7 of 14: George Peabody (1795-1869): A-Z Handbook…, By Franklin Parker & Betty J. Parker, bfparker@frontiernet.net

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7 of 14 Parts: George Peabody (1795-1869): A-Z Handbook of the Massachusetts-Born Merchant in the South, London-Based Banker, and Philanthropist’s Life, Influence, and Related People, Places, Events, and Institutions. ©2007, By Franklin Parker & Betty J. Parker, bfparker@frontiernet.net

This work updates and expands Franklin Parker, George Peabody, A Biography (Nashville, Tenn.: Vanderbilt Univ. Press, ©1971, revised with illustrations ©1995), and the authors’ related George Peabody publications.

Note: To read on your computer most pages of Franklin Parker’s out-of-print George Peabody, A Biography, 1995, as a free Google E-book copy and paste on your browser

http://books.google.com/books?id=OPIbk-ZPnF4C&pg=PP1&lpg=PR4&dq=Franklin+Parker,+George+Peabody,+a+Biography&output=html&sig=6R8ZoKwN1B36wtCSePijnLaYJS8

Background: Why these 1 to 14 blogs on George Peabody? The authors attended George Peabody College for Teachers, Nashville (renamed Peabody College of Vanderbilt Univ. July 1, 1979). Franklin Parker’s doctoral dissertation, “George Peabody, Founder of Modern Philanthropy,” 1956, has been an ongoing research and writing interest for over 50 years.

George Peabody, now largely forgotten by scholars and the public, was significant as: 1-a Massachusetts-born merchant in the U.S. South, beginning as junior partner in Riggs, Peabody & Co. (1814-29); then head of Peabody, Riggs & Co. (1829-43), importing dry goods and other commodities worldwide for sale to U.S. wholesalers. He transformed himself from merchant into: 2-a London-based merchant-banker, George Peabody & Co. (1838-64), which helped finance the B&O RR, the 2nd Mexican War Loan, the Atlantic Cable, and by choosing Junius Spencer Morgan (1813-90) as partner Oct. 1, 1854, was a root of the JP Morgan international banking firm.

Merchant-turned-banker George Peabody finally became: 3-the best known U.S. philanthropist of the 1850s-60s, founding the Peabody Homes of London for the working poor; founder in the U.S. of 7 Peabody Libraries and Lecture Halls; the Peabody Conservatory of Music, Baltimore; three Peabody Museums at Harvard (Anthropology), Yale (Paleontology), and the Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA (maritime history); and founder of the Peabody Education Fund for the South (1867-1914), a model for all later larger U.S. funds and foundations.

Two tributes to George Peabody:

Historian John Steele Gordon called George Peabody the “Most Underrated Philanthropist…. Peabody is unjustly forgotten today, but his unprecedented generosity was greatly appreciated in his time.” Ref.: American Heritage. Vol. 50, No. 3 (May-June 1999), pp. 68-69.

“The Peabody Fund, established in 1867 by George Peabody to assist southern education, is often credited with being the first foundation….” Ref.: Reader’s Companion to American History, ed. by Eric Foner and John A. Garraty (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1991). Internet: http://HistoryChannel.com/

End of Background. HTML symbols are intended for blogging (ignore). This 7 of 14 blogs covers alphabetically: Morgan Grenfell & Co. (1910-18) to Peabody, George, Illus.: “Prophetic Eye.”

J. P. Morgan Family

Morgan Grenfell & Co. (1910-18). George Peabody & Co., London (Dec. 1, 1838-Oct. 1, 1864), became J.S. Morgan & Co. (Oct. 1, 1864-Dec. 31, 1909). On J.S. Morgan’s death (1890) the firm was controlled by J.P. Morgan, Sr. The firm continued as Morgan Grenfell & Co. (1910-18), Morgan Grenfell & Co., Ltd. (1918-90), and Deutsche Morgan Grenfell (since June 29, 1990), a German owned banking firm. See: Deutsche Morgan Grenfell. George Peabody & Co. Morgan, Junius Spencer.

Morgan, John Pierpont, Sr. (1837-1913). 1-International Banker. John Pierpont Morgan, Sr., was the son of Junius Spencer Morgan (1813-1890), Boston merchant and GP’s partner in George Peabody & Co., London, for ten years during Oct. 1,1854 to Oct. 1, 1864. J.P. Morgan, Sr., was born in Hartford, Conn., educated at the English High School in Boston, and soon after his father’s partnership with GP attended the Univ. of Göttingen, Germany (1856-57). J.P. Morgan, Sr., at age 16 visited London with his father and mother when he first met GP in London in May 1853. His father was then considering becoming GP’s partner. On May 18, 1853, J.P. Morgan, Sr., wrote his 14-year-old cousin James Junius Goodwin (1835-1915), : “Father and Mother went to a dinner given by George Peabody at Richmond.” Ref.: “Goodwin,” p. 469.

Morgan, J.P., Sr. 2-J.P. Morgan [Sr.], at age 20. In 1857 J.P. Morgan, Sr., at age 20 shared an apartment at 45 West 17 St. NYC, with GP’s relative (distant cousin?) Joseph Peabody (d. April 7, 1905) and was the NYC agent for George Peabody & Co. His father soon placed him in the NYC banking firm of Duncan, Sherman & Co. (1860), which chiefly represented George Peabody & Co. J.P. Morgan, Sr., then became junior partner in Dabney, Morgan & Co., NYC (1864), helped form Drexel, Morgan & Co., NYC (1871), of which his father was also a partner. Drexel, Morgan & Co. became J.P. Morgan & Co. (1895). Ref.: “Goodwin,” p. 469. See: Peabody, Joseph.

Morgan, J.P., Sr. 3-Deutsche Morgan Grenfell, London. GP retired on Oct. 1, 1864. Knowing that he would no longer exert control, he asked that his name be withdrawn from the firm. George Peabody & Co., London (Dec. 1, 1838-Oct. 1, 1864), then became J.S. Morgan & Co. (Oct. 1, 1864-Dec. 31, 1909). On J.S. Morgan’s death (1890) the firm was controlled by J.P. Morgan, Sr. The firm continued as Morgan Grenfell & Co. (1910-18), Morgan Grenfell & Co., Ltd. (1918-90), and Deutsche Morgan Grenfell (since June 29, 1990), a German owned banking firm. J.P. Morgan, Sr., was also a partner of Drexel & Co., Philadelphia, when he gained control of leading railroads (1901), organized United States Steel Co. (1901), and controlled both steel and coal interests. He was the leading financier of his time, a yachtsman, art collector, and philanthropist. For details and sources of J.P. Morgan, Sr., as a PEF trustee, see PEF.

Morgan, J.P., Sr. 4-GP, Root of Morgan Banking. George Peabody & Co. was the root of the J.P. Morgan, Sr., financial empire which, in later more complex times, was on an international scale that far surpassed its GP beginnings. GP and a few other merchant-bankers of his time began, and the Morgans and other international bankers greatly advanced, the use of investment capital that developed and industrialized the U.S. to world leadership. Ref.: Allen, F.L. See: Junius Spencer Morgan. Morgan Grenfell & Co. Ltd. Deutsche Morgan Grenfell (since June 29, 1990). For details and sources of how GPCFT Pres. Bruce R. Payne secured a $250,000 gift from the estate of John Pierpont Morgan, Sr., see PCofVU, history. Conkin, Peabody College, index.

Morgan, John Pierpont, Jr. (1867-1943). 1-Of the House of Morgan. John Pierpont Morgan, Jr., was the son of John Pierpont Morgan, Sr. (1837-1913). He was born in Irvington, N.Y., graduated from Harvard Univ. (1889), and soon after worked in J.S. Morgan & Co., London (Oct. 1, 1864-Dec. 31, 1909). The firm, begun by GP as George Peabody & Co., London (Dec. 1, 1838-Oct. 1, 1864); continued as J.S. Morgan & Co., London (Oct. 1, 1864-Dec. 31, 1909); continued as Morgan, Grenfell & Co. (Jan. 1, 1910-18), continued as Morgan Grenfell & Co., Ltd. (1918-90); and continues as Deutsche Morgan Grenfell (since June 29, 1990), a German owned banking firm. See: Morgan, Junius Spencer. Morgan Grenfell & Co. Ltd. Deutsche Morgan Grenfell (since June 29, 1990).

Morgan, John Pierpont, Jr. 2-Career. J.P. Morgan, Jr., succeeded his father as head of J.P. Morgan & Co. (from 1913) and head of United States Steel. In 1920 he gave his Grosvenor Square, London, residence in to the U.S. government as its London embassy. In 1924 he endowed as a public institution the Pierpont Morgan Library, NYC, originally his father’s private library, which has family papers and some GP papers. J.P. Morgan, Jr., contributed to charitable institutions and was a trustee of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the New York Public Library, Cooper Union, and several hospitals. Ref.: Ibid.

GP’s Partner, J.S. Morgan

Morgan, Junius Spencer (1813-90). 1-Am. Merchant in London. GP went to England in Feb. 1837 as one of three Md. agents to sell the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal part of Md.’s $8 million bonds to finance internal improvements. It was his fifth commercial trip abroad during 1827-37. The other two agents returned without success to the U.S. He remained in London from Feb. 1837 to his death (Nov. 4, 1869), 32 years, except for three U.S. visits (Sept. 15, 1856 to Aug. 19, 1857, May 1, 1866 to May 1, 1867, and June 8-Sept. 29, 1869). In 1837 GP was age 42 and had been in the mercantile trade for 23 years. The Panic of 1837, followed by a depression into the 1840s, adversely affected all business including GP’s sale of Md. bonds and the mercantile business of Peabody, Riggs & Co. (1829-48). See: Riggs, Peabody & Co.

Morgan, J.S. 2-End of Peabody, Riggs & Co. GP was Peabody, Riggs & Co.’s senior partner and London resident financier. Junior partner Samuel Riggs (d.1853) managed the main Baltimore office and then the NYC office. Two other younger partners, Henry T. Jenkins (b.1815) and Adolphus William Peabody (b. 1814), GP’s cousin, son of his paternal uncle John Peabody (1768-1827), traveled and collected debts for the firm in the U.S. In London GP also traded on his own, first in various goods and services, then increasingly in U.S. state and federal securities. Peabody, Riggs & Co.’s mercantile trade declined. GP withdrew his capital in 1843, although the firm continued to 1848 when the other partners entered other firms. Ref.: Ibid.

Morgan, J.S. 3-Beginning of George Peabody & Co. (1838). On Dec. 1, 1838, GP leased an office at 31 Moorgate St., in London’s inner city not far from St. Paul’s Cathedral where business houses occupy odd nooks and crannies. He installed desks, chairs, a mahogany counter, a safe, and bookkeeping materials. This was the informal beginning of George Peabody & Co., London, merchant banker (1838-64). He still traded in goods and commodities and was in transition from merchant to securities broker and banker. He lived simply and worked concentratedly. In 1848, tired and often ill, he complained to intimate NYC business friend William Shepard Wetmore (1802-62): “I am almost tired of making money without having time to spend and enjoy it–and I feel this particularly at this time when I am not very well & should be out of this City [London] where the cholera is raging with terrible effect.” Ref.: GP to William Shepard Wetmore, Sept. 24 and 28, 1848, quoted in Hidy, M.E.-c, p. 261.

Morgan, J.S 4-Seeking a Partner. GP complained to business friends that by 1851 he had worked 10 hours a day, had not been away from his office two consecutive days, had not been 100 miles from London for six years. Sometimes in poor health, he had severe attacks of rheumatism, suffered from gout and intestinal ailments, and was occasionally absent from his office. Business friends and clients were concerned because he ran a one-man business. They urged him to take an American partner to give his firm continuity. In 1843 he hired 32-year-old British-born Charles Cubitt Gooch (1811-89) as salaried clerk at £150 ($750) a year. Gooch had seven years’ experience as bookkeeper with Thomas Wilson & Co., a London firm headed by an American, and then worked in another firm specializing in U.S. trade. Ref.: (Gooch partnership): Articles of partnership between GP and Charles Cubitt Gooch, Jan. 1852, Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass.

Morgan, J.S 5-Seeking a Partner Cont’d. Although Gooch was an efficient bookkeeper and an able office manager, friends and clients still urged GP to find an experienced younger American partner. In 1852 GP made Gooch a salaried junior partner. GP cautiously let it be known that he was looking for an American merchant of probity as partner, one with dry goods importing experience, knowledgeable about U.S. government and U.S. state securities, and one adaptable to the fast-changing world of securities banking. Business friends and clients whose advice he valued recommended as an ideal choice Boston merchant Junius Spencer Morgan. Ref. Ibid.

