was the personal appreciation by this good man of those arts, the value of which he has since acknowledged by his princely gifts to the institution bearing his name. I need not say that after this confession the subject nearest to my heart was left unmentioned.” Ref.: Ibid.

GP & the Panic of 1857

Eaton, C.J.M. 19-Panic of 1857. Leaving NYC, Sept. 19, 1857, GP faced the Panic of 1857 in London. Pressed to pay outstanding bills and unable to collect what was owed to him by Boston’s Lawrence, Stone & Co., GP applied to borrow £300,000 ($1.5 million) from the Bank of England. He soon repaid the amount borrowed and emerged practically unscathed. C.J.M. Eaton, writing GP of panic conditions in Baltimore, added that the PIB plans were on hold, that the trustees would not ask for money during the crisis. William Edwards Mayhew confirmed Eaton’s view by writing GP: “The Trustees of the Institute have all been very willing to progress slowly and surely during the last three months and will do nothing more than attend to preparatory measures that will require no funds for months to come. They will not think of drawing for one dollar until they know that it will be agreeable to and convenient for you.” Ref.: Charles James Madison Eaton, Baltimore, to GP, London, Dec. 11, 1857; and William Edward Mayhew, Baltimore, to GP, Dec. 12, 1857; both Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass.

Eaton, C.J.M. 20-Panic of 1857 Cont’d. Eaton informed GP that the PIB trustees had secured a charter of incorporation, March 9, 1858. Building construction began in 1858. The building was planned by British born architect practicing in Baltimore Edmund George Lind (1828-1909). The plan called for a white marble building in grand Renaissance style, 150 feet long by 75 feet wide. Mentioning a small controversy over the material to be used for the exterior of the building, Eaton wrote GP July 5, 1858: “There has been some bad spirit shown by two or three of the [Md.] Historical Society” members. But he hoped the misunderstandings would end in concord. He had heard it said that if difficulties did continue the Society members would “wait until the committee reports on the organization of the institute and then decline [to enter] if all things are not satisfactory.” Ref.: Charles James Madison Eaton, Baltimore, to GP, London, July 5, 1858, Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass.

Eaton, C.J.M. 21-Panic of 1857 Cont’d. W.E. Mayhew also reported to GP on Nov. 11, 1858, that J.P. Kennedy had returned from Europe, met with the PIB trustees, and spoken of GP with respect and kindness; and that Kennedy would give the address when the Baltimore high school medals and prizes were to be conferred. Ref.: William Edwards Mayhew, Baltimore, to GP, Nov. 11, 1858, Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass.

PIB Cornerstone, April 16, 1859

Eaton, C.J.M. 22-PIB Cornerstone, April 16, 1859. While GP in London talked to friends about his proposed gift to the city of London, Eaton on May 7, 1859, wrote him that the PIB building was being constructed. Placed in the cornerstone on April 16, 1859, were the following 11 items: 1-copies of Hunt’s Merchants’ Magazine, Vol. 36, No. 4 (April 1857), pp. 428-437, containing the GP biographical sketch and GP engraving by John Charles Buttre (1821-93) from a daguerreotype. 2-Proceedings at the Reception and Dinner in Honor of George Peabody, Esq., of London, by the Citizens of the Old Town of Danvers, October 9, 1856 (Boston: H.W. Dutton & Son, 1856). Ref.: (Placed in PIB cornerstone, April 16, 1859): Scharf-a, p. 568. Uhler-f, p. 62.

Eaton, C.J.M. 23-PIB Cornerstone, April 16, 1859 Cont’d. 3-some gold and silver coins. 4-Baltimore public school reports. 5-Md. Institute reports. 6-Md. Historical Society reports. 7-B&O RR reports. 8-Baltimore Board of Trade reports. 9-Baltimore city government reports. 10-that day’s Baltimore newspapers. 11-and a piece of the Atlantic Cable. Ref.: Ibid.

PIB-MHS Trustees Clash

Eaton, C.J.M. 24-Which Set of Trustees Dominate? On May 18, 1859, William Edwards Mayhew wrote GP of apprehension about the exact role the Md. Historical Society would play in the PIB, about which set of trustees, PIB or Md. Historical Society, would exert ultimate control. Eaton, believing GP intended for the PIB trustees to have the final say, expressed his thought that if the Society wished to withdraw it would be best to let them go, and that GP could placate them with a contribution to their publication fund. Eaton wrote GP (June 20, 1859): “The Society I feel persuaded would jump at the donation.” Ref.: William Edwards Mayhew, Baltimore, to GP, May 8, 1859, Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass.

Eaton, C.J.M. 25-GP Asked for “harmony and trust.” Seven years later, the matter fell the way Eaton predicted. GP, an ocean’s distance away, often ill, and with business problems, drafted the following to Eaton: “I am a great lover of harmony and trust it will be preserved…. If there should be dissensions, do not write me anything about them.” But GP did not send this draft to Eaton. However irritating it might be, it was prudent to know of PIB progress and difficulties from Eaton, Mayhew, Kennedy, and others. As the Civil War raged, GP reluctantly agreed with the trustees to postpone the PIB opening. Ref.: Charles James Madison Eaton, Baltimore, to GP, London, March 7, April 25, May 9 and 19, June 20, 1859; and GP to Charles James Madison Eaton, Aug. 24, 1859; Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass.

Eaton, C.J.M. 26-PIB-MHS Clash. The Civil War ended. GP prepared for a year’s U.S. visit (May 1, 1866-May 1, 1867). He wanted to resolve the PIB-Md. Historical Society dispute and to dedicate and open the PIB. The climax came in the PIB trustees’ Feb. 12, 1866, letter asking the Md. Historical Society trustees to decline to enter the PIB as outlined in GP’s Feb. 12, 1857, founding letter (GP in London received a copy of this letter). A Md. Historical Society committee reviewed that letter, issued a response (April 5, 1866) that strongly denounced the PIB trustees’ withdrawal request, and recommended legal action to settle the dispute (copy to GP). Ref. Md. Historical Society-a.

MHSLawsuit Threatened

Eaton, C.J.M. 27-PIB-MHS Clash Cont’d. The Md. Historical Society’s review began: “The Society accepted the terms of Mr. Peabody’s founding letter after it was explained by Mr. Kennedy who helped Mr. Peabody draw it up. Mr. Kennedy explained to the Society that it was Mr. Peabody’s desire for the Society to assume charge of the Institute, that its trustees had been appointed only in the event that the Society should cease to exist, that the Trustees had visitorial power while the administration of the Institute lay with the Society.” Ref. Ibid.

Eaton, C.J.M. 28-PIB-MHS Clash Cont’d. The Society’s review then mentioned the PIB’s March 4, 1857 trust deed: “In his trust deed Mr. Peabody stated that should there be a failure of the Maryland Historical Society to undertake the supervision of the Institute, he empowered the Institute Trustees to make other arrangements. This clause simply provided for an emergency. This Society never contrived or intended to place difficulties in the execution of the original founding letter.” Ref. Ibid.

Eaton, C.J.M. 29-PIB-MHS Clash Cont’d. (Md. Hist. Soc.’s review): “The Institute was incorporated by the Maryland Legislature. The trustees purchased land and erected a building after consultation with the Society as to the rooms it would occupy. In January, 1860, a plan of organization was drawn up by the trustees verifying that the Society would be invited to enter the building when completed. The Society also adopted this plan.” Ref.: Ibid.

Eaton, C.J.M. 30-PIB-MHS Clash Cont’d. (Md. Hist. Soc.’s review): “The building was completed four years ago but the Society was never asked to enter it. After patient waiting the Society appointed a committee to confer with the trustees. This committee reviewed the subject in January, 1866, and asked by letter the right to occupy the portion previously assigned to it.” Ref. Ibid.

Eaton, C.J.M. 31-PIB-MHS Clash Cont’d. The Md. Historical Society’s review then quoted the PIB trustees’ Feb. 12, 1866, letter asking the Society not to enter the PIB: “We [the PIB trustees] have come to the conclusion for reasons which we think deeply founded in the welfare of the Institute, that the management of its several departments by your body, which was instituted for an entirely different end, will not be productive of the objects which the munificent founder of the Institute had in view.” Ref.: Ibid.

Eaton, C.J.M. 32-PIB-MHS Clash Cont’d. Having been asked to withdraw, the Md. Historical Society calmly considered the rebuff: “The chief reason [given for the PIB trustees’ withdrawal request] was that the administration of the Institute should be limited to fewer individuals than this Society had, that membership in the Society was easy of access, that the result might be conflict, hasty and unconsidered change. This reason we consider an inaccurate one. The trustees virtually tell us they cannot trust this Society of which many of them and Mr. Peabody are members, of which their President is our Vice-President.” Ref.: Ibid.

Eaton, C.J.M. 33-PIB-MHS Clash Cont’d. The Society’s review rejected the PIB trustees’ chief reason for the Society’s withdrawal as illegal: “This committee does not take heed of the chief reason ascribed for our rejection. Nor do we think it honorable to infer that the trustees or Mr. Peabody’s private opinion suggesting our withdrawal makes that withdrawal obligatory. The Institute is not private but legally incorporated. By illegal and indirect means the trustees desire our withdrawal. We need not defend this Society. Our history needs no vindication. We are the same Society of 1866 as we were in 1857, save for the normal entry of new and younger members in recent years.” Ref.: Ibid.

Eaton, C.J.M. 34-PIB-MHS Clash Cont’d. (Md. Hist. Soc.’s review): “The last reason brought forth for our withdrawal is that the library of the Institute requires the rooms formerly allotted to the Society. After nine years’ planning the trustees now discover they need more room for the library and give this as a reason for our withdrawal. It must occur to Mr. Peabody that if his trustees took nine years to develop the architectural plan and then found they were in error in the amount of space required for the library, they might never understand and carry out the educational ideas he envisaged.” Ref.: Ibid.

Eaton, C.J.M. 35-PIB-MHS Clash Cont’d. (Md. Hist. Soc.’s review): “We have been denounced to Mr. Peabody by the trustees. In nine years they have built a hollow, inadequate house, with a vacant lecture room to which the public has not been admitted, a library dark and gloomy with cases three-fourths empty to which no reader had been allowed. For four years this building has stood as a marble tomb of broken promises.” Ref.: Ibid.

Eaton, C.J.M. 36-PIB-MHS Clash Cont’d. (Md. Hist. Soc.’s review): The Society’s review concluded: “The [PIB] trustees hint that they might suggest to Mr. Peabody that he grant our Society a donation contingent on our withdrawal. This is a crass suggestion. In conclusion, this committee recommends that the Society institute legal proceedings. We recommend that this and previous reports be sent to Mr. Peabody to apprise him of these facts.” Ref.: Ibid.

PIB-MHS Reconciliation

Eaton, C.J.M. 37-PIB-MHS Clash Cont’d. GP saw that the Md. Historical Society was in the right, that it would win a legal decision, and that he had to act to soften this dispute. Anticipating that the Md. Historical Society would be asked to withdraw, John Pendleton Kennedy wrote in his journal: “I am myself responsible for Mr. Peabody’s committing the Institute to the Society but this was done at a time when the Society nobly showed some appreciation of its object….” Ref.: Kennedy’s journal, VIIo (Nov. 29, 1864-Sept. 21, 1869), pp. 185f., entry Friday, June 16, 1865, Kennedy Papers, PIB.

Eaton, C.J.M. 38-GP’s Appeal. Kennedy helped draft GP’s May 8, 1866, letter to the Md. Historical Society. GP acknowledged the moral and legal right of the Society. He admitted the wrong done the Society by the PIB trustees. GP said that one purpose of his U.S. visit was to see the PIB safely opened and that its opening depended on the Society’s forbearance and good will. Noting the insurmountable difference, he humbly asked Society members as a personal favor to him to withdraw from the original agreement. Ref.: Peabody Institute of Baltimore, Founder’s Letters, pp. 40-41.

MHS-PIB Animosity Softened

Eaton, C.J.M. 39-GP’s Character Softened Animosity. GP’s character cut through painful animosity built up over nine years. Md. Historical Society members decided at a May 24, 1866, meeting to relinquish the PIB role GP had originally assigned them. GP waited until Nov. 5, 1866, to thank Md. Historical Society members personally and asked to be allowed the privilege of contributing $20,000 to their publications fund. Ref.: (GP’s $20,000 Md. Historical Society publication fund): Harris, p. 18.

Eaton, C.J.M. 40-GP’s Gifts, Sept.-Oct. 1866. GP’s philanthropy during Sept.-Oct., 1866, included 1-added $100,000 to the Peabody Institute Library of South Danvers (renamed Peabody, Mass., April 13, 1868, total $217,000), 2-added $40,000 to the Peabody Institute Library, North Danvers, Mass. (total $l00,000, both gifts on Sept. 22, 1866), 3-Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard Univ., Oct. 8, 1866, and 4-Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale Univ., Oct. 22, 1866, $150,000 each. GP then traveled to Baltimore to dedicate and open the PIB (Oct. 25 and 26, 1866).

PIB Dedication & Opening

Eaton, C.J.M. 41-En Route to Baltimore. GP left NYC Oct. 22, 1866, for Baltimore. He stopped in Philadelphia where, on Oct. 23, some PIB trustees met him and described PIB dedication arrangements. On Wednesday morning, Oct. 24, in a special railway car arranged by B&O RR Pres. John Work Garrett (1820-84), GP and guests left Philadelphia on the Philadelphia & Wilmington RR, with a brief stop at Havre-de-Grace near the Susquehanna River. There George Nathaniel Eaton (1811-74), Enoch Pratt (1808-96), George Washington Dobbin (1809-91), and other trustees boarded to escort GP and guests. Ref.: (Train arrangements): GP, Philadelphia, to John Work Garrett, Oct. 23, 1866, Garrett Papers, Library of Congress Ms. See: persons named.

Eaton, C.J.M. 42-Arrival in Baltimore. With GP, met in Baltimore by Mayor John Lee Chapman (1812-80) and city council members, were Charles Macalester (1798-1873) of Philadelphia, Capt. Charles H.E. Judkins of the Scotia, GP’s nephew George Peabody Russell (1835-1909) and wife, nephew Othniel Charles Marsh (1831-99), and George Peabody Wetmore (1846-1921) of Newport, R.I. (later R.I. governor); and some PIB trustees. They went by carriage to Barnum’s City Hotel where the visitors were guests of the city. GP had lived at Barnum’s from its opening until his departure for London in Feb. 1837. Ref.: Baltimore Sun, Oct. 23, 1866, p. 4, c. 2; Oct. 24, 1866; Oct. 26, 1866, p. 5, c. 1-2. See persons named.

Eaton, C.J.M. 43-GP Attacked as Anti-Union. The Oct. 25, 1866, PIB dedication and opening were marred by press attacks alleging GP as pro-Confederate and anti-Union in the Civil War. GP defenders vigorously answered each attack. His PIB dedication speech was largely taken up answering these charges. See: Civil War and GP.

Eaton, C.J.M. 44-PIB Academy of Music’s First Director. C.J.M. Eaton helped secure Copenhagen-born Asger Hamerik (1843-1923) as PIB Academy of Music’s first director. Eaton wrote to ask the help of U.S. Consul Dietrich Fehrman in Vienna, Austria. Consul Fehrman’s advertisement in a European music journal brought letters of interest from Hamerik and others. Born into a musical family on his mother’s side, Hamerik studied and performed under various music masters in London and Berlin (1862-64); in Paris (1864), where he was the only pupil of famed French composer Hector Berlioz (1803-69); in Stockholm; and in Milan and Vienna. See PIB Conservatory of Music.

Eaton, C.J.M. 45-Asger Hamerik. Despite unease about Hamerik’s limited English and shyness, he was appointed and became a long-tenured director of the PIB Academy (Conservatory after 1874) of Music, during July 11, 1871-1898, or for 27 years. Hamerik enhanced the PIB Academy of Music’s reputation. He raised admission standards, emphasized American composers’ works in concerts, improved the music curriculum, and raised graduate requirements. Ref. Ibid.

Eaton, C.J.M. 46-Eaton’s Art Collection. In 1893, the year C.J.M. Eaton died, he gave his considerable art collection to the PIB Gallery of Art. This collection consisted of 81 paintings, 62 watercolors, drawings, miniature portraits, porcelain, and bronzes by French-born artist-sculptor Christophe Fratin (1800-64). Thus ended C.J.M. Eaton’s long connection with the PIB, over 36 years. He was present at the creation, he was responsible for its location on Mt. Vernon Place, and helped nurture its development during its early great years. Eaton’s nieces also presented to the PIB Gallery of Art the considerable art collection of Baltimore merchant Robert Gilmore, Jr. (1774-1848), which their uncle had purchased to prevent its sale to buyers outside of Baltimore. See: PIB. PIB Gallery of Art. Persons named.

Eaton, C.J.M. 47-GP’s Portrait by Chester Harding. Artist Chester Harding’s (1792-1866) portrait of GP was donated to the Md. Historical Society, Baltimore, by Mrs. Charles R. Weld (née Frances Eaton, died March 13, 1947), niece of C.J.M Eaton (daughter of his brother George Nathaniel Eaton, one of 16 original PEF trustees, see immediately below). This GP portrait is reproduced in “Baltimore’s 150th Birthday,” Maryland History Notes, Vol. 5, No. 3 (Nov. 1947), pp. 1-2. Under GP’s portrait on p. 1 is printed, “Painted during the early years of his maturity,” probably in GP’s early thirties. It is an oil painting on canvas, 30″ x 25,” in an oval frame. Ref. Ibid.

Eaton, George Nathaniel (1811-74), brother of Charles James Madison Eaton (see immediately above), was one of the 16 original PEF trustees.

John Eaton With GP, W. Va., 1869

Eaton, John (1829-1906). 1-Career. U.S. Educator John Eaton was born in Sutton, N.H., attended Thetford Academy, Vt.; graduated from Dartmouth College (1854); was school principal, Ward School, Cleveland, Ohio (1854-56); was superintendent of schools, Toledo, Ohio (1856-59); attended Andover Theological Seminary (1859); was ordained a minister (Sept. 1861); was a Civil War chaplain with the 27th Ohio Regiment (from Aug. 15, 1861); was chosen Nov. 1862 by Gen. U.S. Grant to administer runaway slaves; was promoted to Col. in charge of the 63rd U.S. Colored Regiment; was superintendent of freedmen in Miss., northern La., Ark., and west Tenn.(to May 1865); and was brevetted Brig. Gen. (March 1865). Ref.: Boatner, p. 259 (who stated, “The Freedmen’s Bureau was later modeled on his plan”). See: Freedmen’s Bureau. PEF. Sears, Barnas.

Eaton, John. 2-Described GP, W.Va., July 23-Aug. 30, 1869. He was later editor of the Memphis Post (Tenn., 1866-67); and won election as Tenn.’s superintendent of public instruction (1867-69). In this last role he was with GP and Robert E. Lee at White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., July 23-Aug. 30, 1869, and wrote of GP’s visit in his annual report. He was a Board of Visitors member, U.S. Military Academy, West Point (1869); was the second Commissioner of the U.S. Bureau of Education (1870-86); was president of Marietta College, Ohio (1886-91); president of Sheldon Jackson College, Salt Lake City, Utah (1895-99); and that year was commissioned to establish the Puerto Rico public school system (1898). For John Eaton’s description of GP at White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., July 23-Aug. 30, 1869, names of participating prominent leaders, and sources, including historic W.Va. photos taken Aug. 12, 1869, see Corcoran, William Wilson. Confederate Generals. Peabody, George, Illustrations. Persons named. Visits to the U.S. by GP. White Sulphur Springs, W.Va.

GP Gravely ill at Lampson’s London Home

Eaton Square, No. 80, London. 1-C.M. Lampson’s London Home. It was to Sir Curtis Miranda Lampson’s (1806-85) London home, 80 Eaton Square, that a gravely ill GP went on arrival in London (Oct. 9, 1869) from his last U.S. visit. Lampson was born in Vt., became wealthy in the fur trade, settled in Britain in 1830, accepted a British title, and lived the life of a British gentleman. He was, along with GP, a director of the Atlantic Cable Co. and a trustee of the Peabody Donation Fund to build and manage apartments for London’s working poor. See: Lampson, Curtis Miranda.

Eaton Square, No. 80, London. 2-Last Illness and Death. GP died there Nov. 4, 1869. Lampson helped coordinate GP’s funeral service and temporary burial in Westminster Abbey, transfer of GP’s remains from the Abbey to Portsmouth, England, and transatlantic transfer on HMS Monarch, accompanied by USS Plymouth, to Portland, Maine, for burial in Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Mass., Feb. 8, 1870. See: Death and funeral, GP’s.

GP’s 1852 Education Motto

“Education: a debt due from present to future generations.” 1-First Use: First Peabody Institute Library (1852), now in Peabody, Mass. On June 16, 1852, Danvers, Mass., celebrated the centennial of its separation from Salem, Mass. Letters extolling the importance of that day were read aloud were from prominent Mass. figures: Robert Charles Winthrop (1809-94), Daniel Webster (1782-1852), Edward Everett (1794-1865), Rufus Choate (1799-1859), and others, including GP. Invited to participate but unable to leave London, GP sent a letter from London dated May 26, 1852, read aloud to those assembled by his boyhood classmate John Waters Proctor (1791-1874). See: persons named.

“Education: a debt due… 2-GP’s Philanthropic Motto. GP’s letter announced his gift of $20,000 (first of a total of $217,600) for his first Peabody Institute Library in South Danvers (renamed Peabody on April 13, 1868). With GP’s letter and first gift was a slip of paper containing his motto: “By George Peabody, of London: Education–a debt due from present to future generations.” No earlier source for this motto has been found. How GP first came to use it is not known. Ibid.. See: Proctor, Sylvester.

“Education: a debt due… 3-Where GP’s Motto is Used. Besides all of GP’s institutes which have prominently used his 1852 “Education” motto in their publications, it has most recently appeared in an 1-internet entry for the museums of Western Australia; 2-is cited in an “Endowments” web page from the Director of Development, College of Natural Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colo.; and 3-is used by a fund-raising group (The Order of Golden Shillelagh), Univ. of Missouri-Rolla. … Ref.: 1-(Australia): Internet: “Education: a debt due from present to future generations.” (seen 4-12-01): http://www.cultureandarts.wa.gov.au/cainwa/museums.asp 2-(Colorado): http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/NatSci/html/Endowment.html (seen 8-23-01). 3-(Univ. of Missouri-Rollo): http://www.umr.edu/%7Edevelop/ogs/ (seen 10-22-01) See: end of Ref.: g. Internet (World Wide Webb).

Henry Adams on Benjamin Moran

Education of Henry Adams, by Henry [Brooks] Adams (1838-1918). 1-Secty. to his Father. Henry [Brooks] Adam was private secretary to his father, U.S. Minister to Britain Charles Francis Adams (1807-86, minister during 1861-68). In this book Henry Adams described his contacts in London in the 1860s. These included important Britons and visiting and resident Americans, such as GP, Joshua Bates (1788-1864), Junius Spencer Morgan (1813-90), and others. See: Adams, Henry Brooks.

Education of Henry Adams. 2-On U.S. Legation in London Secty. Benjamin Moran. Henry [Brooks] Adams’ book, Henry Adams and His Friends, A Collection of His Unpublished Letters, comp. by Harold Dean Cater (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1947), p. xxxiv, has a description of U.S. Legation in London Secty. Benjamin Moran (1820-86), often critical of GP in his private journal. Adams wrote: “On the staff of the American Legation in London was Benjamin Moran, an assistant secretary. He was a man of long experience at the Legation and one who became a sort of dependable workhorse to fill in for any duty that might come up from the changing personnel. He had an exaggerated notion of his importance; he was sensitive to flattery, and easily offended. He kept an extensive diary and while it must be read from the point of view of his character, it throws an interesting light on the Legation scene.” Ref. Ibid.

Education, U.S. southern. See: PEF. Sears, Barnas. Winthrop, Robert Charles.

Edward VII (1841-1910), eldest son of Queen Victoria (1819-1901), was king of England during 1901-10. It was as Prince of Wales that he unveiled GP’s seated statue by U.S. sculptor William Wetmore Story (1819-95), on Threadneedle St., near London’s Royal Exchange, July 23, 1869. He eulogized GP, praised W.W. Story, and referred to U.S. Minister to Britain John Lothrop Motley (1814-77) in terms of U.S.-British friendship. Story and Motley, both present, also spoke. GP’s statue in London was the first of four statues of Americans in that city: GP, 1869; Abraham Lincoln, 1920; George Washington, 1921; and Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 1948. A copy of GP’s seated statue in London was placed in front of the PIB, April 7, 1890, by Robert Garrett (1847-96). See: Statues of GP.

Egyptian Room, Guildhall, London, was the large room where the Lord Mayor of London’s dinner was given to honor GP following the conferral ceremony of the Freedom of the City of London, July 10, 1862. See: London, Freedom of the City of London.

Eisenhower, Dwight David (1890-1969). For details and source of the six Americans offered and the five who received the Freedom of the City of London (Andrew Stevenson [declined], GP, U.S Grant, Theodore Roosevelt, Gen. J.J. Pershing, and Dwight David Eisenhower), see London, Freedom of the City of London, and GP. Persons named.

Electric light bulb and GP See: Starr, John Wellington.

Eliot, Charles William (1834-1926), graduated from Harvard Univ. (1853), where he taught mathematics (1854-58), taught mathematics and chemistry (1858-63), and was president (1868-1909) when he attended GP’s final funeral service and burial, Peabody, Mass., Feb. 8, 1870. See: Death and funeral, GP’s.

Elizabeth, Queen Mother (1900-). On July 11, 1962, Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother, unveiled a plaque at the then new Peabody Estate in Blackfriars, London, celebrating the centenary of the GP Donation Fund, founded March 12, 1862 (total gift $2.5 million), which built and managed low-rent apartments for London’s working poor. For details and sources, including speech by the then Joint Parliamentary Secty., Ministry of Housing, Earl Jellicoe (George Patrick John Rushworth Jellicoe [1918-], second Earl of Jellicoe), see Peabody Homes of London.

Queen Victoria’s Son Prince Arthur at GP’s Funeral Service

Elphinestone, Howard Cawfurd (1829-90) 1-Prince Arthur’s Military Aide. Lt. Col. Howard Cawfurd Elphinestone was a military aide to Queen Victoria’s son Prince Arthur (William Patrick Albert Arthur, 1850-1942, Duke of Connaught). Prince Arthur was on a Canadian tour in mid-Nov. 1869, when British Ambassador to the U.S. Sir Edward Thornton (1817-1906) received Queen Victoria’s approval for Prince Arthur to visit in the U.S. Prince Arthur left Montreal, Canada, on Jan. 20, 1870, went to Washington, D.C., where he met Pres. U.S. Grant, and was in NYC on Jan. 29, 1870. See: Death and Funeral, GP’s. Victoria, Queen.

Elphinestone, H.C. 2-Attend GP’s Funeral. A Jan. 27 letter from his attendant, Lt. Col. H.C. Elphinestone, to Queen Victoria’s advisor in England, contained the first mention of Prince Arthur’s possible attendance at GP’s funeral: “Should Mr. Peabody’s funeral take place soon after that, Col. Elphinestone thought it would be a gracious act on the part of the Prince to attend.” Prince Arthur left NYC on Feb. 5, 1870, for Boston and left Boston on Feb. 8 for Peabody, Mass., where his attendance at GP’s funeral attracted wide favorable press coverage. Ref. Ibid. (Elphinestone): [Elphinestone, Howard Cawfurd].

GP and Ralph Waldo Emerson

Emerson, Ralph Waldo (1803-82). 1-GP Contact Via Delia Salter Bacon. U.S. essayist and poet Ralph Waldo Emerson had three indirect contacts with GP. One involved eccentric Delia Salter Bacon (1811-59), whose theory was that William Shakespeare’s plays were written by Francis Bacon (1561-1626), Sir Walter Raleigh (1554-1618), and Edmund Spenser (1552-99). She appealed for support from Ralph Waldo Emerson, Thomas Carlyle (1795-81), and Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-64). They gave her courteous aid but no endorsement. In London she presented a letter of introduction to GP from NYC banker Charles Butler (1802-97). GP may have done some banking services for her. See: Bacon, Delia Salter.

Emerson, R.W. 2-Four Lectures at the PIB, 1872. On April 19, 1871, PIB Provost Nathaniel Holmes Morison (1815-90) invited R.W. Emerson to lecture at the PIB. His four topics and dates in 1872 were: 1-“Imagination and Poetry,” Jan. 2; 2-“Resources and Inspiration,” Jan. 4; 3-“Homes and Hospitality,” Jan. 9; and 4-“Art and Nature,” Jan. 11. Emerson had previously visited Baltimore in April 1827 on his return from St. Augustine, Fla. He gave two lectures at Baltimore’s Mercantile Library Association in Jan. 1843 and again under the same auspices in Jan. 1859. Ref.: Peabody Institute Library, Baltimore. Mr. Emerson….

Emerson, R.W. 3-Four Lectures at the PIB, 1872, Cont’d. In 1872 Emerson was age 68 and was described as having long white hair and being dressed in “a meticulous old fashioned black suit of an earlier day.” He left Boston for the 17 hour train trip to Baltimore but forgot the name of the hotel his daughter Edith had given him. After questioning the conductor, he decided to stay at Barnum’s near the Battle Monument (GP had also stayed at Barnum when he worked in and later visited Baltimore, 1856-57, 1866-67, and 1869). Ref.: Ibid.

Emerson, R.W. 4-Four Lectures at the PIB, 1872 Cont’d. Of Emerson’s first lecture, “Imagination and Poetry,” Jan. 2, 1872, Baltimore American reporter wrote condescendingly: “The profoundest thinker in America read a lecture [at the PIB] last evening to an audience…in part…who faintly comprehended the argument and in part…who only saw the beauty of the words.” On Emerson’s second talk, “Resources and Inspiration,” Jan. 4, a Baltimore Gazette reporter concluded: “The lecture in general was highly interesting, and listened to with the closest attention.” Ref.: Ibid.

Emerson, R.W. 5-Four Lectures at the PIB, 1872 Cont’d. At this second Jan. 4 lecture Emerson saw in the audience and later talked to poet Walt Whitman (1819-92) and naturalist John Burroughs (1837-1921). Emerson’s third lecture, Jan. 9, was again well attended. Of his last “Art and Nature” lecture, Jan. 11, a Baltimore Sun reporter concluded: [The audience listened] “attentively to Mr. Emerson as one who has attained to so great a degree of celebrity, and to be able to say that they have heard him.” Ref. Ibid.

GP & Selling Md.’s Bonds Abroad

Emory, Thomas (active 1810-37). 1-Md.’s $8 Million Bond Sale Abroad. Thomas Emory (believed to have lived in Poplar Grove, Md.) was one of three commissioners appointed by Md. Act of 1835 to sell its $8 million bond issue abroad for internal improvements. When commissioner Samuel Jones, Jr. (1800-74), resigned early to become a state senator, he backed GP to replace him. Despite opposition in the Md. legislature, GP was appointed commissioner. GP and the other two commissioners, John Buchanan (1772-1844) and Thomas Emory, amid the Panic of 1837, failed to sell the bonds in London, Paris, and Amsterdam. The other two agents returned to the U.S. by Oct. 8, 1837. GP remained in London for the rest of his life (1837-69), 32 years, except for three U.S. visits (Sept. 15, 1856-Aug. 19, 1857, May 1, 1866-May 1, 1867, and June 8-Sept. 29, 1869). See: Md.’s $8 Million Bond Sale Abroad, and GP.

Emory, Thomas. 2-GP Sold Md. Bonds Against all Odds. The Panic of 1837 and an economic depression that followed for a few years hindered GP’s sale of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Co. portion of Md.’s $8 million in bonds. Worse still, the depression induced Md. and eight other states to stop their bond interest payments in part or whole. GP finally approached his major competitor, Baring Brothers, Britain’s largest banking firm, and sold them the bonds cheaply for exclusive resale. Not wanting to burden economically depressed Md., GP never applied for and ultimately declined the $60,000 commission due him. Ref.: Ibid.

Emory, Thomas. 3-Md.’s Resolution of Praise for GP. When Md. recovered economically and resumed its bond interest payments (1847), GP was in transition from London-based dry goods and other merchandise dealer to broker-banker in U.S. securities. The Md. governor’s 1847 annual report to the legislative Assembly singled out GP “who never claimed or received one dollar of the $60,000 commission due him…whilst the State was struggling with her pecuniary difficulties.” Ref.: Ibid.

Emory, Thomas. 4-Md.’s Resolution of Praise for GP Cont’d. On March 7, 1848, both houses of Md.’s Assembly passed a unanimous resolution of praise to GP, sent to him in London, with Gov. Philip Francis Thomas’ (1810-90) accompanying comment: “To you, Sir,…the thanks of the State were eminently due.” GP’s earlier letters assuring European purchasers that Md. would resume interest payments, and retroactively, along with Md.’s resolution of praise, were widely printed. It took ten years for GP’s efforts to sell Md. bonds to be fully appreciated. Ref.: Ibid.

Emory, Thomas. 5-Career. The only Thomas Emory listed in Md. State Archives, Annapolis, Md., records was a member of the Governor’s Council, 1822, 1823, and 1824; member of the House of Delegates, Queen Anne’s County, 1810, 1811, 1812, 1813, and 1814; member of the House of Delegates, Special Session, Queen Anne’s County, 1812 and 1813; member of Senate, Eastern Shore, 1825, 1831, 1832, 1833, 1834, and 1835; and member of the Senate, Special Session, Eastern Shore, 1836. Ref.: Md. State Archives, Annapolis, Md., biographical file for Thomas Emory MSA SC 3520-13051.

Endicott, William Crowninshield (1826-1900), was a Mass. judge; president of the Peabody Academy of Science, Salem, Mass.; and a PEF trustee. He was succeeded as PEF trustee by Richard Olney (1835-1917), also a prominent lawyer and statesman from Mass. Ref.: Curry-b, p. 103.