Morgan, J.S. 6-Morgan’s Commercial Career. J.S. Morgan, 18 years younger than GP, was from an old Mass. family. His ancestor Miles Morgan (1616-99) arrived in America from England in 1636, a year after GP’s ancestor Francis Peboddy (1612 or 14-1697) arrived in America in 1635. J.S. Morgan was born in West Springfield (later Holyoke), Mass. He grew up in Hartford, Conn., where his father Joseph Morgan (1771-1847) moved the family in 1817. This Joseph Morgan began as a farmer, was a realtor, made money in stage coach lines, then hotels, and finally in insurance companies. Biographer Andrew Sinclair of grandson John Pierpont Morgan, Sr. (1837-1913), wrote that Joseph Morgan’s “fortune was…based on the great Wall Street fire of December, 1835, when he had made his Aetna Fire Insurance Company pay up promptly in order to attract more business at triple rates.” Ref.: Sinclair, p. 5.

Morgan, J.S. 7-Morgan’s Commercial Career Cont’d. J.S. Morgan was educated in private schools. He learned the wholesale dry goods business as apprentice to merchant-banker Alfred Wells (1814-67) of Boston and was briefly Wells’s partner. He then was a partner in Morris Ketchum’s private bank on Wall St., NYC; and then became a partner in the dry goods house of Howe Mather & Co., Hartford, Conn. (which became Mather Morgan & Co.). He was a partner in J.M. Beebe, Morgan & Co. of Boston during 1851-54, dealing in dry goods and commodities, when he came to GP’s attention. GP had dealings with this firm and particularly valued James Madison Beebe’s (1800-75) high regard for his partner. Ref.: “Goodwin,” p. 469.

Morgan, J.S. 8-Considering a GP-Morgan Partnership. J.S. Morgan had first visited England in 1850, but had no known connection with GP then. Now in 1853 GP let J.S. Morgan know of his interest in having him as his partner. J.S. Morgan was interested enough to go with his wife to London in May 1853. They were joined there by their 16-year-old son John Pierpont Morgan (Sr., 1837-1913). GP and J.S. Morgan first met at George Peabody & Co., 6 Warnford Court, Throgmorton St., London, May 15, 1853. GP at 58 and J.S. Morgan at 40 liked each other. On May 18, 1853, young John Pierpont in London wrote to his cousin James Junius Goodwin (1835-1915), “Father and Mother went to a dinner given by George Peabody at Richmond.” Ref.: Ibid. Satterlee, p. 207.

Morgan, J.S. 9-At GP’s May 18, 1853, Dinner. GP and J.S. Morgan took each other’s social measure at this dinner GP gave to honor the new U.S. Minister to England Joseph Reed Ingersoll (1786-1868) and his niece, Miss Charlotte Manigault Wilcocks (1821-75). The dinner was held at the Star and Garter, Richmond, about eight miles from London, overlooking the Thames. Among the 150 guests (65 English, 85 Americans) was Harvard Univ. professor (and president in 1860) Cornelius Conway Felton (1807-62). He later wrote in his book, Familiar Letters from Europe, of being a guest “at a splendid and costly entertainment” on May 18, 1853, given by GP and attended by former U.S. Pres. Martin Van Buren (1782-62, eighth U.S. Pres. during 1837-41), and “many very distinguished persons.” See: Dinners, GP’s, London (May 18, 1853).

Morgan, J.S. 10-N.Y Times on May 18, 1853, Dinner. The New York Daily Times prefaced its four-column account of the dinner with the following about GP: “No American who has visited England within the past ten or fifteen years, needs to be told who Mr. Peabody is, or how much he is constantly doing to make his countrymen feel at home upon British soil, or how largely he has contributed, in an unostentatious but most effective way to strengthen the feeling of friendship between the people of the two great nations on which so much of their peace and prosperity must always depend.” Ref.: Ibid.

Morgan, J.S. 11-N.Y Times on May 18, 1853, Dinner Cont’d.: “Possessed of princely wealth, the fruit solely of his own industry and business talent, and gifted with more than princely beneficence, he seems to know no greater pleasure than to extend to Americans in London the warmest and most profuse[d] hospitality–taking occasion, at the same time, to bring them into direct social intimacy with some of the worthiest and the best of the English people, and thus substantially serving great ends, while promoting the personal enjoyment of his countrymen.” Ref. Ibid.

Morgan, J.S. 12-May 18, 1853, Dinner Speeches. After the sumptuous meal and appropriate band music GP rose to express pleasure at bringing together U.S. and English friends. The new U.S. Minister Ingersoll then toasted the Queen, the U.S. President, and the peoples of the U.S. and the U.K., which he called: “The two great nations, whose common origin, mutual interests and growing friendships, serve to cement a union created by resemblance in language, liberty, religion and law.” Ref.: Ibid.

Morgan, J.S. 13-May 18, 1853, Dinner Speeches Cont’d. In his speech referring to GP’s British-U.S. friendship dinners Episcopal Bishop of Ohio Charles Pettit McIlvaine (1799-1873) said: “When history should come to be written, and…weight…given to all…influences,…it would assign…a very high place to…one who had done very much to promote…goodwill between…two great nations…here represented.” The dinner and speeches were widely and favorably reported in the transatlantic press. What the dinner cost GP is not known. One bill, only part of the total, was about $940. Ref.: Ibid.

Negotiating a Partnership

Morgan, J.S. 14-Negotiating a Partnership. GP valued J.S. Morgan’s commercial credentials, stable family, and social qualities. J.S. Morgan and GP were favorably impressed with each other. Morgan returned to Boston. GP wrote him details about his firm’s business. Morgan visited U.S. firms with whom George Peabody & Co. did business. They exchanged letters. Concerned commercial acquaintances eyed the match favorably. Samuel G. Ward, U.S. agent for the Baring Brothers, GP’s chief competitor in London for U.S. trade in goods and securities, wrote to his superior, April 11, 1854: “Mr. Morgan is highly thought of here as a man of talent, energy, & labor. If Mr. Peabody was safe before, he will be much safer now with Mr. Morgan at his side.” Ref.: (S.G. Ward): Burk, p. 18. Carosso, p. 36. Mirabile, ed., pp. 427-429.

Morgan, J.S. 15-Negotiating a Partnership Cont’d. George B. Blake of Boston’s Blake, Howe & Co., which did much business with George Peabody & Co., wrote GP: “I am more convinced than ever that he is the man of all others for you.” J.S. Morgan’s partner, J.M. Beebe, wrote GP: “the situation you have offered him presents so many advantages and is so congenial to his taste–that I cannot but approve of his acceptance.” Ref.: Ibid.

Morgan, J.S. 16-Negotiating a Partnership Cont’d. GP began serious negotiations with Morgan in Nov. 1853. In early Feb. 1854, J.S. Morgan returned to London to examine George Peabody & Co.’s accounts books. These showed that in 1851 GP was worth £1.2 million ($6 million) From Aug. 1848 to Sept. 30, 1854, George Peabody & Co. had earned £311,546 ($1,557,730). Ref.: Ibid.

Morgan, J.S. 17-Partnership Agreement. A ten-year partnership agreement was drawn up on Sept. 30, 1854. Of George Peabody & Co.’s capital of £450,000 ($2.25 million), GP provided £400,000 ($2 million) and was to get 65 percent of the profits. Morgan provided £40,000 ($200,000) and was to get 28 percent of the profits plus £2,500 ($12,500) per year entertainment allowance. Longtime clerk Charles Cubitt Gooch, made a partner, put in £10,000 ($50,000) and was to earn 7 percent of profits. Ref.: George Peabody & Co. circular announcing entrance of Junius Spencer Morgan as a partner, Aug. 10, 1854, Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass.; copy in Pierpont Morgan Library, NYC; and copy in Deutsche Morgan Grenfell (since June 29, 1990), London, England.

Morgan, J.S. 18-Partnership Agreement Cont’d. A circular dated Aug. 10, 1854, announced: “On the first of October Mr. J.S. Morgan, who recently retired from the house of Messer[s]. J.M. Beebe, Morgan & Company, of Boston, will become a Partner of our Firm, but its title will remain unaltered…. “Our arrangements with Mr. Morgan have been made, with a view to establish our House permanently; and that if our Prior [GP] is removed by death before the expiration of the time contemplated by this arrangement, a large portion of his capital [will be used for the firm]…. “The business of the House will consist of sales and purchases of Stocks, Foreign Exchange, banking and Credits; the execution of orders for railroad iron, purchase and sale of Produce together with general mercantile transactions. Signed by George Peabody. C.C. Gooch.” Ref.: Ibid.

Morgan, J.S. 19-GP to Blake on Partner Morgan. On Oct. 6, 1854, GP wrote to George B. Blake of Boston: “Mr. Morgan has taken his place in a room adjoining me, and I trust he will make an able help-mate.” To another business friend, Charles Macalester (1798-1873) GP wrote at the end of Oct. 1854: “Mr. Morgan my new partner has been with us about a month and I begin to find him useful and I trust when we get into our new counting house in [22] Broad Street (which will be one of the best in London), and get proper assistance around us that I shall begin to experience the good results of my late arrangements, and before 1857 if my life and health is spared, find leisure to visit my native land….” Ref.: (GP to Blake): GP to George B. Blake, Boston, Oct. 6, 1854, Pierpont Morgan Library, NYC. Ref.: (GP to Macalester): GP to Charles Macalester, Oct. 31, 1854, Pierpont Morgan Library, NYC.

Morgan, J.S. 20-GP to Blake on Partner Morgan Cont’d.: “It has been, and is now, a favorite object with me to so arrange all my business, that my house will be purely American, that its continuance for many years will not depend on my life, and that my American friends will feel that, in every respect the house is worthy of their entire confidence.” Ref. Ibid. (History of the company): [Morgan Grenfell & Co. Ltd.]. New York Times, Nov. 28, 1989, p. 29, contd. p. 42 (Steven Prokesch, “Germans to Buy Morgan Grenfell,” continued as “Deutsche Bank to Acquire Morgan Grenfell”). (1854 partnership): Burk, pp. 18-19. (S.G. Ward and G.B. Blake): Burk, p. 19. Carosso, pp. 35-36. Deutsche Morgan Grenfell (since June 29, 1990). Mirabile, ed., pp. 427-429.

GP’s 1856-57 U.S. Visit

Morgan, J.S. 21-J.P. Morgan on GP’s 1856-57 U.S. Visit. Freed from daily routine by the Morgan partnership, GP prepared for a year’s U.S. visit (Sept. 15, 1856 to Aug 19, 1857), his first return after nearly 20 years’ absence in London. John Pierpont Morgan, age 19, attending the Univ. of Göttingen, Germany, spent his summer 1856 vacation putting GP’s papers in order. He wrote his cousin James Junius Goodwin: “Since my return from Göttingen I have been pretty busily occupied arranging Mr. Peabody’s letters, etc., which had accumulated for over twenty years. Those operations were brought to a close last Tuesday when Mr. P. left us for Liverpool. He sailed in the Atlantic last Tuesday.” Ref.: John Pierpont Morgan, London, to cousin, James Junius Goodwin, Hartford, Conn., Sept. 5, 1856, quoted in Satterlee, pp. 283-284.

Morgan, J.S. 22-J.P. Morgan on GP’s 1856-57 U.S. Visit Cont’d.: “Wednesday we received a letter from him which he had given to the pilot off Point Lynas which was written in very good spirits. Before this letter reaches you I trust he will have arrived at New York, where I have no doubt he will be welcomed by a large circle of friends. He said before he left that he would make it a point to visit Hartford, so I suppose you may see him there.” Ref.: Ibid.

Morgan, J.S. 23-J.P. Morgan on GP’s 1856-57 U.S. Visit Cont’d.: “He is a very agreeable gentleman and very full of wit, but a regular old bachelor. If you could have seen the quantity of nic-nacs which he carried with him to America, and which were stored away in his trunk with the greatest precision, you would most certainly have thought he was going to Central Africa to some unexplored regions, rather than to America.” Ref.: Ibid.

Morgan, J.S. 24-GP’s 1856-57 U.S. Visit. During GP’s hectic 1856-57 U.S. visit he added funds to his institute library in South Danvers (renamed Peabody, April 13, 1868, total gift $217,600), Mass.; created a branch institute library in North Danvers (now Danvers), Mass., total gift $100,000; founded in Baltimore the PIB (total gift $1.4 million), and was féted in his home town (Oct. 9, 1856) and honored elsewhere. See: Visits to the U.S. by GP.

Morgan, J.S. 25-J.S. Morgan Kept GP Informed. J.S. Morgan, relating business and other news, wrote GP on Sept. 30, 1856: “Glad to hear of your safe arrival and that you had so little sea-sickness. Your friends have certainly been very kind in their reception. I hope their kindness won’t go so far as to injure your health which we fear might be the case if you yield to all the temptations that surround you.” Ref.: J.S. Morgan, London, to GP, U.S., Sept. 30, 1856, Pierpont Morgan Library, NYC.

Morgan, J.S. 26-Morgan to GP on Atlantic Cable. Morgan wrote GP on Oct. 10 that Cyrus W. Field (1819-92) was organizing the Atlantic Telegraph and Cable Co. and wanted GP as one of the directors: “Field is getting up his company on the ocean Telegraph. He wishes your name as one of the directors. Lampson and ourselves agree that it is best you should accept, and I have taken responsibility of saying to Field it might be put through subject to your confirmation. It will be a go and the new [organization] with you will be of the right stamp…. We have many inquiries for you every day.” Ref.: J.S. Morgan, London, to GP, U.S., Oct. 10, 1856, Pierpont Morgan Library, NYC.

Morgan, J.S. 27-Morgan to GP on Bessemer Steel. On Oct. 14 Morgan reported that Curtis Miranda Lampson (1806-85) wanted GP to use his influence in Washington, D.C., to get U.S. government support for British engineer Henry Bessemer’s (1813-98) new steel process. Ref.: J.S. Morgan, London, to GP, U.S., Oct. 14, 1856, Pierpont Morgan Library, NYC.

Morgan, J.S. 28-On Oct. 9, 1856, GP Reception. In late Oct. 1856, 19-year-old John Pierpont Morgan returned to his studies at the Univ. of Göttingen, wrote to his cousin James Junius Goodwin on hearing of the Oct. 9, 1856, Danvers reception for GP: “Mr. Peabody’s reception at Danvers must indeed have been a glorious affair. I should have liked immensely to have been present to have seen it. The report has been copied into several of the European journals, and very well spoken of. I trust Mr. P. did not have an attack of gout after the sumptuous dinner.” Ref.: Satterlee, p. 288.

Morgan, J.S. 29-Morgan on Atlantic Cable. On Nov. 14, 1856, J.S. Morgan wrote Peabody that the Atlantic Telegraph was going well, that GP’s name as director was being publicly used, and that Curtis M. Lampson would also consent to be a director. J.S. Morgan wrote in Dec.: “The Bessemer Patent…I fear…is likely to bring us in for a great loss, for I believe we should lose every shilling we agreed to pay. This is Lampson’s opinion.” Ref. J.S. Morgan, London, to GP, U.S., Nov. 14, 1856, Pierpont Morgan Library, NYC.

Morgan, J.S. 30-Morgan on Atlantic Cable Cont’d. Morgan to GP, Dec. 16: “Many inquire for you every day. The election for directors for the Atlantic Telegraph Company came off very satisfactorily.” Morgan to GP, Dec. 22: “I am glad you are able to spend Thanksgiving in Georgetown [Mass., with sister Judith Dodge (née Peabody) Russell, 1799-1879, and her family] and that the rest and quiet there has been beneficial.” Ref.: J.S. Morgan, London, to GP, U.S., Dec. 16 and 22, 1856, Pierpont Morgan Library, NYC.

Morgan, J.S. 31-Avoidance of Pres. Buchanan. GP was in Washington, D.C., in Jan. and during Feb. 13-24, 1857. His relations with Pres.-elect James Buchanan (1791-1868) were strained. This strain went back to GP’s July 4, 1854, British-U.S. friendship dinner in London. James Buchanan was then U.S. Minister to Britain. His Legation Secty. Daniel Edgar Sickles (1825-1914), a super patriot, had created an incident when GP toasted Queen Victoria before toasting the U.S. president. Sickles refused to stand with the other 149 guests and walked out in anger. In a lengthy exchange of letters to the press Sickles accused GP of toadying to the British. GP and others at the dinner wrote defending GP. Buchanan quickly replaced Sickles but did not publicly censure him. See: Sickles Affair. Persons named.

Morgan, J.S. 32-Avoidance of Pres. Buchanan Cont’d. GP explained to his Mass.-born friend, sometimes agent, and London resident genealogist Horatio Gates Somerby (1805-72) why he would not call on Pres. Buchanan: “Buchanan’s friends are particularly attentive to me, but I refuse any interferences to bring us together without a direct explanation from him. I met Miss Lane [Harriet Lane, 1830-1903, bachelor James Buchanan’s niece and White House hostess] who treated me with great cordiality.” Ref.: GP, Philadelphia, to Horatio Gates Somerby, Jan. 18, 1857, Somerby Papers, Mass. Historical Society, Boston. See: Lane, Harriet.

Morgan, J.S. 33-Avoidance of Pres. Buchanan Cont’d. Of Buchanan’s aloofness, J.S. Morgan wrote from London to GP in Washington, D.C., March 13, 1857: “Your course respecting Mr. Buchanan strikes us as just the thing. It is for you to receive him if either is to be received, but any reconciliations now would look like truckling to a man because he happens to be in power.” Ref.: J.S. Morgan, London, to GP, U.S., March 3, 1857, Pierpont Morgan Library, NYC.

GP & the Panic of 1857

Morgan, J.S. 34-Panic of 1857. J.S. Morgan in London alerted GP in the U.S. of the first rumblings of the Panic of 1857. Morgan noted the heavy demand for debt payments on George Peabody & Co. and wrote GP on Jan. 30, 1857: “The drawing upon us for the last two or three mails have been very heavy and the look of our financial business is anything but encouraging for it.” Morgan wrote GP again on Feb. 27 and Apr. 9: “These are times when we must keep a sharp lookout. We are in a good position and must keep so.” Ref. (J.S. Morgan to GP): J.S. Morgan to GP, Jan. 30, Feb. 27, and April 9, 1857, Pierpont Morgan Library, NYC.

Morgan, J.S. 35-Panic of 1857 Cont’d. GP’s cousin Joseph Peabody wrote from NYC (GP was then in Philadelphia), April 11: “There is a report by telegraph from Halifax that Greene & Co. of Paris have been obliged to suspend: I know nothing of particulars.” Alarmed, J.S. Morgan wrote GP, April 17, that money was stringent, and the specie of the bank of England were down to nine million, “the lowest point in ten years.” Ref.: Joseph Peabody, NYC, to GP, care of Capt. Edward Schenley, Pittsburgh, Penn., April 12, 1857, Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass.

Morgan, J.S. 36-Panic of 1857 Cont’d. GP hurried back to England. Back in London the end of Aug. 1857 GP found his firm severely threatened by the Panic of 1857. The financial crisis came from overspeculation in western U.S. lands, poorly managed railroads needing large capital, and overbuying of goods in eastern U.S. cities. The collapse of hundreds of business firms in the U.S. and Britain was hastened by poor U.S. wheat sales abroad, the sinking of a packet ship with $1.6 billion in California gold bullion aboard (Sept. 1857), and the failure of some railroads, banks, and insurance companies. Ref.: Hidy, R.W.-c, pp. 456-465.

Morgan, J.S. 37-Panic of 1857 Cont’d. U.S. Legation Secty. Benjamin Moran (1820-86) described the crisis in his journal entry for Nov. 6, 1857: “The news from the United States indicates a commercial panic of the most disastrous nature. Each arrival brings us worse news than the last, and now starvation seems to threaten unemployed workmen, fifty thousand of which are in New York alone.” Business firms failed in Glasgow, Liverpool, and London. George Peabody & Co. was in trouble. Ref.: (Moran entry Nov. 6, 1857): Wallace and Gillespie, eds., p. 176.

Bank of England Loan to GP

Morgan, J.S. 38-Bank of England Loan. GP had given large credit to Lawrence, Stone and Co. of Boston, which could not repay him. Meanwhile, the House of Baring pressed GP for £150,000 ($750,000) he owed them. Gathering his assets, GP on Nov. 17, 1857, applied for a $4 million loan from the Bank of England (which seldom made such loans). Moran’s Nov. 6, 1857, journal entry stated that he had heard that the stability of George Peabody & Co was in grave danger. Moran’s Nov. 21, 1857, entry: “My friend, Phil [Philip N. Dallas, 1825-66, U.S. Minister George Mifflin Dallas’ son under whom Moran then worked] went over to George Peabody & Co. the other day to withdraw all his father’s deposits, having heard that house would fail unless relief in the form of a tremendous loan arrived.” Breaking precedent, the Bank of England lent GP more than was needed. Ref.: Burk, p. 21. Ref. (Moran’s entries Nov. 6 and 21, 1857): Wallace and Gillespie, eds., Vol. I, pp. 176, 181.

Morgan, J.S. 39-Bank of England Loan Cont’d. During negotiations for the Bank of England loan, some unscrupulous financiers, seeing opportunity to force GP out of business, approached GP’s partner J.S. Morgan. Morgan was told that certain individuals would guarantee a loan to George Peabody & Co. if the firm ceased business in London at the end of 1858. PEF’s second administrator Jabez Lamar Monroe Curry (1825-1903) reported GP’s reaction as follows: “When Mr. Morgan brought this message to Mr. Peabody, he was in a rage like a wounded lion, and told Mr. Morgan to reply that he dared them to cause his failure.” [Italics added]. Ref.: Curry-b, p. 7.

Morgan, J.S. 40-Bank of England Loan Cont’d. GP repaid the Bank of England loan on March 30, 1858. He wrote Washington, D.C., business friend William Wilson Corcoran (1798-1888): “My business is again quite snug…. Our credit…stands as high as ever before.” Ref. (GP to Corcoran): GP, London, to William Wilson Corcoran, Washington, D.C., April 16, 1858, Corcoran Papers, Library of Congress Ms.; also quoted in Corcoran, pp. 168-169. (GP’s financial difficulties in the Panic of 1857 briefly told): Strouse, pp. 70-71.

Morgan, J.S. 41-GP to Niece Julia Adelaide. On Nov. 13, 1857, GP wrote in gloom to his niece Julia Adelaide Peabody (b. April 25, 1835, daughter of deceased older brother David Peabody, 1790-1841): “This letter I promised to write you has been postponed because of my constant engagements and the unparalleled gloom of the Panic. What will happen, Heaven only knows. Lack of confidence and distrust is universal here and in the United States. I hope my house will weather the storm. I think it will do so even though so many in debt to me cannot pay. If I fail I will bear it like a man. In my conscience I know I never deceived or injured any other human being.” Ref.: (GP to niece Julia): Curry-b, pp. 8-9.

Morgan, J.S. 42-GP to Niece Julia Adelaide Cont’d.: “It is less than three months since I left you in the United States, prosperous and happy. Now all is gloom and affliction. Nearly all the American houses in Europe have suspended operations and nothing but great strength can save them. It is the loss of credit of my house I fear. In any circumstances, only a small part of my private fortune will be lost. I will have enough for all my required purposes.” GP waited before sending this letter. Ref.: Ibid.

Morgan, J.S. 43-GP to Niece Julia Adelaide Cont’d. GP held the letter to niece Julia for three weeks. He then added: “My very dear Niece,–The three pages enclosed, as you will see from the date were written three weeks ago when I felt…that the credit of my house was in danger…. I thought to myself, Why should I make my good niece unhappy, however so my miserable self? and consequently declined to send the letter, and I am glad that I did not. “A few days after I felt it to be my duty to apply to the banks for a loan of money sufficient to carry my house through the crisis, proposing security for the full amount required, which was four million dollars.” Ref.: Ibid.

Morgan, J.S. 44-GP to Niece Julia Adelaide Cont’d. “It was a severe test to my pride, but after a week spent with the Committees and Directors of the Banks I finally succeeded, and I doubt not that my house is now free from all danger…. Don’t you hold your head less high or your heart worth less than you did before, for your Uncle George had done nothing but what among sensible persons will raise him higher than before.” Ref.: Ibid.

Morgan, J.S. 45-Panic of 1857’s Effect . The financial panic, his illness, age (63), and wanting to put his philanthropies in order made GP write as follows to a young man who applied for a position with him: “The influence of the panic year upon my feelings have been such as to greatly modify my ambitious views and I have fully determined not only to keep snug during the terms of my present copartnership but if my life is spared to its end to then leave business entirely and shall most likely pass any remaining years that may be allotted me by Providence in my native land.” Ref.: (On retirement): GP to William Heath, Boston, Dec. 9, 1858, Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass.

Morgan, J.S. 46-GP Corrected N.Y. Times Report. The New York Times published incorrectly, late Dec. 1857, that George Peabody & Co. owed others £6 million ($30 million) at the time of the Bank of England loan. GP sent a correction to the editor on Feb. 9, 1858: “With a few exceptions the American press has extended me more sympathy than blame for my course in the panic. Your respectable journal’s account in late December, 1857, of my house’s acceptances of six million sterling is inaccurate.” Ref.: New York Times, Feb. 9, 1858, p. 4, c. 6.