Engraver-Artists. See: Peabody, George, Engraver-artists. Peabody, George, Illustrations of.

Enniskillen, Ireland. For GP’s visits to Belfast, Ireland, near British statesman James Emerson Tennent’s (1791-1869) home at Tempo Manor, Enniskillen, Ireland, see James Emerson Tennent.

Enoch Pratt Free Public Library, Baltimore. For GP’s connection , see PIB. Enoch Pratt.

Erebus (ship). In May 1845 British Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin (1786-1847) sailed on his second Arctic exploration and was never seen alive again. Some 40 international searches were made for the missing explorer (1845-50s), his two ships the Erebus and the Terror, and their crew of 137 seamen. GP contributed $10,000 for scientific equipment to the Second U.S. Grinnell Expedition, 1853-55, in its unsuccessful search for Sir John Franklin. U.S. Navy Capt. Elisha Kent Kane (1820-57), commanding the Second U.S. Grinnell Expedition, named Peabody Bay off Greenland for GP’s monetary contribution to this first U.S. effort in Arctic exploration. See: Henry, Henry. Kennedy, Jacqueline. Kennedy, John Fitzgerald. Persons named. White House.

Essex County, Mass.

Essex County, Mass. 1-“Essex Junto.” GP was born in what was then the South Parish of Danvers, Essex County, Mass., some 19 miles from Boston. Essex County originally housed the “Essex Junto,” a politically intertwined group of the most famous and wealthiest families of eastern Mass. who moved to Boston after the American Revolution: the Lowell, Cabot, Lodge, Lee, Higginson, and Jackson families. They were a compact social group, often intermarrying and helping one another in business. Ref.: Heymann, p. 17. See Peabody, Joseph.

Essex County, Mass. 2-Peabody Institute Libraries, Peabody & Danvers, Mass. GP’s branch of the Peabody family was of humble origin and circumstances, unlike distant relative Joseph Peabody (1757-1844) of Salem, Mass., who owned 73 clipper ships and employed some 7,000 seamen in Far East trade. GP’s hometown of Danvers was renamed South Danvers when the town was divided (1855) into North Danvers and South Danvers, and was named Peabody by town vote on April 13, 1868. GP founded Peabody Institute libraries in South Danvers, June 16, 1852 (total gift $217,600) and North Danvers, later Danvers, Dec. 22, 1856 (total gift $100,000). See: town names.

Essex Institute Library (now the Peabody Essex Museum), Salem, Mass. See Peabody Essex Museum, Peabody Mass.

Ethnology. See: Archaeology. Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard Univ.

GP in Italy and France, 1868

Eugénie, Empress (1826-1920). 1-GP in Italy and France, 1868. About March 16, 1868, GP and his philanthropic advisor Robert Charles Winthrop (1809-94) were received by Napoleon III (Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, 1808-73) and Empress Eugénie in Paris, France. The month before, Feb. 19-28, 1868, GP and Winthrop were in Rome, Italy, mainly for GP to sit in U.S. sculptor William Wetmore Story’s (1819-95) studio for the GP seated statue Story was preparing for placement on Threadneedle St., near London’s Royal Exchange (unveiled July 23, 1869, by the Prince of Wales). See: Corcoran, William Wilson. Persons named.

Eugénie, Empress. 2-GP in Italy and France, 1868. About Feb. 24-25, 1868, GP and Winthrop had an audience with Pope Pius IX (Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, 1792-1878, Pope during 1846-78), GP’s only audience with the Pope and Winthrop’s second audience (Winthrop’s first audience with the Pope, 1860). GP gave $19,300 to San Spirito Hospital, a Vatican charitable hospital, Rome, Italy, probably Feb. 24-25, 1868. See: San Spirito Hospital, Rome, Italy. Persons named.

Eugénie, Empress. 3-GP in Italy and France, 1868 Cont’d. GP left Rome Feb. 27, 1868, for Genoa, then went by boat to Nice, France, arriving March 3, 1868, where Baltimore friend John Pendleton Kennedy (1795-1870) briefly visited him (Kennedy was on his way to Rome). GP went to Cannes, France, March 16, 1868, where he visited George Eustis (1828-72), son-in-law of GP’s Washington, D.C., business friend William Wilson Corcoran’s (1798-1888). Corcoran’s only daughter Louise Morris [née Corcoran] Eustis died Dec. 4, 1867, leaving George Eustis and their three children. See: Visits to Europe by GP.

Eugénie, Empress. 4-False Report of GP Statue in Rome. GP’s visit to Rome, audience with the Pope, and gift to the San Spirito Hospital may have been the basis for a short news item from Rome amid the vast publicity on GP’s death (Nov. 4, 1869) and transatlantic funeral: “A statue of Mr. Peabody is to be erected at Rome by order of the Pope.” No GP statue in Rome ever materialized. See: Death and Funeral, GP’s.

Trent Affair & George Eustis

Eustis, George (1828-72). 1-Confederate Emissary. George Eustis was secretary to Confederate emissary John Slidell (1793-1871). Slidell, his male secretary George Eustis, along with Confederate emissary James Murray Mason (1798-1871) and his male secretary, J.E. McFarland, were on their way to seek aid and arms from Britain and France respectively. On the dark night of Oct. 11, 1861, they and some of their family evaded the Union blockade of Charleston, S.C., got to Havana, Cuba, and there boarded the British mail packet Trent bound for Liverpool, England. On Nov. 8, 1861, in the Bahama Channel, West Indies, the Trent was illegally stopped by the Union warship San Jacinto under Capt. Charles Wilkes (1798-1877). See: Trent Affair.

Eustis, George. 2-Furor Over the Trent. The illegal seizure of Mason, Slidell, and their male secretaries, and their being imprisoned at Boston Harbor’s Fort Warren, provoked near-war hysteria between Britain and the U.S. Furor over the Trent affair lasted well into 1862, affecting GP in London. With his advisors and trustees, he was preparing to announce (March 12, 1862) the Peabody Donation Fund, a $2.5 million (total) gift for model housing for London’s working poor. Ref.: Ibid. See: Peabody Homes of London.

Eustis, George. 3-Furor Over the Trent Cont’d. The seriousness of the Trent affair and other British-U.S. provocations worried GP and his advisors. Would the British government, press, and public accept his London housing gift? Would they reject it? Britain demanded release of the four prisoners and an explanation. U.S. jingoism calmed. Pres. Lincoln’s cabinet met Dec. 26, 1861, disavowed Capt. Wilkes’s action as unauthorized, and the four Confederates were released on Jan. 1, 1862. Ref.: Ibid.

Eustis, George. 4-Married Louise Morris Corcoran. Another GP-Trent connection was that Confederate emissary John Slidell’s secretary, George Eustice, was married to Louise Morris Corcoran (1838-67), the only daughter of GP’s longtime Washington, D.C., business friend William Wilson Corcoran (1798-1888). She was a favorite of GP, who had entertained Corcoran and his daughter, sometimes the daughter alone, on European trips. When Louise Morris (née Corcoran) Eustice reached England, GP’s partner Junius Spencer Morgan (1813-90) went to see about her welfare. See: Trent Affair. For GP’s 1868 visit to the George Eustis family in France, with sources, see Corcoran, William Wilson.

Eustis, Louise Morris (née Corcoran, 1838-1867), was the only daughter of GP’s longtime Washington, D.C., business friend William Wilson Corcoran (1798-1888). She was a favorite of GP, who had entertained Corcoran and his daughter, sometimes the daughter alone, on European trips. She married George Eustis (1828-72) from Louisiana and lived with him in France. For GP’s 1868 visit to the George Eustis family in France, a year after her death, with sources, see Corcoran, William Wilson.

PIB Prep School

Evans, May Garrettson (1866-1947). 1-Founder of PIB Prep School. May Garrettson Evans founded the PIB Conservatory of Music Preparatory School in 1898. Born in Baltimore, she spent her childhood in Georgetown, D.C., returned to Baltimore at age 13 to attend the Misses Hall’s School, and then attended the PIB Conservatory of Music. Her brother, a Sun reporter, occasionally asked her to review PIB Conservatory of Music programs for the Sun. This experience led her to become the Sun‘s first woman reporter (between ages 20-27), covering dramatic, musical, and general events. See: PIB Conservatory of Music.

Evans, M.G.. 2-Founder of PIB Prep School Cont’d. May Garrettson Evans was the first to see the need for a preparatory music school for talented children that would be a feeder to the PIB Conservatory of Music and also serve as a general music school for adults. She suggested such a school to then PIB Conservatory of Music director Asger Hamerik (1843-1923), who recommended it to the trustees, but no action was taken. Ref.: Ibid.

Evans, M.G. 3-Founder of PIB Prep School Cont’d. In Oct. 1894 at age 28 she started a preparatory school herself, helped by her sister Marion and taught mostly by PIB Conservatory of Music students and staff. The school flourished, was first called the Peabody Graduates Preparatory and High School of Music, and four years later (1898) renamed the PIB Conservatory’s Preparatory Dept. (called familiarly “the Prep”). Ref.: Ibid.

Evans, M.G. 4-Founder of PIB Prep School Cont’d. Evans was superintendent of the Preparatory Dept. for over 30 years. She saw its enrollment grow from some 300 students to over 3,200 students with several branches in and near Baltimore. Besides being a music school for talented children, the Preparatory Dept. also served the public schools and adults interested in music, dance, and dramatic speech. It was also a laboratory school for PIB Conservatory students pursuing a teacher’s certificate. Before Evans retired in 1930, a gift from Baltimore lawyer and philanthropist James Wilson Leakin (1857-1922) enabled the Preparatory Dept. to move into its own modern music building, Leakin Hall (1927). Ref.: Ibid.

Evarts, William Maxwell (1818-1901), was one of the 16 original PEF trustees. He was born in Boston, was a Yale graduate (1837), studied law at Harvard Univ.; was admitted to the New York bar (1841); was NYC assistant district attorney (1849-53); was prominent in the Republican Party; represented the U.S. government in Britain to keep Britain from building ships for the Confederate Navy (April-July 1863 and Dec. 1863-June 1864); represented Pres. Andrew Johnson in the Feb. 24-May 16, 1868, Johnson impeachment trial before the U.S. Senate; was U.S. Atty. Gen. in Pres. Johnson’s cabinet; was U.S. Counsel in the Alabama Claims arbitration in Geneva (1871-72); was U.S. Secty. of State in Pres. Rutherford B. Hayes’s cabinet; and U.S. Sen. from N.Y. (1885-91). Ref.: Hicks, III, pp. 215-218. Curry-b, pp. 19, 33, 35, 64, 106, 137.

GP & Edward Everett

Everett, Edward (1794-1865). 1-Statesman, Educator, Orator. Edward Everett, U.S. statesman, educator, and orator, spoke at the reception for GP in Danvers, Mass., Oct. 9, 1856. This all-day gala affair celebrated GP’s first return visit to the U.S. in nearly 20 years since leaving for London, Feb. 1837. Edward Everett was born in Dorchester, Mass., was a Harvard graduate (B.A., 1811, M.A., 1814), Harvard professor of Greek literature (1819-26), member, U.S. House of Rep. (1825-34), Mass. governor (1836-39), and U.S. Minister to Britain (1841-45, where GP had contact with him), Harvard Univ. president (1846-49), U.S. Secty. of State under Pres. Millard Fillmore (1852-53), and U.S. Sen. (1853-54). The most notable orator of his time, his two hour address at the Gettysburg cemetery dedication, Nov. 19, 1863, is largely forgotten while Pres. Abraham Lincoln’s three-minute 272-word speech that followed won lasting fame.

Everett, Edward. 2-Oct. 9, 1856, Speech, Danvers, Mass. At the Oct. 9, 1856, GP reception in Danvers, Mass., Edward Everett said in part (after Mass. Gov. Henry J. Gardner’s [1818-92] short speech): “While in England I had the opportunity to witness Mr. Peabody’s honorable position in commerce and social circles. The pursuit of commerce has done much to promote civilization. From earliest times caravans of trade have bound the human family together and kept the arts and refinements of life from extinction. Medieval guilds were the bulwark of liberty and the germ of representative government. From trade came law, order, and progress….” Ref.: Proceedings…Reception…George Peabody,…Danvers, October 9, 1856, pp. 55-56. Everett-a. Everett-b, II, pp. 466-476. Full speech on internet (seen Dec. 24, 20004): http://www.hti.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=moa;idno=AEM7072.0001.001

Everett, Edward. 3-Oct. 9, 1856, Speech, Danvers, Mass. Cont’d. “We honor today one preeminent in commerce. When American credit stood low and the individual states defaulted their trust, our friend stood firm and was the cause of firmness in others. When few would be listened to on the subject of American securities in the parlor of the Bank of England, his judgment commanded respect; his integrity won back trust in America. He performed the miracle by which the word of an honest man turns paper into gold.” Ref.: Ibid.

Everett, Edward. 4-Oct. 9, 1856, Speech, Danvers, Mass. Cont’d. “He promoted the enjoyment of traveling Americans as so many here can attest. The United States Minister in England, with little funds, could not bring together Americans and Englishmen and women in convivial friendship. Our honored guest, with ample means, corrected this defect. At the first world’s fair in London, 1851, the exhibitors of other nations went officially supplied with funds to display their nation’s wares. The American exhibitors found a large place to fill naked and unadorned. At the critical moment when the English press ridiculed the sorry appearance we presented, our friend stepped forward and did what Congress should have done. Our products were shown at their best. Leading British journalists admitted that England derived more benefit from the contributions of the United States than from any other country.” Ref.: Ibid.

Everett, Edward. 5-Oct. 9, 1856, Speech, Danvers, Mass. Cont’d.: “Time and again he brought together men of two nations to drink from loving cups of goodwill. These are some reasons we welcome to old Danvers one of her greatest sons. (Great cheering.) “When on the 16th of June, 1852, Danvers celebrated its one hundredth year of separate existence our friend sent a slip of paper containing a noble sentiment. Now a slip of paper can easily be blown away. So, as a paperweight, to keep the toast safe on the table to repay his debt, Mr. Peabody laid down $20,000 and has since doubled it.” Ref.: Ibid. For other Oct. 9, 1856, celebration details and speeches by Alfred Amos Abbott (1820-84), GP, Robert Shillaber Daniels (b.1791), Mass. Gov. Henry J. Gardner (1818-92), and John Chandler Bancroft Davis (1822-1907), with sources, see persons named. Visits to the U.S. by GP.

Creating the Peabody Normal College

Ewing, Edwin H. (1809-1902). 1-Univ. of Nashville Trustee. Before his 1911 retirement as Peabody Normal College president, former Tenn. Gov. James Davis Porter (1828-1912) told how he helped first PEF administrator Barnas Sears (1802-80) establish the Peabody Normal College on the campus of the Univ. of Nashville: “…I was with Dr. Sears, the first General Agent of [the] Peabody Board in 1875 [PEF], and he said to me, ‘If you will furnish the house I will establish a normal college in Nashville. I am satisfied it is the best place in the South.’ This was within twenty minutes of my inauguration as Governor of the State.”

Ewing, E.H. 2-Tenn. Gov. J.D. Porter Cont’d. “I said to him, ‘Meet me here tomorrow morning at 10 o’clock and I will inform you whether I can secure the building for you. I am very anxious to see the school established. Before that hour I interviewed Judge William F. Cooper [1820-1909]. Edwin H. Ewing, Edward D. Hicks, III [1831-94] and other members of the Board of Trustees of the University of Nashville and obtained from them consent to establish the college in buildings of the University, and when Dr. Sears called I was able to offer him the most eligible building and the best location of any point in the City of Nashville. He accepted the offer, and in the winter following, the school was organized and
entered upon a career of the very greatest success.” See: PCofVU. PEF. Persons Named.

Excellent, HMS (ship), was a British warship which participated in the transfer ceremonies of placing GP’s remains aboard HMS Monarch, Portsmouth harbor, England, Dec. 11, 1869, for transatlantic voyage to Portland, Me., with final funeral service in Peabody, Mass. (Feb. 8, 1870), and burial that day in Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Mass. See: Death and Funeral, GP’s. HMS Monarch.

Exhibit, U.S., at 1851 Great Exhibition. See: Great Exhibition of 1851, London (first world’s fair).

Exhibition of 1851. See: Great Exhibition of 1851, London (first world’s fair).

F

Trent Affair & Lt. Fairfax

Fairfax, Donald McNeill (1821-94). 1-Trent Affair, 1861. Navy Lt. Donald McNeill Fairfax served under Capt. Charles Wilkes (1798-1877) on the Union warship San Jacinto which stopped the British mail steamer Trent, Nov. 8, 1861, in the Bahama Channel, West Indies. Capt. Wilkes ordered Lt. Fairfax to remove Confederate agents James Murray Mason (1798-1871) of Va. and his male secretary and John Slidell (1793-1871) from La. and his male secretary. The Confederates were bound for France and England to win support and aid. On Oct. 11, 1861, the four Confederates and some of their family evaded a Union blockade of Charleston, S.C., got to Havana, Cuba, and there boarded the British mail steamer Trent bound for Southampton, England. One day out of Havana the British Trent was illegally stopped by the Union San Jacinto. Lt. Fairfax is said to have carried out his unpleasant arrest and removal duty with courtesy. He bore reproaches from the Trent’s captain and passengers with equanimity. See:Trent Affair.

Fairfax, D.M. 2-Trent Affair, 1861 Cont’d. The seizing and holding of Mason, Slidell, and their secretaries in Boston Harbor’s Fort Warren prison evoked anger in Britain and France and exultation in the U.S. North. Passions were aroused. Angry recriminations over the Trent affair held up until March 12, 1862, GP’s announcement of his Peabody Donation Fund, a $2.5 million (total) gift for model housing for London’s working poor. British upper and middle classes favored the Confederacy, whose Southern cotton was needed for British textile manufacture. Ref.: Ibid.

Fairfax, D. M. 3-Trent Affair, 1861 Cont’d. While a U.S.-British war seemed imminent, GP and his trustees feared that the British government, press, and public might reject his gift. Britain demanded release of the four prisoners and an explanation. U.S. jingoism calmed. Pres. Lincoln’s cabinet met Dec. 26, 1861, disavowed the seizure of the Trent, and released the four Confederates Jan. 1, 1862. Lt. Fairfax later took part in the naval operations in Charleston harbor, was promoted to rear admiral, and retired in 1881. Ref.: Ibid.

Fame (ship) was the name of the brig commanded by a Capt. Davis on which GP, then age 17, and his paternal uncle John Peabody (1768-before 1826) left Newburyport, Mass., May 4, 1812, to open a merchandise store on Bridge St., Georgetown, D.C., May 15, 1812. See: Newburyport, Mass.

Family, GP’s (ancestors, brothers, and sisters). See: Peabody Genealogy.

Family support, GP’s. For GP’s support of his mother, brothers, sisters, nieces, nephews, and others, including their schooling, see Daniels, Judith Dodge (née Peabody) Russell (GP’s sister). Bradford Academy, Bradford, Mass.

Faneuil Hall, Boston. Horatio Gates Somerby (1805-72), Newburyport, Mass.-born London resident genealogist, GP’s friend and sometime agent, wrote GP of hearing anti-Confederate speeches in Boston’s Faneuil Hall on Oct. 6, 1862. One speaker, George Francis Train (1829-1904), Boston-born financier of city railway lines, rabidly anti-southern and anti-British, had earlier publicly attacked GP for his March 12, 1862, housing gift for London’s working poor ($2.5 million total). See: Somerby, Horatio Gates. Civil War and GP.

Faraday, Michael (1791-1867), English scientist. See: Starr, John W.

Adm. D.G. Farragut

Farragut, David Glasgow (1801-70). 1-Farragut and GP. GP and U.S. Navy Adm. David Glasgow Farragut, one of the 16 original PEF trustees (during 1867-70), met several times in the last two years of their lives. In early 1867, to forestall U.S. Pres. Andrew Johnson’s (1808-75) impeachment by Radical Republicans in Congress, Pres. Johnson’s political advisor, Francis Preston Blair, Sr. (1791-1876), suggested a complete cabinet change, with GP as Treasury Secty., Adm. D.G. Farragut as Navy Secty., and six others. But loyalty to his old cabinet kept Pres. Johnson from making that change. For F.P. Blair, Sr.’s Cabinet reshuffle plan and the eight names proposed, see Andrew, John Albion. Congressional Gold Medal and Resolutions of Praise to GP.

Farragut, D.G. 2-PEF Trustees’ Second Meeting. GP and Farragut were together at the PEF trustees’ second meeting, at NYC’s Fifth Avenue Hotel, March 19-22, 1867. GP invited Adm. Farragut and Gen. U.S. Grant (both trustees) and their wives to attend an opera. In his invitation to Farragut, GP enclosed photos of himself and asked for photos of the admiral and his wife. Ref.: (Farragut and Grant at opera with GP): Lewis, p. 335. See: Presidents, U.S., and GP.

Farragut, D.G. 3-PEF Trustees’ March 22, 1867, Banquet. GP gave a banquet for the trustees and their wives on March 22, 1867. Among the 73 guests were: 1-NYC store owner Alexander Turney Stewart (1803-76), whose store was later bought by and named Wanamaker’s. A.T. Stewart built a model community in Garden City, N.Y., based on the plan of GP’s model apartments for London’s working poor (from 1862). 2-NYC financier William Backhouse Astor (1792-1875); 3-historian George Bancroft (1800-91), who had been U.S. Minister to Britain (1846-49), and others. Ref.: Winthrop-a, II, pp. 685-688. PEF, Proceedings, I. See: persons named.

Farragut, D.G. 4-PEF Trustees’ March 22, 1867, Banquet Cont’d. Adm. Farragut sat at GP’s left and Mrs. Grant on his right. The military men were in full dress uniform. PEF trustee Pres. Robert Charles Winthrop rose to speak: “The time is at hand,” he said, “for the departure of George Peabody. I have here resolutions [from] the trustees [who]…thank him for his hospitality to us in Washington and New York. We consider this trust a high honor. We wish him God’s blessing as he takes leave of this country.” Winthrop concluded with: “Since he arrived last May he has performed acts of charity without precedent in the annals of the world. It was my friend Daniel Webster who said that the character of Washington was our greatest contribution to the world. Now we can add the example of George Peabody. The greatest philanthropist of his age.” Ref.: Ibid.

Farragut, D.G. 5-GP’s Gifts, 1866-67. Winthrop’s speech referred to GP’s charitable gifts during his year’s U.S. visit (May 1, 1866-May 1, 1867) These gifts totaled $2,210,000, including: a-$70,000 for a Memorial Church, Georgetown, Mass., in memory of his mother, who was born there, then named Rowley (ground broken June 19, 1866). b-$40,000 each added to the Peabody Institute Library, South Danvers (renamed Peabody, Mass., April 13, 1868), and the c-Peabody Institute Library, North Danvers (name reverted to Danvers, Mass., same date). d-$150,000 each to found the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard Univ. (Oct. 8, 1866) and the e-Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale Univ. (Oct. 22, 1866). Ref.: Ibid.

Farragut, D.G. 6-GP’s Gifts, 1866-67 Cont’d. f-$500,000 to the PIB. g-$25,000 each to Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass., for a professorship of mathematics and natural science (Oct. 30, 1866), and to h-Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio, for a professorship of mathematics and civil engineering (Nov. 6, 1866). i-$20,000 each for publication funds to the Md. Historical Society, Baltimore (Nov. 5, 1866), and to the j-Mass. Historical Society, Boston (Jan. 1, 1867). k-$15,000 each for a public library fund in Newburyport, Mass. (Feb. 20, 1867), and 12-Georgetown, D.C. (April 20, 1867). l-$140,000 for what is now the Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Mass. (Feb. 26, 1867); and m-$1 million to create the PEF (Feb. 7, 1867; doubled to $2 million, June 29, 1869). Ref.: Ibid.

Farragut, D.G. 7-GP’s Response to Winthrop. GP responded to Winthrop’s speech: “Never,” GP said, “have I been more honored than at this time by the presence of the highest officers of our Army and Navy, by the most distinguished men of the North and the South. May this gathering of friends be an omen of brighter days to come to our beloved country (applause). Let me close with two toasts. I give you our country, our whole country” (enthusiastic applause and the playing of the national anthem). GP concluded: “Finally, the country where I have lived and prospered, and to its Queen.” (Great applause). Ref.: Ibid.

Farragut, D.G. 8-Mathew Brady Photo of PEF Trustees. Press reports complimented the banquet, the speeches, and noted the public’s approval of the PEF’s intent to advance public education in the devastated South. Before dispersing, the trustees and GP on March 23, 1867, went to famed Civil War photographer Mathew Brady’s (1823-96) NYC studio for their only group photo. Ref.: (Brady’s photo of PEF trustees with GP): Harper’s Weekly, Vol. 11, No. 537 (April 13, 1867), pp. 227-228, 238. See: Brady, Mathew. For later woodcuts and other reprints of the Brady photo of the PEF trustees with GP, see Peabody, George, Illustrations.

Farragut, D.G. 9-Trustee Lawrence on GP’s Public Relations. Years later, former PEF trustee William Lawrence (1850-1941) described the PEF trustees’ banquets and GP’s penchant for favorable publicity in his memoirs: “There was in Mr. Peabody a touch of egotism and a satisfaction in publicity which worked to the advantage of this fund; by the selection of men of national fame as trustees he called the attention of the whole country to the educational needs of the South and the common interests of North and South in building up a united Nation.” Ref. Lawrence, pp. 268-269, quoted in Taylor, p. 25.

Farragut, D.G. 10-Trustee Lawrence on GP’s Public Relations Cont’d.: “The trustees brought their wives to the annual meeting in New York, and in the evening met at the most sumptuous [banquet] that the hostelry of those days, the Fifth Avenue Hotel, could provide; the report of which and of what they had to eat and drink was headlined in the press of the South and the North. This annual event took place upon the suggestion of Mr. Peabody and at the expense of the fund; and in its social influence and publicity was well worth the cost.” Ref. Ibid.

Farragut, D.G. 11-GP’s funeral. GP died Nov. 4, 1869, in London and was buried temporarily at Westminster Abbey (Nov. 12-Dec. 11, 1869). When his will requiring burial in Mass. became known, British PM William E. Gladstone’s (1809-89) cabinet on Nov. 10, 1869, decided to offer HMS Monarch as the funeral vessel to transport GP’s remains to the U.S. Pres. U.S. Grant, through U.S. Navy Secty. George Maxwell Robeson (1829-97), ordered the naval corvette, USS Plymouth, from Marseilles, France, to accompany HMS Monarch south to Madeira, across the Atlantic, and north to Portland, Me. Pres. Grant, again through Navy Secty. Robeson, ordered Adm. Farragut to command a flotilla of U.S. Navy ships to receive GP’s remains at Portland harbor (Jan. 25-Feb. 1, 1870). This was Adm. Farragut’s last naval assignment before his death, Aug. 14, 1870. See: Death and Funeral, GP’s.

Farragut, D.G. 12-Farragut’s Career. D.G. Farragut was born at Campbell’s Station near Knoxville, Tenn., of a Scottish mother and noble Spanish-born father. His father came to America in 1776, served in the Colonial army, is said to have saved Gen. George Washington’s life at the Battle of Cowpens, S.C. (Jan. 17, 1781), and became a sailing master in the U.S. Navy. When young Farragut’s mother died, he was cared for by his father’s shipmate, later Commander David Porter (1780-1843). D.G. Farragut became a midshipman (Dec. 17, 1810) at the early age of 9 and-a-half years, was sent to school for two years in Chester, Pa., and sailed on Commander David Porter’s ship Essex in the War of 1812. Ref.: Lewis, pp. 334-335, 373. Boatner, pp. 275-276.

Farragut, D.G. 13-Farragut’s Career Cont’d. Remaining in the Navy, Farragut was made acting Lt. (1819), when he was 18. He cruised the West Indies against Cuban pirates, was commissioned commander (Sept. 9, 1841), participated in the Mexican War and the Civil War, where he was the hero of the battles of New Orleans (April 24, 1862) and Mobile Bay (Aug. 5, 1864). He is remembered for saying, “Damn the torpedoes! Go ahead!” at Mobile Bay. Farragut, the greatest naval commander of the Civil War, was made rear admiral, July 16, 1862; vice admiral, Dec. 23, 1864; and admiral, July 26, 1866. He died on Aug. 14, 1870, nine months after GP’s death. Ref.: Ibid. See: Almy, John Jay. Death and Funeral, GP’s.

Faye and Joe Wyatt Center, PCofVU, since 1993-96, formerly the Social Religious Building, PCofVU. See: PCofVU. Conkin, Peabody College, index.

February was an important month in GP’s life and career. He was born Feb. 18, 1795. He left the U.S. for England to stay for some 30 years on Feb. 1, 1837, to his death on Nov. 4, 1869 (except for three U.S. visits). His Feb. 12, 1857, letter founded the PIB ($1.4 million total gift). His Feb. 7, 1867, letter founded the PEF ($2 million total gift). His remains were taken by train from Portland, Me., to Peabody, Mass., on Feb. 1, 1870. He was buried on Feb. 8, 1870, Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Mass., after a 96-day transatlantic funeral. Ref.: Evans, p. 6.

Federal Republican, and Commercial Gazette (Georgetown, D.C.). For GP’s 1812 advertisements of goods for sale in the Federal Republican, and Commercial Gazette (Georgetown, D.C.), with sources, see Riggs, Sr., Elisha.

Federalist Party. GP’s fine penmanship at age 15-16 in 1811 in Newburyport, Mass., working as clerk in older brother David Peabody’s (1790-1841) drapery shop, earned him extra money writing ballots for the Federalist Party.

Fehrman, Dietrich, was U.S. Consul in Vienna, Austria, when PIB trustee Charles J. M. Eaton (1808-93) wrote to ask his help in finding a director of the PIB Academy (later Conservatory) of Music. Consul Fehrman’s advertisement in a European music journal brought letters of interest, including one from Asger Hamerik (1843-1923), Copenhagen, Denmark-born musician, leading to his appointment as first PIB Conservatory of Music director. See: Persons named. PIB Conservatory of Music.

GP & the Am. Assn. of London

Fell, Jesse Weldon, M.D. (active, 1850s). 1-U.S.-Born Physician Resident in London. Jesse Weldon Fell, M.D., was a U.S.-born physician resident in London who experimented with a cancer cure in London’s Middlesex Hospital. He wrote A Treatise on Cancer, and its Treatment (London, 1857). He was a friend of U.S. Legation Secty. Benjamin Moran (1820-86), attended Mrs. Moran’s illness until her death, and was active with Moran and others in the American Association of London (1858), a short-lived club for social and charitable purposes. Ref.: “Fell, Jesse Weldon”-b, Vol. 1, p. 584.

Fell, J.W., M.D. 2-Am. Assn. of London. The Association’s newer U.S. resident organizers in London were generally hostile to older longtime residents like GP, who had spent years promoting U.S.-British friendship. The newer U.S. residents took over for a few years under strained relations the July 4th dinners GP had started in 1850 and made into widely and favorably reported U.S.-British friendship dinners. Ref.: Ibid. See: Campbell, Robert Blair. Moran, Benjamin.

GP Critic C.W. Felt

Felt, Charles Wilson (b. Nov. 18, 1834). 1-Critics Garrison and Felt. Charles Wilson Felt, born in Salem, Mass., the son of Ephaim Felt and Eliza (née Ropes), was an inventor (believed to have been a promoter of railroads in cities and towns, i.e., trolley cars). Abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison (1805-79), himself critical of GP, quoted Felt’s charge that GP was a Confederate sympathize in the Civil War, Garrison’s editorial, “Honored Beyond His Deserts,” NYC Independent, Feb. 10, 1870, wrote after GP’s death: “His [GP’s] sympathies in his own country were much more strongly with a pro-slavery South than with an anti-slavery North; and he carried his feelings in that direction almost to the verge of the Rebellion.” Ref.: NYC Independent (Feb. 8, 1870), p. 1, c. 2-3. “Felt, Charles Frederick Wilson,” (C.W. Felt’s son).

Felt, C.W. 2-Felt on GP. Garrison then referred to Felt as follows: “Corroborative of this charge, take the testimony of Charles W. Felt, Esq., as given in a letter to the Evening Post, dated Manchester (Eng.), Jan. 8th last [1870]: [Felt wrote]: ‘I was in London in October and November, 1861, having a letter of introduction from Edward Everett [1794-1865] to Mr. Peabody.” Ref.: Ibid.

Felt, C.W. 3-Felt on GP Cont’d.: “I was astonished and mortified to hear Mr. Peabody, in the course of a short conversation, indulge in such expressions as these: [Felt quoting GP]: ‘I do not see how it can be settled, unless Mr. Davis gives up what Mr. Lincoln says he is fighting for–the forts the South has taken–and then separate.’ ‘You can’t carry on the war without coming over here for money; and you won’t get a shilling.’ ‘Harriet Beecher Stowe was over here, but I would not go to see her, though I was invited: and now she writes that this is our war! [Felt’s italics] Such things don’t go down over here.'” Ref.: Ibid.

Felt, C.W. 4-Felt on GP Cont’d.: “I made one other call upon him; but I could only regard him as recreant to his country in the time of her greatest need.” [Garrison’s italics]. Ref.: Ibid. Ref.: (Felt, Jan. 8, 1870, from Manchester, England): NYC Evening Post, Jan. 21, 1870. Felt’s letter also in Parker, F.-f, pp. 1-20; reprinted in Parker, F.-zd, pp. 50-68.

Felt, C.W. 5-Felt Refuted Weed’s Vindication. Felt’s Jan. 8, 1870, letter from Manchester, England, printed in the NYC Post, Jan. 21, 1870, was written to refute Thurlow Weed’s (1797-1882) vindication of GP as a staunch Unionist during the Civil War, printed in the New York Times, Dec. 23, 1869, p. 2, c. 3-4. Weed’s vindication was confirmed publicly by Ohio Episcopal Bishop McIlvaine (1799-1873) and others. Felt wrote: “I have seen Mr. Weed’s vindication of George Peabody’s course in the Civil War. He acknowledges finding Peabody undecided as late as December, 1861. No loyal American could be doubtful after Fort Sumter, Bull Run, and Front Royal. I don’t doubt that Peabody ran to Minister [to Britain, Charles Francis] Adams [1807-86] with news of Federal success at Fort Donelson for he then saw which would be the winning side. He became a friend of the North when he saw it would win.” Ref.: Ibid.