Morgan, J.S. 47-GP Corrected N.Y. Times Report Cont’d.: “Here are the facts: About November 20th, my house considered it prudent to borrow funds to protect our own credit and save many of our American correspondents unable to meet engagements. The bills my house were liable for at the time of the loan were £2,300,000, not £6,000,000. I applied for a loan of £800,000 from the Bank of England on good securities but have only taken £300,000 to this date. Of the £2,300,000 bills liable, my house paid more than £l,500,000 at the time of the loan. The strength of our correspondents is such that our losses will be but trifling. In justice to American credit and to my house these facts are at your disposal.” Ref. Ibid.

Morgan, J.S. 48-Correcting Another N.Y. Times Report. Again on Feb. 18, 1858, GP corrected another New York Times error that he had secured the Bank of England loan, not on the basis of securities but on the personal guarantees of friends. He wrote: “The Charter of the Bank of England forbids…lending money on any but British securities. Since my house held large securities from the states and cities of the United States, the Bank of England required guarantees from Englishmen. Some personal friends and interested parties guaranteed £90,000 of the £300,000 which my house received from the Bank. The error in the press arose from the circumstance in the Panic of 1837 when three American houses obtained assistance from the Bank of England by giving guarantees without other securities.” Ref.: New York Times, Feb. 18, 1858, p. 4, c. 6.

Morgan, J.S. 49-J.S. Morgan to GP on Atlantic Cable. GP was ill with gout and went for relief to a health spa in Vichy, France. J.S. Morgan wrote him from London Aug. 12, 1858, about Atlantic Telegraph Co. stock. The Atlantic cable had been laid in 1858 but broke. “Our position,” Morgan wrote GP, “is an unpleasant one. The moment we sell it is known and down goes the market.” Ref.: (Morgan on Atlantic cable): J.S. Morgan, London, to GP, Vichy, France, Aug. 1858, Pierpont Morgan Library, NYC.

Morgan, J.S. 50-Morgan Visited Niece Julia Adelaide. In Oct. 1858 Morgan was in Niagara Falls, N.Y., and had heard reports of GP’s improved health. He planned to go to Zanesville, Ohio, to see GP’s niece Julia Adelaide Peabody. On Nov. 2 he wrote to GP that he had seen Julia and “found her all that I had expected from your description…. I am not surprised at your feelings toward her as she seemed a person uncommonly attractive both in mind and person.” Ref.: J.S. Morgan, NYC, to GP, Nov. 2, 1858, Pierpont Morgan Library, NYC.

Morgan, J.S. 51-GP Reassured Niece Julia. GP also wrote his niece Julia in late 1858 that he had returned from Vichy, France, where he had been under the care of a physician for gout in his feet and right hand: “I am happy also to tell you that although my firm lost some money the business of the year more than made it good, and individually I am now worth much more than I supposed myself when I left the United States and I sincerely feel that what we supposed misfortunes and calamities last year were, so far as regards myself, really ‘blessings in disguise.'” Ref.: GP to Julia Adelaide Peabody, n.d., probably late 1858, Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass.

Morgan, J.S. 52-GP Ill, March 1859. Resting away from London GP wrote Washington, D.C., business friend William Wilson Corcoran of his rest cures at health spas for gout attacks: “I have been a great sufferer by rheumatic gout in my knees and arms, as also my right hand, for several months. I have been here for three weeks for the benefit of the waters, and may remain a fortnight longer. I am now quite well, except my right hand, which is painful when I write, and I fear you will hardly be able to make out what I have written.” Ref.: GP to William Wilson Corcoran, March 22, 1859, Corcoran Papers, VII, Accession Nos. 8279-8280, Library of Congress Ms., quoted in Corcoran, p. 178.

Morgan, J.S. 53-GP and N.Y. Gov. W.H. Seward. In May 1859 N.Y. Gov. William Henry Seward (1801-72) visited London. Seward was the political protégé of GP’s friend Thurlow Weed (1797-1882), Albany, N.Y. Evening News editor. GP arranged for Seward to meet such prominent people as Irish-born MP Sir James Emerson Tennent (1791-1869). These meetings were of special importance a few years later when Seward became Pres. Lincoln’s Secty. of State during the Civil War.

Morgan, J.S. 54-GP and N.Y. Gov. W.H. Seward Cont’d. Too ill to attend himself, GP explained to Seward: “As the time approaches to join you at Lady Tennent’s I find myself too unwell to go out being quite lame and in considerable pain in my feet arising from my late severe attack of gout.–Having accomplished the object I had in view of bringing together yourself and Sir James, I do not so much regret my inability to join you but feel forced to make this explanation.” Ref. GP to William Henry Seward, May 26, 1859, Seward Collection, Univ. of Rochester.

N.Y. Herald Attacks on GP

Morgan, J.S. 55-N.Y. Herald Criticism. GP ignored hostile articles about him in editor James Gordon Bennett’s New York Herald ‘ during his 1856-57 U.S. visit. A false report of a rift between GP and J.S. Morgan forced him to reply in 1859. This Sept. 20, 1859, Herald article read: “There is a rumor that the firm of George Peabody & Co. is to be dissolved or remodelled. The cause I have not heard, but I know that the head of the house has never been pleased nor satisfied since certain events during and previous to the great crisis of 1857. Before that disgraceful failure in Boston, connected with Lawrence, of Lawrence, Stone & Co.” Ref.: New York Herald , Sept. 20, 1859, p. 2, c. 2.

Morgan, J.S. 56-N.Y. Herald Criticism Cont’d.: “A draft was actually drawn amounting to some £80,000 [then equivalent to $400,000] and some real or fanciful security offered. This draft was accepted, and the negotiation had been about completed when the senior partner, Mr. Peabody came in and put a veto on the whole transaction. As matters turned out the securities were not worth a straw. Lawrence failed and but for the timely appearance of Mr. Peabody, his firm would have been seriously damaged by the stroke of the pen.” Ref.: Ibid.

Morgan, J.S. 57-N.Y. Herald Criticism Cont’d. Before GP could reply the Herald again directed sarcasm at GP personally and stated that he used undue influence on the Times financial writer to attack business rivals. The N.Y. Herald for Oct. 12, 1859, read: “The London Timeshas been declining in influence because Mr. Sampson who writes the money articles has an American wife and is intimate to the point of control with George Peabody. They attack the Bank of England, certain corporations, speculations, public works, and loans from which they expect to make nothing. It has gotten so that an individual wanting to enter something in the London Times financial column must go to–not the owner or manager or editor–but to a man who is to London financial circles what a podunk newspaper is to political newspapers of the world.” Ref.: New York Herald , Oct. 12, 1859, p. 2, c. 2.

Morgan, J.S. 58-N.Y. Herald Criticism Cont’d.: “Money articles in the Times follow what George Peabody favors or opposes, reflecting his personal enmities, piques, quarrels. Articles telling of a large loan received during the 1857 crisis are laughed at by the Bank of England. Here is a striking example of his influence: A year or more ago an English merchant ship owner about to start steamers from England to New York unfortunately asked George Peabody’s advice as to which New York house to consign it. Peabody advised a house with one of his relatives in it. The Englishman later chose the American Express Co. as New York agent. He and his steamship company were attacked in the London Times. Thus the quarrels and enmities of an insignificant individual are echoed, trumpeted and heralded forth year after year in the Times.” Ref.: Ibid.

Morgan, J.S. 59-W.W. Corcoran on Herald Attacks. GP’s Washington, D.C. business friend William Wilson Corcoran joked about the charge: “I read a letter in the Herald some time since alluding to your influence with the London Times which if true, makes you more potential than Lord Palmerston [Henry John Temple Palmerston (1784-1865), British Prime Minister during 1855-58].” GP, particularly wanting to reassure his Baltimore friends, felt he had to answer the Herald‘s erroneous charges. Ref.: William Wilson Corcoran, Washington, D.C., to George Peabody, Dec. 20, 1859, Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass.

Morgan, J.S. 60-GP’s Reply to Herald Attacks. GP wrote on Dec. 23, 1859, to the Baltimore American (reprinted in the New York Times): “For some motive, which I have never been able to understand, the managers of the New York Herald have, from the time I landed in New York in 1856, frequently introduced into its columns paragraphs and articles reflecting upon me personally, or on the position and business of my house, without the least regard to facts. Their London correspondence (or letters bearing the date of London) has been characterized by the same feeling of untruthfulness throughout; although I have not thought advisable to publicly contradict them, I will now notice three of these letters, and thereby put you and my Baltimore friends right on matters to which they refer.” Ref.: (GP’s Dec. 23, 1859, letter to the Baltimore American) reprinted in New York Times, Jan. 12, 1860, p. 1, c. 6.

Morgan, J.S. 61-GP’s Reply to Herald Attacks Cont’d.: “The most important…stating that I had never been satisfied with the management of my firm’s business since certain events during and previous to the crisis of 1857; and that I had to put my veto on a transaction with Lawrence, Stone & Co.,…about being entered into for an advance of $400,000 to that house. As this reflects upon my partner, Mr. J. S. Morgan, I beg to state that it has not the least foundation in truth. Mr. Morgan joined my firm on the 1st of October, 1854, and since that period our business has been most satisfactory to all parties interested, and a difference of opinion on the subject of its management has never occurred between Mr. Morgan and myself.” Ref.: Ibid.

Morgan, J.S. 62-GP’s Reply to Herald Attacks Cont’d.: “Another letter appearing in the New York Herald infers erroneously that I interposed an objection to the Bank of England’s financial dealing with the Gallway (Lever) steamers. No act or expression of mine has ever been made in an unfriendly spirit to this Company, although I think it has been unfortunately managed. “The last letter I wish to comment on was dated December 7, 1858, stating that if my house had not opposed the sale of Florida Railroad bonds, Mr. [Edward M.C.] Cabell would have effected their negotiation in London. This is untrue, as my wishes were favorable to his success, and I offered him every assistance my position would justify, short of recommending the bonds to the British public. This I could not do, nor do I connect my name in any way with schemes or companies got up for the European market, however unquestionable may be the character of the gentlemen who have charge of them.” Ref.: Ibid.

Morgan, J.S. 63-GP’s Reply to Herald Attacks Cont’d. GP knew from his NYC cousin Joseph Peabody that New York Herald editor James Gordon Bennett deliberately provoked controversy in order to sell newspapers. Joseph Peabody had earlier written to GP that: [Herald editor Bennett] “published…falsehood[s] expressly to provoke a reply…. He makes it a system to attack some prominent person, it matters little who that person may be!…as regards the ‘Herald,’ it is even better to be abused than be praised by such a rascal as Bennett.” Ref.: Joseph Peabody, NYC, to GP, Montreal, Canada, Oct. 18, 1856, Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass. For criticism of GP in the New York Herald during GP’s 1856-57 U.S. visit, reasons for Bennett’s criticism, and sources, See: Visits to the U.S. by GP.

Trent Affair & GP

Morgan, J.S. 64-Trent Affair, 1861. GP’s hope for early retirement was pushed back by the Civil War. Officially neutral, the British upper class had a natural sympathy for the Confederacy. Also, British cotton factory jobs and profit were dependent on southern cotton, cut off by the Union blockade of southern ports. The Nov. 8, 1861 Trent Affair was one of several frictionable events during the Civil War that provoked near war hysteria between Britain and the U.S. GP and J.S. Morgan were named in a side incident of the Trent Affair. See: Trent Affair.

Morgan, J.S. 65-Trent Affair, 1861, Cont’d. On the stormy night of Oct. 11, 1861, four Confederate emissaries and some of their families evaded a Union blockade of Charleston, S.C., got to Havana, Cuba, and there boarded the British mail steamer Trent bound for Southampton, England. Their mission was to seek aid and arms from Britain and France. One day out of Havana, on Nov. 8, 1861, the Trent was illegally stopped by the captain of the Union warship San Jacinto. The four Confederate emissaries were forcibly removed and taken to Boston Harbor’s Fort Warren prison. Their illegal seizure and detention produced exultation in the U.S. North but anger in Britain. Passions were aroused. Britain sent 8,000 troops to Canada in case of war between Britain and the U.S. Calmer heads prevailed at Pres. Lincoln’s Dec. 26, 1861, cabinet meeting. The illegal seizure was disavowed. The four Confederates were released on Jan. 1, 1862. Ref.: Ibid.