Felt, C.W. 6-Garrison: “a bid for notoriety”. The title of Garrison’s editorial clearly implied and agreed with what Felt more directly stated: that GP was “honored beyond his true merit,” that it would have been better if he had remained in the U.S. instead of going to England to die, that his return to England to die was a bid for notoriety. Ref.: (Weed’s vindication): New York Times, Dec. 23, 1869, p. 2, c. 3-4; reprinted in Weed-a, pp. 9-15. See: Baldwin, Leland DeWitt. Bigelow, John. Bowles, Samuel. Civil War and GP. Josephson, Matthew. Moran, Benjamin. Myers, Gustavus. Sandburg, Carl.

At GP’s May 18, 1853, London Dinner

Felton, Cornelius Conway (1807-62). 1-Harvard Univ. President. Cornelius Conway Felton was Harvard Univ. president (1860). In his book, Familiar Letters from Europe (Boston: Tichnor and Field, 1865), p. 28, Felton refers to being a guest “at a splendid and costly entertainment” given in 1853 by GP at which Martin Van Buren (1782-62, eighth U.S. Pres., 1837-41) and “many very distinguished persons” were present. This May 18, 1853, dinner, for 150 persons (65 English, 85 Americans), was at the Star and Garter, Richmond, about eight miles from London overlooking the Thames. The dinner, complete with a band and vocalists, began and ended with the British and U.S. national anthems. The dinner introduced to London society the new U.S Minister to Britain, Joseph Reed Ingersoll (1786-1868), and his niece, Charlotte Manigault Wilcocks (1821-75), who were guests of honor. See: Dinners, GP’s, London. Persons named.

Felton, C.C. 2-J.S. Morgan Present. Also present were Boston merchant Junius Spencer Morgan (1813-90) and Mrs. Morgan. GP was considering J.S. Morgan as his partner, an arrangement completed the next year (Oct. 1, 1854). In his speech the Episcopal Bishop of Ohio, Charles Pettit McIlvaine (1799-1873), said about GP and his U.S.-British friendship dinners: “When history should come to be written, and…weight…given to all…influences,…it would assign…a very high place to…one who had done very much to promote…goodwill between…two great nations…there represented.” Ref.: Ibid.

Felton, C.C. 3-May 18, 1853, Dinner Cost. The dinner and speeches received wide press coverage. The dinner cost is not known, but one bill, only part of the total, was about $940. Ref.: New York Daily Times, June 1, 1853, p. 8, c. 2-5. Baltimore American and Commercial Daily Advertiser, June 3, 1853, p. 2, c. 3-4. Daily National Intelligencer (Washington, D.C.), June 7, 1853, p. 3, c. 1-3. Curry-b, p. ix.

Fenner, Charles Erasmus (1834-1911), was a PEF trustee. Born in Tenn. of a physician father, C.E. Fenner was a lawyer, moved to La. in 1840, and was elected to the La. legislature. Ref.: Knott, Vol. III, pp. 323-324.

GP & the Atlantic Cable

Field, Cyrus West (1819-92). 1-Atlantic Cable. Cyrus West Field created the Atlantic Cable Co., in which GP was an investor and a director. C.W. Field was born in Stockbridge, Mass., became wealthy as head of a paper mill, and conceived the transatlantic cable idea in 1853. He organized English and U.S. cable companies, used two naval ships, the British Agamemnon and the U.S. Niagara, in five failed cable-laying attempts (1857-58), and succeeded on Aug. 16, 1858. But the cable broke. Field had to raise new funds. His Great Eastern cable-laying ship finally succeeded in 1866. Praised for his persistence, Field laid other oceanic cables and in 1877 helped revive the NYC elevated system.

Field, C.W. 2-Atlantic Cable Cont’d. George Peabody & Co. partner Junius Spencer Morgan (1813-90) wrote on Oct. 10, 1856, to GP then on a U.S. visit, that Cyrus W. Field was organizing the Atlantic Telegraph and Cable Co. and wanted GP as one of the directors. Morgan wrote GP: “Field is getting up his company on the ocean Telegraph. He wishes your name as one of the directors. Lampson [GP’s business friend Curtis Miranda Lampson, 1806-85] and ourselves agree that it is best you should accept, and I have taken responsibility of saying to Field it might be put through subject to your confirmation. It will be a go and the new [organization] with you will be of the right stamp…. We have many inquiries for you every day.” Ref. J.S. Morgan, London, to GP, Oct. 10, 1856, Pierpont Morgan Library, NYC.

Field, C.W. 3-Atlantic Cable Cont’d. On Nov. 14, 1856, J.S. Morgan wrote Peabody that the Atlantic Telegraph was going well, that GP’s name as director was being used publicly, and that Curtis M. Lampson would also consent to be a director. Ref.: J.S. Morgan, London, to GP, Nov. 14, 1856, Pierpont Morgan Library, NYC.

Field, C.W. 4-Cable Break. Author Ron Chernow’s House of Morgan (1990), recorded GP’s connection with the Atlantic cable as follows: “But its [George Peabody & Co.] most farsighted bet was £100,000 investment in Cyrus Field’s transatlantic cable, which would unite Wall Street [NYC] with the City [London]. The scheme looked inspired on August 16, 1858, when Queen Victoria made the first cable call, to President James Buchanan. In a burst of national pride, New York City engaged in two weeks of fireworks and euphoric celebration. Peabody dizzily wrote to Field, ‘Your reflections must be like those of Columbus after the discovery of America.’ He spoke too soon, however: in September, the cable snapped, the venture’s share prices plummeted, and Peabody and Junius Morgan absorbed steep losses. Eight years would pass before full service was restored.” Ref.: Chernow, p. 12 (Chernow quoted Carter, III, p. 162).

Field, C.W. 5-Morgan on Cable Break. In regard to the cable break, J.S. Morgan in London wrote GP (Aug. 12, 1858), ill with gout and visiting a health spa in Vichy, France, about Atlantic Telegraph Co. stock. “Our position,” Morgan wrote GP, “is an unpleasant one. The moment we sell it is known and down goes the market.” Ref.: (J.S. Morgan to GP): J.S. Morgan, London, to GP, Oct. 10, 1856, and Aug. 12, 1858, Pierpont Morgan Library, NYC. See: Moran, Benjamin. Morgan, Junius Spencer. Panic of 1857.

Fields, Emmett B. (1923-d. Sept. 19, 2005), was Vanderbilt Univ.’s first (and only) president (1977-82) when he and Vanderbilt Univ. Chancellor Alexander Heard (1917-) held talks during Sept.-Dec. 1978 with GPCFT’s sixth and last Pres. John Dunworth (1924-), leading to PCofVU merger as Vanderbilt Univ ‘s ninth school, July 1, 1979. E.B. Fields retired as Pres. from VU in 1983 to Annapolis, Md. See: PCofVU, History of. Persons named. Conkin, Peabody College, index.

Fifth Avenue Hotel, NYC. The 16 PEF trustees’ second meeting was at NYC’s Fifth Ave. Hotel, March 19-22, 1867. On March 22, 1867, GP held an evening banquet for the trustees, their wives, and guests. The next day, May 23, 1867, the only historic photograph taken of the 16 original PEF trustees plus GP was taken at famed Civil War photographer Mathew Brady’s (1823-96) NYC studio. See: Farragut, David Glasgow.

U.S. Pres. Millard Fillmore & GP

Fillmore, Millard (1800-74). 1-Received GP’s Oct. 27, 1851, Dinner Book. U.S. Pres. Millard Fillmore, 13th U.S. Pres. during 1850-53, received through U.S. Minister to Britain Abbott Lawrence (1792-1855) a handsome book printed on vellum entitled An Account of the Proceedings at the Dinner Given by Mr. George Peabody to the Americans Connected with the Great Exhibition…On the 27th October, 1851. The dinner was held at London Coffee House, Ludgate Hill. The elaborate book was compiled by GP’s friend and sometime agent, Vt.-born London resident book dealer Henry Stevens (1819-86). The book contained the menu, toasts, proceedings, and speech by U.S. Minister to Britain Abbott Lawrence. Most of the 150 U.S.-British dinner guests were connected with the Great Exhibition of 1851, London. See: Corcoran, William Wilson. Presidents, U.S., and GP.

Fillmore, Millard. 2-Pres. Fillmore Acknowledged Book. In acknowledging receipt to Abbott Lawrence, Pres. Fillmore wrote about GP: “From all I have heard of Mr. Peabody, he is one of those ‘Merchant Princes’ who does equal honor to the land of his birth and the country of his adoption. This dinner must have been a most grateful treat to our American citizens and will long be remembered by the numerous guests which he entertained as one of the happiest days of their lives. Wealth can be envied when it sheds its blessings with such a profuse and generous hand on all around.” Ref.: Millard Fillmore, Washington City, to Hon. Abbott Lawrence, Feb. 9, 1852, Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass.

Fillmore, Millard. 3-Pres. Fillmore Acknowledged Book Cont’d.: “The banquet shows that he still recollects his native land with fond affection, and it may well be proud of him. “Hoping that such cordial greetings may never be interrupted by any unfriendly feeling between the two nations, and that Mr. Peabody may live long enough to enjoy them, I remain your obt. svt. Millard Fillmore.” Ref.: Ibid.

Fillmore, Millard. 4-Speech at GP’s July 4, 1855, Dinner. Millard Fillmore was in Europe during 1855-56. Mutual friend William Wilson Corcoran (1798-1888) wrote to alert GP of Fillmore’s visit. Fillmore wrote to Corcoran of reaching London “where we found an invitation to dinner from the prince of good fellows, your hospitable friend, Peabody, awaiting our arrival.” An English source recorded Fillmore’s part in the dinner as follows: “The festivities closed with Mr. Fillmore…rising [to toast] ‘the health of our generous host….’ [Fillmore] described Mr. Peabody as a noble specimen of American enterprise…of whom his countrymen were justly proud.” Ref.: [Fillmore], I, pp. 444-445.

Fillmore, Millard. 5-Speech at GP’s July 4, 1855, Dinner Cont’d. “Transplanted to British soil, he [GP] still maintained the characteristics of his country, and cherished for her the fond recollection which he had so generously illustrated on this day of our national independence….[Fillmore] pointed to the eagle at the end of the hall, and…described his gratification at the opportunity afforded him of meeting so many of his fellow-countrymen on foreign soil. He [Fillmore] should always be proud to join in celebrating the day of our national independence, whether at home or abroad.” Mr. Fillmore sat down amidst the most enthusiastic cheering, the band playing “Auld lang syne.” The next year, during GP’s Sept. 15, 1856, to Aug. 19, 1857, U.S. visit, he spent election night, Nov. 4, 1856, with former U.S. Pres. Millard Fillmore in Buffalo, NY. Ref.: (Fillmore to Corcoran) quoted in Corcoran, p. 137. See: Dinners, GP’s, London.

Finsbury (borough), London. Sir Sidney Henley Waterloo (1822-1906) first proved that low cost housing could be a philanthropic and commercial success in his block of model housing in Mark St., Finsbury, London, about the time of GP’s March 12, 1862, letter funding low-rent apartments for London’s working poor ($2.5 million total gift). Peabody apartment buildings in Roscoe St., Finsbury, bombed in World War II, were rebuilt after 1951. See: Peabody Homes of London.

Hamilton Fish & GP

Fish, Hamilton (1808-93). 1-GP Connection. Hamilton Fish had three important connections with GP: 1-as U.S. Sen. from N.Y., he helped coordinate GP’s $10,000 gift for scientific equipment to the Second U.S. Grinnell Expedition (1853-55). This expedition, led by U.S. Navy Commander Elisha Kent Kane (1820-57), searched for lost British Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin (1786-1847). 2-Hamilton Fish was one of the 16 original PEF trustees during 1867-91. 3-As U.S. Secty. of State at GP’s death in London on Nov. 4, 1869, Hamilton Fish, along with U.S. Pres. Grant and the U.S. Navy, made vital decisions regarding GP’s unusual 96-day transatlantic funeral.

Fish, Hamilton. 2-Career. Hamilton Fish was born in NYC. A Columbia College graduate (1827), he was a lawyer (1830), member of the Whig Party, U.S. Rep. from N.Y. (1843-45), N.Y. State Lt. Gov. (1847), N.Y. Gov. (1848-50), chairman of Columbia Univ. Board of Trustees, U.S. Sen. from N.Y. (1851-57), and U.S. Secty. of State (1869-77), during which time he helped settle the Alabama Claims controversy.

Fish, Hamilton. 3-Second U.S. Grinnell Expedition (1853-55). International searches were made May 1847-50s for lost British Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin (1786-1847) and his 137 seamen. One such search was the First U.S. Grinnell Expedition, 1850-52. Lady Jane Franklin’s (1792-1875) touching appeal to U.S. Pres. Zachary Taylor (1784-1850) and the U.S. Congress to “snatch her husband from an icy grave” led NYC merchant Henry Grinnell (1799-1874, head of Grinnell, Minter & Co.) to again offer two ships under U.S. Navy command for another search.

Fish, Hamilton. 4-GP’s $10,000 for Scientific Equipment. GP in London learned that U.S. Sen. Hamilton Fish of N.Y., acting for Henry Grinnell, was coordinating a Second U.S. Grinnell Expedition under U.S. Navy Capt. Elisha Kent Kane but needed funds for scientific equipment. GP’s March 4, 1852, gift of $10,000 encouraged additional gifts for equipment. The Second U.S. Grinnell Expedition did not find Sir John Franklin. But it initiated U.S. Arctic exploration. GP’s motivation, as with his U.S.-British friendship dinners, was to improve U.S.-British relations. In appreciation for GP’s financial help, Navy Commander Elisha Kent Kane named Peabody Bay, off Greenland, for him. See: persons named.

Fish, Hamilton. 5-Alabama Claims & Trent Affair. GP died amid serious post-Civil War U.S.-British tensions over the Alabama Claims. CSS Alabama was one of several British-built Confederate raider ships that cost Union lives and treasure. Later, in 1871-72, by international arbitration in Geneva, Britain paid the U.S. $15.5 million dollars indemnity. Britain, in turn, was still angry over the Nov. 8, 1861, Trent Affair. Union warship Capt. Charles Wilkes (1798-1877) illegally removed and imprisoned four Confederate agents from the British mail ship Trent in the Bahama Channel, West Indies. The Confederates had slipped through the Union blockade of southern ports to seek arms and aid from Britain and France. The illegal seizure led Britain to send 8,000 troops to Canada, anticipating a U.S.-British war. Pres. Lincoln eased the near-war incident, allegedly telling his cabinet, “One war at a time, gentlemen,” declared the seizure as unauthorized, and released the Confederates on Jan. 1, 1862. See: Trent Affair.

Fish, Hamilton. 6-GP’s Funeral. Amid these tensions, GP, gravely ill, returned to London Oct. 8, 1869, from his last four-month June 8-Sept. 29, 1869 U.S. visit. He lay dying at the 80 Eaton Sq., London home of longtime business friend Sir Curtis Miranda Lampson (1806-85). Daily press announcements of his sinking condition were a veritable death watch. Britons from the Queen downward were touched by this U.S. banker in London who on March 12, 1862, gave a small fortune to build model apartments for London’s working poor (total gift $2.5 million). See: Death and Funeral, GP’s.

Fish, Hamilton. 7-GP’s Funeral Cont’d. Queen Victoria, too late, had invited him to rest at Windsor Castle. After his death on Nov. 4, 1869, the London Daily News printed on Nov. 8: “We have received a large number of letters, urging that the honours of a public funeral are due to the late Mr. Peabody’s memory.” When the Dean of Westminster Abbey, Arthur Penrhyn Stanley (1815-81), in Naples, Italy, Nov. 5, 1869, read of GP’s death, he telegraphed his colleagues to offer a Westminster Abbey funeral. When GP’s will became known, requiring burial in Mass., Queen Victoria and others suggested returning his remains on a royal vessel. Ref.: Ibid.

Fish, Hamilton. 8-GP’s Funeral Cont’d. U.S. Minister to Britain John Lothrop Motley (1814-77) sent an official dispatch about GP’s death in London on Nov. 4, 1869, to U.S. Secty. of State Hamilton Fish on Nov. 6, 1869. Motley also sent Fish the London Times (Nov. 10, 1869, p. 5, c. 5) transcript of PM William E. Gladstone’s (1809-98) conciliatory Nov. 9, 1869, speech at the Lord Mayor’s Day banquet (Gladstone spoke of U.S.-British differences over the Alabama Claims, then spoke warmly and appreciatively of GP, and ended: “…with the country of Mr. Peabody we are not likely to quarrel.” Ref.: Ibid.

Fish, Hamilton. 9-GP’s Funeral Cont’d. Besides sincere appreciation for the Peabody model apartments for London’s working poor, many valued GP’s two decades of efforts to improve U.S.-British relations. Softening near war U.S.-British tensions also motivated Britain’s unusual funeral honors for GP’s remains. Not to be outdone, U.S. officials also mounted lavish funeral honors. Ref.: Ibid.

Fish, Hamilton. 10-GP’s Funeral Cont’d. GP’s unprecedented transatlantic funeral, begun by British officials and followed by U.S. officials, included (in brief): 1-a Westminster Abbey funeral service (Nov. 12, 1869) and temporary burial there for 30 days (Nov. 12-Dec. 11, 1869). 2-British cabinet decision (Nov. 10, 1869) to return GP’s remains for burial in the U.S. on HMS Monarch, Britain’s newest and largest warship, outfitted as a funeral vessel. 3-The U.S. government initially wanted to transport GP’s remains home, but deferred to Britain’s initiative, and decided (Nov. 12-15, 1869) to send the corvette USS Plymouth from Marseilles, France, to accompany HMS Monarch to the U.S. Ref.: Ibid.

Fish, Hamilton. 11-GP’s Funeral Cont’d. 4-Transfer (Dec. 11, 1869) of GP’s remains from Westminster Abbey, London, on a special funeral train to Portsmouth dock, impressive ceremonies at the transfer of remains from Portsmouth dock to the Monarch. 5-The transatlantic crossing of HMS Monarch and the USS Plymouth (Dec. 21, 1869-Jan. 25, 1870) from Spithead near Portsmouth, past Ushant, France, to Madeira island off Portugal, to Bermuda, and north to Portland, Me. Ref.: Ibid.

Fish, Hamilton. 12-GP’s Funeral Cont’d. 6-The U.S. Navy’s decision (Jan. 14, 1870) to place Adm. David Glasgow Farragut (1801-70) in command of a U.S. Navy flotilla to meet the Monarch in Portland harbor, Me. (Jan. 25, 1870). 7-The Monarch captain’s request, on behalf of Queen Victoria, that the coffin remain aboard for two additional days as a final mark of respect, while Portlanders viewed the coffin in the Monarch‘s mortuary chapel (Jan. 27-28, 1870). 8-Lying in state of GP’s remains in Portland City Hall (Jan. 29-Feb. 1, 1870). Ref.: Ibid.

Fish, Hamilton. 13-GP’s Funeral Cont’d. 9-A special funeral train from Portland, Me., to Peabody, Mass. (Feb. 1, 1870). 10-Lying in state of GP’s remains at the Peabody Institute Library (Feb. 1-8, 1870). 11-Robert Charles Winthrop’s funeral eulogy at the South Congregational Church, Peabody, Mass., attended by several governors, mayors, Queen Victoria’s son Prince Arthur, and other notables (Feb. 8, 1870). 12-Final burial ceremony at Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Mass. (Feb. 8, 1870). Ref.: Ibid.

Fish, Hamilton. 14-GP’s Funeral Cont’d. Now largely forgotten, GP’s 96-day transatlantic funeral was unprecedented for an American without office or title. It commanded international attention and wide press coverage. Britain led throughout and had far more official representation than did the U.S. government. In fact, before the final Feb. 8 funeral and burial, Robert C. Winthrop and Ohio Episcopal Bishop Charles Pettit McIlvaine (1799-1873) expressed their embarrassment to Secty. of State Hamilton Fish that there was a lack of U.S. government representation. GP funeral researcher Allen Howard Welch expressed this lack as follows: “The coldness at the White House remained substantially unthawed by Queen Victoria’s efforts to send a private American citizen back to his homeland in ‘an almost royal state.'” Ref.: Ibid. Welch, p. 137.

Fish, Hamilton. 15-GP’s Funeral Cont’d. Behind the elaborate funeral was respect for GP as philanthropist and promoter of U.S.-British friendship. Reconciliation of U.S.-British differences over the Civil War also played a part. If U.S. officials were less enthusiastic than British officials, it likely came from anti-South northern extremists who viewed GP’s $1.4 million PIB (1857) and his $2 million PEF (1867) as aid to former rebels. Most saw nobility in what GP tried to do, saw his life and works as heroic, viewed his funeral honors with wonder and awe, and were touched by its somber grandeur. See: Death and Funeral, GP’s.

GP & the Fishmongers’ Co. Membership

Fishmongers’ Co. 1-GP, Honorary Member. On April 18, 1866, a deputation of four members from the Fishmongers’ Co., London, called on GP to offer him honorary membership. This deputation consisted of the Prime Warden, 1-Walter Charles Venning (d. 1897); 2-George Moore (1806-76); 3-William Flexman Vowler (d. Feb. 7, 1877); and 4-William Lawrence (1818-97). GP gratefully accepted, explaining that he was leaving April 21, 1866, for a visit to the U.S. (May 1, 1866, to May 1, 1867). It was decided to admit him to honorary membership as of April 19, 1866, and to send to him in the U.S. the membership scroll in a gold box worth 100 guineas (about $525). GP thus became the 41st honorary member and the first U.S. citizen to be admitted to the Fishmongers’ Co., whose ancient charter had been endorsed by 23 British monarchs. See: Persons named. Ref.: Towse, pp. 4, 7.

Fishmongers’ Co. 2-Ancient Guild. The Fishmongers’ Co., chartered in the reign of Edward I (from 1272) and believed to have existed at least 100 years before that, ranked fourth of London’s 80 livery companies. These guilds originally regulated work conditions, apprenticeship, trade, and membership. Each guild chose their officers who elected the Common Council of the City of London, which in turn elected the mayor, other officials, and members of Parliament for London. Each company chose a “livery” (costume) and distinctive badges. Thus, colorfully attired members have been part of pageants and royal coronations to the present. Ref.: Ibid.

Fishmongers’ Co. 3-Peabody Homes of London. This honor came in part in appreciation for GP’s March 12, 1862, Peabody Donation Fund which built model apartments for London’s working poor (total gift $2.5 million). On July 2, 1862, GP was made an honorary member of The Clothworkers’ Co., which ranked twelfth of London’s esteemed 80 livery companies. On July 10, 1862, he was given an even greater honor, the Freedom of the City of London, the first U.S. citizen to be awarded this honor. Ref.: “Extracts from Court Minutes,” dated April 19, 1866, Fishmongers’ Co., Fishmongers’ Hall, London. Illustrated London News, Vol. 48, No. 1368 (April 28, 1866), p. 410. London Times, April 23, 1866, p. 9, c. 6. New York Herald, May 2, 1866, p. 5, c. 4. See: Honors, GP’s, in Life and after Death (in chronological order).

Fishmongers’ Co. 4-Careers of Deputation Members. Deputation member 1-Walter Charles Venning (Prime Warden) is listed in the Fishmongers’ Quarterage Book as “free on 11 November 1847 by Redemption (he paid). Joined the Livery on 9 December 1847 and joined the Court of Assistants on 14 October 1852.” Deputation member 2-William Flexman Vowler is listed as “free on 2 November 1809 by Patrimony. Joined the Livery on 5 December 1809, joined the Court of Assistants on 19 June 1826, and was Prime Warden in 1848. Deputation member 3-George Moore became the Prime Warden in 1868. Deputation member 4-William Lawrence was Alderman of Bread St. (1855-95) and of Bridge Without (1895-97); he was a Sheriff (1857-58); Lord Mayor of London (1863-64); MP for the City of London (1864-75 and 1880-85); and was knighted on Aug. 12, 1887. Refs. (Walter Charles Venning and William Flexman Vowler): E-mail information: Aug. 31, 2001 and July 22, 2002, respectively, from Fishmongers’ Co., London, Archivist/Librarian Raya McGeorge (raya@fishhall.co.uk). (George Moore): Smiles. (William Lawrence): Beaven, Vol. 2, p. 147.

Fleming, Samuel M. (1909-2000), was VU trustee board chairman when he and VU Chancellor Alexander Heard (1917-), March 17, 1979, offered terms for the amalgamation of GPCFT as Vanderbilt Univ. ‘s ninth school, PCofVU (effective July 1, 1979). Fleming, born in Franklin, Tenn., a VU graduate (1928), worked with the New York Trust Co., returned to Tenn. (1931) as Third National Bank’s credit manager, president (1950-70) and chairman (1972) of its board of director. He was a founding director of Hillsboro Enterprises, a holding company with various investments. He headed VU Alumni Assn. (1951-52), was a VU Board of Trustee member (1975-81), headed its investment committee, led in fund-raising campaigns, and was involved when VU acquired the Owen Graduate School of Management (1969), PCofVU (1979), and the Blair School of Music (1981). Ref.: “Former VU Board Pres. Sam Fleming Mourned.” Conkin, Peabody College, index.

Flexner, Abraham (1866-1959), U.S. foundation executive and educational historian, wrote of the PEF: “The trustees of the Peabody Fund were a distinguished group of men. No body of trust has ever contained men of higher character, greater ability and eminence, or more varied experience.” Ref.: Flexner, p. 11. See: PEF.

Florence, Italy. See: Italy. Otley, Charles Bethell. Powers, Hiram.

Florida (ships). 1-1827. On his first commercial trip abroad, GP left NYC on the packet ship Florida Nov. 1, 1827, landed in Liverpool, England, Nov. 25, 1827, and returned to NYC, Aug. 1828 (nine months abroad). He had his worst seasickness of any of his five Atlantic crossings, 1827-37. See: Visits to Europe by GP.

Florida (ships). 2-1861-64. The CSS Florida, CSS Shenandoah, most notably the CSS Alabama, and others were British-built ships secretly bought for the Confederate navy and outfitted as Confederate raiders which sunk or wrecked Union ships and cost Union lives and treasure. The Florida was built in Liverpool during 1861-62 and from Jan. 1863 under Confederate commanders John Newland Maffitt (1819-86) and later Charles M. Morris sank or damaged many northern ships. She was captured by the USS Wachusett in Bahia harbor, Brazil, Oct. 1864. Besides the loss of northern lives and treasure, Confederate raiders’ success raised insurance rates, forced hundreds of northern vessels to survive by transferring ownership to foreign flags (mostly British), and led to a long decline in U.S. merchant marine activity. Ref.: Boatner, p. 285 (Florida), p. 738 (Shenandoah). For details and sources related to CSS Florida (1861-64), see Adams, Charles Francis Alabama Claims.

Florida State Bonds, GP’s. GP’s $2 million PEF gift was actually $3,884,000 but $384,000 in Fla. state bonds and $1.5 million in Miss. state bonds were repudiated by those states. The PEF trustees, having unsuccessfully requested payment, withheld grants to those two states for a few years but relented and included them. (Note: Although sources vary in the above amounts, the best account is Curry-b, pp. 141-146). Rosen. West-b. See: Mississippi. PEF. Sears, Barnas.

Thurlow Weed Explained Civil War Origins, Nov. 1861

Floyd, John Buchanan (1807-63). 1-Secty. of War. John Buchanan Floyd was alluded to, not by name but as a “secessionist” U.S. Secty. of War who in 1859-60 “transferred large quantities of arms and ammunition from Northern to Southern arsenals.” This charge was made by N.Y. state editor and Republican leader Thurlow Weed (1797-82) in his “The Late George Peabody; A Vindication of his Course During the Civil War,” New York Times, Dec. 23, 1869, p. 2, c. 3-4.

Floyd, J.B. 2-Thurlow Weed. Thurlow Weed was one of Pres. Abraham Lincoln’s private emissaries sent to London in Dec. 1861 to keep Britain and France neutral in the U.S. Civil War. In his “Vindication” Weed reported that in Dec. 1861 in London he had explained the origins and causes of the Civil War at length to GP, who then helped him contact British leaders. Weed had said to GP in part: “Let me say also that a disloyal Secretary of the Navy [?Isaac Toucey, 1796-1869, of Conn.?] sent nearly all our warships to foreign countries in order to leave the North unprepared for the war forced on the government. Let me add, Mr. Peabody, that in 1859-60 a secessionist Secretary of War [?John Buchanan Floyd?] transferred large quantities of arms and ammunition from Northern to Southern arsenals.” See: Corcoran, William Wilson.

Floyd, J.B. 3-Career. J.B. Floyd was born in Smithfield, Va., graduated from S.C. College (1829), failed as a lawyer and cotton planter in Ark., returned to practice law in Abingdon, Va., was in the Va. Assembly (1847-48, 1855), was Va. Gov. (1849-52), and was made U.S. Secty. of War as a reward for helping Pres. James Buchanan’s (1791-1868) election. A states righter, he first opposed and then accepted Va.’s secession. Pres. Buchanan requested his resignation (1860) because of inefficiency and irregularity in War Dept. losses of $870,000. Northern feeling was bitter against J.B. Floyd. Ref.: Boatner, p. 286.

Floyd, J.B. 4-Charge Discounted. But there was no proof (and historians have since discounted the charge) that Secty. of War J.B. Floyd transferred federal arms to southern arsenals. He was a Confederate brigadier general under Gen. Robert E. Lee (1807-70), was defeated at Fort Donelson, Tenn., and was removed from command as incompetent by Confederate Pres. Jefferson Davis (1808-89), said to have nursed an old quarrel with him. See: Civil War and GP. Weed, Thurlow.

Fluento Hall, Portland, Me. The Admiralty chose Portland, Me., as receiving port for HMS Monarch, carrying GP’s remains, because of its deep harbor. Before and on Jan. 25, 1870, Portland, Me., was full of young military men and thousands of curious visitors. Not knowing when the Monarch would arrive, time hung heavy. Someone organized a ball for the military in Fluento Hall. Adm. Farragut, in charge of the U.S. Navy reception at Portland harbor, was headquartered at the Falmouth Hotel, Portland. At 10:30 P.M., Jan. 25, at the height of the merrymaking a messenger from Adm. David Glasgow Farragut (1801-70) at the Falmouth Hotel burst into Fluento Hall to announce, “The Monarch has arrived.” See: Death and Funeral, GP’s.

Footpath and Highway or Wanderings of an American in Great Britain in 1851 and 1852, is a novel written by Benjamin Moran (1820-86), later U.S. Legation in London clerk (1853-57), assistant secty. (1857), and secty. (1857-75). He kept a private journal, valuable for its frank, often prejudiced views on Legation affairs, the London scene, and London people, especially U.S. residents in London. His journal entries on GP expressed dislike, redeemed however in an eloquent tribute after GP’s Westminster Abbey funeral service, Nov. 11, 1869. The Benjamin Moran Papers and Journal are in the Library of Congress. Ref.: Ibid. Wallace and Gillespie, eds. See: Westminster Abbey.

GPCFT-Vanderbilt Merger: One View

Force, William Wilbur (1916-97). 1-GPCFT-Vanderbilt Merger (1979). William Wilbur Force was a Vanderbilt Univ. administrator (Vice Chancellor of Operations and Fiscal Management, 1966-70) and then a GPCFT administrator (Vice Pres., Director of Institutional Research, and higher education professor, 1970-81). Writing in 1986, Force contended that GPCFT could have survived without merging with Vanderbilt Univ., an opinion others challenged. Force believed that GPCFT’s “problem of identification” had led to many studies of GPCFT’s mission, strengths, and needs. A 1949 external study found that two-thirds of GPCFT’s income came from its combined liberal arts and teacher education undergraduate programs (enrolling over 1,200 from a 2,000 total enrollment). Its undergraduate school was GPCFT’s main financial support. Ref.: (Force’s view of merger): Force-b. For essential background, see PCofVU.

Force, W.W. 2-New Pres. John Dunworth. After three years of deficits, 1968-70, Force wrote, GPCFT Pres. John Claunch appointed two new vice presidents in May 1970 to balance the budget. A balanced budget was accomplished in 1972: income, $10,157,919; expenditure, $9,715,034. Knowing that Pres. Claunch was near retirement and wanting to limit speculation about selecting a new president, the GPCFT trustees in May 1972 used a “Long Range Planning Committee” as a smoke screen for a presidential search committee. On Aug. 8, 1973, came the announcement that retiring Pres. Claunch would be replaced by Pres. John Dunworth on Jan. 1, 1974. The faculty, although disappointed in not being involved in the president’s selection, cooperated and applauded Pres. Dunworth’s promise of substantial raises. Ref.: Ibid.

Force, W.W. 3-Design for the Future, 1974 Report. GPCFT-Vanderbilt merger began, wrote Force, when Pres. Dunworth replaced the two administrators who had carried out the 1970-74 financial belt tightening. Changing the Bylaws also limited trustee-faculty interaction; distanced the trustees from faculty, staff, and student opinion; narrowed trustees’ view of GPCFT affairs; and adversely affected campus morale. Ref.: (Design report by GPCFT Profs.): Allen, Jack-c, et al., Design, (GPCFT, Aug. 29, 1974).