Morgan, J.S. 66-Trent Affair, 1861, Cont’d. A Capt. Richard Williams in charge of the mail on the Trent was asked to tell of the illegal seizure at a dinner in Liverpool. His version, published in the Liverpool Daily Post (Jan. 8, 1862) was that when the San Jacinto‘s captain sent Lt. Donald McNeill Fairfax (1821-94) to remove the Confederate agents, John Slidell’s (1793-1871) daughter clung to her father, and that when Lt. Fairfax tried to separate them, she slapped his face. The Daily Post article added that there was a contradiction to Capt. Williams’ version from a Member of Parliament who “had the contradiction from George Peabody, the well known banker and merchant.” The article added information from a Mr. Allen S. Kanckel (his last name, misspelled, was Hanckel), who claimed to have witnessed the Trent incident. He told the editor that Slidell’s daughter did not slap Lt. Fairfax but “put her hand twice on his face to keep him back.” Ref.: Ibid.

Morgan, J.S. 67-Trent Affair, 1861, Cont’d. The article ended with: “Mr. Kanckel adds, that Mr. Peabody, uninvited, called on Mrs. Slidell, and behaved ungentlemanly.” The editor sent GP the news article along with Allen S. Hanckel’s calling card. Hanckel wrote GP that the Daily Post editor had made a mistake, that it had been GP’s partner, Junius Spencer Morgan, who had burst uninvited into Mrs. Slidell’s room. Hanckel added with an implied threat, “I shall certainly call upon you and hope to receive an explanation.” Mr. Hanckel’s visit never materialized. Ref.: Ibid.

Morgan, J.S. 68-Trent Affair, 1861, Cont’d. The GP-J.S. Morgan involvement had to do with John Slidell’s secretary, George Eustice (1828-72, of La.). His wife was Louise Morris née Corcoran Eustice (1838-67), the only daughter of GP’s Washington, D.C., business associate William Wilson Corcoran (1798-1888). She was a favorite of GP, who had entertained Corcoran and his daughter, and sometimes the daughter alone, on European trips. When the wives of Slidell and Eustice reached England, it is understandable that someone from George Peabody & Co., probably Junius Spencer Morgan, went to see after the Eustices’ welfare (GP may have been ill or busy at the time). Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody Homes of London

Morgan, J.S. 69-Peabody Homes of London. Angers over the Trent affair lasted well into 1862, affecting GP and J.S. Morgan in London. J.S. Morgan was one of the five trustees of the Peabody Donation Fund for building model apartments for London’s working poor families (total gift $2.5 million). The Trent Affair and other frictionable U.S.-British events had caused worry and delay in public announcement of this gift. GP and his trustees feared that while U.S.-British feelings were so hostile, the British government, press, and public might reject his gift. Ref.: Ibid.

Morgan, J.S. 70-GP to Weed on U.S.-British Tension. GP explained the delay in a note to his friend Thurlow Weed (1797-1882): “Two days ago we thought it exactly the right time, but one cloud between this country and ours is no sooner disposed than another appears. Today the Times and Post are at us again…[as are] ugly extracts from the World and other New York papers…. The feeling [is] as bad as it was before the Trent affair closed. The Post I have takes up strongly the blocking up of Charlestown harbour. Lampson told me that he thought both Sir Emerson [Tennent] and Mr. Adams were in rather a gloomy mood on our affairs with England and France, and Sir Emerson told me that France was pushing England very hard to join and recognize the Southern Confederacy.” Ref.: GP, London, to Thurlow Weed, Jan. 17, 1862, Weed Collection, Univ. of Rochester; also quoted in Barnes, p. 365.

Morgan, J.S. 71-GP to Weed on U.S.-British Tension Cont’d. GP sadly mentioned in his note to Weed the “Newcastle story,” printed in the London Times and widely circulated as true. U.S. Secty. of State William Henry Seward (1801-72) allegedly told the Duke of Newcastle, then Colonial Secty., that one way to end the U.S. Civil War and get the South to rejoin the North would be to start a war with Britain. See: Peabody Homes of London.

Morgan, J.S. 72-GP to Weed on U.S.-British Tension Cont’d. GP’s note to Weed explained the seriousness of the Newcastle story: “We talked over the mystery hanging over the Seward and the New Castle [sic] affair. Sir James E[merson] Tennent said that there can be no doubt that what the Duke reported of Seward’s remarks had strongly influenced the government in this war preparation for several months past. The Bishop [McIlvaine] said that he had received the words from Sir H[enry]. Holland [medical advisor to Queen Victoria], and I think Lord Shaftesbury, both of whom had them from the Duke’s own lips. You should at once write to Mr. Seward for a letter to the Duke and have the matter cleared up.” Ref.: Ibid.

Morgan, J.S. 73-Peabody Homes of London Gift Praised. GP’s Peabody Donation Fund founding letter was at last published on March 12, 1862. Widely printed and praised it was addressed to and accepted by his five trustees: his partner J.S. Morgan, business friend Curtis Miranda Lampson (1806-85), U.S. Minister to England Charles Francis Adams (1806-86), longtime friend and MP Sir James Emerson Tennent (1791-1869), and Lord Stanley, trustee chairman (Edward George Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, 1799-1869, Member of Parliament and president of the Board of Control [trade]). Ref.: Ibid.

Morgan, J.S. 74-Peabody Homes of London Gift Praised. News of GP’s gift swept London, captured England, echoed in the U.S., and made the world press. Sir James Emerson Tennent sent GP London press notices and added: “But the press is only a faint echo of the voice of Society which is so forcible in praise of an act so utterly beyond all precedent. It is the topic of conversation and laudation in every circle of London, from the Palace down….” Ref.: Ibid.

Morgan, J.S. 75-Peabody Homes of London Gift Praised Cont’d. After spending March 27, 1862, with the Commissioners of Charities arranging for their legal acceptance of the gift, Tennent wrote GP: “I have returned after spending a very long time with the Commissioners of Charities…. They tell me that in the whole range of charities of England there is nothing to compare with the disinterestedness and magnitude of your gift.” GP rested in Bath, England, late March and early April 1862. His friend and agent, Horatio Gates Somerby (1805-72), a Vt.-born London-resident genealogist, sent him London newspaper clippings. GP answered Somerby with: “I had not the least conception that it would cause so much excitement over the country.” GP’s mounting reputation had a positive spillover effect on J.S. Morgan, both as partner in George Peabody & Co. and as Peabody Donation Fund trustee. Ref.: Ibid.

Freedom of the City of London to GP

Morgan, J.S. 76-Freedom of the City of London, July 10, 1862. J.S. Morgan attended London’s ancient Guildhall, 3:00 P.M. on July 10, 1862, when GP was given the Freedom of the City of London. GP was the first of five Americans to accept this honor, the second, Ulysses Simpson Grant (1822-85, U.S. general and 18th U.S. president), awarded June 15, 1877; third, Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919, 26th U.S. president), awarded May 31, 1910; fourth, John Joseph Pershing (1860-1948, U.S. general), awarded July 18, 1919; and fifth, Dwight David Eisenhower (1890-1969, U.S. general and the 34th U.S. president), awarded June 12, 1945. See: London, Freedom of the City of London.

Morgan, J.S. 77-Lord Mayor’s Dinner, July 10, 1862. Mr. and Mrs. J.S. Morgan were among the 300 guests assembled that evening at the Egyptian Hall, Mansion House, for the Lord Mayor’s dinner honoring GP. Guests included Peabody Donation Fund trustees and their wives, Sir James Emerson Tennent (1791-1869) and the Curtis Miranda Lampsons, U.S. Minister to England Charles Francis Adams (1807-86) and Mrs. Adams, author Charles Dickens’ daughter, Sir Henry Holland (1788-1873, Queen Victoria’s physician), and other British and U.S. notables. A loving cup was passed around until all 300 present had drunk from it. Ref.: Ibid. See: persons named.

Morgan, J.S. 78-Lord Mayor’s Dinner, July 10, 1862 Cont’d. Several toasts were proposed, including one to GP from the Lord Mayor, who said (in part): “I now propose a toast to a distinguished gentleman who has won the esteem of the City of London and the approbation of the world. Mr. Peabody has performed the crowning act of an honorable career. How glad I am for Mr. Peabody to be here and I hope he may live long to see his noble deed prove a monument to his name and character.” Amid loud cheering, GP rose to reply (in part): “Persons in every station hope for success and tremble at real or imagined calamities, but none more than a merchant. From a full and grateful heart I say that this day has repaid me for the care and anxiety of fifty years of commercial life. I will not take up time from other speakers. I am no orator but ask that you accept my deeds for my words.” Ref.: Ibid.

Morgan, J.S. 79-Lord Mayor’s Dinner, July 10, 1862 Cont’d. The Lord Mayor then spoke of the Peabody Donation Fund for housing London’s working poor and proposed a toast to its trustees. Trustee Charles Francis Adams, U.S. Minister, responded to the toast. He said (in part): “The City of London does honour to Mr. Peabody to-day. Why? The reason is that Mr. Peabody has done honour to human nature (loud cheers!). I honour Mr. Peabody because he has done honour to his country.” Ref.: Ibid.

Morgan, J.S. 80-Lord Mayor’s Dinner, July 10, 1862 Cont’d.: “Born in America he went out to build his fortune, became successful in his own land and eminently more so on this side of the ocean. In twenty years he achieved his ambition. How did this happen? The answer is simple. It was by making an honest use of the friendly relations between the two countries. He drew benefit from the trade of both countries. His career teaches the advantage of good will. His success shows how mutual interests advance with peace. Now, with this gift he forms a new bond between two nations.” Long speeches followed by Lord Stanley and Sir James Emerson Tennent, who toasted the Lord Mayor. GP, as he enjoyed doing, gave the last toast to the Lady Mayoress. Ref.: Ibid.

Morgan, J.S. 81-Walked Home to Save Carriage Fare? The story persisted in news accounts at his death (Nov. 4, 1869), seven years later, that after the Lord Mayor’s banquet, July 10, 1862, GP walked home to save carriage fare. The night being damp and foggy, he reportedly caught cold. He more likely walked home filled with wonder. Officials of the world’s largest city had given him its greatest honor. Ref.: Ibid.

GP’s Retirement

Morgan, J.S. 82-Retirement, Oct. 1, 1864 . GP’s business partnership with J.S. Morgan and C.C. Gooch expired on Oct. 1, 1864. He had set this as his retirement date. He was in the Scottish Highlands in Aug. 1864, resting and fishing, when J.S. Morgan wrote urging him to delay retirement beyond Oct. 1. The firm had many securities which would have to be sold in order to liquidate the partnership. To sell in Oct. would result in some loss. But GP was set on his course. In six months he would be age 70.

Morgan, J.S. 83-Retirement, Oct. 1, 1864 Cont’d. GP wrote to Morgan from Scotland: “It has been my fixed determination to retire from all commercial business if I should live till the lst of October 1864 and I can now make no change, for although the continuance of the firm for three or six months, which you suggest, may appear short to you, to me–feeling as I deeply do, the uncertainty of life at the age of seventy–months would appear as years, for I am most anxious before I die to place my worldly affairs in a much more satisfactory state than they are at present.” Ref.: (1864): GP to J.S. Morgan, Aug. 13, 1864, Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass.

Morgan, J.S. 84-Retirement, Oct. 1, 1864 Cont’d. J.S. Morgan was also disappointed that GP, not wanting responsibility over a firm he would no longer control, asked that his name be removed from the firm. George Peabody & Co. (Dec. 1838 to Oct. 1, 1864) was succeeded by J.S. Morgan & Co. (Oct. 1, 1864 to Dec. 31, 1909); succeeded by Morgan Grenfell & Co. (Jan. 1, 1910 to 1918); Morgan Grenfell & Co. Ltd. (1918-90); and Deutsche Morgan Grenfell (since June 29, 1990), a German owned bank. GP’s remaining five years and one month were devoted to his philanthropies. He returned gravely ill from his last U.S. visit, June 8-Sept. 29, 1869, and died Nov. 4, 1869, at the London home of Sir Curtis Miranda Lampson. J.S. Morgan attended his Westminster Abbey funeral. See: Morgan Grenfell & Co. Ltd. Deutsche Morgan Grenfell (since June 29, 1990).

J. S. Morgan Attended GP’s Westminster Abbey Funeral

Morgan, J.S. 85-Westminster Abbey, Nov. 12, 1869. J.S. Morgan’s presence at GP’s Westminster Abbey funeral was recorded in U.S. Legation in London Secty. Benjamin Moran’s journal (Nov. 12, 1869): “At about 12 to-day Mr. Motley and I arrived in his carriage at Sir Curtis Lampson’s, 80 Eaton Square, where we met Sir Curtis and his three sons, J.S. Morgan, Russell Sturgis, Mr. F.H. Morse, Mr. Nunn, Drs. Gull and Covey, Horatio G. Somerby, and several other gentlemen, who were to act as mourners…in Westminster Abbey….” Moran’s journal entry described the ceremony in the Abbey: “The coffin was borne back through the choir to the grave near the great west door in the nave; and here the rest of the ceremony took place in a vast crowd of spectators…. The Prime Minister of England and the United States Minister stood near the head participating in the ceremony, while Mrs. Motley, Lady Lampson, Mrs. Morgan, and other American ladies were grouped at the foot….” See: Death and Funeral, GP’s.