Force, W.W. 4-Design for the Future, 1974 Report Cont’d. Force attributed GPCFT’s financial collapse to the loss of undergraduate enrollment fees. This fee loss came when the trustees implemented recommendations from a 1974 report, Design for the Future, written by three GPCFT faculty members. Design, Force believed, had little faculty discussion. Design‘s three authors recalled ample faculty knowledge of the report. They explained that Pres. Dunworth was unwilling for the report to be reviewed or revised by any interest group before the trustees considered it. The trustees approved the report by voice vote with one dissent on Aug. 29, 1974. Force, who saw this affirmative trustee vote as a noncritical vote of confidence in the new president, believed that GPCFT trustees did not understand the report’s implications. Ref.: Ibid.

Force, W.W. 5-Design‘s Recommendations. One of Design‘s 107 recommendations called for replacing the two vice presidents for academic and administrative affairs with four key administrative officers reporting to the president. The academic vice president took sabbatical leave followed by retirement before the trustees approved Design. Vice Pres. for Administrative Affairs William Force’s title ended when trustees approved Design. His duties were reorganized in a new office of Exec. Dean for Administrative Affairs. Ref.: Ibid.

Force, W.W. 6-Factors that Forced Merger. Force believed that GPCFT financial difficulties and forced merger came when two Design recommendations were implemented: 1-eliminating non-teaching degrees: Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Music, Master of Arts, and Doctor of Musical Arts; and 2-requiring a “professional” or methods component in all courses. This last recommendation, Force wrote, reduced academic content time when the national trend was to strengthen academic courses. Ref.: Ibid.

Force, W.W. 7-Factors that Forced Merger Cont’d. Implementing the Design report, Force believed, caused 36 faculty members to leave for other jobs or be dismissed. Before the July 1, l979, merger, another 38 full-time and three part-time faculty left or were let go, 23 of them with tenure. The Art Dept., without its B.A. degree, Force wrote, unable to attract qualified students, closed at the end of 1976. The undergraduate enrollment decline, from 850 to 649 during 1976-79, Force attributed to implementing the Design report and failure to publish a 1975-76 catalogue. He also attributed to Design the spending of $600,000 for each of three years from GPCFT’s endowment ($l.8 million) and the loss of income from that endowment. Ref.: Ibid.

Force, W.W. 8-Force Refuted. Force’s critics defended the Design report’s three authors as dedicated lifetime career faculty whose recommendations were in GPCFT’s best interest. They cite these errors in Force’s interpretation: 1-Under Design, all academic programs (not courses) were to have a professional education orientation. Existing Doctor of Philosophy degree programs and new ones in education-related fields were encouraged. Ref.: (Force refuted by document to authors from two of the three Design authors).

Force, W.W. 9-Force Refuted Cont’d. 2-Trustees’ approval of withdrawing $600,000 per year from the GPCFT endowment for program development preceded Design and was not a consequence of its adoption. 3-The Art Dept. was not terminated in 1976 but continued until it was eliminated as one of Vanderbilt’s preconditions for merger. 4-It was not Design, but Vanderbilt’s preconditions for merger which led to the loss of 38 faculty positions in 1979, including 23 tenured professors. Ref.: Ibid.

Force, W.W. 10-Force Refuted Cont’d. 5-Reduction in undergraduate enrollment cited by Force was predicted in Design but was offset by a greater increase in graduate students and graduate student credit hours in professional programs called for in the Design (Force did not mention this offset). Force was also refuted in historian Sherman Dorn’s 1996 Brief History of Peabody College (Dorn wrote: “I disagree with his [W.W. Force’s] interpretation…,” p. 101). Ref.: “Educator William W. Force dies at 81,” Nashville Tennessean, March 14, 1997, p. 6B. See: Dorn, Sherman. PCofVU.

J.W. Forney on GP & the Peabody Homes of London

Forney, John Wien (1817-70). 1-GP’s Fellow Passenger, May 1867. Owner and editor of two Philadelphia newspapers, J.W. Forney traveled with and wrote about GP on the Scotia from NYC to England, May 1-9, 1867. They were among the 271 passengers on this British Cunard Royal Mail ship bound for Queenstown (now named Cobh), Ireland. During GP’s whirlwind May 1, 1866-May 1, 1867, U.S. visit, his second visit since moving permanently to London in 1837, his 17 philanthropic gifts totaled some $2,312,000. Ref.: Forney, pp. 19-31, 62-69.

Forney, J.W. 2-Forney Wrote About GP. On May 7, two days before the Scotia landed at Queenstown, Forney gazed at GP dozing on the sofa in the forward lounge. He later wrote: “As I studied the venerable philanthropist yesterday, as he lay dozing on one of the sofas in the forward saloon, I confessed I had never seen a nobler or more imposing figure. Never has human face spoken more humane emotions. The good man’s soul seems to shine out of every feature and lineament. His fine head, rivaling the best of the old aristocracy, and blending the ideals of benevolence and integrity, his tranquil and pleasing countenance, and his silver hair, crown a lofty form of unusual dignity and grace. The work of this one plain American citizen silences hyper criticism, and challenges gratitude….” Ref.: Forney, pp. 19-31, 62-69.

Forney, J.W. 3-Forney on GP Cont’d.: “He has given millions to deserving charity, without pretense or partiality. The wealth gathered by more than a generation of honest enterprises and business sagacity he distributes among the poor of the two nations in which he accumulated it, first liberally providing for his own blood and kindred. If this is not an honorable close of a well-spent life, what is?” Ref.: Hanaford, pp. 127-128. Harlow, XVIII, pp. 3-5. New York Herald, May 28, 1867, p. 4, c. 2. London Times, May 22, 1867, p. 9, c. 6.

Forney, J.W. 4-Resolutions of Praise. Forney related that before disembarking the Scotia at Queenstown, Ireland, May 9, 1867, a group of Americans on board approached GP. One of them read resolutions they had written to honor his philanthropic gifts. One resolution that caught GP’s attention he asked to be repeated: “Whereas, James Smithson and Stephen Girard had bequeathed their gifts after death, Mr. Peabody became his own executor giving away his wealth during his lifetime while he could watch and plan for its wise use.” Forney reported that GP said “with winning courtesy”: “Please strike out the last resolution. You will oblige me so much if you would. Whatever may be said of me and however your view may be, the contrast might be construed into a criticism upon these two illustrious men. They did their best, and they did nobly.” Ref.: Ibid.

Forney, J.W. 5-Visited Peabody Homes in Islington. Forney asked GP about the Peabody Homes of London and said Philadelphia was considering a similar housing project. GP gave Forney letters of introduction to two Peabody Donation Fund trustees so that Forney could see the Peabody Homes of London in operation. On May 25, 1867, Forney was shown Peabody Homes in Islington, a borough containing some of London’s worst slums, by trustees Sir Curtis Miranda Lampson (1806-85) and Horatio Gates Somerby (1805-72). Forney knew that Lampson had left his native Vt. for England in 1830, made a fortune in the fur trade, become a naturalized British subject, and in Oct. 1866 was created a baronet by Queen Victoria for his work as a director of the Atlantic Telegraph Co. Trustee Somerby was born in Newburyport, Mass., and became a London resident and genealogist for Americans wanting a record of their English lineage. Ref.: Ibid.

Forney, J.W. 6-Peabody Homes of London. Forney asked what difficulties the trustees had encountered. Lampson answered that they had to decide which “poor” to help. They decided not to duplicate the work of alms houses but to help low income honest workingmen struggling to better themselves. Otherwise, said Lampson, the interest and principal would soon be spent. Lampson said that they charged reasonable rent so that they could build more Peabody Homes later. Peabody Square in Islington had four blocks of buildings with 155 tenements, 200 families, and 650 residents. Forney inspected the drainage, ventilation, and garbage collection. Hallways were kept clear, gas lighting was free, baths were on each floor. Use of laundry rooms with wringing machines and drying lofts was free. Each kitchen had cupboards and a fireplace with a boiler or oven. Inside the squares made by the buildings were playgrounds, safe from passing carriages. Ref.: Ibid.

Forney, J.W. 7-Peabody Homes of London Cont’d. Forney asked about the rent. Somerby answered: two shillings sixpence to three shillings per room per week (about 75 cents); double for two rooms; triple for three. Forney asked how tenants were selected. Somerby said selection was by income, in keeping with GP’s “industrious poor” and by character as vouched for by employers. Once admitted, few restrictions existed. What about undesirables, asked Forney. A small percentage are turned away for drunkenness or legal conviction or too many children (to avoid overcrowding). Somerby listed the kind of work done by tenants at Islington: watch finisher, turner, smith, printer, painter, laundress, letter carrier, cabinet maker, book binder. Work done by Spitalfields tenants included: charwoman, nurse, basket maker, butcher, carpenter, fireman, laborer, porter, omnibus driver, seamstress, shoemaker, tailor, waitress, waiter, warehouseman. Ref.: Ibid.

Forney, J.W. 8-Final Impressions. Forney summed up his impressions: “Mr. Peabody’s example will be followed…in both hemispheres. Mr. A.T. Stewart of NYC has already procured copies of the plans…. Parliament has already noticed the work….” Forney concluded: “As I saw these happy children enjoying their spacious playground this morning, and walked with their gratified parents, and heard the report of the superintendent, I felt proud that the author of all this splendid benevolence was an American, and predicted that his…generosity would find many imitators in his own and other countries.” Ref.: Ibid.

Forney, J.W. 9-Garden City, Long Island, N.Y. The Alexander Turney Stewart (1803-76) Forney referred to was an Irish-born successful NYC drygoods merchant and philanthropist. His NYC store, opened in 1862, became known as the world’s largest retail department store and was sold in 1896 to John Wanamaker (1838-1922). Stewart built the planned community at Garden City, Long Island, N.Y., on the plan of the Peabody Homes of London. Ref.: Ibid.

Forney, J.W. 10-Peabody Homes, 2006. In March 31, 2006, over 50,000 low income Londoners (59% white, 32% black, and 9% others) lived in over 20,000 Peabody homes (i.e. apartments). These include, besides Peabody Trust-built estates, public housing units whose authorities have chosen to come under the Peabody Trust’s better living facilities, playgrounds for the young, recreation for the elderly, computer training centers, job training, and job placement for working adults. Ref.: Ibid. Peabody Trust, London-c, annual report, 2006.

Fort Warburton, Md. GP served 12 days as a private soldier, War of 1812, in the Military District of Washington, D.C., July 15-26, 1813, plus two days, Oct. 5-7, 1814, in Newburyport, Mass., a total of 14 days. One source lists as one of his mess mates at Fort Warburton, Md., Francis Scott Key (1779-1843), who later composed “The Star Spangled Banner.” See: War of 1812.

Fort Warren, Mass. The four Confederates seeking arms and aid from England and France who were removed from the British mail ship Trent, Nov. 8, 1861, were taken to Boston Harbor’s Fort Warren prison and released Jan. 1, 1862. See: Trent Affair.

Foster, Gideon (1749-1845), and “Capt.” Sylvester Proctor (1769-1852), both prominent citizens of Danvers, Mass., were appointed commissioners to help settle GP’s deceased father, Thomas Peabody’s (1762-1811) mortgaged home and debt-ridden estate when it was entered in probate court, June 6, 1811. GP, then age 16 and a clerk in older brother David Peabody’s (1790-41) dry goods shop in Newburyport, Mass., had been apprenticed in Sylvester Proctor’s store in Danvers (May 4, 1807-1811). Gideon Foster, said to have fought in the American Revolution, wrote a book about the seven young men from Danvers slain at the first battle of the American Revolution, Lexington, near Boston, Mass. (April 19, 1775). Ref.: Library of Congress, National Union Catalog Pre-1956, Vol. 178, p. 659. See: Proctor, Sylvester.

Fountains, drinking. In planning his gift to London, GP first thought of and soon discarded the idea of building in London a network of drinking fountains. After hearing from Lord Shaftesbury that low-cost housing was the London poor’s greatest need, GP created the Peabody Donation Fund (1862-69, $2.5 million total) for low cost model apartments for London’s working poor families. See: Peabody Homes of London.
Four Conferences on Education in the South (1898-1901). See: PEF.
Fourth of July banquets. See: Dinners, GP’s, London.

GP in France

France. 1-Second Buying Trip and Eustis Visit. GP’s second European buying trip, April 1830 to Aug. 15, 1831 (15 months), was made with an unidentified American friend. They went by carriage and with frequent change of horses covered some 10,000 miles in England, France, Italy, and Switzerland. GP also went to Cannes, France, March 16, 1868, where he visited George Eustis (1828-72), William Wilson Corcoran’s (1798-1888) son-in-law, husband of Corcoran’s only child, daughter Louise Morris (née Corcoran) Eustis, who died Dec. 4, 1867, leaving three children. For details of GP’s second European buying trip, see Daniels, Judith Dodge (née Peabody) Russell (GP’s sister).

France. 2-European Trip with Winthrop. From Cannes on March 16 or 17, 1868, GP and his philanthropic advisor Robert Charles Winthrop (1809-94) went to Paris, France, where they were received by Napoleon III (Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, 1808-73) and Empress Eugénie (1826-1920). For details and sources of GP’s Feb.-Mar. 1868, visits to Rome, Italy, and Cannes and Paris, France, see Eugénie, Empress.

Franklin, Benjamin Papers. 2-Papers as Collateral. Stevens had gathered an important collection of some 3,000 works by and about Benjamin Franklin. In 1854, needing a loan from GP, he used this Benjamin Franklin collection as collateral. Thus, for a short time, GP was in legal possession of this Benjamin Franklin collection which Stevens eventually sold to the U.S. government for the Library of Congress.

Franklin, Lady Jane (1792-1875). See Franklin, Sir John (below).

Arctic Exploration

Franklin, Sir John (1786-1847). 1-Lost British Arctic Explorer. For the U.S. Second Grinnell Expedition, 1853-55, searching for lost British Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin, GP gave $10,000 for scientific equipment, NYC merchant Henry Grinnell (1799-1874) provided two ships, and the U.S. Congress authorized U.S. Navy participation by Commander Elisha Kent Kane, M.D. (1820-57). Ref.: (Arctic search for Sir John Franklin): Browne. Buley. Cyriax. Harbour. MacLean and Fraser. Markham, A.G.H. Markham, C.R. See: persons named.

Franklin, John. 2-Career. John Franklin was born in Spilsby, Lincolnshire, England. He went to sea as a boy, entered the British Navy (1801), fought under Lord Horatio Nelson at the Battle of Trafalgar (1814), and participated in the British attack on New Orleans in the War of 1812. He was knighted (1829) for his search in the Arctic for the legendary Northwest Passage. He was Lt. Gov. of Tasmania (1837-43, then called Van Diemen’s Land). On May 18, 1845, he sailed on a second Arctic exploration with two ships (Erebus and Terror) and 137 seamen, never to be seen again. Ref.: Ibid.

Franklin, John. 3-First U.S. Grinnell Expedition. International expeditions occurred during 1845-50s to search for Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin and his crew. Lady Franklin appealed to Pres. Zachary Taylor and to the U.S. Congress for help to “snatch the lost navigators from a dreary grave.” To Britain’s £20,000 reward (about $100,000), Lady Franklin added £3,000 (about $15,000) to anyone finding Sir John Franklin. Her appeal influenced NYC merchant Henry Grinnell (head of Grinnell, Minturn & Co.) to offer two ships. With U.S. Congressional approval, the U.S. Navy authorized naval personnel to man the two ships, led by naval medical officer Elisha Kent Kane. But the 1850-52 First U.S. Grinnell Expedition did not find the lost explorer. Ref.: (Lady Franklin’s appeal): Rawnsley, ed.

Franklin, John. 4-GP’s Concern. GP’s interest in helping the search for Sir John Franklin began in 1852. He had the year before (1851) attracted favorable minor international attention by lending U.S. exhibitors $15,000 to decorate the U.S. pavilion at the Great Exhibition of 1851, the first world’s fair, held in the newly built Crystal Palace, London. Congress had backed U.S. participation but had not appropriated funds to display U.S. industrial and cultural products. GP also promoted British-U.S. friendship dinners, often held on July 4, American Independence Day, at which he toasted first the Queen and then the U.S. President. Also, in 1852 he was readying his first major gift of a Peabody Institute library in his hometown of South Danvers (renamed Peabody on April 13, 1868), Mass. See: Great Exhibition of 1851, London (first world’s fair).

Franklin, John. 5-Second U.S. Grinnell Expedition. GP learned that U.S. Sen. Hamilton Fish (1809-93, from N.Y.) had presented a memorial from Henry Grinnell asking the U.S. Congress for U.S. naval support for a Second U.S. Grinnell Expedition. GP also heard that the U.S. Congress had been asked for funds but had delayed making appropriations. On March 4, 1852, GP offered $10,000 through NYC business associate William Shepard Wetmore (1802-62). Wetmore wrote to William Wilson Corcoran (1798-1888), another GP business associate in Washington, D.C., to learn the intent of Congress through Hamilton Fish.

Franklin, John. 6-GP’s $10,000 Gift for Scientific Equipment. Knowing of Grinnell’s offer of ships and GP’s financial gift, John Pendleton Kennedy (1795-1870), then U.S. Navy Secty. (he knew GP in the War of 1812 and in 1857 helped GP plan the $1.4 million PIB), coordinated the Second U.S. Grinnell Expedition. Ref.: (GP’s letter offering $10,000 gift): Baltimore Patriot, Feb. 1, 1853, p. 2, c. 4. Daily National Intelligencer (Washington, D.C.), Feb. 1, 1853, p. 3, c. 4. Essex County Mercury & Danvers Courier (Salem, Mass.), Feb. 9, 1853, p. 3, c. 3. New York Times, Oct. 14, 1856, p. 2, c. 4. Republic (Washington, D.C.), Feb. 4, 1853, p. 2, c. 5.

Franklin, John. 7-Navy Secty. Kennedy. Dining with Dr. Kane in mid-Nov. 1852, Kennedy wrote in his journal: “Pleasant little party at dinner with Dr. Kane of the Arctic Expedition and Lt. Gilleys of the Astronomical Dept….. Kane had brought his drawings–a rich portfolio of Polar scenes–to show us. I have given him permission to go again, at the request of Lady Franklin on the new expedition recently set on foot by Mr. Henry Grinnell and Mr. Peabody.” Ref.: John Pendleton Kennedy’s journal, VIIg (June 1, 1852 to July 17, 1853), entry dated Washington, Dec. 5, 1852, Kennedy Papers, PIB.

Franklin, John. 8-Navy Secty. Kennedy Coordinated Search Expedition. Navy Secty. Kennedy gave Dr. Kane command of the Advance, 10 naval volunteers, and made the purpose of the expedition a scientific and geographical one. William Shepard Wetmore transferred GP’s $10,000 gift to Kane. Kane, who needed additional funds for instruments and equipment, published GP’s letter of gift; lectured to raise funds; got aid and endorsements from the Smithsonian Institution, the Geographical Society of N.Y., and the American Philosophical Society. Kane also rushed into print his account of the First U.S. Grinnell Expedition before leaving NYC on the Advance on May 30, 1853, for Smith Sound in the Arctic. See: Kane, Elisha Kent. Persons and institutions named.

Franklin, John. 9-Unsuccessful Search. The Advance became frozen in the Arctic. On May 24, 1855, Kane and his men were forced to abandon their ship. They trekked 1,300 miles in 84 days during which one-third of the crew perished. Kane and the rest of his crew were saved by a passing Danish vessel. Kane wrote to GP of his ill-fated voyage. To spread the news rapidly GP had the correspondence published in newspapers. To Lady Franklin, GP wrote: “Having been instrumental in promoting Docr. Kane’s expedition in search for your late lamented husband…I have…felt much anxiety for their safety & it is therefore a great relief to my mind that Docr. Kane and so large a portion of the brave men [with] him safely arrived in their own country.” Ref.: Draft letter, GP to Lady Franklin, Oct. 27, 1855, Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass.

Franklin, John. 10-First U.S. Arctic Exploration. Two later explorers found conclusive proof that Sir John Franklin had died on June 11, 1847. All of his crew also perished. Kane spent the last year of his life writing an account of the Second U.S. Grinnell Expedition. His book sold 145,000 copies in its first three years and was probably the most read of all early books on the Arctic. Ref.: (Kane’s Arctic findings): Mirsky. Shelesnyak, pp. 86-87. Ref.: (Kane’s books): Kane-a. Kane-b. Ref.: (Kane’s letter telling of his ill-fated second U.S. Grinnell Expedition): London Times, Oct. 26, 1855, p. 7, c. 5; Oct. 27, 1855, p. 7, c. 2. Morning Post (London), Oct. 26, 1855.

Franklin, John. 11-First U.S. Arctic Exploration. Kane’s two expeditions initiated Arctic exploration by the U.S. government. His leadership and books helped remove some of the public’s Arctic terror. Kane’s Arctic exploration influenced the later more successful U.S. Arctic explorer, Adm. Robert Edwin Peary (1856-1920). Ref.: Ibid.

Franklin, John. 12-Expedition Rich in Results. Of Kane’s discoveries, his most objective critic wrote: “Kane’s expedition was rich in results. [His] expedition discovered and indicated approximately the boundaries of Kane’s Basin and the southern part of Kennedy Kanal. Further, the expedition discovered and mapped the coast of Inglefield Land, Humboldt Glacier, and the southern part of Washington Land, and Kane extended the Greenland coast from about 78° 20′ Northwest to about 80° 30′ N. latitude.” Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody Bay, off Greenland

Franklin, John. 13-Peabody Bay, off Greenland. In appreciation for GP’s financial help, Kane named Peabody Bay, off Greenland, for him. In his report to the U.S. Navy Secty., Kane wrote: “The large bay which separates it (Washington Land) from the coast of Greenland and the Glacier I have described bears on my chart the name of our liberal country-man and contributor to the expense of the expedition, Mr. George Peabody.” GP’s aid put him honorably in the shadow of Elisha Kent Kane’s Arctic exploration. As in the $15,000 loan to the U.S. exhibitors at the 1851 first world’s fair in London and in line with his British-U.S. friendship dinners, GP’s motive was to promote British-U.S. relations. Ref.: (Kane’s report to the U.S. Navy): Kane-c, p. 8. New York Daily Times, Oct. 12, 1855, p. 1.

White House Desk

Franklin, John. 14-White House Desk. Of interest is the story of a White House desk resulting from the search for Sir John Franklin. The British ship, HMS , was abandoned in the Arctic ice in the search for Sir John Franklin. A Capt. Buddington of the U.S. whaler George Henry found and extricated the Resolute. The U.S. government purchased the damaged Resolute, repaired it, and returned it to Britain as a gift. When the Resolute was broken up, Queen Victoria had a massive desk made from its timbers and presented it to the U.S. President.

Franklin, John. 15-White House Desk Cont’d. First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy (1929-94) found the desk in a storeroom in 1961 and had it refurbished for Pres. John F. Kennedy’s (1917-63) use. Famous photos show Pres. Kennedy’s young son John Kennedy (1960-99) playing under that desk. Pres. Clinton returned the desk to the Oval Office in 1993. Ref.: (White House desk): Wilson, R.W., p. 49. Ref.: Parker-j,” pp. 104-111; reprinted in Parker-zd, pp. 84-92. Ref.: (GP’s role in British-U.S. friendship dinners, aid to the 1851 U.S. world’s fair exhibitors, and aid in the search for Sir John Franklin): Cummings, pp. 199-212.

Fratin, Christophe (1800-64), was a French-born artist-sculptor whose bronze statues, owned by PIB trustee Charles James Madison Eaton (1808-93), were given by Eaton to the PIB Gallery of Art. See: Eaton, Charles James Madison. PIB Gallery of Art.

Fredericksburg, Va. GP was often on the road collecting long-standing debts for Riggs & Peabody. He wrote Elisha Riggs, Sr. (1779-1853), from Fredericksburg, Va., Jan. 26, 1821, of staying with one reluctant debtor three hours before receiving settlement. Riggs replied: “I have only time to say I am highly gratified at all you have done, I think it could not be better….” For details and source, See: Riggs, Sr., Elisha.

Freedmen’s Bureau & the PEF

Freedmen’s Bureau (March 3, 1865-July 1, 1869). 1-To Aid Newly Freed Slaves. The Freedmen’s Bureau was a U.S. government agency to aid and protect newly freed slaves. The original act, titled “Bureau for Freedmen, Refugees, and Abandoned Lands,” was meant to last for one year but was extended on Feb. 19, 1866, over Pres. Andrew Johnson’s veto, by radical Republicans. The Freedmen’s Bureau was administered by the War Dept., was headed by Maine-born West Point graduate (1854) Gen. Oliver Otis Howard (1830-1909), assisted by commissioners who were also military leaders in the 11 former Confederate states and in border states. Ref.: Boatner, p. 314.

Freedmen’s Bureau. 2-Run by Union Military Commanders. The Freedmen’s Bureau provided relief work for blacks and whites in Civil War stricken areas, provided schools for black children, administered justice for black workers, and managed abandoned and confiscated property. White southerners, who detested the Freedmen’s Bureau because it was run by Union military commanders, considered it a political machine to win black votes for the Republican party. Ref.: Ibid. For educator John Eaton’s connection with the Freedmen’s Bureau and his description of GP at White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., July 23-Aug. 30, 1869, See: Eaton, John. Conkin, Peabody College, index.

Freedmen’s Bureau. 3-Aided Black Education. Although it was said to be graft-ridden, historians generally praise its education work for black students. Black education historian Horace Mann Bond wrote: “Whatever its faults…[it established] a widespread and fairly well organized system of free schools for Negroes in the South. [It] initiated 4,239 separate [black] schools,…employed 9,307 teachers,…instructed 247,333 pupils, [and spent for black schools] more than [$3.5 million].” Ref.: Ibid.

Freedmen’s Bureau. 4-Aided Black Education Cont’d. Bond explained that to this $3.5 million spent by the Freedmen’s Bureau on black schools must be added over $1.5 million spent by northern church and other charitable groups, plus at least $1 million spent by black parents and black communities in fees paid and in gifts. The Freedmen’s Bureau also aided the establishment of these black universities: Fisk Univ., Nashville; Howard Univ., Washington, D.C. (named after Gen. O.O. Howard, who was its president during 1869-73); Atlanta Univ., Ga.; and Hampton Institute, Va. Ref.: Ibid.

Freedmen’s Bureau. 5-Effect on Sears and the PEF. First PEF administrator Barnas Sears (1802-80) and the PEF trustees’ controversial decision to aid black schools at two-thirds the formula amount given to white schools was based on Sears’s observation that massive aid from the Freedmen’s Bureau and northern missionaries actually made black schools better provided for than white schools. Sears also observed, rightly or wrongly, that black schools were less expensive to maintain. In N.C., Bond wrote: “The aid of benevolent societies provided even a better educational opportunity for the freedmen than for the white children, in some cases.” Bond concluded: “Those who argued against mixed schools were right in believing that such a system was impossible in the South, but they were wrong in believing that the South could, or would, maintain equal schools for both races.” Ref.: Ibid. Bond-a, pp. 28-29, 57, 63. For historian William L. Richter’s explanation and defense of Sears’s dilemma, See: PEF. Sears, Barnas.

Freedom of the City of London. See: London, Freedom of the City of London, and GP.

Freiligrath, Ferdinand (1810-76). 1-Sought a Position. Ferdinand Freiligrath, a German poet, met U.S. poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-82) on Longfellow’s third visit to Europe in 1842. During 1851-67 Freiligrath was the manager of the London branch of a Swiss bank which was failing. His need for a position may have led him to seek a commercial contact from Longfellow. See: Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth.

Freiligrath, Ferdinand. 2-Letter of Introduction to GP. Longfellow wrote Freiligrath on Aug. 2, 1854: “Everyone speaks so highly of Peabody, that I hope you may find a place there in his house,–a door opening to fortune, or something like it…. I hear of a gentleman in Boston [Junius Spencer Morgan, 1813-90], who goes out in the Autumn as a partner in Mr. Peabody’s house. Him I shall endeavor to see, and as far as proper urge your claims…. Ever yours, Henry W. Longfellow. P.S. I add a letter to Mr. Peabody, although I do not know him. Do as you please about presenting it.” Freiligrath’s contact with GP, if any, is not known. Ref.: Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Nahant, Mass., to Ferdinand Freiligrath, Aug. 2, 1854, Rare Book Room, MS 1319, Boston Public Library.

Frémont, Jesse (née Benton) (1824-1902). See: Frémont, John Charles (below).

John Charles Frémont & GP

Frémont, John Charles (1813-90). 1-Arrested in London. U.S. visitors in London who attended GP’s dinners, June 17 and July 4, 1852, included explorer-politician John Charles Frémont (born in Savannah, Ga.). Frémont and his wife, Jesse (née Benton) Frémont (1824-1902), daughter of U.S. Sen. from Missouri Thomas Hart Benton (1782-1858), were in London to raise funds to finance mining on their California Mariposa Estate. While acting governor of California at the outbreak of the Mexican War, 1846-47, Frémont borrowed money to meet territorial expenses. These debts were the cause of his arrest in London on April 7, 1852, as he and his wife were about to step into a carriage. A victim of circumstances, he appealed to GP, who deposited the bail needed for his release the next day, April 8, 1852. See: Dinners, GP’s, London. Hoffman, David.

Frémont, J.C. 2-At GP’s June 17, 1852, Dinner. GP’s June 17, 1852, dinner celebrated the 77th anniversary of the Battle of Bunker Hill, Mass. (June 17, 1775). It was held at the Brunswick Hotel, Blackwall, opposite the Greenwich Hospital some six miles from St. Paul’s overlooking the Thames. Over 100 guests were at the dinner, three fourths of them Americans. Besides John Charles Frémont, guests included U.S. Minister to Britain Abbott Lawrence (1792-1855) and Mrs. Lawrence, MP from Liverpool William Brown (1784-1864), Thomson Hankey (1805-93) of the Bank of England, N.Y. state editor and political leader Thurlow Weed (1797-1882), and others. GP’s involvement in Frémont’s bail and Frémont’s attendance at these two GP dinners are their only known contact. Ref.: Ibid. See: persons named.

French and Indian War. Some of GP’s forebears fought in the French and Indian War and 54 Peabodys fought in the American Revolution. See: Peabody, Thomas (GP’s father).

Friedberg, Sidney Myer (1907-85), gave $l million to create the Sidney Friedberg Concert Hall, PIB Conservatory of Music, 1983. See: PIB Conservatory of Music.

Frizzell, Mildred Armor, author of article, “George Peabody Cup,” Hobbies, Vol. 86, No. 4 (June 1981), pp. 41, 62, has a photo of a GP pressed glass cup, part of commemorative souvenir glassware made in Sunderland, England, for sale after GP’s Nov. 4, 1869, death in London. See: Glassware, GP’s. Lindsey, Bessie M. Sykes, Gordon.

Fuller, Melvin Weston (1833-1910), was a PEF trustee who succeeded trustee Morrison Remick Waite (1816-88). M.W. Fuller was born in Augusta, Maine, graduated from Bowdoin College (M.A., 1853), attended Harvard Law School, practiced law in Augusta, was associate editor of The Age (a Democratic newspaper), was Augusta city attorney and president of the common council (1856), practiced law in Chicago, was a member of the Illinois State Constitutional Convention (1862), represented Cook County in the Ill. state legislature (1863), was appointed U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice (1888-1910), was a commissioner to help settle the Venezuela Boundary Dispute (1899), was a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration (The Hague) Tribunal (1900-10). Ref.: Curry-b, p. 102.

Fultz, Elizabeth Corey (née Sears) (1838-1900). See: Fultz, Mrs. John Hampden (below).

Fultz, Mrs. John Hampden (1838-1900), née Elizabeth Corey Sears, daughter of Barnas Sears (1802-80), first PEF administrator during 1867-80, was born Oct. 14, 1838, in Newton Center, Mass., and died in Chicago in 1900. She married twice: a-Robert B. Chapman in 1862; and b-James Hampden Fultz (1845-1912, born near Staunton, Va.), a physician, on Oct. 12, 1874. Near the end of her father’s life, as his secretary, she helped him manage the crushing burden of the PEF. On her father’s death, July 6, 1880, she continued his work as acting PEF General Agent and prepared the 1880-81 PEF annual report, until the appointment of second PEF administrator Jabez Lamar Monroe Curry (1825-1903) on Feb. 2, 1881. Curry served until a year before his death in 1903. Ref.: Curry-b, p. 71. Hovey, p. 175. U.S. Census, 1870, of Augusta County, Va. See: Curry, Jabez Lamar Monroe. PEF. Sears, Barnas.

Funchall Bay, Madeira, is in the North Atlantic, north of the Canaries, and belongs to Portugal. On Friday, Dec. 31, 1869, and Sat., Jan. 1, 1870, British warship HMS Monarch, bearing GP’s remains from Portsmouth, England, stopped at Funchall Bay, Madeira, to take on 200 tons of coal. HMS Monarch left Funchall Bay accompanied by the USS Plymouth, went west across the Atlantic to Bermuda, and north to Portland, Me. Ref.: “Log of the Monarch,” Admiralty 53/9877, Public Record Office, London. Details of the voyage are in: Anglo-American Times (London), Jan. 8, 1870, p. 10, c. 2, and New York Herald, Jan. 17, 1870, p. 5, c. 1. See: Death and Funeral, GP’s.

Fund for Southern Education. See: PEF.

Funeral, GP’s (1795-1869). See: Death and Funeral, GP’s.

G

Galkin, Elliott Washington (1921-90), was PIB Conservatory of Music director during 1977-83. See: PIB Conservatory of Music.

Gambier, Ohio, is the location of Kenyon College, to which GP gave $25,000 for a professorship of mathematics and civil engineering, Nov. 6, 1866. See: McIlvaine, Charles Pettit. Science, GP’s Gifts to Science and Science Education.

Garden City, N.Y. Alexander Turney Stewart (1803-76), NYC merchant, sold his retail store to John Wanamaker (1838-1922) in 1896. As a socially concerned philanthropist he built a planned community in Garden City, Long Island, N.Y., on the plans of the Peabody Homes of London. See: Forney, John Wien. Peabody Homes of London.