Morgan, J.S. 86-Moran Dined with Morgan. GP’s remains rested at Westminster Abbey 30 days, Nov. 12 to Dec. 11, 1869. The coffin was then taken by special funeral train to Portsmouth dock. J.S. Morgan was there, a participant in the solemn drama of placing GP’s remains aboard HMS Monarch. Moran’s last journal entry on GP (Dec. 13, 1869): “I dined at J.S. Morgan’s in the evening [and GP’s nephew] George Peabody Russell was there….” See: Death and Funeral, GP’s.

Retrospect: The GP-Morgan Connection

Morgan, J.S. 87-Retrospect. When he chose J.S. Morgan as partner (Oct. 1, 1854), GP had no way of knowing that the Morgans–father J.S. Morgan, son J.P. Morgan, Sr., and grandson J.P. Morgan, Jr. (1867-1943)–would help transform the U.S. from a second rate nation to the world’s strongest industrial power. So wrote Jean Strouse, J.P. Morgan, Sr.’s recent biographer. Yet the Morgans, a financial family on the rise, would have been successful with or without the GP connection. That connection, however, did happen, making GP the root of the international banking house of Morgan.

Morgan, J.S. 88-Retrospect Cont’d. It was GP who started the firm, who set its direction; who survived the financial Panic of 1857; whose policies and practices made his successor firm, J.S. Morgan & Co., London (from Oct. 1, 1864-90), Britain’s leading banking firm. It was GP’s sagacity and probity that enabled most of the British capital invested in the U.S. after the Civil War to go through J.S. Morgan & Co. It was the GP connection that made possible in 1870-71 J.S. Morgan’s largest financial transaction, a profitable $50 million loan to the French Government, enabling France to survive defeat after the Franco-Prussian War, 1870-71. Ref.: Strouse, pp. 1-15, 278-281.

Morgan, J.S. 89-Retrospect Cont’d. J.S. Morgan died in Monte Carlo April 8, 1890, near age 77, in a carriage accident when his horses, startled by a train, ran wild, jolting him out against a stone wall. He left an estate of some $23 million, equivalent to about $225 million in the 1990s His son, J.P. Morgan, Sr., administered J.S. Morgan & Co., London, and built on that firm’s international connections. When in 1895 the U.S. Government ran out of gold, J.P. Morgan, Sr. raised $65 million to shore up the federal treasury. He organized the first billion dollar corporation, U.S. Steel, and helped organize International Harvester and General Electric. On his death (March 31, 1913), J.P. Morgan, Sr., was for all practical purposes the nation’s central banker. He left an estate of about $80 million, equivalent to $1.2 billion in the 1990s. See: Morgan, Sr., John Pierpont.

Morgan, J.S. 90-Retrospect Cont’d. J.P. Morgan, Sr.’s career as the world’s greatest private banker was eminently his own creation. Yet he began as the NYC agent for George Peabody & Co. GP can honorably stand in his shadow as the founding root of the House of Morgan. “Morgan, Junius Spencer,” p. 359.

Morgan, J.S. 91-Epilogue. J.P. Morgan, Sr., founded J.P. Morgan & Co., NYC, in 1861. That firm survived GP by 131 years, survived J.S. Morgan by 110 years, survived J.P. Morgan, Sr., himself by 87 years, and survived J.P. Morgan, Sr.’s son by 66 years. That bank’s latest episode occurred on Sept. 14, 2000, when it was bought for about $39.2 billion in stock by the Chase Manhattan Corp., itself a legacy of J.P. Morgan, Sr.’s onetime nemesis John D. Rockfeller, Sr. (1839-1937). Its epitaph was sounded by J.P. Morgan, Sr. biographer Ron Chernow (The House of Morgan, 1990): “Old J.P. would be saddened to see [his institution disappear] into another lesser partner.” Ref.: “House of Morgan Has Storied Past,” Tennessean (Nashville), Sept. 14, 2000. P. 2E. Under References, Internet, See: Associate Press, “Milestones in J.P. Morgan History,” AP Online, 09-1-2000.

Morgan, Mrs. Junius Spencer is mentioned in Benjamin Moran’s journal entry (Nov. 12, 1869) as attending GP’s funeral ceremony at Westminster Abbey: “The Prime Minister of England and the United States Minister stood near the head participating in the ceremony, while Mrs. Motley, Lady Lampson, Mrs. Morgan, and other American ladies were grouped at the foot.” She was Juliet Pierpont and married Junius Spencer Morgan (1813-90) in 1836. Ref.: Ibid. See: Death and Funeral, GP’s. Moran, Benjamin. Morgan, Junius Spencer.

Morgan, Miles (1616-99), was the first known ancestor of Junius Spencer Morgan (1813-90), GP’s partner in George Peabody & Co., London (Oct. 1, 1854-Oct. 1, 1864). Miles Morgan arrived in America from England in 1636, a year after GP’s ancestor Francis Peboddy (1612 or 14-1697) arrived in 1635. See: Morgan, Junius Spencer.

Morgan Grenfell & Co. Ltd. George Peabody & Co., London (1838-64), had Boston merchant Junius Spencer Morgan (1813-90) as partner (Oct. 1, 1854-Oct. 1, 1864). On GP’s retirement (Oct. 1, 1864), knowing he would no longer exert control, he asked that his name be withdrawn. George Peabody & Co. became J.S. Morgan & Co. (Oct. 1, 1864-Dec. 31, 1909), succeeded by Morgan Grenfell & Co. (Jan. 1, 1910-1918), Morgan Grenfell & Co. Ltd. (1918-90), continued as Deutsche Morgan Grenfell (since June 29, 1990), a German owned bank. Ref.: (History of the company): [Morgan Grenfell & Co. Ltd.]. New York Times, Nov. 28, 1989, pp. 29, 42 (Steven Prokesch, “Germans to Buy Morgan Grenfell,” continued as “Deutsche Bank to Acquire Morgan Grenfell”). Burk. Carosso. Deutsche Morgan Grenfell (since June 29, 1990). Mirabile, ed., pp. 427-429.

Morgan Guaranty Trust Company of New York. Now the JP Morgan Co., NYC.

Morgan Library. See: Pierpont Morgan Library of New York.

Morison, Nathaniel Holmes (1815-90), was the PIB’s first provost and second librarian during 1867-90, 23 years. See: PIB Reference Librarian.

Morley’s Hotel, London, 4 Trafalgar Sq., in London’s West End, was popular with U.S. residents in London and with U.S. and Continental visitors. It had a cosmopolitan clientele and good food. GP often dined there with other U.S.-born London-resident friends, including Vt.-born rare book dealer Henry Stevens (1819-86), genealogist Horatio Gates Somerby (1805-72), both of whom were sometimes GP’s agents, and others. Morley’s was at the juncture of Charing Cross and the Strand. Its view included the Nelson Monument, the National Gallery of Art, the Church of St. Martin’s in the Fields, and Northumberland House. Ref.: Kenin, p. 87. Parker, W.W., pp. 124, 135. Stern, p. 76. See: Somerby, Horatio Gates. Stevens, Henry.

Morning Post, London, Jan. 9 and April 18, 1843, published correspondence between GP, London, and Baltimore lawyer John Joseph Speed (1797-1852), both connected with Md.’s $8 million bond sale abroad. When the Panic of 1837 forced stoppage of interest payments, GP, one of Md.’s three bond sale agents, urged resumption of payments retroactively, and Speed assured GP and the public that Md. was moving in that direction. See: Md.’s $8 Million Bond Sale Abroad and GP. Speed, John Joseph.

British-built Confederate Warships

Morris, Charles Maningault (fl. 1820s-60s+). 1-U.S. Navy Career. South Carolina-born C.M. Morris, U.S. Navy (1837-1861), became a Confederate Navy commander (1861-1865, notably of CSS Florida, Jan. 9-Oct. 7, 1864). He began as a U.S. Navy midshipman (Dec. 12, 1837); served on the USS Levant, West Indies Squadron; attended the Naval School, Philadelphia (1842-43); became a Passed Midshipman (June 29, 1843); served on the frigate USS Raritan and the brig USS Bainbridge, Brazil Squadron (1844-47); on the USS Southampton, Pacific Squadron (1847-49); on the receiving ship USS Pennsylvania (1850); in the Coast Survey (1851); and on the steam frigate USS Mississippi, Commodore Matthew C. Perry’s (1794-1858) flagship, East India Squadron, during the Perry-led expedition to open Japan to U.S. trade (1852-54); was Lighthouse Inspector (1856-57); and was sr. lieutenant aboard USS Marion, a sloop in the African Squadron (1857-Oct. 1860). Ref.: Charles M. Morris’s official records, U.S. Navy, Military Records Branch, National Archives.

Morris, C.M.. 2-Turned Confederate Ship Commander. Living in Georgia at the outbreak of the Civil War, he resigned from the U.S. Navy (Jan. 29, 1861); joined the Confederate States Navy as a Lt. (March 26, 1861); commanded, in Savannah, Ga., the gunboat CSS Huntress, and later did ordnance duty there. In early 1863, he was ordered to Europe for duty on British-built raider ships covertly sold to the Confederacy (Britain was officially neutral in the Civil War). CSS Florida was built in Liverpool (1861-62), was secretly bought by Confederate agents, was first commanded by Confederate Commander John Newland Maffitt (1819-86) and then by Confederate Commander C.M. Morris (Jan. 9-Oct. 7, 1864), when it was captured by the Union’s USS Wachusett in Bahia harbor, Brazil. Commander Morris was ashore when it was captured, thus evading imprisonment. He was in Paris, France (from early Nov. 1864) when, with other Confederate navy officers abroad, he was recalled (Jan. 20, 1865) by Confederate Navy Secty. Stephen Russell Mallory (1813-73). Ref.: (C.M. Morris’s Confederate career): Owsley, Jr.

Morris, C.M.. 3-Alabama Claims Controversy. The CSS Florida, some other British-built Confederate raiders, most notoriously the CSS Alabama (which sunk 64 Union ships, June 1862-June 1864), cost many Union ships, lives, and treasure. The U.S. agitated for legal redress (1862-72). In the celebrated Alabama Claims case, held in a Geneva, Switzerland, international court, Dec.1871-Sept. 1872, the U.S. won $15.5 million in indemnity from Britain. See: Alabama Claims. Death and Funeral, GP’s.

Morris, C.M.. 4-Alabama Claims Cont’d. The Alabama Claims controversy, at its height and unresolved when GP died in London, Nov. 4, 1869, led in part to the pomp and circumstance of his unprecedented 96-day international funeral. Partly to soften near-war U.S.-British angers over serious Civil War incidents, partly in admiration for GP’s long-time U.S. British friendship efforts, and in gratitude for his $2.5 million gift (ongoing since 1862) for subsidized Peabody model apartment for London’s working poor–British officials first, and then U.S. officials, outdid each other in unusual funeral honors, witnessed by thousands and read about by millions. See: Peabody Homes of London. Trent Affair.

Morse, Freeman Harlow (1807-91), was U.S. Consul-General, London, who rode in the second coach of the official horse drawn vehicles to attend GP’s funeral service at Westminster Abbey, Nov. 12, 1869. With him in this second coach was U.S. Vice-Consul Joshua Nunn, London; George Lampson (1833-99) and Henry Lampson (both sons of Sir Curtis Lampson [1806-85], longtime GP business friend, trustee of the Peabody Donation Fund, London, in whose home at 80 Eaton Sq., London, GP died on Nov. 4, 1869). F.H. Morse, a Maine politician, had been U.S. House of Representatives member from Maine and on the House Committee on Naval Affairs 1843-45 and 1857-60. See: Death and Funeral, GPs. Moran, Benjamin. Other persons named.

Morse, Samuel Finlay Breese (1791-1872), inventor of the telegraph, attended GP’s July 4, 1856, dinner for more than 100 Americans and a few Englishmen at the Star and Garter Hotel, Richmond, eight miles from London on the Thames. Also present was John Edward Jones (1806-62), Irish-born sculptor who made a bust of GP in 1856, and U.S. Minister to Britain George Mifflin Dallas (1792-1864), who responded to GP’s toast with a speech. When a toast to “The Telegraph” was suddenly made, Samuel F.B. Mores was unexpectedly called on to respond. Unprepared for a speech, he rose and with modest dignity quoted from Psalm 19: “Their line is gone out through all the earth and their words to the end of the world.” Ref.: (J.E. Jones and others mentioned): London Times, July 7, 1856, p, 10, c. 5-6. London Morning Advertiser, July 7, 1856, p. 4, c. 1-3. New York Times, July 24, 1856, p. 2, c. 2-3. Prime, pp. 630-631. See: Dinners, GP’s, London.