Gardner, Henry J. (1818-92), was Mass. governor who spoke briefly at the Oct. 9, 1856, GP celebration in South Danvers, Mass. For celebration details and speeches by Alfred Amos Abbott (1820-84), GP, Robert Shillaber Daniels (b.1791), Edward Everett (1794-1865), and John Chandler Bancroft Davis (1822-1907), with sources, See: Abbott, Alfred Amos. Persons named. Visits to the U.S. by GP.

B&O RR Pres. J.W. Garrett & GP

Garrett, John Work (1820-84). 1-B&O RR President. John Work Garrett was B&O RR pres. and GP’s friend and confidante. He was born in Baltimore, the son of a prosperous Baltimore merchant who had emigrated from Ireland. John Work Garrett attended Lafayette College, 1834-35, entered his father’s banking firm, Robert Garrett & Sons in 1839, helped finance the B&O RR, was its director in 1857, and its president during 1858-84. He also organized a line of steamers between Baltimore and Bremen, Germany; and between Baltimore and Liverpool, England. He was a Johns Hopkins Univ. trustee (1867-84), and a Baltimore YMCA contributor. Ref.: Johnson, R., ed. “Garrett, J.W.,” Vol. II, p. 609. See: (below) first-born son Garrett, Robert (1847-96), second born son Garrett, Thomas Harrison (1849-88), and Thomas Harrison Garrett’s son Garrett, John Work (1872-1942).

Garrett, J.W. 2-With GP on Visit to White House. On April 25, 1867, John Work Garrett accompanied GP to visit Pres. Andrew Johnson in the White House Blue Room. With GP and Garrett was Samuel Wetmore’s (1813?-85) 16-year-old son. GP spoke to Pres. Johnson of his hopes for the PEF and ways its trustees planned to advance public education in the South. GP then told Pres. Johnson of young Wetmore’s interest in being admitted to West Point. Pres. Johnson said he would do what he could for the young man. Refs. below.

Garrett, J.W. 3-Ref.: For details and sources on Pres. Johnson’s Feb., 1867, visit to GP and GP’s April 25, 1867, White House visit, See: Congressional Gold Medal and Resolutions of Praise to GP. For Garrett’s account of bringing together GP and Johns Hopkins in 1866-67, with GP influencing Hopkins to found the Johns Hopkins Univ., medical school, and hospital, Baltimore, with sources, See: Johns Hopkins. For GP’s visits to Garrett’s Baltimore home during GP’s U.S. visits (Sept. 1856-Aug. 1857, May 1, 1866-May 1, 1867, and June 8-Sept. 29, 1869), with sources, See: Visits to the U.S. by GP. See: Johnson, Andrew. PEF.

B&O RR Pres. J.W. Garrett’s Grandson

Garrett, John Work (1872-1942). 1-Attended Unveiling of GP Bust, May 12, 1926. John Work Garrett was the same named grandson of B&O RR Pres. John Work Garrett (1820-84) and the son of Thomas Harrison Garrett (1849-88, See: below). This grandson represented the PEF trustees when he and GP’s grandnephew Murray Peabody Brush (b.1872) unveiled the GP bust on May 12, 1926, with the main address given by GPCFT Pres. Bruce Ryburn Payne (1874-1937) at the N.Y. Univ. Hall of Fame colonnade on University Heights overlooking the Hudson River. See: Hall of Fame of N.Y. Univ. Payne, Bruce Ryburn.

Garrett, J.W. 2-Career. Born in Baltimore, John Work Garrett graduated from Princeton Univ. (B.S., 1895); received an hon. LL.D. degrees from Princeton (1922) and St. John’s College, Annapolis, Md.; was a partner in the banking firm of Robert Garrett & Sons, Baltimore (1896-1934); was Secty. of the American Legation at the Hague (1901-03) and in the Netherlands and Luxembourg (1903-05); was Second Secty., American Embassy at Berlin (1905-08) and First Secty., American Embassy at Rome (1908-11); and served the U.S. government in Venezuela (1910-11), Argentina (1911-14), France (1914-17), and other countries. Ref.: “Garrett, John Work” (1872-1942), Vol. 2, p. 205. “Garrett, John Work” (1872-1942), p. 199.

First-Born Son of B&O RR Pres. J.W. Garrett

Garrett, Robert (1847-96). 1-Erected in Baltimore a Replica of GP Statue. Robert Garrett, first-born son of B&O RR Pres. John Work Garrett (1820-84), had a replica made of U.S. sculptor William Wetmore Story’s (1819-95) seated statue of GP (unveiled on Threadneedle St. near London’s Royal Exchange by the Prince of Wales, July 23, 1869), and had this statue erected in front of the PIB on April 7, 1890. Ref.: Johnson, R., ed. Wilson, J.G. and J. Fiske, eds., Vol. II, p. 609.

Garrett, Robert. 2-Career. Born in Baltimore, he graduated from the College of N.J. (1867, renamed Princeton Univ. from 1896); traveled in Europe; and was trained in his father’s banking house. In 1871 he succeeded Gen. Robert E. Lee (1807-70) as Pres., Valley Railroad of Va., a feeder of the B&O RR; was elected third Vice Pres., the B&O RR, 1879; was an incorporator of the American Union telegraph which competed with and eventually absorbed Western Union; was first Vice Pres., B&O RR, 1881; and on his father’s death (1884) succeeded him as B&O RR Pres. to 1887, when he resigned for health reasons. Ref.: Ibid.

Second-Born Son of B&O RR Pres. J.W. Garrett

Garrett, Thomas Harrison (1849-88), was the second-born son of John Work Garrett (1820-84), B&O RR Pres. and GP’s friend and confidant. T.H. Garrett became head of Robert Garrett & Sons banking firm founded by his grandfather, Robert Garrett (father of John Work Garrett, 1820-84). In 1885 T.H. Garrett exhibited his collection of Rembrandt’s etchings at the PIB Gallery of Art. See: PIB Gallery of Art.

Garrison, Sidney Clarence (1887-1945), was GPCFT’s second president during 1937-44, succeeding Pres. Bruce Ryburn Payne (1874-1937). Born in Lincoln County, N.C., he graduated from Wake Forest College, N.C., entered GPCFT as a graduate student in 1914 where he earned the M.A. degree (1916), the doctorate degree (1919), was professor and administrator, was elected acting president May 6, 1837, and was succeeded by Pres. Henry Harrington Hill (1894-1987) during 1945-60. Ref.: GPCFT, Nashville (Oct. 1941), pp. 39-40. For details of PCofVU’s six predecessor colleges and their nineteen chief administrators, See: PCofVU, history of.

Abolitionist Critic William Lloyd Garrison

Garrison, William Lloyd (1805-79). 1-Charged GP as Confederate Sympathizer. Newburyport, Mass.-born William Lloyd Garrison was an uncompromising abolitionist who published the Liberator (1831-65). As a polemicist writer, he was said to be intemperate, extreme in his views, hostile to the wealthy unless they supported his causes, and critical of GP in print in at least two editorials. Garrison’s first attack on GP, “Mr. Peabody and the South,” NYC’s Independent, Aug. 16, 1869, was written amid the publicity surrounding GP’s last U.S. visit, while GP was recuperating at White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., some 10 weeks before his death. Garrison wrote critically of GP as follows: “During the protracted moral and political struggle for the abolition of slavery in this country…Mr. Peabody was with the South in feeling and sentiment…. His leanings were toward the South; not indeed to the extent of disunion, but rather for reunion on terms that would be satisfactory to herself.” Ref.: Mayer, pp. 15-16. Parker, F.-f, pp. 1-20; reprinted Parker, F.-zd, pp. 49-68.

Garrison, W.L. 2-Specific Criticisms. Garrison specifically criticized GP 1-for his PIB gift (total $1.4 million, 1857-69), “made to a Maryland institution, at a time when that state was rotten with treason”; 2-for his $2 million PEF for aiding public education in the 11 former Confederate states plus W.Va. (Garrison criticized the PEF for giving more to white than to black schools and for not insisting on mixed white and black schools); 3-for not showing public sorrow at Pres. Lincoln’s assassination: “When the news of the tragical death of President Lincoln reached England…surely Mr. Peabody owed…in some way to bear an emphatic testimony at such a critical period…but no such testimony is on record”; 4-for going to recuperate not to a northern but to a southern mineral health resort, White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., “the favorite resort of the elite of rebeldom.” Ref.: Ibid.

Garrison, W.L. 3-Specific Criticisms Cont’d. Garrison criticized GP 5-for accepting at White Sulphur Springs southerners’ resolutions of praise for his PEF; 6-for thanking southerners for their resolutions of praise (Garrison quoted GP as saying: “I shall be glad, if my strength would permit, to speak of my own cordial esteem and regard for the high honor, integrity and heroism of the Southern people!!”[Garrison’s emphasis]. Garrison commented with anger at GP’s response to the resolutions of praise: “The record of ‘the Southern people’ is one of lust and blood, of treachery and cruelty, of robbery and oppression, of rebellion and war; and to panegyrize their ‘high honor, integrity, and heroism’ is an insult to the civilized world.” Ref.: Ibid.

Garrison, W.L. 4-Last Criticism of GP. Garrison’s last criticism of GP, “Honored Beyond His Deserts,” Independent, Feb. 10, 1870, followed the vast publicity on GP’s Nov. 4, 1869, death, 96-day transatlantic funeral, and Feb. 8, 1870, burial. Garrison wrote: “The ‘pomp and circumstance’ attending the burial…of the late George Peabody have been…extraordinary…. Mr. Peabody was simply a quiet, plodding, shrewd, and eminently successful man of business, with the strongest conservative tendencies, and ever careful to avoid whatever might interfere with his worldly interests, or subject him…to popular disesteem…. His sympathies …were…with a pro-slavery South [more] than with an anti-slavery North; and he carried his feelings in that direction almost to the verge of the Rebellion*.” Ref.: Ibid.

Garrison, W.L. 5-Garrison Quoted Charles Wilson Felt. Garrison’s footnote after “Rebellion*” quoted another GP critic, Charles Wilson Felt (b. Nov. 18, 1834). Garrison’s footnote read as follows: “Corroborative of this charge, take the testimony of Charles W. Felt, Esq., as given in a letter to the Evening Post, dated Manchester (Eng.), Jan. 8th last [1870]: [Felt’s letter then followed, as immediately below]: (Note: Charles Wilson Felt, born in Salem, Mass., the son of Ephaim Felt and Eliza (née Ropes), C.W. Felt was an inventor (believed to have been a promoter of railroads in cities and towns [i.e., trolley cars]). Ref.: Ibid. See: Felt, Charles Wilson.

Garrison Quoted Critic C.W. Felt

Garrison, W.L. 6-Garrison Quoted C.W. Felt: “‘I [C.W. Felt] was in London in October and November, 1861, having a letter of introduction from Edward Everett to Mr. Peabody. I was astonished and mortified to hear Mr. Peabody, in the course of a short conversation, indulge in such expressions as these: [Felt quoting what GP said to him]: ‘I do not see how it can be settled, unless Mr. [Confederate Pres. Jefferson] Davis gives up what Mr. Lincoln says he is fighting for–the forts the South has taken– and then separate.’ ‘You can’t carry on the war without coming over here for money; and you won’t get a shilling.’ ‘Harriet Beecher Stowe was over here, but I would not go to her, though I was invited: and now she writes that this is our war! Such things don’t go down over here.’…[Felt]: I made one other call upon him; but I could only regard him as recreant to his country in the time of her greatest need.'” [Garrison’s italics]. Ref.: Ibid.

Garrison, W.L. 7-Felt Critical of GP. Felt’s Jan. 8, 1870, letter from Manchester, England, printed in the NYC Evening Post, Jan. 21, 1870, was written to refute Thurlow Weed’s (1797-1882) vindication of GP as a staunch Unionist during the Civil War. Weed’s vindication, printed in the New York Times, Dec. 23, 1869, was confirmed publicly by Ohio Episcopal Bishop Charles Pettit McIlvaine (1799-1873) and others. Ref.: (Weed’s vindication): New York Times, Dec. 23, 1869, p. 2, c. 3-4; reprinted in Weed-a, pp. 9-15. Ref.: (McIlvaine’s endorsement of Weed’s vindication): Charles Pettit McIlvaine to Thurlow Weed, Dec. 24, 1869, quoted in New Haven (Conn.) Daily Palladium, Jan. 6, 1870.

Garrison, W.L. 8-Felt’s Jan. 8, 1870, Criticism of GP. Felt wrote: “I have seen Mr. Weed’s vindication of George Peabody’s course in the Civil War. He acknowledges finding Peabody undecided as late as December, 1861. No loyal American could be doubtful after Fort Sumter, Bull Run, and Front Royal. I don’t doubt that Peabody ran to Minister Adams with news of Federal success at Fort Donelson for he then saw which would be the winning side. He became a friend of the North when he saw it would win.” Ref.: (Felt’s Jan. 8, 1870, letter from Manchester, England): NYC Evening Post, Jan. 21, 1870. Parker, F.-f, pp. 1-20; reprinted in Parker, F.-zd, pp. 50-68,

Garrison, W.L. 9-Saw GP as Self-Seeking Publicist. Garrison was understandably critical of those not as vocally anti-slavery and pro-Union as he was. Garrison’s editorial clearly implied and agreed with what Felt more directly stated: that GP was honored beyond his true merit, that it would have been better if GP had remained in the U.S. instead of going to England to die, that GP’s return to England was a bid for notoriety. Ref.: Ibid.

Garrison, W.L. 10-Garrison’s Specific Charges. What galled the volatile Garrison were the following actions by GP, born in Mass. like himself and a wealthy philanthropist: 1-That GP gave large education gifts to southern institutions (PIB, PEF). 2-That GP, ill and near death on his June 8-Sept. 19, 1869, U.S. visit, went to recuperate not to a northern but to a southern health spa (White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., July 23-Aug. 30, 1869). 3-That GP accepted resolutions of praise from what Garrison labeled as rebel leaders (Robert E. Lee, seven other ex-Civil War generals, most of them Confederate, Former Va. Gov. Wise, and others). 4-That GP responded to rebel praise (in Garrison’s words) with GP’s own “high regard for their integrity.” Ref.: Ibid.

Garrison, W.L. 11-Believed Vast Praise of GP Undeserved. Garrison believed that the vast publicity accorded GP at his death was undeserved, that it was based (Garrison believed) on planned and planted publicity about GP’s educational gifts in U.S. and London newspapers. Hence, Garrison’s editorial title, “Honored Beyond His Deserts,” Independent, Feb. 10, 1870 (Garrison’s journal). See: Civil War and GP.

Garrison, W.L. 12-Mistook GP for Another. Less understandable than Garrison’s hostility to GP was Garrison’s error in confusing GP (1795-1869) with another person named George Peabody (1804-92) of Salem, Mass., president of the Eastern Railroad. This error is obvious in Garrison’s last article: “When the legislature of Massachusetts passed the ‘Personal Liberty Bill’ for the common security against Southern slave-hunters and kidnappers, a certain number of the most eminent conservatives in the state affixed their signatures to an appeal…denouncing that bill…. Among them was George Peabody.” Ref.: Ibid.

Garrison, W.L. 13-Mistook GP for Another Cont’d. Garrison mistakenly confused two different men with the same name. GP was in London and had no part in the 1851 Mass. Personal Liberty Bill, passed to counter the 1850 Fugitive Slave Law. Garrison attacked many who were prominent or wealthy and who were not vocally antislavery. Garrison not only confused the two men named George Peabody, but disdained GP’s patriotism and philanthropy because his gifts went to a Md. institution (PIB) and to aid the South (PEF). Garrison found GP (and others) convenient to attack. For other GP critics, See: Bigelow, John. Baldwin, Leland DeWitt. Bowles, Samuel. Felt, Charles Wilson. Josephson, Matthew. Moran, Benjamin. Sandburg, Carl. See: also McIlvaine, Charles Pettit. Peabody, George (1804-92) of Salem, Mass. Weed, Thurlow.

Gary, Martin Witherspoon (1831-81), was a S.C.-born Confederate general who by chance met, talked to, and was photographed with GP (Aug. 12), then visiting the mineral springs health spa at White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., July 23-Aug. 30, 1869. Gathered there by chance were key southern and northern political, military, and educational leaders. GP, ill and three months from death, was there to rest and recuperate. He and Robert E. Lee talked, dined, walked arm in arm, were publicly applauded, and photographed with other prominent guests. Informal talks of later educational consequence took place on southern public education needs. For details, names of prominent participants, and sources, including historic W.Va. photos taken between Aug. 15-19, 1869, See: Corcoran, William Wilson. Confederate generals. Peabody, George, Illustrations. Persons named. Visits to the U.S. by GP. White Sulphur Springs, W.Va.

Geary, John White (1819-73). One source (Freeman-a, 1935, appendix) is most likely in error in listing John White Geary as a Union general who by chance met, spoke to, and was photographed with GP (Aug. 12), then visiting the mineral springs health spa at White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., July 23-Aug. 30, 1869. The names of the seven Civil War generals photographed with GP and others one day between Aug. 15-19, 1869 (See: Martin Witherspoon Gary [1831-81] article immediately above), were in dispute until correctly identified in 1935 by Leonard T. Mackall of Savannah, Ga. Mackall’s list omits John White Geary. John White Geary was born in Mt. Pleasant, Penn., was a surveyor and railroad engineer, fought in the Mexican War, was sent by Pres. Polk to set up Calif.’s postal system, was Kansas Gov. (1856), a Union Civil War general, and Republican Gov. of Penn. (1867-73). Ref.: Ibid.

General Education Board (1902-62). See: PEF.

Generals, Confederate. See: Confederate Generals.

Geneva, Switzerland. For GP’s second 15 months’ European buying trip abroad, April 1830-Aug. 15, 1831, with an unknown American friend, by carriage with frequent change of horses, covering 10,000 miles in England, France, Italy, and Switzerland, with source, See: Russell, Judith Dodge (née Peabody) (GPI’s sister).

Genoa, Italy. (same as above).

Geographical Society of New York. The Smithsonian Institution, the Geographical Society of New York, and the American Philosophical Society of Philadelphia all gave some aid to the Second U.S. Grinnell Expedition, 1853-54, to search for missing British Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin (1786-1847). NYC merchant Henry Grinnell (1799-1874) gave two ships, the 144-ton Advance and the 91-ton Rescue. U.S. Navy Secty. John Pendleton Kennedy (1795-1870) authorized 10 U.S. naval volunteers and placed the two ships under the command of U.S. Navy Capt. Elisha Kent Kane, M.D. (1820-57), who had been the U.S. Naval medical officer during the First U.S. Grinnell Expedition, 1850-52. U.S. Navy backing also made the expedition one of scientific exploration. GP gave $10,000 for scientific equipment, motivated by a desire for British-U.S. friendship and by Lady Jane Franklin’s (1792-1875) appeal to U.S. Pres. Zachary Taylor (1784-1850, 12th U.S. president during 1849-50) and the U.S. Congress to find her husband. See: persons named. Institutions named.

Geological Society, London. A scientific paper GP’s nephew Othniel Charles Marsh (1831-99) wrote in 1861 while a graduate student at Yale’s newly opened Sheffield Scientific School (at GP’s expense) was read at the Geological Society of London, published in its Transactions, and reprinted in U.S. and European journals. See: Marsh, Othniel Charles.

Geology. See: Marsh, Othniel Charles.

George Henry (ship). The U.S. whaler George Henry under Capt. Buddington found and extricated the British ship HMS Resolute from the frozen Arctic in its search for lost British Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin (1786-1847). For GP’s financial contribution for scientific equipment in the search for the lost explorer, See: Franklin, Sir John. See: also White House.

George Peabody & Co., London (1838-64). See: Morgan, Junius Spencer. Morgan Grenfell & Co., Ltd. Deutsche Morgan Grenfell (since June 29, 1990).

George Peabody (1795-1869) and the Civil War. See: Civil War and GP.

Steamship Named For GP

George Peabody (ship). 1-George Peabody (ship) named after PIB Founding Letter. The Powhatan Steamship Co. of Baltimore, which owned two freight packets, the Belvedere and Pocahontas, laid the keel of their third steamer on May 1, 1857, and were to name it the Hiawatha. But when the board of directors met a few days after GP’s PIB gift was announced, Feb. 12, 1857 (total $1.4 million gift), it was decided to name the new $90,000 vessel George Peabody in tribute to GP’s gift and as good company advertisement. The George Peabody, commanded by Capt. Pritchard, was the largest freighter then in the Chesapeake Bay trade. It steamed between Baltimore, Petersburg, Va., and Richmond, Va. By one account, on Aug. 13, 1862, two federal steamers, the George Peabody and the West Point, collided on the Potomac River, with a loss of 83 lives. Ref.: The Sun (Baltimore), Feb. 21, 1857, p. 1, c. 5. Baltimore American, Feb. 19, 1857, p. 1, c. 4. Baltimore Weekly Patriot, Feb. 21, 1857, p. 2, c.1. Richmond (Va.) Dispatch, March 30, 1857, p. 1, c. 5. (Collision): Bowman, p. 155.

George Peabody (ship). 2-Sketches of George Peabody (ship). There are two pencil sketches by artist Alfred Rudolph Waud (1828-91) made between 1860-65 of a steamship named George Peabody (probably the same-named ship as above). These sketches were gifts made by John Pierpont Morgan, Jr. (1867-1943), to the Library of Congress in 1919. See: George Peabody (ship). g. Internet (seen Jan. 2002): http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?pp/dwgd: @FIELD(SUBJ+@band(++George+Peabody++Steamshp+++

GP’s Bicentennial: 1795-1995

George Peabody Bicentennial Celebrations (Feb. 18, 1795-1995). 1-At Yale Univ. For GP’s 200th birthday (Feb. 18, 1995) Archivist Barbara Narendra, Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale Univ., had on display GP’s May 18, 1831, letter to a nephew named after him (George Peabody, 1815-32, son of GP’s oldest brother David Peabody, 1790-1841). Background: After GP had paid for this nephew to attend Bradford Academy, Bradford, Mass., the nephew asked his uncle’s help to attend Yale College. Ref.: (GP’s 200th birthday events): Bess Liebenson, “The Country’s First Modern Philanthropist,” New York Times, July 14, 1995, section XIII-CN, p. 17.

At Yale
GP Bicentennial. 2-At Yale Univ. Cont’d. GP’s May 18, 1831, reply from London, which sheds light on his later philanthropic motive, read: “Deprived, as I was, of the opportunity of obtaining anything more than the most common education I am well qualified to estimate its value by the disadvantages I labour under in the society [in] which my business and situation in life frequently throws me, and willingly would I now give twenty times the expense attending a good education could I possess it, but it is now too late for me to learn and I can only do to those that come under my care, as I could have wished circumstances had permitted others to have done by me” (GP’s underlining). Ref.: (GP’s 1831 letter): GP, London, to George Peabody, son of David Peabody, May 1831, Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass.; quoted in Schuchert and LeVene, p. 21.

GP Bicentennial. 3-At Yale Univ. Cont’d. Sadly, this nephew died at age 17 of scarlet fever in Boston, Sept. 24, 1832. The Yale exhibit also displayed the influence of another nephew, Othniel Charles Marsh (1831-99), son of GP’s younger sister Mary Gaines (née Peabody) Marsh (1807-34). GP’s financial aid made possible nephew O.C Marsh’s education and career as the first U.S. paleontology professor at Yale and the second such professor in the world. O.C. Marsh was the leading late 19th century discoverer of dinosaurs and other fossil remains. Scientist Charles Darwin (1809-82) wrote O.C. Marsh in 1880 that Marsh’s fossil findings offered the best evidence of the theory of evolution in the past 20 years. Ref.: Ibid.

GP Bicentennial. 4-Marsh Influenced Founding of Three Peabody Museums. O.C. Marsh also influenced his uncle GP to endow the three Peabody Museums at Harvard and Yale universities (1866, $150,000 each) and in Salem, Mass. (1867, $140,000). The Yale exhibit documented GP’s life as merchant-turned-international banker-turned-philanthropist in the U.S. and Britain and showed photos of the many honors GP received before and after his death. Ref.: Ibid.

In Nashville

GP Bicentennial. 5-In Nashville, Tenn. In Nashville, Tenn., PCofVU students, faculty, and friends celebrated the bicentennial with “A Day of Service,” March 25, 1995, cleaning, painting, and refurbishing the Edgehill community near the PCofVU campus in Nashville. Ref.: “Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale, Peabody Museum of Archaeology at Harvard, Peabody Museum at Salem, Mass., and Peabody Institute in Baltimore, now Part of Johns Hopkins Univ. are Joining this year in Various Celebrations of 200th Anniversary of George Peabody’s Birth; Photos (L).” New York Times, July 16, 1995, section XIII-CN, p. 17, c. 1.

At Westminster Abbey

GP Bicentennial. 6-In London: Westminster Abbey held a special “Bicentenary Service of Thanksgiving for the Life and Work of George Peabody, 1795-1869,” Nov. 16, 1995. At the Abbey 126 years before, Nov. 12, 1869, a special GP funeral service had been held. His remains lay in state in the Abbey for 30 days, Nov. 12-Dec. 11, 1869; then were taken by special train to Portsmouth harbor; placed with solemnity aboard HMS Monarch for a transatlantic crossing to Portland harbor, Maine (Jan. 25, 1870); taken by train to Peabody, Mass. for a funeral service, eulogy, and burial at Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Mass. (Feb. 8, 1870)–an unprecedented 96-day international funeral. See: Death and Funeral, GP’s.

GP Bicentennial. 7-In London Cont’d. The Nov. 16, 1995, Abbey service began when the Dean and Chapter of Westminster, the Very Rev. Michael Clement Otway Mayne (1929-), received the Lord Mayor of Westminster (believed to have been Councilor Alan Bradley). Reading the service in parts were 1-Peabody Homes of London tenant George Johnstone, 2-U.S. Ambassador to Britain Adm. William J. Crowe, Jr. (1925-), and 3-Peabody Trust chairman Sir William Benyon. The main address was given by the Rt. Rev. Ronald Oliver Bowlby (1926-), a leader in British low-income housing improvement. Ref.: New York Times, July 16, 1995, section XIII-CN, p. 17, c. 1. See: persons named.

GP Bicentennial. 8-In London Cont’d. Other participants were Johnny Moss of the J.P. Morgan banking firm and Rt. Hon. Lord Catto (1923-), former head of the Morgan Grenfell Group banking firm, lineal descendant of George Peabody & Co. (1838-64). Over 1,600 people attended the Westminster Abbey celebration, some 1,200 of them from the 34,500 persons (59% white, 32% black, and 9% others) living in 17,183 Peabody apartments in 26 of London’s boroughs (as of March 31, 1999). Ref.: Ibid. See: Deutsche Morgan Grenfell (since June 29, 1990). See: persons named.

GP Bicentennial. 9-Baltimore Participant. “Looking back,” wrote Baltimore participant Ann Garside (PIB Conservatory of Music public affairs director), “the week in London was full of…remembrance…, the state opening of Parliament…, the Beatles reunion, the Queen Mum’s hip operation…. But the Times of London got things right…. For those…in Westminster Abbey, George definitely stole the show.” Ref.: Garside, “The Way I See It…”

In Peabody, Mass.

GP Bicentennial. 10-In Peabody, Mass. On Sept. 30, 1995, the Peabody Historical Society of Peabody, Mass., held a bicentennial dinner and reception. PCofVU Dean James Pellegrino spoke on the history of PCofVU and its antecedents in Nashville, Tenn. These began with Davidson Academy (1785-1806); rechartered as Cumberland College (1806-26), rechartered as the Univ. of Nashville (1826-75); whose amended charter at the PEF’s urging and financial support transformed its moribund Literary Dept. into State Normal School (1875-89); renamed Peabody Normal College (1889-1911); rechartered as GPCFT (1914-79); which became PCofVU, since July 1, 1979. Ceremonies were held at the Peabody City Hall, Feb. 16, 1995. A 200th birthday party was held at the George Peabody House Civic Center, 205 Washington St. (GP’s birthplace). Ref.: Ibid. Ref.: Robert Branch. “Happy birthday, George! Danvers and Peabody to celebrate noted philanthropist’s 200th birthday,” Danvers Herald (Danvers, Mass.), Feb. 16, 1995, p. 3.

In Danvers, Mass.

GP Bicentennial. 11-In Danvers, Mass. Bicentennial events at the Peabody Institute Library, Danvers, Mass., included: 1-folk singer and story teller Peter Stewart’s tales and stories of GP’s time, Feb. 26, 1995; 2-a Franklin and Betty Parker dialogue on “Educational Philanthropist George Peabody (1795-1869) and Danvers, Mass.,” March 23, 1995; and 2-Canadian glassware collector Gordon Sykes’s talk May 18, 1995, on GP commemorative glassware manufactured in Sunderland, England, and sold in Dec. 1869, after his Nov. 4, 1869. A traveling George Peabody Bicentennial Exhibition was also shown in London, Baltimore, and in Peabody and Danvers, Mass. Ref.: Ibid.

In Salem, Mass.

GP Bicentennial. 12-Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Mass. For the bicentennial, Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Mass., acquired a large oil painting by artist Robert Dudley (fl. 1865-91), “HMS Monarch Transporting the Body of George Peabody,” 1870, oil on canvas, 43″ x 72.” The painting depicts the British warship HMS Monarch, accompanied by the USS corvette Plymouth, leaving Portsmouth harbor, England, to transport GP’s remains across the Atlantic for burial in New England,. A photo of the painting made by Mark Sexton appeared on the cover of The American Neptune, Fall 1995, published at the Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Mass., and is identified as “a recent museum acquisition in recognition of the bicentennial of George Peabody’s birth. The same Robert Dudley is believed to have made a set of lithographs entitled “Memorial of the Marriage of HRH Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, to HRH Alexandra, Princess of Denmark,” published 1864, London, by Day and Son Ref.: http://www.pem.org/neptune/desc554.htm (seen Dec. 29, 1999). See: American Neptune. Dudley, Robert. Peabody, George, Illustrations. Peabody Essex Museum.

GP’s Centennial: 1795-1895
GP Centennial Celebration. 1-Feb. 18, 1795-1895. Annual dinners were held on GP’s birthday at Simonds Hotel, Peabody, Mass., in 1869, 1871, 1872, 1876, and perhaps other years. A GP Centennial Celebration was held Monday, Feb. 18, 1895, Peabody, Mass. Church bells rang at sunrise. Schools were closed. Businesses closed early. Some 1,800 school children listened to morning speeches in the Peabody Institute, Peabody, Mass. Afternoon speeches were held in the Town Hall. There was a painting of George Washington crossing the Delaware. Above it was GP’s motto: “EDUCATION: a debt due from present to future generations.” Ref.: (Annual GP birthday dinners): Peabody Press (Peabody, Mass.), Feb. 24, 1869, p. 2, c. 2. Feb. 22, 1871, p. 2, c. 1. Feb. 21, 1872, p. 2, c. 2. Feb. 23, 1876, p. 2, c. 3. See: Danvers, Mass., Centennial Celebration, June 16, 1852.

GP Centennial. 2-Feb. 18, 1795-1895, Cont’d. GP had sent this motto with his letter from London, May 26, 1852, read aloud by John Waters Proctor (1791-1874) at the Danvers, Mass., Centennial Celebration, June 16, 1852, marking the l00th year of the separation of Danvers from Salem, Mass. With this letter GP enclosed $20,000 to begin his first Peabody Institute Library, what is now the Peabody Institute of Peabody, Mass. ($217,600 total gift). See: Danvers, Mass., Centennial Celebration, June 16, 1852.

Speeches

GP Centennial. 3-Feb. 18, 1795-1895-Speeches. On Feb. 18, 1895, nearly 26 years after GP’s death, speaker Francis Henry Appleton (1847-1939, Mass. House of Rep. member) said in part: “Mr. Peabody’s gifts in various parts of the country are promoting more uniform educational conditions. Particularly in the Southern states his gift, planned to advance the educational power of the country, is having good results. Illiteracy is gradually yielding to a concerted educational effort, among which the Peabody Education Fund plays a significant role.” Mass. Lt. Gov. Roger Wolcott (1847-1901) said in part: “Those who read history in its broader light know that great deeds have wide influence…. George Peabody gave us not only money to advance enlightenment and culture; he gave us a lasting sentiment–the debts we owe to future generations are education, virtue, enterprise, patriotism, and public service. This is the lesson his life taught us.” Ref.: Report of the Centennial Celebration…., p. 19 [Town Hall decoration], p. 21 [Francis Henry Appleton], p. 41 [Roger Wolcott], pp. 67-68. “The Peabody Centenary,” p. 145. Boston Herald, Feb. 16, 1895. See: persons named.

GP Centennial. 4-Feb. 18, 1795-1895-Speeches Cont’d. At the banquet that evening Harvard Prof. Francis Greenwood Peabody’s (1847-1936) speech read in part (he was absent due to ill health): “When great wealth is non-utilitarian, when it demoralizes its possessor and the community, it digs its own grave. On the other hand when great wealth brings increased sense of responsibility, then it becomes a trust and renders public service. George Peabody taught the wise use of wealth. He received happiness from it. 20,000 Londoners are soberer and more decent. 10,000 Negroes are better trained to be worthier citizens, the world of science is richer, because George Peabody set a pattern of the stewardship of wealth.” Ref.: Boston Herald, Feb. 16, 1895. Report of the Centennial Celebration…. [F.G. Peabody], p. 73.

Queen Victoria’s Cablegram

GP Centennial. 5-Feb. 18, 1795-1895-Queen Victoria’s Cablegram. Queen Victoria (1819-1901), then age 76 and in the 58th year of her reign (she became queen in 1837, the same year GP went permanently to London), sent the following cablegram to the Centennial Celebration Committee: “On this, the hundredth anniversary of the birth of George Peabody, the grateful remembrance of him and of his noble munificent deeds of charity in this country, is fresh in my heart and in that of my people” Ref.: Report of the Centennial Celebration…. [Queen Victoria], pp. 74-75. “The Peabody Centenary,” p. 145.

Pres. Daniel Coit Gilman

GP Centennial. 6-Feb. 18, 1795-1895-D.C. Gilman’s Message. Johns Hopkins Univ. Pres. Daniel Coit Gilman’s (1831-1908) message to the Centennial Celebration Committee was: “The success…of his gifts is due not along to [his] munificence…but also to the wisdom…exercised in drawing up the instruments by which the trusts are administered. So far as I know, all the Peabody foundations work well. Of the two, the Peabody Education Fund for the promotion of education in the Southern states, and the Peabody Institute of Baltimore, I can speak with personal knowledge. Every year unfolds the excellence of the plans which received the sanction of George Peabody and shared his bounty. There is good reason for saying that the gifts of Johns Hopkins to Baltimore were the natural sequence of the gift of Peabody, and that the John F. Slater fund for the education of freedmen was largely the result of Mr. Peabody’s influence.” Ref.: Boston Herald, Feb. 16, 1895. Report of the Centennial Celebration… [D.C. Gilman]. “The Peabody Centenary,” p. 145.

PCofVU Predecessors

George Peabody College for Teachers (GPCFT), Nashville, Tenn. (1914-1979), evolved from three successive predecessors: 1-Davidson Academy (1785-1806), rechartered as 2-Cumberland College (1806-26), and rechartered as 3-the Univ. of Nashville (1826-75). First PEF administrator Barnas Sears (1802-80) and the PEF trustees, helped by newly inaugurated Tenn. Gov. James Davis Porter (1828-1912), secured revision of the Univ. of Nashville’s charter so that its moribund Literary Dept. became 4-State Normal School (1875-89), PEF-created and financially supported, officially renamed 5-Peabody Normal College (1889-1911); PEF endowed ($1.5 million plus required matching funds) and rechartered as 6-GPCFT, relocated from South Nashville to Hillsboro Ave. adjacent to Vanderbilt Univ. (1914-79); and rechartered as 7-Peabody College of Vanderbilt Univ. (PCofVU), since 1979. This unbroken lineage of over 210 years from 1785 makes PCofVU the 15th collegiate institution in the U.S. after the founding of Harvard College in 1636. For details of PCofVU’s six predecessor colleges and their nineteen chief administrators, see PCofVU, history of. Conkin, Peabody College, index.

GP glassware. See: Sykes, Gordon.

GP (1795-1869) illustrations in printed sources. See: Peabody, George, Illustrations.
George Peabody Medal for Outstanding Contributions to Music in America, the highest honor that the PIB Conservatory of Music can bestow, has been awarded since 1980 for exceptional contributors to “music composers, performers, scholars, patrons, or political supporters.” Honorees include Marian Anderson, Leonard Bernstein, Ella Fitzgerald, Benny Goodman, Gian Carlo Menotti, Andre Watts, and others. Ref.: http://www.jhu.edu/~gazette/2002/11nov02/11briefs.html

Georgetown, D.C.

George Peabody Room, Georgetown, D.C., public library. 1-April 20, 1867, Founding Letter. GP set a pattern of gifts to each U.S. town and city where he had worked and lived. One of his last gifts was $15,000 to Georgetown, D.C., to which he migrated in May 1812, age 17, with paternal uncle John Peabody (1768-before 1826), from Newburyport, Mass. Fifty-five years later, in memory of his early hard road-tramping days (from the dry goods store he managed he went out as pack peddler to surrounding areas), he selected as trustees lifelong friends William Wilson Corcoran (1798-1888), George Washington Riggs (1813-81), and three others. Ref.: Georgetown, D.C. Courier , March 2, 1867, p. 3, c. 1. Johnson, W.D. “Peabody Library,” William Dawson Johnson Papers, Library of Congress Ms., also quoted in District of Columbia, Board of Trustees of Public Schools, pp. 62-66.

George Peabody Room, Georgetown, D.C., public library. 2-April 20, 1867, Founding Letter Cont’d. GP’s founding letter stated: “For some time I have wished to make some gift to the citizens of Georgetown, District of Columbia, where I entered business for myself in early youth. To aid you in your efforts toward intellectual progress, I give you gentlemen $15,000. The interest from this gift along with other donations I hope will follow from other individuals, should be used for a building to house a free public circulating library for the people.” Ref.: Ibid.

George Peabody Room, Georgetown, D.C., public library. 3-Georgetown, D.C., History. Thus was born the fund from which in 1876 the George Peabody Library Association of Georgetown, D.C., arose. It later merged with the public library system of Washington, D.C. The still-existing George Peabody Room of the public library of Washington, D.C. contains Georgetown, D.C., history. Ref.: Ibid. Ref.: Mackall, p. 273. New York Herald, May 7, 1867, p. 5, c. 6. New York Times, May 8, 1867, p. 5, c. 2-3. Records of the Columbia Historical Society, Vol. 46-47 (1944-1945), p. 41. U.S. Govt.-j, pp. 744-745.

GP’s London Statue

George Peabody Statue, London. 1-Unveiled July 23, 1869. GP’s seated statue on Threadneedle St., near London’s Royal Exchange, was unveiled July 23, 1869, about one hundred days before his death on Nov. 4, 1869. Created by Salem, Mass.-born sculptor William Wetmore Story (1819-95) in his Rome, Italy, studio, this was the first statue of an American erected in London. Three other Americans later so honored were Abraham Lincoln, 1920; George Washington, 1921; and Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 1948. It amazed Britons that GP, a U.S. resident merchant-banker, gave (March 12, 1862) to a city and country not his own a fund for low rent model apartments for London’s working poor ($2.5 million total gift). See: Peabody Homes of London.

GP Statue, London. 2-Paid for by Public Subscription. One of several honors that came from the Peabody Homes of London gift occurred on March 27, 1866, when London’s Court of Common Council members proposed some form of tribute to GP. A letter signed by 50 prominent Londoners called for an organizational meeting on April 12, 1866. This meeting led to the forming of a committee to raise funds for a GP statue. There was some opposition. An alternate suggestion (not followed) was made in London’s Pall Mall Gazette, that instead of a statue, contributions go to the Peabody Donation Fund, then planning to erect GP’s model workingmen’s homes. Subscription appeals for a GP statue appeared in the press. See: Statues of GP.

GP Statue, London. 3-U.S. Sculptor W.W. Story Chosen. By May 1867 over £2,572 (then about $12,860) was subscribed. By June 1867 the London city architect drew up a list of sites, including one near the Royal Exchange, which was chosen. Several sculptors were proposed and four declined to be in the competition. The committee offered the commission to W. W. Story, who accepted by Sept. 1867. By Oct. 5, 1867, £3,000 (then about $15,000) had been pledged. Story had agreed to cast the statue in bronze for £2,500 (about $11,500). Ref.: Ibid. For other GP-W.W. Story contacts, See: Story, William Wetmore.

Georgetown, D.C. For GP’s 1812 advertisements in the Federal Republican, and Commercial Gazette (Georgetown, D.C.), See: Riggs, Sr., Elisha.

Georgetown, D.C., Public Library Fund. For GP’s April 20, 1867, letter and $15,000 gift for a Georgetown, D.C., free public library building fund, See: George Peabody Room, Georgetown, D.C., Public Library (above).

Georgetown, Mass.

Georgetown, Mass. (formerly Rowley, Mass.). 1-Memorial Church. GP’s mother, Judith (née Dodge) Peabody (1770-1830) was born in Georgetown, Mass., formerly Rowley, 28 miles northeast of Boston. GP’s sister Judith Dodge (née Peabody) Russell Daniels (1799-1879) also lived in Georgetown with her first husband, a lawyer, Jeremiah Russell (d. 1860; they married in 1831), and with her second husband, Robert Shillaber Daniels (b. 1791; they married in 1862). Ref.: Boston Daily Evening Transcript, Jan. 24, 1868, p. 2, c. 1-2.

Georgetown, Mass. 2-Memorial Church Cont’d. Dissension in the orthodox Congregational Church, of which GP’s mother and sister Judith were members, led Judith to suggest to GP that he build a memorial church in their mother’s honor. A new church site was selected in 1866, a building committee was named, ground was broken on June 19, 1866, the cornerstone was laid Sept. 19, 1866, and the church was dedicated on Jan. 8, 1868. Ref.: Higginson, pp. 89-90. NYC Independent, Jan. 16, 1868, p. 4, c.1.

Georgetown, Mass. 3-Poet John Greenleaf Whittier. John Greenleaf Whittier (1807-92) read a specially written memorial poem at the dedication. When GP’s founding letter was read requiring that the church exclude “political and other subjects not in keeping with its religious purpose,” Whittier published a statement saying that had he been aware of GP’s restrictions he would not have written the poem or lent his name to the proceedings. Ref.: Ibid. See: Memorial Church, Georgetown, Mass. (1867-68).

Georgia. During GP’s Sept. 15, 1856-Sept. 19, 1857, his first return to the U.S. in nearly 20 years since leaving for England (Feb. 1837), he visited Augusta, Ga., March 9, 1857. See: Visits to the U.S. by GP. For [Peabody] State Normal School’s possible move to Ga., See: Conkin, Peabody College, index. PEF. Sears, Barnas.

Germany, universities of. GP paid for nephew Othniel Charles Marsh’s (1831-99) complete schooling, including at the German universities of Berlin, Heidelberg, and Breslau in 1863-65, plus purchasing in Europe a science library and mineral rock specimens, enabling Marsh to become the first U.S. paleontology professor at Yale Univ., the second such professor in the world, and an important discoverer of dinosaur remains. See: Marsh, Othniel Charles.

Gibson, Randall Lee (1832-92), was a PEF trustee. He was born in Spring Hill, Ky., graduated from Yale (1853), studied law at the Univ. of La. (later Tulane Univ.) and the Univ. of Berlin, was a sugar planter in La. until the Civil War, was a Confederate general, practiced law, served in the U.S. House (1874-82), in the U.S. Senate (1882-92), and helped fellow PEF trustee Paul Tulane (1801-87) found Tulane Univ. R.L. Gibson’s place as PEF trustee was taken by Charles Erasmus Fenner (1834-1911) of New Orleans. Ref.: Curry-b, pp. 93, 104. Boatner, p. 341.

Aid to Arctic Exploration

Gillis, James Melvin (1811-65), 1-Helped Plan the Second U.S. Grinnell Expedition. James Melvin Gillis was connected with the U.S. National Observatory, Washington, D.C. He met with U.S. Navy Secty. John Pendleton Kennedy (1795-1870) and U.S. Capt. Elisha Kent Kane (1820-57) in planning the Second U.S. Grinnell Expedition (1853-55) to search for lost British Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin (1786-1847). GP gave $10,000 for scientific equipment for that expedition. Kennedy recorded their meeting in mid-Nov. 1852 in his journal: “Pleasant little party at dinner with Dr. Kane of the Arctic Expedition and Lt. Gillis of the Astronomical Dept. Kane had brought his drawings–a rich portfolio of polar scenes–to show us. I have given him permission to go again, at the request of Lady Franklin on the new expedition recently set on foot by Mr. Henry Grinnell and Mr. Peabody.” Navy Secty. Kennedy had authorized 10 U.S. Navy personnel for the expedition and given Capt. Kane command of two ships lent by NYC merchant Henry Grinnell (1799-1874). See: Corcoran, William Wilson. Kennedy, John Pendleton. Persons named.

Gillis, J.M. 2-Career. James Melvin Gillis was born in Georgetown, D.C., entered the U.S. Navy in 1827, and was given leave for astronomical study at the Univ. of Va. and in Paris. He was a member of the first U.S. scientific exploration in South American waters under U.S. Navy Capt. Charles Wilkes (1798-1877) from 1838. Gillis headed the U.S. National Observatory from 1861. Ref.: Ibid.

Johns Hopkins Pres. D.C. Gilman

Gilman, Daniel Coit (1831-1908). 1-On GP’s PEF Influence. Daniel Coit Gilman was a prominent educator, PEF trustee, and first president of Johns Hopkins Univ., who wrote of the PEF: “Mr. George Peabody began this line of modern beneficence…. The influence exerted by this agency [PEF] throughout the states which were impoverished by the war cannot be calculated, and it is not strange that the name of George Peabody is revered from Baltimore to New Orleans….” Gilman credited GP’s example with influencing the principles of the John F. Slater Fund (1882-1937), John D. Rockefeller’s General Education Board (1902-14), the Andrew Carnegie foundations, and the Russell Sage Foundation (1907-46) adding: “Almost if not quite all of these foundations have been based on principles that were designated by Mr. Peabody.” Ref.: Gilman-c, pp. 648, 649-52, 657. Conkin, Peabody College, index.

Gilman, D.C. 2-Sidestepped Early GPCFT Takeover Attempt. D.C. Gilman was also adept in sidestepping a dilemma in a Vanderbilt Univ. takeover in Peabody Normal College’s last years. GP’s Feb. 7, 1867, letter founding the PEF allowed its trustees to disband after 30 years. The trustees resolved on Jan. 29, 1903, to give most of the fund’s principal to found GPCFT; and committed $1 million for this purpose on Jan. 24, 1905, again contingent on matching funds. Finally on dissolution in 1914 the trustees gave $1.5 million, still contingent on matching funds and on agreement that the new GPCFT campus be built in Nashville’s Hillsboro section adjoining Vanderbilt Univ. For a few years GPCFT had more endowment than Vanderbilt Univ. See: PCofVU, history of.

Gilman, D.C. 3-Sidestepped Early GPCFT Takeover Attempt Cont’d. Vanderbilt’s second Chancellor James Hampton Kirkland (1859-1939), apparently wanting GPCFT (and its endowment) as Vanderbilt’s school of education, turned to Daniel Coit Gilman, an influential PEF trustee and a distinguished southern educator who was about to retire as president of prestigious Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore. Vanderbilt’s Chancellor Kirkland urged Gilman in 1900-01 to become Peabody Normal College president and help form a Vanderbilt-GPCFT connection. But Gilman adroitly declined. Although GPCFT’s first Pres. Bruce R. Payne (1874-1937), president during 1911-37, welcomed academic cooperation with Vanderbilt, he determinedly kept GPCFT independent as the South’s leading teachers’ college. See: persons named. PEF.

Aboard the Scotia: May 9, 1867

Girard, Stephen (1750-1831). 1-Mentioned in GP Resolutions of Praise, May 9, 1867. GP ended his May 1, 1866, to May 1, 1867, U.S. visit and returned to England on the Scotia. On the last day aboard, May 9, 1867, just before landing, some Americans on the Scotia presented him with resolutions of praise for his philanthropic gifts. One resolution that caught GP’s attention he asked to be repeated: “Whereas, James Smithson and Stephen Girard had bequeathed their gifts after death, Mr. Peabody became his own executor giving away his wealth during his lifetime while he could watch and plan for its wise use.” Ref.: (Resolutions from Americans on Scotia to GP, May 9, 1867): Forney, pp. 19-31.

Girard, Stephen. 2-“Please strike out the last resolution.” Fellow passenger and Philadelphia newspaper owner John Wien Forney (1817-70) reported that GP said “with winning courtesy”: “Please strike out the last resolution. You will oblige me so much if you would. Whatever may be said of me and however your view may be, the contrast might be construed into a criticism upon these two illustrious men. They did their best, and they did nobly.” Ref.: Resolutions also published in New York Herald, May 28, 1867, p. 4, c. 2. London Times, May 22, 1867, p. 9, c. 6.

Girard, Stephen. 3-Careers. In his 1826 will, British-born scientist James Smithson (1765-1829) left his property to the U.S. Government for what became the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., in 1846. French-born Philadelphia financier Stephen Girard (1750-1831) left $5.26 million for Girard College, Philadelphia, for white male orphans in 1848. See: Forney, John Wien. Visits to the U.S. by GP.
Girard College, Philadelphia. See: Girard, Stephen.

PM Gladstone

Gladstone, William Ewart (1809-98). 1-British Prime Minister. William Ewart Gladstone was British PM (1868-74) at GP’s death (Nov. 4, 1869). In his Nov. 9, 1869, Lord Mayor’s Day banquet speech Gladstone said in relation to GP’s death: “…with the country of Mr. Peabody we are not likely to quarrel.” Gladstone’s diary entries under Cabinet Nov. 10/69 recorded: [item] “2. Peabody’s remains. Sent [to] Am[eric]a in Ship of War?” (note: The letter calling this Cabinet meeting was dated Nov. 6, 1869, indicating that the thought of returning GP’s remains to the U.S. on a royal vessel [HMS Monarch was chosen] was made soon after his death with the knowledge that his will requested burial in his hometown. There is indication that the suggestion was first made by Queen Victoria). Ref.: Matthew, ed., pp. 167-169.

Gladstone, W.E. 2-Attended GP’s Westminster Abbey Funeral Service. Gladstone’s diary entry for Nov. 12, 1869 read: “Attended the funeral of Mr Peabody [at Westminster Abbey]: a touching and solemn spectacle.” His attendance at the Westminster funeral service for GP, along with attendance of Gen. Charles Grey (1804-70), representing Queen Victoria, is mentioned in Benjamin Moran’s (1820-86) journal entry (Nov. 12, 1869). Ref.: Ibid. See: Death and Funeral, GP’s. Persons mentioned.

Gladstone’s Cabinet minutes, Nov. 10, 1869. See: Death and Funeral, GPs. Gladstone, William Ewart.

Glassware, GP (1870). GP commemorative glassware was manufactured and sold in Britain in early 1870, in the wake of vast publicity on GP’s Nov. 4, 1869, death, funeral service and 30-day temporary burial in Westminster Abbey (Nov. 12-Dec. 11, 1869), transatlantic funeral voyage aboard HMS Monarch, escorted by USS Plymouth, and final burial in Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Mass., Feb. 8, 1870. See: Lindsey, Bessie M. Sykes, Gordon.

Glenn, Gustavus Richard (1848-1938), Ga. State Commissioner of Education during 1895-1903, was also acting PEF general agent (i.e., administrator) in 1903. GPCFT historian Sherman Dorn recorded that in 1903 the PEF trustees (about to dissolve, which was done in 1914) had agreed to use the bulk of its funds ($1.5 million) to endow GPCFT as an improved version of Peabody Normal College (1875-1911). PEF acting administrator G.R. Glenn urged in his 1903 annual report that a significant portion of the PEF resources be used in a campaign “to encourage raising taxes at the local level throughout the South for public schools.” Fearing loss of PEF assets, Peabody Normal College alumni organized a petition drive and presented to the trustees signatures from every southern state supporting a teachers college in Nashville. The trustees deadlocked on the issue for a year but confirmed its intention to endow GPCFT. Ref.: Dorn, p. 13-14. “Glenn, Gustavus Richard.”

Poem on GP’s Death and Funeral

Glyndon, Howard’s poem, “The Coming of the Silent Guest,” appeared in the New York Semi-Weekly Tribune, Friday, Jan. 28, 1870, as follows:

Lo! England sends him back to us!
With sealed eyes and folded palms,
He drifts across the wintry sea,
Which chants to him its thousand psalms.

We proudly name and claim him ours,
We take him, England! From thy breast;
We open wide our doors to him,
Who cometh home a silent guest.

We lent him thee to teach thy sons
The lessons of the Open Hand–
Lest famished lips should bless them less,
Than him–the stranger in their land!

We lent him, living, unto thee,
To be a solace to thy pain,
But now, we want his noble dust,
To consecrate it ours again.

England! We take him from thine arms;
We thank them for thy reverent care!
If thou and we were ever friends,
We should be so beside his bier.

His memory should be a spell
To banish spleen and bitterness–
Have kindlier thoughts of us, for he
Was tender unto thy distress!

As we have kindlier thoughts of thee,
Because of honor done to him–
For while we weep, we turn to see
That English eyes with tears are dim!

Ref.: Glyndon, p. 3.

PIB Conservatory of Music Director R.F. Goldman

Goldman, Richard Franko (1910-80), 1-Seventh PIB Conservatory of Music Director. It was under Richard Franko Goldman, seventh PIB Conservatory of Music director during 1968-77, that merger with Johns Hopkins Univ. took place. The son of the founder of the [Edwin Franko] Goldman Concert Band in New York City, Richard Franko Goldman graduated in 1930 from Columbia Univ., where he formed a lifelong friendship with fellow student and later Columbia Univ. Prof. Jacques Barzun (b.1907). Goldman studied music privately, was associate conductor of the Goldman Band under his father (1937-56), and at his father’s death succeeded him as band conductor from 1956. He taught at the Juilliard School of Music (1947-60); was a visiting music professor at Princeton, Columbia, and New York universities; was a composer and scholar of note. See: PIB Conservatory of Music.

Goldman, R.F. 2-PIB President. Two PIB trustees interviewed Goldman in NYC in the spring of 1968. He visited Baltimore in May 1968. Offered the post, Goldman accepted on condition that he be both director of the PIB Conservatory of Music and president of the PIB (his concern was to clarify administrative authority). After a year as Conservatory of Music director, Goldman became the PIB president in the fall of 1969. The trustees believed Goldman’s national reputation would help maintain the Conservatory’s standard of excellence, attract major faculty who would in turn attract promising students, and raise funds needed to perpetuate the prestigious but financially troubled century-old PIB. Ref.: Ibid.

Financial Crisis

Goldman, R.F. 3-Financial Crisis. During Goldman’s first year a dormitory-cafeteria-parking garage complex, designed by Edward Durrell Stone (1902-78), was built and opened. Goldman revived the Peabody Scholarly Lecture series, with his Columbia Univ. friend Prof. Jacques Barzun as the first speaker. Goldman also rekindled interest in the long neglected PIB Gallery of Art collection, made the first full catalogue of the Institute’s art holdings, strengthened the Conservatory of Music’s liberal arts program, and began survey courses in the fine arts. Goldman faced a financial crisis. Although $170,000 was raised from the Rockefeller Foundation in 1970, Goldman’s annual report on June 1, 1974, stated, “I am discouraged by the long range prospects.” His April 20, 1975, letter to Jacques Barzun confided his intent to retire: “The Peabody is facing real trouble financially, and I can’t carry the thing myself.” Ref.: Ibid.

Goldman, R.F. 4-Financial Crisis Cont’d. In a January 1976 press conference, Goldman drew public attention to PIB’s financial plight. Since 1971, he said, the Peabody Institute’s $6 million endowment had shrunk to $3 million. The only course left, he said, was to sell the art collection then valued at about $1 million (some few pieces had been sold in the 1960s). The threatened art sale provoked public attention and concern. The Feb. 24, 1976, Evening Sun reported that committees from the PIB and the Johns Hopkins Univ. were considering affiliation. Ref.: Ibid.

PIB-Johns Hopkins Merger

Goldman, R.F. 5-PIB-Johns Hopkins Merger Plans. By June 1976 a PIB-Hopkins agreement was reached. The Dec. 21, 1976, Sun headlined “Peabody to Join Hopkins,” and continued, “The famous but deficit-ridden Peabody Institute will be taken under the wing of the Johns Hopkins University next summer.” Goldman explained that the Peabody Institute had been operating at a deficit the last dozen years and that the operating budget in 1976 was $2,761,294, which included a deficit of $150,000. Hopkins-PIB merger terms allowed the PIB to retain its autonomy but under Johns Hopkins Univ. management. Ref.: Ibid.

Goldman, R.F. 6-PIB-Library (July 1, 1982) and PIB-Music (1983) of J. Hopkins. The PIB Library continued its research and reference function in its own building as part of the Enoch Pratt Free Library and under city funding during 1965-82. But city budget cuts compelled the Enoch Pratt Free Library to release the PIB Library which, on July 1, 1982, became a special collection of the Johns Hopkins Univ.’s Milton S. Eisenhower Library. Goldman delayed retirement until affiliation was completed. He died in Baltimore in 1980, praised for the trust he had generated. The PIB Conservatory of Music continued on its own until 1983 when it too became part of the Johns Hopkins Univ. The merger seemed fitting, since GP had influenced Johns Hopkins to found the university, medical school, and hospital which bear his name. Ref.: Ibid. See: PIB Reference Library.

C.C. Gooch & GP

Gooch, Charles Cubitt (1811-89) was GP’s British-born clerk and then salaried partner. C.C. Gooch had seven years’ experience as a bookkeeper with Thomas Wilson & Co., a London firm headed by an American. Gooch then worked in another firm specializing in U.S. trade. In 1843, when Gooch was age 32, GP made him confidential clerk and bookkeeper at a salary of £150 a year. In Jan. 1852, GP made Gooch a salaried junior partner in George Peabody & Co. at £500 a year. Gooch was said to be an intelligent, informed, systematic, accurate, and trustworthy individual, with an exceptional grasp of detail. Having considerable savings, Gooch retired at the end of Sept. 1873, when he was 62 years old. He had worked with GP and then with GP’s senior partner and successor Junius S. Morgan (1813-90) for over 30 years. He had married late and become the father of two sons. One of his sons, George Peabody Gooch (1873-1968), was an MP and a well known historian. Ref.: Hidy, M.E.-c, p.307. Carosso, pp. 661, 689.

Gooch, George Peabody (1873-1968), was the son of Charles Cubitt Gooch (1811-89), George Peabody’s salaried partner in George Peabody & Co. (1851-64). George Peabody Gooch was a distinguished diplomatic historian, the author of 24 books and editor of Contemporary Review (1911-60). He was educated at Eton; King’s College, London; and Trinity College, Cambridge Univ. His best known history books were Political Thought in England from Bacon to Halifax, 1914; Germany, 1925; and History of Modern Europe, 1878-1919, 1923.

Goodwin, James Junius (1835-1915). 1-J.P. Morgan, Sr.’s Cousin.
James Junius Goodwin was John Pierpont Morgan, Sr.’s (1837-1913) cousin, both born in Hartford, Conn., where they grew up and attended school. In May 1853 at age 16 John Pierpont Morgan, Sr., went with his father Junius Spencer Morgan (1813-90) and mother to London to meet GP, who had invited J.S. Morgan to consider becoming his partner in George Peabody & Co. On May 18, 1853, young J.P. Morgan wrote his cousin James Goodwin, “Father and Mother went to a dinner given by George Peabody at Richmond.” See: Morgan, Junius Spencer.

Goodwin, J.J. 2-Shared News of Union Victory, Vicksburg, Miss. J.P. Morgan, then George Peabody & Co.’s NYC agent, learned of the July 4, 1863, fall of Vicksburg, Miss., shared it with his cousin James Goodwin, who telegraphed the news to Halifax, N.S., Canada, where it went by steamer to England, enabling GP to share the Union victory news early with U.S. Legation in London officials and others. Ref.: Ibid.

Goodwin, J.J. 3-Career. James Goodwin attended private schools in Hartford, Conn., and the Hartford High School. He was director of the Erie Railroad Co., Conn.; the Conn. Mutual Life Insurance Co.; the Hartford Fire Insurance Co.; the Holyoke Water Power Co.; and a trustee of the Conn. Trust and Safe Deposit Co., Hartford. Ref.: Ibid. “Goodwin,” p. 469.

Charles Goodyear & GP

Goodyear, Charles (1800-60). 1-Inventor of Rubber. Charles Goodyear, born in New Haven, Conn., and the inventor of vulcanized rubber, had two contacts with GP. In Dec. 1852, seeking financial backing for his vulcanized rubber experiments, Goodyear sent GP some samples of his rubber invention. Goodyear, who early had mixed success with his invention, won medals from exhibitions in London (1851) and Paris (1855), had patent difficulties in the U.S., and spent 1851-58 perfecting his process in Europe.

Goodyear, Charles. 2-GP Collected Debt Goodyear Owed Portrait Painter. That year (1852) GP was asked by Boston-born portrait artist George Peter Alexander Healy (1813-94) to collect a $3,000 debt of two years’ standing for a portrait by Healy owned by Charles Goodyear. Two years later (1854) Healy painted a portrait of GP which is in the National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Ref.: (Goodyear): Charles Goodyear, London, to GP, London, Dec. 21, 1852, Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass. Ref.: (On Healy and GP): Va. Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond, Va., p. 43. See: Healy, George Peter Alexander.

GPCFT Prof. Goslin

Goslin, Willard (1899-1969). 1-Career. Willard Goslin was GPCFT professor (1951-67), chair of its Division of Educational Administration and Community Development, and headed its $7 million U.S. Agency for International Development-funded Korea Teacher Education Project. The lean, lanky farm-reared Missourian (born in Harrisburg, Mo.) began teaching in rural schools at age 16, worked his way through Northeast Missouri State College, Kirksville (B.S. degree, 1922); and the Univ. of Missouri (M.A., 1928); took courses at Teachers College, Columbia Univ. (1930), and at Washington Univ., St. Louis (1929-35). He received honorary LL.D. degrees from Occidental College, Los Angeles, and Seoul National Univ., Korea (1961).

Goslin, Willard. 2-Leading GPCFT Prof. Goslin began to teach in rural schools while still in his teens, became a high school principal at age 22 and a nationally renowned school superintendent, first of the small Slater, Mo. school system at age 23; then of Webster Grove Public Schools, a St. Louis upper middle class suburb, which attracted national attention because of its academic excellence (1928-44); then of Minneapolis, Minn. (1944-48); and finally of Pasadena, Calif. (1948-51).

Goslin, Willard. 3-This Happened in Pasadena. Goslin’s forced resignation in Pasadena, Calif., was a cause célèbre of the time, a classic progressive-versus-traditional public school confrontation reflecting the changed U.S. mood early in the U.S.-USSR cold war. World War II had brought an influx of poor whites, blacks, and other minorities, transforming Pasadena from a wealthy Los Angeles/Hollywood spillover community. Goslin’s progressive education curriculum, teaching about UNESCO, sex education, and racially integrated schools, evoked postwar conservative reaction. His forced resignation made national news, as described in newsman David Hulburd’s This Happened in Pasadena (New York: Macmillan, 1951). Goslin was hired as a GPCFT professor by Pres. Henry H. Hill (1894-1987). Both had been past presidents of the American Association of School Administrators. Goslin’s 16 years as a professor and administrator added to GPCFT national prestige during GPCFT’s most successful period. See: GPCFT.

Hall of Fame of N.Y. Univ.

Gould, Helen Miller (née Gould) Shepard (1868-1938), was Mrs. Finlay J. Shepard, financier Jay Gould’s (1836-92) daughter, whose $100,000 gift made possible N.Y. Univ.’s Hall of Fame on N.Y.U.’s campus overlooking the Hudson River, to which GP was elected, among the first 29 most famous Americans, 1900. A GP bronze tablet was unveiled in the space allotted to him (1901), replaced by a GP bust by sculptor Hans Schuler (1874-1952) in an unveiling ceremony on May 12, 1926. See: Hall of Fame of New York Univ. (N.Y.U).

U.S. Governors & GP

Governors, U.S. States, and GP. 1-Conn. Of GP’s varying contacts with the following 25 state governors (listed alphabetically by state and alphabetically by name within each state), Conn.’s Gov. Isaac Toucey (1796-1869) was merely alluded to by Thurlow Weed (1797-82). Weed was in England in Nov. 1861 as Pres. Lincoln’s emissary to keep England neutral in the Civil War. In briefing GP as to the causes of the war, Weed alluded to Isaac Toucey, not by name but as a “disloyal Secretary of the Navy [who] sent nearly all our warships to foreign countries in order to leave the North unprepared for the war.” See: Civil War and GP. Weed, Thurlow. Persons named (for all below).

Govs. & GP. 2-Ind. and Maine. Ind.’s Gov. Ashbel P. Willard (1820-60) provided overnight accommodations for GP in April 1857, during GP’s Sept. 15, 1856, to Aug. 19, 1857, U.S. visit Maine’s Gov. Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain (1828-1914) was an active participant in the reception ceremonies of GP’s remains at Portland harbor, Me., Jan. 25-Feb. 1, 1870. For Ind. Gov. Willard, See: Augusta, Ga. For Me. Gov. Chamberlain, See: Death and Funeral, GP’s.

Maryland

Govs. & GP. 3-Md. Md. Gov. Oden Bowie entertained in Annapolis, Feb. 19, 1870, HMS Monarch‘s Capt. John E. Commerell (1829-1901) and U.S. Navy Secty. George Maxwell Robeson (1829-97), after the burial of GP’s remains in Mass. See: Death and Funeral, GP’s.

Govs. & GP. 4-Md. Cont’d. Md. Gov. Thomas G. Pratt’s (1804-69) 1847 annual report to the Md. Assembly praised GP for selling part of Md.’s $8 million bond issue abroad for internal improvements despite the post-Panic of 1837 depression, for upholding Md.’s credit abroad despite temporary stoppage of bond interest payments, and for declining his $60,000 commission because of Md.’s fiscal shortage. Gov. Pratt’s report led both houses of the Md. Assembly to pass unanimous resolutions of praise for GP, March 7, 1848. See: Md.’s $8 Million Bond Sale Abroad and GP.

Govs. & GP. 5-Md. Cont’d. Md. Gov. Pratt’s successor, Gov. Philip Francis Thomas (1799-1876), sent these resolutions of praise to GP, adding in his cover letter: “To you, sir, …the thanks of the State were eminently due.” Md. Gov. Thomas Swann (c.1806-83), when he was Baltimore mayor, described at the Md. Historical Society reception for GP, Jan. 30, 1857, how graciously he had been entertained by GP in London. For Gov. Thomas, See: Md.’s $8 Million Bond Sale Abroad and GP. For Gov. Swann, See: Md. Historical Society.

Mass.

Govs. & GP. 6-Mass. Mass. Gov. John Albion Andrew (1818-67) was suggested as U.S. Secty. of State (when GP was suggested as U.S. Treasury Secty.) in a complete change of cabinet plan to save U.S. Pres. Andrew Johnson (1808-75) from impeachment in 1867. But Pres. Johnson, loyal to his Cabinet, did not pursue this course. See: Congressional Gold Medal and Resolutions of Praise to GP.

Govs. & GP. 7-Mass. Cont’d. Mass. Gov. Benjamin Franklin Butler (1818-93, Mass. governor in 1882), had earlier, as Mass. Representative in Congress, participated in U.S. House Resolution No. 96 (Dec. 21, 1869), which asked Pres. U.S. Grant (1822-85) to order a naval reception of GP’s remains at Portland, Me. The resolution, with some objections, was passed in the House that day, passed in the Senate on Dec. 23, 1869, and signed by Pres. Grant on Jan. 10, 1870. See: Death and Funeral, GP’s.