GP’s British Property

Mortmain Acts, England. 1-GP’s British Property. GP died Nov. 4, 1869, in London. In late Jan. 1870 land he allegedly owned at Stockwell near London, left in his will for the Peabody Homes of London fund, was the subject of a British court inquiry. Business friend Sir Curtis Miranda Lampson (1806-85) and other Peabody Donation Fund trustees initially told GP that not being a British subject, he could not legally buy the land, obtain title to it, own it, or dispose of it. He arranged for Sir Curtis Lampson, Vt.-born but a naturalized British subject, to buy the land using GP’s money. This was the property GP gave in his will to the Peabody Donation Fund which built his model apartments for London’s working poor. British law held that on the death of a foreigner property held by that foreigner must be returned to the Crown (Mortmain Acts). This now happened. See: Death and Funeral, GP’s.

Mortmain Acts, England. 2-GP’s British Property Cont’d. It was understood from the first that, after the facts were legally determined, the Crown would turn the property over to the trustees. Sir Curtis Miranda Lampson’s sworn statement in court easily settled the matter, although with a touch of sadness. Lampson recorded: “I knew the late Mr Peabody intimately from the year 1837 until his death…. He was never naturalized in England and had no permanent abode here. He lived at a hotel or lodgings or with friends, sometimes in England, sometimes in America but never had any settled establishment. He declined to accept an English title or to be naturalized….” Ref.: Ibid.

Mortmain Acts, England. 3-GP’s British Property Cont’d. The court found that GP was an alien who had purchased the land under arrangement with Sir Curtis Lampson, and had given the land to the Peabody Donation Fund. As the property was escheated to the Crown, by royal prerogative that property was turned over to the trustees. Thus the matter ended, except for the touching and sad light it shed on GP as a bachelor-banker who lived alone and somewhat apart. Ref.: Ibid.

Mosely, Ebon, was a Newburyport, Mass., lawyer who in 1816 did the legal work when GP paid the mortgage and other debts on the family home on Washington Street, Danvers, Mass. Mosely wrote to GP in Baltimore on Dec. 16, 1816: “I cannot but be pleased with the filial affection which seems to evince you to preserve the estate for a Parent.” By Jan. 1817 GP had paid off all mortgages and had their family home restored to his mother and family. Ref.: Eben Mosely, Newburyport, Mass., to GP, Baltimore, Dec. 16, 1816, Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass.

U.S. Minister to Britain J.L. Motley & GP

Motley, John Lothrop (1814-77). 1-U.S. Minister to Britain: 1869-70. As a statesman, historian of note, and U.S. Minister to Britain during 1869-70, John Lothrop Motley was necessarily involved in GP’s last illness, death, and funeral services in Britain. J.L. Motley was born near Dorchester, Mass.; was a Harvard College graduate (1831); attended the universities of Berlin and Göttingen; wrote two novels and articles for the North American Review; and is best known for his historical works, The Rise of the Dutch Republic (3 vols., 1856) and History of the United Netherlands (4 vols., 1860-67). He was a member of the Mass. House of Representatives (1849), was U.S. Legation Secty. at St. Petersburg, Russia (1841-42), U.S. Minister to Austria (1861-67), and U.S. Minister to Britain (1869-70).

Motley, J.L. 2-GP’s Statue, London. Minister Motley and the Prince of Wales were the main speakers at the July 23, 1869, unveiling of GP’s seated statue on Threadneedle St. near London’s Royal Exchange. The statue by U.S. sculptor William Wetmore Story (1819-95) was one of several honors resulting from GP’s Peabody Donation Fund gift ($2.5 million total, from March 12, 1862) for low-rent apartments for London’s working poor (March 31, 1999: 34,500 low income Londoners lived in 17,183 Peabody apartments, GP’s most successful philanthropy). Ref.: Kent, ed., pp. 523-524. See: Peabody Homes of London.

Motley, J.L. 3-GP’s Statue, London. The GP statue was first proposed in London’s Court of Common Council, March 27, 1866. A public subscription committee was formed and funds raised. The St. Benet Fink churchyard site near the Royal Exchange was chosen (Aug. 1867). Necessary permissions were obtained. Sculptor W.W. Story was chosen. A temporary pedestal was finished on June 22, 1869. The Prince of Wales agreed on July 9, 1869, to unveil the statue. GP’s statue was the first of four statues of Americans in London: GP, 1869; Abraham Lincoln, 1920; George Washington, 1921; and Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 1948. Ref.: Ibid. See: persons named.

Motley, J.L. 4-GP at White Sulphur Springs, W.Va. GP was in the U.S., July 23, 1869, when his London statue was unveiled. He arrived at the White Sulphur Springs health spa, W.Va., that day. There by chance he spoke to and gave Va. bonds later worth $60,000 to Robert E. Lee (1807-70), then president of Washington College, Lexington, Va. (renamed Washington & Lee College, 1871), for a mathematics professorship. Lee and other former Civil War generals and northern and southern leaders at the Springs praised GP for his $2 million PEF gift (1867-69) to promote public education in the former Confederate states plus W.Va., added because of its poverty. Resolutions of praise were read to GP and a “Peabody Ball” was held in his honor (Aug. 11). See: persons named. Visits to the U.S. by GP.

Motley, J.L. 5-GP’s Statue, London, Unveiled. Thousands of Londoners crowded the narrow streets near Threadneedle St. for the unveiling ceremonies of GP’s seated statue. Here GP had often stood in the rain to catch a horse-drawn omnibus to his simple lodgings. His Inner City (London) offices at different times were a stone’s throw away at 6 Warnford Court, Throgmorton St. and 22 Old Broad St. The Prince of Wales eulogized GP, praised sculptor W.W. Story, and referred warmly to U.S. Minister Motley. Minister Motley said: “Of all men…he [GP] least needs a monument. I am proud it was made by an American sculptor. In Rome [at Story’s studio] I saw Mr. Peabody and his statue seated side by side…. Now tens of thousands, generation after generation, will look upon his likeness.”

Motley, J.L. 6-GP’s Statue, London, Unveiled Cont’d. Story, asked to speak, pointed to the statue and said, “There is my speech.” A statue committee member, who sent GP a photograph of the statue, ended his cover letter with: “Our work is now completed. This statue, like your philanthropy, is devoted to the good of men and the glory of God.” GP’s Aug. 31, 1869, reply from Baltimore was signed in a shaky, barely legible handwriting. GP died some 65 days later (Nov. 4, 1869). See: Death and funeral, GP’s. Statues of GP.

Motley, J.L. 7-GP’s death. Minister Motley and his London Legation Secty. Benjamin Moran (1820-86) were of necessity heavily involved in GP’s last illness, death, and prolonged funeral service in Britain. Gravely sick, GP left NYC on the Scotia, Sept. 29, 1869. On arriving in England he went directly to bed at the 80 Eaton Sq., London, home of longtime business friend Sir Curtis Miranda Lampson (1806-85). The Lampsons, physician Sir William Withey Gull, M.D. (1816-99), medical attendant William H. Covey, Minister Motley, and a few friends attended GP until his death at 11:30 P.M., Nov. 4, 1869. See: Death and funeral, GP’s.

Motley, J.L. 8-Motley to U.S. Secty. of State Hamilton Fish. Two days later (Nov. 6, 1869), in an official dispatch, Minister Motley described GP’s last days to U.S. Secty. of State Hamilton Fish (1809-93). Motley wrote: “It is with deep regret that I inform you of the death of that good benefactor to humanity, George Peabody. “The event took place on the night before last, the 4th inst. at half past 11 o’clock. Mr. Peabody, as you are aware, left the United States in broken health.” See: Ibid.

Motley, J.L. 9-Motley to U.S. Secty. of State Hamilton Fish Cont’d.: “For a few days after reaching London he was able to be taken down stairs daily to the family circle of Sir Curtis Lampson, No. 80 Eaton Square, at whose house he was residing and where he was tenderly cared for during his last illness but his strength soon failed him. He lingered some few days in a condition which enabled him occasionally while lying in his bed to receive visits from a friend or two. It was my privilege to see him thus two or three times. On the last occasion, which was about a fortnight before his death, he seemed in good spirits and was evidently encouraged about his health. He conversed fluently and in a most interesting manner about the great work of his life–his vast scheme for benefiting those needing aid in England and America–and narrated the way in which the project first grew up in his mind and generally developed itself into the wide proportions which it had at last assumed.” Ref.: Ibid.

Motley, J.L. 10-Motley to U.S. Secty. of State Hamilton Fish Cont’d.: “I remarked to him that it must make him happy, lying there on his sickbed, to think of the immense benefits which he had conferred on the poor of two great countries, not only in his generation, but so far as we could judge as long as the two nations should exist. “He observed with a placid smile that it made him very happy to think of it. He was sure that the institutions founded by him would do much good. “Very soon after this interview Mr. Peabody became too weak to receive visits except from the family of Sir Curtis Lampson, the physicians and a clergyman. Bulletins of his condition were published regularly in the journals and inquiries as to his health were made regularly by the Sovereign of the country [Queen Victoria] and by persons of all classes. “During the last few days of his life, he was almost entirely unconscious and he passed away at last without pain and without a struggle.” Ref.: Ibid.

Motley, J.L. 11-Motley to Count von Bismarck. U.S. Minister Motley also described GP’s death in a Nov. 7, 1869, letter to Count von Bismarck (1815-98): “Our great philanthropist George Peabody is just dead. I knew him well and saw him several times during his last illness. It made him happy, he said, as he lay on his bed, to think that he had done some good to his fellow-creatures. “I suppose no man in human history ever gave away so much money. “At least two millions of pounds sterling, and in cash, he bestowed on great and well-regulated charities, founding institutions in England and America which will do good so long as either nation exists. “He has never married, has no children, but he has made a large number of nephews and nieces rich. He leaves behind him (after giving away so much), I dare say, about half a million sterling.” Ref.: Ibid.

Motley, J.L. 12-Funeral Service in England?. Knowing that GP’s last will requested burial in Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Mass., Sir Curtis Lampson telegraphed GP’s nephew George Peabody Russell (1835-1909), son of GP’s younger sister Judith Dodge (née Peabody) Russell Daniels. This nephew left for England to accompany GP’s remains back to the U.S. Since there would be two weeks’ delay, Sir Curtis spoke about a funeral service in England with Minister Motley’s Legation Secty. Benjamin Moran (Nov. 6, 1869). Ref.: Ibid.

Motley, J.L. 13-Funeral Service at Westminster Abbey? Moran recorded in his journal: “Sir Curtis Lampson came and asked me if it were possible to have a funeral service performed here over Mr. Peabody’s remains in view of the fact that they are to be conveyed to the United States and I said yes, instancing at the same time the particulars in the case of Horatio Ward and Mr. Brown[e], better known as Artemus Ward [1834-67, U.S. humorist writer-lecturer who used the name Artemus Ward and died in London]…. “These cases seemed to satisfy him and no doubt some funeral service will be performed here, probably in Westminster Abbey.” Ref.: Ibid.

Motley, J.L. 14-Westminster Abbey. Westminster Abbey’s dean, Arthur Penrhyn Stanley (1815-81), was in Naples, Italy, when he read of GP’s death. His telegraphed offer of the Abbey for a funeral service was relayed by Sir Curtis Lampson to Legation Secty. Moran. Moran recorded: “Sir Curtis Lampson has been to see me. The Dean and Chapter of Westminster Abbey has asked that Mr. Peabody be buried in the Abbey. This can hardly be assented to: But a funeral service will no doubt take place there, and has been fixed for Friday, inst., at 1 o’clock.” Ref.: Ibid.

Motley, J.L. 15-HMS Monarch as Funeral Ship. PM William Ewart Gladstone (1809-98) first mentioned to Sir Curtis Lampson on Nov. 9, 1869, the offer of a Royal Navy vessel to return GP’s remains to the U.S. This offer was confirmed at Gladstone’s Nov. 10, 1869, cabinet meeting (HMS Monarch, Britain’s newest, largest warship was named as escort vessel). U.S. Legation Secty. Moran, whose past private journal entries on GP had been critical, recorded: “Sir Curtis Lampson called early to-day about the funeral ceremonies over Mr. Peabody in Westminster Abbey…. Tickets for spectators will be issued, and the Legation is to have a large supply.” Ref.: Ibid.