Govs. & GP. 8-Mass. Cont’d. Mass. Gov. William Claflin (1818-1905) and his staff attended GP’s funeral service in Peabody, Mass., on Feb. 8, 1870. Mass. Gov. John Henry Clifford (1809-76) was one of the original PEF trustees from 1867. Past Mass. Gov. Edward Everett (1794-1865), best known orator of his time, and then Mass. Gov. Henry J. Gardner (1818-92) both spoke at the GP Celebration, South Danvers, Oct. 9, 1856, marking GP’s first return U.S. visit (during Sept. 15, 1856, to Aug. 19, 1857) in nearly 20 years since leaving for London in early Feb. 1837 on his fifth European commercial buying trip. For Gov. Claflin, See: Death and Funeral, GP’s. For Gov. Clifford, See: PEF. For Govs. Everett and Gardner, See: South Danvers, Mass., GP Celebration, Oct. 9, 1856.

Govs. & GP. 9-Mass. Cont’d. Mass. Gov. Roger Wolcott (1847-1901), when he was Mass. Lt. Gov., spoke at the George Peabody Centennial Celebration held Monday, Feb. 18, 1895, at the Town Hall, Peabody, Mass. See: George Peabody Centennial Celebration (Feb. 18, 1795-1895).

Govs. & GP. 10-N.Y. N.Y. Gov. Hamilton Fish (1808-93) was one of the 16 original PEF trustees during 1867-91. As U.S. Secty. of State he also made official decisions in connection with GP’s transatlantic funeral. N.Y. Gov. William Henry Seward (1801-72), political protégé of GP’s friend Thurlow Weed (1797-1882), visited London in May 1859 where GP introduced Seward to prominent British leaders, important later when Seward was Pres. Lincoln’s Secty. of State during the Civil War. For Gov. Fish, See: Death and Funeral, GP’s. PEF. For Gov. Seward, See: Morgan, Junius Spencer.

Govs. & GP. 11-N.C. and Ohio. N.C. Gov. William Alexander Graham (1804-75) was one of the 16 original PEF trustees. Ohio Gov. Jacob Dolson Cox (1828-1900) was suggested as U.S. Interior Secty. (when GP was suggested as U.S. Treasury Secty.) in a complete change of cabinet to save U.S. Pres. Andrew Johnson (1808-75) from impeachment in 1867 (plan never put into effect). For N.C. Gov. Graham, See: PEF. For Ohio Gov. Cox, See: Congressional Gold Medal and Resolutions of Praise to GP.

Govs. & GP. 12-R.I. and S.C. R.I. Gov. George Peabody Wetmore (1846-1921) was a PEF trustee, the son of William Shepard Wetmore (1802-62) of Wetmore & Cryder, the NYC firm with which GP dealt in corn and other commodities during 1844-47. S.C. Gov. William Aiken (1806-87) was one of the few prominent southerners on the 16-member PEF board of trustees, from Feb. 1867. For R.I. Gov. Wetmore, See: PEF. Wetmore, George Peabody. For S.C. Gov. Aiken, See: PEF.

Govs. & GP. 13-Tenn. Tenn. Gov. Neill Smith Brown (1810-86), then U.S. Minister to Russia, attended GP’s July 4, 1851, dinner in London at the time of the Great Exhibition of London (first world’s fair) when the Duke of Wellington was GP’s guest of honor (for details and sources, See: Great Exhibition of London in 1851). Tenn. Gov. James Davis Porter (1828-1912) was Peabody Normal College president and a PEF trustee. For Gov. Brown, See: Dinners, GP’s, London. For Gov. Porter, See: PEF.

Govs. & GP. 14-Va. Va. Gov. John Buchanan Floyd (1807-63) was referred to as “a secessionist Secretary of War” by Thurlow Weed (1797-82) when Weed explained to GP in London, Nov. 1861, the steps that led to the U.S. Civil War. Va. Gov. Henry Alexander Wise (1806-76), after his governorship, drew up resolutions of praise for GP, read publicly in GP’s presence amid a crowd on July 28, 1869, in the “Old White” hotel parlor, during GP’s visit to White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., during July 23-Aug. 30, 1869. For Gov. Floyd, See: Civil War and GP. Weed, Thurlow. For Gov. Wise, See: Corcoran, William Wilson.

Govs. & GP. 15-Vt. Former Vt. Gov. John Gregory provided GP with a special Vermont Central Line car for GP’s trip to Montreal, Canada, July 1866. For Gov. Gregory, See: Visits to the U.S. by GP.
Graham, William Alexander (1804-75), was one of the 16 original PEF trustees. He was born in Lincoln Country, N.C., the son of Revolutionary War Gen. Joseph Graham (1759-1836), was a Univ. of N.C. graduate (1824), practiced law (1826), was a N.C. state legislator (1833-40), a U.S. Senator (1840-43), N.C. governor (1845-49), and U.S. Navy Secty. (1850-52) who sent Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry (1794-1858) to open U.S. trade with Japan. When defeated as the Whig Party candidate for U.S. Vice Pres. (1852), he reentered the N.C. legislature (1854-55). Although opposed to secession, he supported the Confederacy and was a senator in the second Confederate Congress (1864). Ref.: “Graham, William Alexander,” p. 162. See: PEF.

Queen Victoria & GP

Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath. 1-GP’s Honors. GP’s March 12, 1862, gift of the Peabody Donation Fund to build and manage model apartments for London’s working poor ($2.5 million total gift) surprised and warmed English hearts. British honors to GP included: honorary membership in the ancient orders of two London livery companies, the 1-Clothworkers’ Co. (July 2, 1862) and the 2-Fishmongers’ Co. (April 18, 1866); the 3-Freedom of the City of London (July 10, 1862), the first U.S. citizen to receive this honor; an 4-honorary Doctor of Civil Law degree, Oxford Univ. (June 26, 1867); a 5-seated GP statue erected near the Royal Exchange, Threadneedle Street, London, paid for by popular subscription and unveiled by the Prince of Wales (July 23, 1869); with a replica statue erected in front of the Peabody Institute of Baltimore in 1890. See: London, Honorary Freedom of the City of London. Honors, GP’s, in Life and after Death (in chronological order).. Oxford Univ.

Grand Cross… 2-Queen Victoria. Queen Victoria wanted to honor GP with the Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, or bestow on him a knighthood or a baronetcy. Her advisors inquired discreetly from GP’s close friends, including Sir James Emerson Tennent (1791-1869), MP from Belfast, Ireland, and others, if he would accept. To do so would mean giving up his U.S. citizenship and becoming a British subject, which it was learned GP would not do. Instead, her advisors suggested: 6-Queen Victoria’s personal handwritten letter of thanks to GP (March 28, 1866), followed by 7-a miniature portrait of Queen Victoria by artist F.A.C. Tilt, which she had made especially for GP (cost $70,000), and delivered to him by the British ambassador in Washington, D.C. (March 1867). See: Victoria, Queen.

Grand Cross… 3-Foreign Secty. Lord Russell Consulted. Queen Victoria asked her private secretary Charles Beaumont Phipps (1801-66) to consult Foreign Secretary Lord John Russell (1792-1878) on how best to honor GP. Secty. Phipps, in his Feb. 12, 1866, letter asked Foreign Secty. Lord Russell, “What would you think of the Queen writing him [GP] a letter expressing her admiration of his magnificent charity[?]” Lord Russell, in consulting British statesman James Emerson Tennent, suggested that besides a letter of thanks from the Queen a miniature portrait of the Queen could be made especially made for him. It was the custom to give such a gift to foreign ambassadors who signed treaties with Great Britain. Lord Russell made these suggestions in a Feb. 26, 1866, letter to Queen Victoria, who readily approved. Ref.: Ibid.

Grand Cross… 4-Queen’s March 28, 1866, Letter. The Queen’s letter to GP, on small black-bordered paper (she was in mourning for her late husband, Albert of Saxe-Co-burg-Gotha (Prince Albert, 1819-61), read: “Windsor Castle, March 28, 1866. The Queen hears that Mr. Peabody intends shortly to return to America; and she would be sorry that he should leave England without being assured by herself how deeply she appreciates the noble act, of more than princely munificence, by which he has sought to relieve the wants of her poor subjects residing in London. It is an act, as the Queen believes, wholly without parallel; and which will carry its best reward in the consciousness of having contributed so largely to the assistance of those who can little help themselves.” Ref.: Ibid.

Grand Cross… 5-Queen’s March 28, 1866, Letter Cont’d.: “The Queen would not, however, have been satisfied without giving Mr. Peabody some public mark of her sense of his munificence; and she would gladly have conferred upon him either a baronetcy or the Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath but that she understands Mr. Peabody to feel himself debarred from accepting such distinctions. “It only remains, therefore, for the Queen to give Mr. Peabody this assurance of her personal feeling; which she would further wish to mark by asking him to accept a miniature portrait of herself, which she will have painted for him, and which when finished, can either be sent to him in America, or given him on the return which she rejoices to hear he meditates to the country that owes him so much.” Ref.: Ibid.

Grand Cross… 6-GP’s April 3, 1866, Reply. On April 3, 1866, despite a right hand partially paralyzed from gout and rheumatism, GP replied: “Madam: I feel sensibly my inability to express in adequate terms the gratification with which I have read the letter which Your Majesty has done me the high honor of transmitting to me by the Earl Russell. “On the occasion which has attracted Your Majesty’s attention of setting apart a portion of my property to ameliorate the condition and augment the comforts of the poor of London, I have been actuated by a deep sense of gratitude to God, who has blessed me with prosperity, and of attachment to this great country, where, under Your Majesty’s benign rule, I have received so much personal kindness and enjoyed so many years of happiness. “Next to the approval of my own conscience, I shall always prize the assurance which Your Majesty’s letter conveys to me of the approbation of the Queen of England, whose whole life has attested that her exalted station has in no degree diminished her sympathy with the humblest of her subjects.” Ref.: Ibid.

Grand Cross… 7-GP’s April 3, 1866, Reply Cont’d. “The portrait which Your Majesty is graciously pleased to bestow on me I shall value as the most gracious heirloom that I can leave to the land of my birth, where, together with the letter which Your Majesty has addressed to me, it will ever be regarded as an evidence of the kindly feeling of the Queen of the United Kingdom toward a citizen of the United States. “I have the honor to be Your Majesty’s most obedient servant, George Peabody to Her Majesty the Queen.” Ref.: Ibid.
Grand Cross… 8-Received Queen’s Portrait, Washington, D.C., March 1867. GP was on a whirlwind U.S. trip, May 1, 1866, to May 1, 1867, to visit family and friends and to strengthen his institutes with further gifts (his 17 gifts that year, including the Feb. 7, 1867, PEF to aid public schools in the South, totaled some $2,312,000, by one account). He was in Washington, D.C., in March 1867, when British Ambassador Sir Frederick Bruce (1814-67) presented him with Queen Victoria’s miniature portrait. It had been painted especially for him by British artist F.A.C. Tilt. The 14″ long by 10″ wide portrait, baked on porcelain, was set in a solid gold frame, was said to have cost $70,000, and resides in a specially built vault at the Peabody Institute Library, Peabody, Mass. Ref.: Ibid.

U.S. Grant & GP

Grant, Ulysses Simpson (1822-85). 1-PEF Trustee. Gen. U.S. Grant was one of the 16 original PEF trustees during 1867-85. He was succeeded as trustee by Pres. Grover Cleveland (1837-1908) during 1885-99. U.S. Grant was born in Ohio, was a West Point graduate (1843), served in the Mexican War, was unsuccessful at farming and business before the Civil War, commanded the Union Army, was Interim U.S. Secty. of War (1867) and the 18th U.S. Pres. during 1869-77. Ref.: Boatner, pp. 352-353. See: Presidents, U.S., and GP.

Grant, U.S. 2-Trustees’ Meeting, NYC, March 19-22, 1867. GP met with the PEF trustees during March 19-22, 1867, in NYC’s Fifth Avenue Hotel. GP invited trustees Adm. David Glasgow Farragut (1801-70), Pres. U. S. Grant , and their wives to attend an opera. GP exchanged photos with the two military leaders. Ref.: Lewis, p. 335. See: Farragut, David Glasgow.

Grant, U.S. 3-Other Grant-GP Connections. A prior GP-Farragut-Grant connection occurred when, on Feb. 12 and 24, 1867, to prevent Pres. Andrew Johnson’s impeachment, his political advisor Francis Preston Blair, Sr. [1791-1876], proposed a complete change of cabinet, with GP as Treasury Secty., Farragut as Navy Secty., Grant as Secty. of War, and five others. But loyalty to his cabinet kept Johnson from this plan. Another GP-Grant connection was that they were two of the five Americans who were offered and received the Freedom of the City of London, GP on July 10, 1862, and Grant on June 15, 1877. For the eight names proposed in the Cabinet reshuffle, See: Andrew, John Albion. For details and source of the six Americans offered and the five who received the Freedom of the City of London (Stevenson, Andrew; Peabody, George; Grant, U.S.; Roosevelt, Theodore; Gen. Pershing, J.J.; and Eisenhower, Dwight David), see London, Freedom of the City of London, and GP. Persons named.

Grant, U.S. 4-PEF Trustees’ March 22, 1867, Banquet. On March 22, 1867, GP gave a banquet for the PEF trustees and their wives. Among the 73 guests was 1-NYC store owner Alexander Turney Stewart (1803-76), whose store was later bought by and named Wanamaker’s. A.T. Stewart built a model community in Garden City, N.Y., based on the plan of GP’s model apartments for London’s working poor (from 1862). Other dinner guests were: 2-NYC financier William Backhouse Astor (1792-1875); 3-historian George Bancroft (1800-91), who had been U.S. Minister to Britain (1846-49), and others. Adm. Farragut sat at GP’s left and Mrs. Grant on his right. The military men were in full dress uniform. PEF trustee Pres. Robert Charles Winthrop (1809-94) rose to speak. Ref.: Ibid. See: persons named.

Grant, U.S. 5-R.C. Winthrop’s Speech. Winthrop told the banquet guests: “The time is at hand for the departure of George Peabody. I have here resolutions [from] the trustees [who]…thank him for his hospitality to us in Washington and New York. We consider this trust a high honor. We wish him God’s blessing as he takes leave of this country.” Winthrop concluded with: “Since he arrived last May he has performed acts of charity without precedent in the annals of the world. It was my friend Daniel Webster who said that the character of Washington was our greatest contribution to the world. Now we can add the example of George Peabody. The greatest philanthropist of his age.” Ref.: Ibid.

Grant, U.S. 6-GP’s Gifts, 1866-67. GP’s charitable gifts during his May 1, 1866-May 1, 1867, U.S. visit, mentioned by Winthrop, totaled $2,210,000 (or $2,312,000 by another account). These gifts included: 1-$70,000 for a Memorial Church, Georgetown, Mass., in memory of his mother who was born there, then named Rowley (ground broken June 19, 1866); $40,000 each added to the 2-Peabody Institute Library, South Danvers (renamed Peabody, Mass., April 13, 1868), and the 3-Peabody Institute Library, North Danvers (name reverted to Danvers, Mass., same date); $150,000 each to found the 4-Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard Univ. (Oct. 8, 1866) and the 5-Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale Univ. (Oct. 22, 1866); 6-$500,000 to the PIB; and $25,000 each to 7-Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass., for a professorship of mathematics and natural science (Oct. 30, 1866), and to 8-Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio, for a professorship of mathematics and civil engineering (Nov. 6, 1866). Ref.: Ibid.

Grant, U.S. 7-GP’s Gifts, 1866-67 Cont’d. GP gave $20, 000 each for publication funds to the 9-Md. Historical Society, Baltimore (Nov. 5, 1866), and to the 10-Mass. Historical Society, Boston (Jan. 1, 1867); $15,000 each for a public library fund in 11-Newburyport, Mass. (Feb. 20, 1867), and 12-Georgetown,. D.C. (April 20, 1867); 13-$140,000 for what is now the Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Mass. (Feb. 26, 1867); and 14-$1 million to create the PEF (Feb. 7, 1867; doubled to $2 million, June 29, 1869). Ref.: Ibid.

Grant, U.S. 8-GP’s Reply to Winthrop. GP replied to Winthrop: “Never have I been more honored than at this time by the presence of the highest officers of our Army and Navy, by the most distinguished men of the North and the South. May this gathering of friends be an omen of brighter days to come to our beloved country (applause). Let me close with two toasts. I give you our country, our whole country” (enthusiastic applause and the playing of the national anthem). Ref.: Ibid.

Grant, U.S. 9-GP’s Reply to Winthrop Cont’d. GP concluded: “Finally, the country where I have lived and prospered, and to its Queen.” (Great applause). Press reports of the banquet and speeches echoed public approval of the PEF and its work, approval of these trustees from the North and South who, two years after the Civil War, worked together to advance public education in the devastated South. Before dispersing, the trustees, including Grant and GP, went to famed Civil War photographer Mathew Brady’s (1823-96) NYC studio for their only group photo on March 23, 1867. Ref.: Ibid.

Grant, U.S. 10-Trustee Lawrence on GP’s Public Relations. Years later, former PEF trustee William Lawrence (1850-1941) described the PEF trustees’ banquets and GP’s penchant for favorable publicity in his memoirs: “There was in Mr. Peabody a touch of egotism and a satisfaction in publicity which worked to the advantage of this fund; by the selection of men of national fame as trustees he called the attention of the whole country to the educational needs of the South and the common interests of North and South in building up a united Nation.” Ref.: Ibid.

Grant, U.S. 11-Trustee Lawrence on GP’s Public Relations Cont’d. “The trustees brought their wives to the annual meeting in New York, and in the evening met at the most sumptuous [banquet] that the hostelry of those days, the Fifth Avenue Hotel, could provide; the report of which and of what they had to eat and drink was headlined in the press of the South and the North. This annual event took place upon the suggestion of Mr. Peabody and at the expense of the fund; and in its social influence and publicity was well worth the cost.” Ref.: Ibid.

Grant, U.S. 12-GP’s Funeral. GP died Nov. 4, 1869, in London. A funeral service was held for him at Westminster Abbey where his remains rested for 30 days (Nov. 12-Dec. 11, 1869). When his will requiring burial in Mass. became known, British PM William E. Gladstone’s 1809-89) cabinet on Nov. 10, 1869, offered HMS Monarch as the funeral ship to transport his remains to the U.S. for burial in Mass. Pres. U.S. Grant, through U.S. Navy Secty. George Maxwell Robeson (1829-97), ordered the naval corvette, USS Plymouth, from Marseilles, France, to accompany the Monarch south to Madeira, across the Atlantic, and north to Portland, Me. Pres. Grant, again through Navy Secty. Robeson, ordered Adm. Farragut to command a flotilla of U.S. naval ships to meet HMS Monarch and USS Plymouth at Portland harbor (Jan. 25, 1870). This was Adm. Farragut’s last naval assignment before his death, Aug. 14, 1870. See: Death and Funeral, GP’s.

Granville, Earl (1815-91). British statesman Granville George Leveson-Gower, 2d Earl, was an MP (from 1836) and foreign secretary (1851-52, 1870-74, and 1880-85). He attended GP’s Oct. 27, 1851, London dinner honoring the departing U.S. exhibitors at the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London (first world’s fair). At the dinner he was praised by main speaker U.S. Minister to Britain Abbott Lawrence (1792-1855) as the man who had “the skill and enterprise to execute the plan [Great Exhibition].” See: Corcoran, William Wilson. Dinners, GP’s, London. Great Exhibition of 1851, London (first world’s fair). Lawrence, Abbott.

Gray, Susan (1913-92), was a GPCFT graduate and later GPCFT early Childhood Education Professor. Her experiment program in 1965 with Robert Klaus in the Nashville area to enrich the educational experiences of poverty-deprived 4 and 5 year old preschoolers is credited with inspiring the U.S. national Project Headstart Program. Her experimental school, renamed the Susan Gray School of PCofVU in 1986, continues its research under PCofVU’s John F. Kennedy Center for Research on Education and Human Development. Ref.: “Dr. Susan Gray’s Legacy,” Nashville Tennessean, March 31, 2004. See: also: http://kc.vanderbilt.edu/kennedy/about/gray.html

Great Eastern (ship), after many attempts, succeeded in laying the Atlantic cable in 1866. GP was a director and helped to finance the Atlantic Telegraph Co. On May 24, 1865, GP, Atlantic cable originator Cyrus West Field (1819-92), Sir Edward Cunard (1816-69), the Prince of Wales (1841-1910, later King Edward VII during 1901-10), and other distinguished persons inspected the Great Eastern. Ref.: Albion (NYC), June 10, 1865, p. 271, c. 3. See: persons named.

Great Exhibition of 1851, London

Great Exhibition of 1851, London (first world’s fair). 1-Origin. The first world’s fair, London, 1851 (official name: “The Exhibition of the Industry of All Nations, held in London, 1851”) catapulted several men to prominence, including in a small way GP. The idea first occurred to Henry Cole (1808-82), Society of Art (later Royal Society of Art) member, children’s book writer, editor of several journals, assistant keeper of the Records Office, and British Post Office reorganizer. The idea came to him while attending the Paris Exposition, 1849, which showed only French industrial products. Back in London, in talks (June 29, 1849) with Prince Albert (Albert of Saxe-Co-burg-Gotha, 1819-61), Queen Victoria’s husband and president (1848) of the Society of Art, Henry Cole found royal support for an exposition that would show the industrial products of the world’s nations. Henry Cole later founded the 1-South Kensington Museum, London, and 2-the National Training School, from which came the Royal College of Music, London. Ref.: Gibbs-Smith. Johnson, B.P.

Great Exhibition, 1851. 2-Prince Albert’s Royal Sponsorship. German-born Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg had studied at the Univ. of Bonn (1837), the year 18-year-old Victoria (1819-1901) became queen. She married Prince Albert on Feb. 10, 1840. A cultured and thoughtful man of large vision, he soon won over those who disdained him as a foreigner. With Prince Albert’s sponsorship the idea of the first world fair was nurtured to reality. Ref.: Ibid.

Great Exhibition, 1851. 3-Early Plans. A Royal Commission was appointed (Jan. 3, 1850), approval sought from manufacturers in Britain and other countries, funds were raised, Hyde Park was chosen as the site, building designs were invited, and 245 designs were received. Rejecting these designs and about to choose their own, the Building Committee received from Joseph Paxton (1801-65), the Duke of Devonshire’s superintendent of gardens at Chatsworth, a hastily submitted sketch. A sketch of the large crystal-like glass structure, a strikingly handsome giant greenhouse, supported by barrel-like iron transepts appeared in the Illustrated London News, July 6, 1850. It immediately won public favor and Royal Commission approval. Nine months later the majestic Crystal Palace arose on 20 acres of Hyde Park. Ref.: Dalzell.

Great Exhibition, 1851. 4-Criticism. The London Times reported: “The whole of Hyde Park and, we will venture to predict, the whole of Kensington Gardens, will be turned into the bivouac of all the vagabonds of London so long as the Exhibition shall continue.” A House of Commons member said: “It is the greatest trash, the greatest fraud, and the greatest imposition ever attempted to be palmed upon the people of this country. The object…is to introduce amongst us foreign stuff of every description…. It is meant to bring down prices in this country, and to pave the way for the establishment of cheap and nasty trash… All the bad characters at present scattered over the country will be attracted to Hyde Park…. I advise persons residing near the Park to keep a sharp lookout for their silver forks and spoons and servant maids.” Many tree lovers complained about cutting three giant elms on the site. But Paxton roofed them in, giving the building one of its distinguishing features. Later knighted, Paxton was later an MP from Coventry, 1854-65. Ref.: Ibid. Gibbs-Smith, p. 9.

U.S. Exhibitors

Great Exhibition, 1851. 5-U.S. Exhibitors. The British ambassador in Washington, D.C., invited U.S. participation. U.S. Secty. of State John Middleton Clayton (1796-1856) accepted, delegating authority (March 7, 1850) to the National Institute for the Promotion of Science and the Arts, Washington, D.C. Its officers asked state governors to appoint committees to select exhibits and make other arrangements. U.S. Pres. Millard Fillmore (1800-74) authorized a U.S. Navy ship (U.S. frigate St. Lawrence) to transport the exhibits. Charles F. Stansbury (d. 1882) of Washington, D.C., was appointed Commissioner (without salary) to assemble the exhibits in NYC aboard the St. Lawrence under Lt. Joshua Ratoon Sands (1795-1884). Commissioner Edward W. Riddle of Boston was appointed (also without salary) to accompany the exhibits, shipped at exhibitors’ expense. The St. Lawrence left NYC Feb. 8, 1851, but on arrival in Southampton, March 1851, a lack of funds brought on a crisis. Ref.: (U.S. exhibitors): Griffis, p. 86.

Lack of Funds

Great Exhibition, 1851. 6-Lack of Funds Crisis. Federally sanctioned but largely state managed by hundreds of committee members, U.S. planners neglected to assign funds to unload the St. Lawrence at Southampton, pay for shipping the crated exhibits from Southampton to London, pay for their uncrating, or pay to decorate the large (40,000-square foot) U.S. exhibit space in the Crystal Palace. The crated U.S. exhibits lay scattered like rubble. It was a chaotic laissez faire muddle. The U.S. Legation, without funds, the U.S. exhibitors, and U.S. residents in London were all embarrassed. The British satirical magazine Punch ridiculed the Americans: “We could not help…being struck by the glaring contrast between large pretension and little performance…of the large space claimed by…America….What was our astonishment…to find that their contributions to the world’s industry consists…of a few wine-glasses, a square or two of soap, and a pair of salt-cellars! For a calculating people our friends the Americans are thus far terribly out in their calculations.” (U.S. exhibitors without funds): Griffis, p. 86. London Times, Jan. 29, 1851, p. 4, c. 4; Feb. 24, 1851, p. 8, c. 6. Punch, quoted in Ffrench, pp. 237-238; also quoted in London Times, May 22, 1851, p. 8, c. 1. NYC Evening Post, July 15, 1851, p. 1, c. 5-6.

Great Exhibition, 1851. 7-U.S. Exhibitors Ridiculed. The London correspondent of the New York Evening Post criticized U.S. Commissioner Edward W. Riddle: “It is a national disgrace that American wares, which are good, are so barely displayed, so vulgarly and ambitiously spread out over so large a space.” British disdain for brash Americans was reinforced when U.S. locksmith Alfred C. Hobbs (1812-91) walked into a Piccadilly locksmith shop, pointed to a sign offering a reward to anyone opening the firm’s famous lock, picked the lock, claimed the reward, and repeated the performance at another locksmith firm. Without funds, U.S. Minister to Britain Abbott Lawrence (1792-1855) was at a loss to know what to do. He knew it would take months to get Congress to appropriate funds, if at all. Ref.: (Alfred C. Hobbs): Ffrench, op. cit.., pp. 240-241.

GP’s Loan

Great Exhibition, 1851. 8-GP’s Loan. “The whole affair looked like a disgraceful failure,” a New York Times writer later recorded. “At this juncture Mr. Geo. Peabody, of whom not one exhibitor in twenty had ever heard, and who was personally unknown to every member of the Commission, offered through a polite note addressed to Mr. Lawrence, to advance £3,000 [$15,000] on the personal responsibility of Mr. [Edward W.] Riddle and his secretary, Mr. [Nathaniel Shattwell] Dodge [1810-74]. This loan, afterward [three years later re]paid by Congress, relieved the Commission of its difficulties, and enabled our countrymen to achieve their first success in industrial competition with the artisans and manufacturers of Europe.” Ref.: (GP’s loan): New York Times, Aug. 4, 1869, p. 2, c. 1. “Proceedings of Thirty-third Congress, First Session, House of Representatives, Tuesday, Aug. 1, 1854,” quoted in Washington, D.C., Daily Globe, Aug. 24, 1854, p. 1, c. 6-7. See: persons named.

Great Exhibition, 1851. 9-GP Described, 1851. The New York Times article described GP’s little known status in 1851: “Mr. Peabody was then 57 years old. A large-framed man, six feet in height, slightly stooping at the shoulders, of easy address, retiring in manner, rather reticent of speech, neat in apparel and dignified in bearing–he appeared rather the English gentleman of leisure than an American merchant…. He had realized a considerable fortune even for London.” “Still,” the article explained, “he was not widely known. Mr. [Joshua] Bates [1788-1864], Mr. Sturgis [1805-87], Mr. (later Sir) Curtis M. Lampson [1806-85] and twenty other Americans [in London] had a larger commercial reputation.” Ref.: Ibid.

Great Exhibition, 1851. 10-GP Urged Friends to Attend. Although occupied with business affairs, GP also hosted some U.S. visitors and helped get for them tickets to the House of Lords, the opera, and the Botanical Gardens. He urged Washington, D.C., business friend William Wilson Corcoran (1798-1888) to come for the exhibit: “I…regret that your business will not permit you to come to London…. I hope you will yet come…. The exhibition is worth coming for… I only regret…I have passed but one hour in it since the first day it opened, although I have a season ticket.” He wrote to Elisha Riggs, Sr. (1779-1853), his first senior partner: “To see the buildings alone is worth a voyage across the Atlantic.” Ref.: GP, London, to William Wilson Corcoran, Washington, D.C., May 23, 1851, Corcoran Papers, Library of Congress Ms.; also quoted in Corcoran, p. 95. Ref.: (GP to Elisha Riggs, Sr.): Peabody Papers in PEM, Salem, Mass., quoted in Hidy, M.E.-b, p. 11.

Six Million Saw U.S. Art & Industry

Great Exhibition, 1851. 11-May 1, 1851, Opening. Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, along with over 30,000 others, attended the opening on May 1, 1851. The Queen wrote in her journal that day with pride: “This is one of the greatest and most glorious days of our lives, with which…the name of my dearly beloved Albert is forever associated!” Ref.: (Queen Victoria’s journal): Gibbs-Smith, p. 17. Dalzell, p. 53.

Great Exhibition, 1851. 12-Over Six Million Saw U.S. Art and Industry. When the exhibition closed 144 days later, Oct. 19, 1851, over six million visitors to the fair had seen to best advantage at the U.S. pavilion, thanks in part to GP’s timely loan: Albert Hobbs’s (1812-91) unpickable lock, Samuel Colt’s (1814-62) revolvers, Hiram Powers’ (1805-73) statue, the Greek Slave, Cyrus Hall McCormick’s (1809-84) reapers, Richard Hoe’s (1812-86) printing press, and William Cranch Bond’s (1789-1859) spring governor. The 599 U.S. exhibits won 159 awards, or one award for every four exhibits, somewhat better than the awards won by British exhibits. Ref.: Ibid.

Great Exhibition, 1851. 13-Results. Not only did the Great Exhibition affirm Britain’s greatness and introduce growing U.S. art and industry, but it inspired and its profits were used to build near its site: the Albert Hall, the Victoria ad Alert Museum, and the Natural History Museum. Ref.: Internet: http://www.thehistorynet.com/reviews/bk_bhdec00lead.htm.

Improved U.S. Image

Great Exhibition, 1851. 14-GP’s Loan Improved U.S. Image in Britain. GP’s loan helped improve the U.S. image in Britain and was for him the impetus for an ongoing effort to improve U.S.-British relations. He regretted strained Anglo-American relations, was sad at witty anti-U.S. digs in London newspapers, and was mindful of past differences. It had been ten years since the U.S.-British dispute over the Maine boundary, 37 years since the War of 1812, 68 years since the American Revolution–all still bitterly remembered.

Great Exhibition, 1851. 15-July 4, 1851, U.S.-British Friendship Dinner Proposed. In the international spirit of the exhibition and because there were so many prominent U.S. visitors in London, GP in June 1851 decided to host a U.S.-British friendship dinner. He chose July 4, 1851, a date U.S. visitors would appreciate but the British might resent. Against all odds and friends’ advice, and largely because he invited the Duke of Wellington as special guest, the GP-sponsored July 4, 1851, U.S.-British friendship dinner was a huge success. It was warmly praised by the press on both sides of the Atlantic. Also, for departing U.S. exhibitors on Oct. 19, 1851, he sponsored an even bigger and better reported U.S. British friendship dinner. (There is an equestrian statue of the Duke of Wellington in front of the Royal Exchange, London, by British sculptor Francis Legatt Chantry [1781-1841]; and nearby on Threadneedle St. is GP’s seated statue by U.S. sculptor William Wetmore Story [1819-95]). Ref.: (Statues mentioned): New York Times, Feb. 28, 1988, Sec. 2, p. 39, c.1. See: Corcoran, William Wilson. Willis’s Rooms. See: Dinners, GP’s, London (July 4, 1851, and Oct. 27, 1851).

GP’s Social Emergence

Great Exhibition, 1851. 16-GP’s Emergence. Hitherto a staid and little known U.S. merchant-banker in London, GP emerged socially in 1851. The glow of fame accompanying his social emergence likely encouraged his intended but still unformed philanthropies. During his three U.S. visits (Sept. 15, 1856-Aug. 19, 1857; May 1, 1866-May 1, 1867, and June 8-Sept. 29, 1869), made mostly to initiate or add to his educational gifts, he became in the 1860s the world’s leading philanthropist. See: Peabody, George, Philanthropy.

Great Exhibition, 1851. 17-N.Y. State Agent Praised GP. Reporting on the U.S. Exhibition to his superiors, N.Y. State agent Benjamin Pierce Johnson (1793-1869) praised GP’s loan and his July 4, 1851, dinner (in part): “…every American connected with the Exhibition owes a debt of gratitude [to Mr. George Peabody of London]….” Ref.: Johnson, B.P.

Congressional Debate on Repaying GP’s Loan

Great Exhibition, 1851. 18-Repaying GP’s Loan. Exhibitors’ formal request that Congress repay GP’s loan is contained in a government document entitled “Memorials for expenses incurred by American contributors to Industrial Exhibition on London. Senate Rep. 114 (32nd Congress, First Session) Reel 630,” 1851-52. After making its way slowly through Congressional committees, this payment request was finally debated in the 33rd Congress, First Session, on July 25, 1854. It was debated as an amendment to an expenditure bill in the U.S. Senate to allow the Secretary of State to reimburse Commissioner Edward Riddle $28,000 for loans secured (including the amount from GP) to display U.S. exhibits at the Great Exhibition of London in 1851. Ref.: (Government document) Washington, D.C., Congressional Globe, July 25, 1854, pp. 1902-1903.

Great Exhibition, 1851. 19-Senate Debate (condensed). Two years before in the Senate Committee on Claims, Penn. Sen. Richard Brodhead (1811-1863), Democrat, had challenged this payment request. He did so again, questioning Riddle’s official position. Md. Sen. James Alfred Pearce (1805-62), Whig, explained that Pres. Millard Fillmore (1800-74) had appointed Riddle as acting Commissioner to help the exhibitors transport and show their best arts and crafts to the world; that Pres. Fillmore had authorized the U.S. Navy ship St. Lawrence to take exhibitors and their exhibits across the Atlantic; that other countries had provided funds to adorn their pavilions but not the U.S.; and that in this dilemma, to help the exhibitors and to save U.S. national pride, GP and Riddle (both were named) loaned the exhibitors $26,000 needed to transport from Southampton to London and to display U.S. products. Ref.: Internet: http//memory.loc.gov/ammem/amlaw/lawhome.html.

Great Exhibition, 1851. 20-Senate Debate (Cont’d.). Having assured his colleagues that the $26,000 repayment would go only to the lenders (Riddle and GP), Sen. George Edmund Badger (1795-1866), N.C. Whig, read aloud a July 14, 1854, letter from former U.S. Minister to Britain Abbott Lawrence, repeating the facts in the case and stating that GP had made the loan offer through the U.S. Legation (later called Embassy) and with his encouragement and grateful appreciation. Finally, a vote was taken. The resolution to repay the loans was passed with 24 yeas, 18 nays. Ref.: Ibid.

Great Fire of Newburyport, Mass. (May 31, 1811). The Great Fire of Newburyport, Mass. (May 31, 1811), ruined business prospects, including David Peabody’s (1790-1841) dry goods shop where he employed his 16-year-old brother GP. Also ruined was their paternal Uncle John Peabody’s (1768-before 1826) Newburyport store. The Great Fire occurred 13 days after the death of GP’s father, Thomas Peabody (1762-May 13, 1811). These calamities came during a New England depression which led GP to leave Newburyport on May 4, 1812, with paternal uncle John Peabody for Georgetown, D.C. They opened a dry goods store in Georgetown, D.C., on May 15, 1812. The management of this store soon fell on l7-year-old GP, his uncle following other interests. See: Georgetown, D.C. Newburyport, Mass.

Greek Slave (statue) was created in 1843 by U.S. sculptor Hiram Powers (1805-73). It was displayed at the Great Exhibition of 1851, London (first world’s fair). The U.S. exhibitors, without congressional funds to display adequately U.S. products and art, were saved from embarrassment by GP’s timely $15,000 loan. His motive was to relieve the U.S exhibitors, the U.S. Legation in London, and fellow U.S. residents in London from ridicule London newspapers were directing at the brash Americans. GP did not then know if Congress would repay his loan (it did, three years later). His loan enabled the more than six million visitors to the first world’s fair to see to best advantage U.S. industry and art. The second of several copies of the Greek Slave is in the Corcoran Gallery, Washington, D.C., donated by GP’s longtime business associate and friend William Wilson Corcoran (1798-1888). See: Corcoran, William Wilson. Great Exhibition of 1851, London (first world’s fair).

Greeley, Horace (1811-72), was the N.H.-born typesetter, printer, journalist, and founder and editor of the New York Tribune (1841), considered one of the best newspapers in the U.S. In 1852, through George Peabody & Co., London, Greeley paid a sum of money he owed U.S. sculptor Hiram Powers (1805-73), whose studio was in Florence, Italy. In 1854 when Greeley’s wife made a trip to Sweden, he wrote to GP: “My wife goes out in two days by steamship to Sweden…. I believe she is carefully provided with friends and funds but if an unforeseen calamity should overtake her, I beg you to act the Good Samaritan and believe me to be…grateful.” Ref.: Greeley, NYC, to GP, Aug. 24, 1852 and Oct. 14, 1854, Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass. GP, London, to Greeley, NYC, Sept. 7, 1852, Greeley Papers, Chicago Historical Society. For the eight names proposed in Pres. Andrew Johnson’s proposed Cabinet reshuffle, including GP and Horace Greeley, See: Andrew, John Albion.

Green, Samuel Abbott (1830-1918?), a PEF trustee from 1883, replaced second PEF administrator Jabez Lamar Monroe Curry (1825-1903) while Curry served as U.S. Minister to Spain for three years (1885-88). Curry resumed his former duties as PEF administrator during 1888-1903. S.A. Green was awarded an honorary LL.D. degree by Peabody Normal College in 1896. Ref.: Curry-b, pp. 89-90, 95. Green, S.A., p. 746. See: PEF.

GP’s Last U.S. Visit

Greenbrier Hotel, White Sulphur Springs, W.Va. 1-GP’s Last U.S. Visit. GP, age 74, was ill and weak during his last four-month U.S. visit, June 8-Sept. 29, 1869. He saw family, friends, and made last visits to his Peabody Institutes in New England and Baltimore. Poet Oliver Wendell Holmes (1809-94), who read a poem about GP at the July 14-16, 1869, dedication of the Peabody Institute Library in Danvers, Mass., described GP’s weakened appearance to historian-statesman John Lothrop Motley (1814-77), as “…the Dives who is going to Abraham’s bosom and I fear before a great while….” Ref.: Holmes, Boston, to Motley, Rome, July 18, 1869, quoted in Morse, pp. 180-181.

Greenbrier Hotel, W.Va. 2-White Sulphur Springs. Longtime Washington, D.C. business friend William Wilson Corcoran (1798-1888) urged GP to join him at the White Sulphur Springs health spa in W.Va. GP’s nephew, George Peabody Russell (1835-1909), wrote to Corcoran: “…Mr. Peabody…is weaker than when he arrived…. He has…decided to go to the White Sulphur Springs…[and asks you to] arrange accommodations for himself, and servant, for Mrs. Russell and myself.” Ref.: George Peabody Russell, Salem, Mass., to W.W. Corcoran, July 6, 1869, Corcoran Papers, Library of Congress Ms, quoted in Corcoran, p. 299 (with date believed erroneously listed as June 6, 1869).

Greenbrier Hotel, W.Va. 3-White Sulphur Springs Cont’d. Longtime friend Ohio Episcopal Bishop Charles Pettit McIlvaine (1799-1873) also remarked to GP’s philanthropic advisor Robert Charles Winthrop (1809-94) how badly GP looked: “The White Sulphur Springs will, I hope, be beneficial to our excellent friend; but it can be only a very superficial good. [His] cough is terrible, and I have no expectation of his living a year.” Ref.: C.P. McIlvaine, Cincinnati, to R.C. Winthrop, July 22, 1869, quoted in Carus, ed., pp. 298-299.

GP at Elite Gathering, W. Va., Summer 1869

Greenbrier Hotel, W.Va. 4-Elite Gathering. For GP, at White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., July 23-Aug. 30, 1869, it was the last summer of his life. Gathered there by chance were outstanding southern and northern statesmen, educators, and military leaders. Tenn.’s superintendent of public instruction John Eaton (1829-1906), who was there, wrote in his annual report: “Mr. Peabody shares with ex-Gov. Wise the uppermost cottage in Baltimore Row, and sits at the same table with General Lee, Mr. Corcoran, Mr. Taggart, and others….Being quite infirm, he has been seldom able to come to parlor or dining room, though he has received many ladies and gentlemen at the cottage…. His manners are singularly affable and pleasing, and his countenance one of the most benevolent we have ever seen.” Ref.: Eaton, Appendix T, pp. 1-1iii, also quoted in Dabney, I, p. 107, footnote 10. For educator John Eaton’s connection with the Freedmen’s Bureau, See: Eaton, John. See: persons named.

Greenbrier Hotel, W.Va. 5-Resolutions of Praise, July 27-28, 1869. GP’s confinement to his cottage prompted a July 27 meeting at which former Va. Gov. Henry Alexander Wise (1806-76) drew up resolutions read publicly in GP’s presence amid a crowd gathered on July 28 in the “Old White” hotel parlor: The resolutions stated in part: “On behalf of the southern people we tender thanks to Mr. Peabody for his aid to the cause of education…and hail him ‘benefactor.'” GP, seated, replied, “If I had strength, I would speak more on the heroism of the Southern people. Your kind remarks about the Education Fund sound sweet to my ears. My heart is interwoven with its success.” Ref.: (Resolutions): New York Times, July 31, 1869, p. 4, c. 7.

Peabody Ball

Greenbrier Hotel, W.Va. 6-Peabody Ball. Merrymakers at the “Old White” held a Peabody Ball on Aug. 11, 1869. GP, too ill to attend, heard the gaiety from his cottage. Historian Perceval Reniers wrote of this Peabody Ball: “The affair that did most to revive [the Southerners’] esteem was the Peabody Ball…given to honor…Mr. George Peabody…. Everything was right for the Peabody Ball. Everybody was ready for just such a climax, the background was a perfect build-up. Mr. Peabody appeared at just the right time and lived just long enough. A few months later it would not have been possible, for Mr. Peabody would be dead.” Ref.: (GP Ball): Richmond Daily Whig (Va.), Aug. 13, 1869, p. 2, c. 3-4. Ref.: Reniers, pp. 218-219.

Greenbrier Hotel, W.Va. 7-Why GP’s Presence Was Important. First PEF administrator Barnas Sears (1802-80) at White Sulphur Springs recorded why GP’s presence there was important to the PEF’s work in promoting public education in the South. Sears wrote: “…both on account of his unparalleled goodness and of his illness among a loving and hospitable people [he received] tokens of love and respect from all, such as I have never before seen shown to any one. This visit…will, in my judgment, do more for us than a long tour in a state of good health….” Ref.: (Sears on GP): Undated letter from Barnas Sears, quoted in Curry-b, pp. 52-53.

Historic Photos

Greenbrier Hotel, W.Va. 8-Historic Photos. GP, Gen. Robert E. Lee (1807-70), and others were central figures in historic photos taken at White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., Aug. 12, 1869. In the main photograph, the five individuals seated on cane-bottomed chairs were: GP front middle, Robert E. Lee to GP’s right; W.W. Corcoran to GP’s left; at the right end Edouard Blacque Bey (1824-95), Turkish minister to the U.S.; at the left end Richmond lawyer James Lyons (1801-82). See: Corcoran, William Wilson.
Greenbrier Hotel, W.Va. 9-Historic Photos Cont’d. Standing behind the five seated figures were seven former Civil War generals, their names in dispute until correctly identified in 1935 by Leonard T. Mackall of Savannah, Ga., from left to right: James Conner (1829-83) of S.C., Martin W. Gary (1819-73) of Penn., Robert D. Lilley of Va., P.G.T. Beauregard (1818-93) of La., Alexander Robert Lawton (1818-96) of Ga., Henry Alexander Wise (1806-76) of Va., and Joseph L. Brent of Md. There is also a photo of GP sitting alone and a photo of Lee, GP, and Corcoran sitting together. Ref.: Ibid. See: Confederate Generals. Peabody, George, Illustrations. Persons named. Visits to the U.S. by GP.

Poem about GP

Greenwood, Grace, was the pen name of Sara Jane Clarke Lippincott (1823-1904), American writer of stories for young people whose unpublished poem about GP (date not known) is one of the 40 items among her papers at the Univ. of Va. Special Collections:
“To George Peabody”
by Grace Greenwood
No Eastern tale, no annals of the past,
Of Greece or Rome, deeds such as these relate
Deeds kings and emperors might emulate
That o’er thy native land new lustre cast
The land that opens all her wide domain
To the oppressed of every name & zone
And with a spirit as generous as thine own
Pours forth the gifts his boundless stores contain
The Land that shall embalm thy memory
In love & honor while long ages hence
The bounteous stream of thy beneficence
Bearing along to millions yet to be
Tributes of light and love its course shall run
Still widening as it flows like the broad Amazon.

See: Lippindcott, Sara Jane Clarke.

Queen Victoria’s Letter

Grey, Charles (1804-70). 1-GP & Queen Victoria. Col. Charles Grey was secretary to Albert of Saxe-Co-burg-Gotha (Prince Albert, 1819-61) at the time of the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London. While he was one of Queen Victoria’s advisors in June 1869 (he then held the British military rank of general) he reviewed and made minor changes on a June 20, 1869, letter drafted by Arthur Helps (1813-75), a member of Queen Victoria’s Privy Council, for Queen Victoria to consider sending to GP. See: Helps, Arthur. Victoria, Queen.

Grey, Charles. 2-GP & Queen Victoria Cont’d. GP decided suddenly to leave England for a U.S. visit to look after his philanthropic institutes (June 8-Sept. 29, 1869). This was his last U.S. visit before his Nov. 4, 1869, death. Before he left London he asked to see Arthur Helps. Helps called on GP, found him ill, and reported to Queen Victoria by letter of June 19, 1869: “The object of the interview which was…brought out with some hesitation…was…to this effect (Helps explained to Queen Victoria): Mr. Peabody would find it very uncomfortable to him, and it would put him in an awkward position, to be asked, as he knew he should be asked perpetually, whether he had an interview with the Queen. He also thought and feared much that when he should reply in the negative, it might occasion some unpleasant remark, and might in some minds, diminish the affectionate respect with which your Majesty is regarded in the United States.” Helps concluded: “He then suggested that a letter from Your Majesty might be useful.” Ref.: Ibid.

Grey, Charles. 3-Queen to GP, June 20, 1869. Queen Victoria’s letter of June 20, 1869, reached GP in Salem, Mass. It read: “Windsor Castle, June 20, 1869. The Queen is very sorry that Mr. Peabody’s sudden departure has made it impossible for her to see him before he left England, and she is concerned to hear that he is gone in bad health.” Her letter continued: “She now writes him a line to express her hope that he may return to this country quite recovered, and that she may then have the opportunity, of which she has now been deprived, of seeing him and offering him her personal thanks for all he has done for the people. Queen Victoria.” Finally, after GP’s Nov. 4, 1869, death in London, Gen. Charles Grey, representing Queen Victoria, attended the Nov. 12, 1869, Westminster Abbey funeral service for GP. Ref.: (Grey): Chichester, Vol. VIII, pp. 622-623.

Grigg, John (1792-1864), had a printing firm in Philadelphia where Benjamin Moran (1820-86) began as an apprentice printer. When J.B. Lippincott (1816-86) took over the Grigg firm, Moran took his savings, went to London to become a freelance writer, and eventually worked in the U.S. Legation in London as clerk, assistant secretary, and secretary (1853-75). Benjamin Moran was often critical of GP in his private journal, written covertly during 1857-69. See: Moran, Benjamin.

Congressional Debate on Honoring GP

Grimes, James Wilson (1816-72). 1-U.S. Senate, May 9, 1867. James Wilson Grimes was a U.S. Sen. (R-Iowa) who, with U.S. Sen. Thomas Warren Tipton (1817-99, R-Neb.), challenged the proposed Congressional resolution of thanks to GP and a proposed gold medal for establishing the PEF (total gift $2 million, 1867-69). GP founded the PEF to promote public education, teacher institutes, and teacher training normal schools in the 11 former Confederate states, with W.Va. added because of its poverty. The Congressional resolutions were introduced by U.S. Sen. Charles Sumner (1811-74, R-Mass.), on March 5, 1867. Senators Grimes and Tipton asked why the resolution could not first be looked into by an investigating committee to determine the worthiness of the gift (GP was wrongly suspected by them and others as pro-Confederate). See: Congressional Gold Medal and Resolutions of Praise to GP.

Grimes, J.W. 2-Sen. Sumner for the Resolutions. Sen. Reverdy Johnson (1796-1876, D-Md.) defended GP’s Union loyalty, stating that he had been GP’s lawyer in Baltimore in 1817 and had many contacts with him in London. The Senate voted 36 yeas, 2 nays (by Senators Grimes and Tipton), with 15 Senators absent. When the resolutions were debated in the U.S. House of Representatives on Mar. 9, 1867, Rep. Abner Clark Harding (1807-74, R-Ill.) moved: “To amend the resolution to strike out the gold medal…. I am informed Mr. Peabody made profit from the rebellion which he aided and abetted.” Harding’s amendment failed. The U.S. House passed the resolutions March 14, 1867. They were then announced and enrolled in the U.S. Senate March 15 and went to Pres. Andrew Johnson for signature on March 16, 1867. Ref.: Ibid. Ref.: (On Rep. A.C. Harding): Boatner, p. 375.

GP’s Congressional Praise & Gold Medal

Grimes, J.W. 3-Congressional Resolution & Gold Medal. The gold medal was finished by NYC silversmiths and jewelers Starr and Marcus in May 1868. It was sent to the Dept. of State, was seen by Pres. Johnson’s cabinet on May 26, 1868, and was exhibited in the U.S. Capitol Building. On Sept. 18, 1868, GP in London informed U.S. Secty. of State William Henry Seward (1801-72) that the gold medal would be kept in the Peabody Institute Library, Peabody, Mass. GP added: “Knowing the uncertainty of life, particularly at my advanced age, and feeling a great desire of seeing this most valued token my countrymen have been pleased to bestow upon me, I beg…that the medal, with its accompanying documents, may be sent to me here, through our Legation.” GP in London saw the gold medal for the first time on Christmas Day, 1868. He opened the package before gathered friends who admired the delicate workmanship. GP, with a few months to live, made his last trip to the U.S., June 8-Sept. 29, 1869, returned to London gravely ill, and died there Nov. 4, 1869. See: persons named.

GP & Arctic Exploration

Grinnell Expedition, Second U.S. (1853-55). GP gave $10,000 for scientific equipment for the Second U.S. Grinnell Expedition (1853-55) to search for lost British Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin (1786-1847). For GP it was a way to promote U.S.-British cooperation. For the U.S. it initiated U.S. Arctic research. For details, sources, and the naming of Peabody Bay off Greenland, See: Franklin, Sir John. Grinnell, Henry. Kane, Elisha Kent.

Grinnell, Henry (1799-1874). 1-Loaned Ships in Search for Sir John Franklin. Henry Grinnell was a NYC merchant and head of Grinnell, Mintern & Co. He lent two ships while GP gave $10,000 for scientific equipment for the Second U.S. Grinnell Expedition of 1853-55. This expedition, one of some 40 searches for lost British Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin (1786-1847), was led by U.S. Navy Commander Elisha Kent Kane, M.D. (1820-57), who had been naval surgeon on the First U.S. Grinnell Expedition, 1850-52. These expeditions did not find the missing explorer but did initiate U.S. Arctic exploration. Ref.: Ibid.

White House Desk

Grinnell, Henry. 2-White House Desk. An incidental connection had to do with HMS Resolute, a British ship locked in the Arctic ice in the decade-long search for Sir John Franklin. A Capt. Buddington of the U.S. whaler George Henryfound and extricated the Resolute. The U.S. government purchased the damaged Resolute, repaired it, and returned it to Britain as a gift. When the Resolute was broken up, Queen Victoria had a massive desk made from its timbers and gave it to the U.S. President. First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy (1929-94) found the desk in a storeroom in 1961 and had it refurbished for Pres. John F. Kennedy’s (1917-63) use. Famous photos show President Kennedy’s young son John Kennedy (1960-99) playing under that desk. Pres. Clinton returned the desk to the Oval Office in 1993. Ref.: Ibid. See: also persons named.

Grundy, Felix (1777-1840), Tenn. statesman, was for 31 years a trustee (as was Pres. Andrew Jackson for over 50 years during 1792-1845) of Davidson Academy (1785-1806), Nashville, Tenn., and its rechartered successors: Cumberland College (1806-26) and the Univ. of Nashville (1826-75). Felix Grundy was born in Berkeley County, Va.; was a noted criminal lawyer in Ky. and Tenn.; a member of the Tenn. legislature (1799-1806); Tenn. supreme court judge (1806-11), U.S. Rep. in Congress (1811-14, and a War of 1812 “war hawk”), and U.S. Sen. (1829-37). See: Cumberland College. Davidson Academy. Jackson, Andrew. Univ. of Nashville. Conkin, Peabody College, index.

Guild Hall, London. The ceremony bestowing the Freedom of the City of London on GP was held at the Guild Hall, London, 3:00 P.M., July 10, 1862. See: London, Freedom of the City.

Guildhall Record Office, London. For details and sources on GP’s July 10, 1862, Freedom of the City of London, See: London, Freedom of the City. (under References): Ib. London, Corporation of, Guildhall Library.

GP’s Transatlantic Funeral

Gull, Sir William Withey (1816-99). 1-British Physician. Sir William Withey Gull was the British physician who, with medical attendant William H. Covey, was called to care for GP during his last illness, Oct. 8 to his death, Nov. 4. 1869, at the home of GP’s longtime business friend and Peabody Donation Fund trustee Sir Curtis Miranda Lampson (1806-85), 80 Eaton Sq., London. GP was more gravely ill than he thought when he arrived in London Oct. 8, 1869, after his last four-month U.S. visit (June 8-Sept. 29, 1869). He hastened to Lampson’s home to rest, thinking he would go from there for warmth to the south of France. But this last illness proved fatal and he lingered at Lampson’s home, Oct. 8 to Nov. 4, 1869, cared for by the Lampsons and seeing only a few intimates. See: Death and funeral, GP’s. Lampson, Curtis Miranda. Visits to the U.S. by GP.

Gull, W.W. 2-GP’s 96-Day Transatlantic Funeral. GP’s will stipulated burial in Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Mass. A delay was inevitable until his nephew George Peabody Russell’s (1835-1909) arrival to convey the remains to the U.S. GP’s remains were embalmed by Dr. Frederick William Pavy (1829-1911) of Guy’s Hospital, London. Meanwhile, because of his philanthropic gifts in the U.S. and in London, letters from the public published in the press urged funeral honors. The unexpected offer of a GP funeral service by Westminster Abbey’s dean, Arthur Penrhyn Stanley (1815-81), started an avalanche of funeral honors. In GP’s death and funeral, U.S. and British leaders saw a way to defuse angers over the Alabama Claims. An international tribunal, then in formation, in 1872 required Britain to give the U.S. $15.5 million indemnity for British-built Confederate ships that took Union lives and treasure in the Civil War. Ref.: Ibid.

Gull, W.W. 3-GP’s 96 Day Transatlantic Funeral Cont’d. Britain and the U.S. outdid each other in GP’s unusual 96-day transatlantic funeral: transfer of remains at Portsmouth harbor onto Britain’s largest and newest warship, HMS Monarch; the USS Plymouth, hastily summoned from Marseilles, France, to accompany HMS Monarch; a U.S. naval flotilla reception in Portland harbor, Me., headed by Adm. D.G. Farragut (1801-70); lying in state in Portland City Hall; train journey for the funeral service and eulogy in Peabody, Mass., attended by Queen Victoria’s son Prince Arthur (1850-1942); and burial in Harmony Grove Cemetery. Ref.: Ibid.

Gurney, J.[?Jeremiah], photographer, New York City, whose visiting card photo of GP (Carte de Visite) is listed above. See: Peabody, George (1795-1869), Illustration: picturehistory.

H

Haddock, Charles B. (1796-1861). 1-Gt. Exhibition, 1851, Official. Charles B. Haddock was a U.S. Congress-appointed official concerned with U.S. industry and art products shown in the Great Exhibition of 1851, London. He described this first world’s fair and GP’s involvement as follows in the Congregational Journal: “Mr. Peabody’s dinner to the departing Americans had several good effects. (1) It highlighted American achievement at the Exhibition; (2) brought George Peabody into notice; (3) raised Abbott Lawrence’s esteem as United States Minister to Britain.” Haddock continued: “It is something to have sent to the Exhibition the best plough, the best reaping machine, the best revolvers–something to have outdone the proudest naval people in the world, in fast sailing and fast steaming, in her own waters…. Moreover, it is a great pride for America to have George Peabody and Abbott Lawrence in England who represent the best of America and uphold its worth and integrity.” Ref.: (Charles B. Haddock): Congregational Journal (Concord, N.H.), Dec. 17, 1851, p. 1, c. 6-7.

Haddock, C.B. 2-America’s Cup. Haddock referred to the U.S. yacht America, which on Aug. 22, 1851, won the 1851 international yacht race, defeating the English yacht Baltic in British waters. The first prize (a silver tankard) was afterward known as America’s Cup. Ref.: (America’s Cup): Rodgers, C.T. (comp.), and quoted in Ffrench, p. 242. Rousmaniere, p. 70.

Hall, Clifton Landon (1898-1987), was GPCFT professor of history and philosophy of Education during 1948-67 who directed Franklin Parker’s dissertation: “George Peabody, Founder of Modern Philanthropy” (Ed. D.: GPCFT, Nashville, Aug. 1956). (Note: see the authors’ Preface for the origin of this GP research). Canadian-born C.L. Hall was educated at Bishop Univ. (B.A., Quebec), McGill Univ. (M.A., Montreal), and the Univ. of N.C., Chapel Hill (Ph.D., 1948), the last under educational historian Prof. Edgar Wallace Knight (1886-1953). C.L. Hall taught Latin and French and was principal of several high schools and academies in Canada; was a personnel officer, Canadian Army, WW II; supt. of Protestant elementary schools, Quebec City (1944-47); visiting education lecturer, Univ. of N.C. at Chapel Hill; GPCFT prof. (1948-67), during which he was for one year Simon Visiting Prof., Univ. of Manchester, England; and was a post-retirement prof., Univ. of Tenn., Knoxville. See: Knight, Edgar Wallace.

Hall, Henry Bryan, Jr. (1808-84), engraver-artist, born in London, founded the firm of H.B. Hall & Sons, NYC, where he died. For his engravings of GP, See: Peabody, George, Illustration L. Ref.: New York Historical Society, p. 284.

Most Famous Americans

Hall of Fame of New York Univ. (N.Y.U). 1-Most Famous Americans. GP was one of the 29 most famous Americans elected to N.Y.U.’s Hall of Fame in 1900. GP ranked 16th from the top of the list (or 15th if GP is placed ahead of Henry Clay [1777-1852], with whom he tied for 16th place). Background: N.Y.U. Chancellor Henry Mitchell MacCracken (1840-1918) originated the idea of the N.Y.U. Hall of Fame as an educational use for the beautiful 630 foot campus colonnade overlooking the Hudson River. Mrs. Finley J. Shepard’s $100,000 gift made the project possible. She was financier Jay Gould’s (1836-92) daughter, Helen Miller (née Gould) Shepard (1868-1938). The public, invited to submit nominations, sent in over 1,000 names. Ninety-seven well known scholar-judges, chosen by the N.Y.U. Senate, reduced the over 1,000 names to 234, of whom 29 were chosen as most famous in such categories as authors, educators, businessmen-philanthropists, and others. Ref.: NY Univ. Hall of Fame-a.

GP: “Looking…beyond my stay on earth”

Hall of Fame, NYU. 2-“Looking…beyond my stay on earth.” Of the two most famous businessmen-philanthropists, GP received 74 votes and Peter Cooper (1791-1883) received 69 votes. Of the other 28 most famous names, GP had personal contact with Daniel Webster (1782-1852), U.S. Grant (1822-85), Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-82), Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-82), Washington Irving (1783-1859), S.F.B. Morse (1791-1872), D.G. Farragut (1801-70), Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-64), Peter Cooper, R.E. Lee (1807-70), and Asa Gray (1810-88). In 1901 a bronze tablet was unveiled in the space allotted to GP. The inscription placed on the bronze tablet was taken from GP’s original PEF founding letter, Feb. 7, 1867: “Looking forward beyond my stay on earth I see our country becoming richer and more powerful. But to make her prosperity more than superficial, her moral and intellectual development should keep pace with her material growth.” Ref.: Ibid. See: PEF. Persons named.

Hall of Fame, NYU. 3-GP Bust Unveiled. In June 1925 Hall of Fame Director Robert Underwood Johnson (1853-1937) urged GP’s grand nephew, George Russell Peabody (b.1883-May 1, 1946) to help raise funds for a bust. The grand nephew pledged $500 and John Pierpont Morgan, Jr. (1867-1943), pledged $500. A PIB trustee suggested that a copy be made of a bronze bust of GP in one of the Baltimore public schools. But this was not allowed because the Hall of Fame required only original busts. Another GP grand nephew, Murray Peabody Brush (18721954), helped raise funds. By Dec. 1925 trustees of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard Univ. had raised $300. When sufficient funds were at last raised, sculptor Hans Schuler (1874-1952), born in Alsace Lorraine, Germany, was commissioned to prepare the bust. Ref.: (Hall of Fame): Banks, p. 14. NYU., p. 4. MacCracken. Ref.: (Funds for GP bust): GP Hall of Fame papers at the PIB Archives.

Hall of Fame, NYU. 4-GP Bust Unveiled Cont’d. The unveiling took place May 12, 1926, on University Heights overlooking the Hudson River. John Work Garrett (1872-1942) represented the PIB trustees; and GP’s grand nephew Murray Peabody Brush unveiled the bust. GPCFT Pres. Bruce Ryburn Payne (1874-1937) gave the address. Ref.: (Grand nephew George Russell Peabody), Burke, pp. 2856-2857. Ref.: (Unveiling GP bust): Who’s Who in American Art, 1940, III, p. 573. New York Times, May 13, 1926, p. 14, c. 1-2. Sun (Baltimore), May 9, 1926, Part 2, Sect. 1, p. 10, c. 2-5. See: persons named. (Note: In 1973 NYU’s near bankrupt University Heights campus was acquired by the State University of New York (SUNY) which then housed on that site of its units, the Bronx Community College. See:: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bronx_Community_College).

Hamburg, Germany. Othniel Charles Marsh (1837-99) studied at the German universities of Berlin, Breslau, and Heidelberg at his uncle GP’s expense. In mid-May 1863 he met and talked with GP, recuperating at a health spa in Hamburg, Germany. See: Marsh, Othniel Charles.

First PIB Music Director

Hamerik, Asger (1843-1923). 1-First PIB Music Director. Asger Hamerik, PIB Academy of Music’s first director, was born in Copenhagen. His mother was from a musical family. He studied and performed under various music masters in London and Berlin (1862-64); in Paris (1864), where he was famed French composer Hector Berlioz’s (1803-69) only pupil; Stockholm; and in Milan and Vienna. Hamerik’s appointment as PIB Academy of Music’s first director came after PIB trustee Charles J.M. Eaton (1808-93) asked the help of U.S. Consul Dietrich Fehrman in Vienna, Austria. See: PIB Conservatory of Music.

Hamerik, Asger. 2-First PIB Music Director Cont’d. U.S. Consul Fehrman’s advertisement in a European music journal brought letters of interest from Hamerik and others. Despite unease about Hamerik’s limited English and shyness, he was appointed and became a long-tenured director of the PIB Academy (Conservatory after 1874) of Music, during July 11, 1871-1898, or for 27 years. Hamerik enhanced the PIB Academy of Music’s reputation, raised admission standards, emphasized American composers’ works in concerts, improved the music curriculum, and raised graduate requirements. Ref.: Ibid. (Note: For Hamerik’s hiring of poet-musician Sidney Lanier as Peabody Symphony Orchestra’s first flutist, See: Lanier, Sidney.

Hanaford, Phebe Ann (1829-1921), wrote the first laudatory, non-critical book about GP, published five months after his death, compiled from newspaper and periodical accounts. Title page: The Life of George Peabody, Containing a Record of Those Princely Acts of Benevolence Which Entitled Him to the Esteem and Gratitude of all Friends of Education and the Destitute, Both in America, the Land of His Birth, and in England, the Place of his Death. By Phebe A. Hanaford, Member of the Essex Institute, and Author of “The Life of Lincoln,” Etc. With An Introduction by Dr. Joseph H. Hanaford. “God Loveth a Cheerful Giver.” (Boston: B. B. Russell, 1870). See: Peabody, George, Biographies.

Hanckel, Allen S., claimed to be a witness of the Nov. 8, 1861, Trent Affair, the illegal removal by Union seamen of four Confederate envoys from the British mail ship Trent in the Bahama Channel, West Indies. He allegedly objected when GP’s partner, Junius Spencer Morgan (1813-90), called to see after the welfare of the wife of one of the Confederates. See: Trent Affair.

Hankey, Thomson (1805-93), was an official of the Bank of England. He was among the 800 guests who attended GP’s July 4, 1851, dinner, Willis’s Rooms, London, at the time of the Great Exhibition of 1851. The dinner attracted favorable press attention because of the Duke of Wellington’s (1769-1852) attendance as guest of honor. Thomson Hankey began as senior partner in his father’s West Indian mercantile firm, was elected a director of the Bank of England (1835), was a governor of the Bank of England (1851-52), and was an MP (1853-68, 1874-80). Ref.: [Hankey], I, p. 566. For Hankey’s attendance and details of the July 4, 1851, dinner, See: Corcoran, William Wilson. Dinners, GP’s, London.

Hanna, Hugh Sisson, Financial History of Maryland, 1789-1848, described GP’s role in selling abroad the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal part of Md.’s 8 million bond issue for internal improvements, from 1837. See: Md.’s 8 Million Bond Sale Abroad and GP. See: also under References.

Hapsburgs. In late Oct. 1850 and again on Nov. 4, 1850, GP was asked for funds to help free imprisoned Lajos Kossuth (1802-94), Hungarian freedom fighter against Hapsburg rule. See: Hoffman, David. Kossuth, Lajos.

End of 4 of 14 Parts. Continued on 5 of 14 Parts. Send corrections, questions to: bfparker@frontiernet.net

6 Comments

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