Motley, J.L. 16-Moran’s Journal. Legation Secty Moran’s journal entry cont’d.: “At his own request Mr. Gladstone is to be present in the Abbey in his capacity of Prime Minister but he will not follow as a mourner. He spoke to Sir Curtis Lampson about sending the remains home in a ship of war and asked [if] Mr. Motley would approve, saying that he might bring the subject officially to his notice. The suggestion is no doubt from the Queen; but Mr. Motley can give no opinion one way or another as to the proposal, and has decided after consulting with me to refer the question if made to the Govt. at Washington for their instructions.” Ref.: Ibid.

Motley, J.L. 17-Moran’s Journal Cont’d.: “It is without precedent, and as Mr. Peabody was a copperhead and never gave a cent to the institutions founded for the widows and orphans of the war, and moreover is a private citizen–it is placing the Minister in embarrassing circumstances to ask him if he will accept the tender of one of Her Majesty’s ships to convey the body to the United States. To accept such an offer would be to commit his Government and that he cannot do. It seems to me that Her Majesty’s Government should determine the case for themselves and not bother us about it at all.” Ref.: Ibid.

Motley, J.L. 18-Moran on Westminster Abbey Service. Legation Secty. Moran’s journal entry described the carriage procession from 80 Eaton Sq. to the Westminster Abbey funeral service (Nov. 12, 1869): “At about 12 to-day Mr. Motley and I arrived in his carriage at Sir Curtis Lampson’s, 80 Eaton Square, where we met Sir Curtis and his three sons, J.S. Morgan [GP’s partner Junius Spencer Morgan, 1813-90], Russell Sturgis [1805-87, GP’s fellow U.S. merchant resident in London], Mr. F.[reeman H.[arlow] Morse [1807-91, U.S. Consul, London], Mr. Nunn [Josiah Nunn, U.S. Vice Consul, London], Drs. Gull and Covey [medical men who attended GP], Horatio G. Somerby [1805-73, U.S.-born genealogist in London; GP’s friend and agent], and several other gentlemen, who were to act as mourners at the funeral of Mr. George Peabody in Westminster Abbey.” Ref.: Ibid.

Motley, J.L. 19-Moran on Westminster Abbey Service Cont’d.: “Mr. Charles Reed [1819-81, Member of Parliament] did not reach the house on time, but we took him up in the street. Mr. Motley, Sir Curtis, Mr. Reed and I were in the first carriage. Two royal carriages followed those of the mourners and the Minister’s carriages were immediately behind that of the executors. The cortege of private carriages was very long,…the streets all the way being crowded with spectators, the mass evidently being workingmen of the better class.” Ref.: Ibid.

Motley, J.L. 20-Moran on Westminster Abbey Service Cont’d.: “The day proved fine. Mr. Motley and I followed closely to the coffin and entered the grand old Abbey…. The scene was sacred. Beholding it as I did–being one of the actors–it was impressive…. I thought of Peabody as I stood by his coffin and heard the priests chanting over his remains, and…mentally remarked that I could now forget that I had ever warred with the dust before me. And then I reflected on the marvelous career of the man, his early life, his penurious habits, his vast fortune, his magnificent charity; and the honor that was then being paid to his memory by the Queen of England in the place of sepulcher of twenty English Kings….” Ref.: Ibid.

Motley, J.L. 21-Moran on Westminster Abbey Service Cont’d.: “The Prime Minister of England and the United States Minister stood near the head participating in the ceremony, while Mrs. Motley, Lady Lampson, Mrs. Morgan, and other American ladies were grouped at the foot. ‘Ashes to ashes,’ said the priest, an anthem was sung, and the service was at an end–George Peabody having received burial in Westminster Abbey, an honor coveted by nobles and not always granted kings. “A wreath of immortelleswas thrown into the lap of Peabody’s statue the other day, and loud cries were made to call the new street in the city from the Bank to Blackfriars Bridge after him….” Ref.: Ibid.

Motley, J.L. 22-Pres. U.S. Grant Yielded to the Queen. Before the decision to use HMS Monarch as funeral vessel, U.S. Minister Motley received two messages at the same time. British Foreign Office Secty. Lord Clarendon (Nov. 13, 1869) stated that Queen Victoria wished to show her respect by transporting GP’s remains to the U.S. on a British ship of war. U.S. Secty. of State Hamilton Fish (Nov. 12, 1869) asked Motley to inform the British government that U.S. Rear Adm. William Radford (1808-90), commanding the U.S. Naval European squadron in Marseilles, France, was sending a U.S. vessel as funeral ship. Ref.: Ibid.

Motley, J.L. 23-Minister Motley’s Dilemma. Legation Secty. Moran recorded Minister Motley’s dilemma: “These communications threw Mr. Motley into one of his fits of indecision and when I arrived he hardly knew what to do. I advised that he should telegraph the substance of Lord Clarendon’s note to Mr. Fish and ask for instructions. This he did and late tonight he received a telegram from Washington saying the President yielded to the Queen’s Govt….. “And thus the matter for the present rests, more noise having been made over the old fellow dead than living. [Lord Clarendon] said that Her Majesty would have created Peabody a Peer had he been disposed to accept.” Ref.: Ibid.

Motley, J.L. 24-“Will that old man ever be buried”? When Minister and Mrs. Motley were invited to dine with the Queen at Windsor Castle, Legation Secty. Moran recorded (Dec. 6, 1869): “But it delays the departure of old Peabody’s remains. Will that old man ever be buried? Indeed it seems as if he would not. He gives trouble to all classes of officials, royal, republican, state, diplomatic, naval, consulate, military, ecclesiastic, and civil, and has stirred up commotion all Portsmouth dock to the HMS Monarch was rescheduled by the Admiralty for Dec. 11, 1869. Moran recorded (Dec. 8, 1869): “There is another hitch about sending away Peabody’s remains. He must go on board the Monarch on Saturday morning, or not for ten days to come, as the tide will not serve as to get the ship out of the harbor, except at night, and the Admiralty don’t want the risk taking her away in the dark.” Moran described the hectic transfer events (Dec. 11, 1869): “[Minister Motley] has gone by special train to Portsmouth…and if no hitch takes place–about over the world.” Ref.: Ibid.

Motley, J.L. 25-Portsmouth Dock to HMS Monarch. Because of high tide, transfer from which I am not so sure–we shall get rid of the old fellow on Monday and the people on the other side will then have their time…. ” Ref.: Ibid.

Motley, J.L. 26-Moran Heard from Motley on Portsmouth Transfer. (Moran): “Mr. Motley got back about 7:30 from Portsmouth…. As usual, Johnny Bull blundered in the arrangements…. Nobody knew what to do. Captain [John E.] Commerell [1829-1901, of Monarch] seemed frightened and nervous. The remains were put on board pretty much as you would embark a bale of goods, only there was no invoice…. When ready to leave for their return every official had disappeared…. The consequence was that Minister, executors, and friends got refreshments at the railway station–the viands consisting of ‘cakes and ale.'” Ref.: Ibid.

Motley, J.L. 27-Moran’s Last Entry on Motley and GP. “A tablet to Geo. Peabody is to be placed in Westminster Abbey.” On Dec. 15, 1869, Moran wrote his last entry on Minister Motley and GP: “He [Minister Motley] is long winded about Old Peabody’s embarkation, and somewhat prosy.” Thus, Motley’s connection with GP ended. Ref.: Ibid.

Motley, Mrs. John Lothrop, is mentioned in Benjamin Moran’s journal entry (Nov. 12, 1869) as attending GP’s funeral ceremony at Westminster Abbey as follows: “The Prime Minister of England and the United States Minister stood near the head participating in the ceremony, while Mrs. Motley, Lady Lampson, Mrs. Morgan, and other American ladies were grouped at the foot.” Ref.: Ibid.

Mount Vernon Place, Baltimore. Site of the PIB. See: PIB.

Mozier, Joseph (1812-70), Vt.-born sculptor whose Pocahontas was presented to the PIB Gallery of Art by trustee George Stewart Brown (1871-1941). Joseph Mozier studied sculpture in Italy where he continued to live. See: PIB Gallery of Art.

Murray, Ellen (daughter of Andrew Hanna of Baltimore), was the first wife of GP’s youngest brother Jeremiah Dodge Peabody (1805-77) and the mother of GP’s nephew George Harmon Peabody (b.1832), who worked for Sargent, Harding Co., NYC. See: Peabody, George Harmon (Ellen and Jeremiah Peabody’s son). Peabody, Jeremiah Dodge (Ellen Murray’s husband).

Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard Univ. At GP’s urging his philanthropic advisor Robert Charles Winthrop (1809-94) in the summer of 1866 spoke to Harvard Univ. friends and officials about GP’s intended gift to Harvard Univ. (Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Oct. 8, 1866, $50,000 gift). Winthrop learned that while officials would prefer new money gifts to go to Harvard’s library or to its Museum of Comparative Zoology, they would accept GP’s gift for his intended purpose. See: Marsh, Othniel Charles. Science: GP’s Gifts to Science and Science Education.

Museums, GP’s. See: Ibid.

GP & the Clothworkers’ Co., London

Musgrove, John (1793-1881). 1-The Clothworkers’ Co., London, July 2, 1862. GP’s first honor in England came on July 2, 1862, some three months after his March 12, 1862, letter founding the Peabody Donation Fund for building model apartments for London’s working poor (total gift $2.5 million). The Clothworkers’ Co. of London, an esteemed medieval guild, in a colorful ceremony, granted him honorary membership. See: Clothworkers’ Co. of London.

Musgrove, John. 2-Colorful Ceremony. GP, accompanied by longtime business friend Curtis Miranda Lampson (1806-85), was present when Alderman of the City of London Sir John Musgrove moved “that the Freedom and Livery of the Company be presented to George Peabody, Esq.” Alderman John Humphery (d. 1863) seconded the motion, which carried unanimously. Josiah Wilson (c.1793-1862), the Master of the Company, then referred to eminent men on whom the same honor had been earlier bestowed, among them Sir Robert Peel (1788-1850) and Queen Victoria’s husband Albert of Saxe-Co-burg-Gotha (Prince Albert, 1819-61). Ref.: Ibid.

Musgrove, John. 3-GP’s Speech. After the oath of a Freeman was administered, GP said: “I thank the honorable Company of Clothworkers. This ancient company is well known in my country. My own countryman and friend, Robert C. Winthrop, is a descendant of a past Master of this Company.” GP then spoke about the progress his trustees were making on building model homes for London’s working poor. GP was escorted through the Great Hall and the building and sat down with many guests for a large banquet. Ref.: Ibid.

Musgrove, John. 4- First of GP’s British Honors. Britons, from the Queen downward, were surprised by GP’s gift of housing for London’s working poor. They were taken aback that an American in their midst would give for such a cause in such a large amount, to a city and country not his own. This honor of membership in the medieval guild of the Clothworkers’ Co. came eight days before GP was made a Freeman of the City of London on July 10, 1862. Other honors followed. Ref.: Ibid.

Myers, Gustavus (1872-1942), was a U.S. historian, born in Trenton, N.J., who wrote for NYC newspapers and magazines. He was a member of the Populist Party, Social Reform Club, and Socialist Party. His exposés in the muckraking era included The History of Tammany Hall, 1901, rev. 1917; and The History of the Great American Fortunes, 3 vols., 1910 (New York: Modern Library, revised 1936), in which he is critical of GP as a Civil War financier. Ref.: (GP entries): Myers, Vol. 1, p. 59; Vol. 3, pp. 149-152. See: Bigelow, John. Civil War and GP. Felt, Charles Wilson.

N

Naples, Italy. Arthur Penrhyn Stanley (1815-81), the Dean of Westminster Abbey, was in Naples, Italy, when he read of GP’s Nov. 4, 1869, death. He telegraphed Abbey colleagues to offer a funeral service and burial of GP’s remains. See: Stanley, Arthur Penrhyn. Westminster Abbey.

Napoleon. See: Bonaparte, Napoleon.

Napoleon III (Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, 1808-73). On or about March 16, 1868, GP and his philanthropic advisor Robert Charles Winthrop (1809-94) were received by Napoleon III and Empress Eugénie (1826-1920) in Paris, France. During Feb. and Mar. 1868, GP and Winthrop visited Rome, Italy, and Paris and Cannes, France. See: Corcoran, William Wilson. Eugénie, Empress. Pope Pius IX. San Spirito Hospital, Rome, Italy. Winthrop, Robert Charles.

Nashville (Tenn.), Univ. of (1826-75). See: Cumberland College. Davidson Academy. GPCFT. PCofVU, history of. Peabody Normal College.

National Archives, U.S. For details of personal letters and papers relevant to GP, see Preface. References: Q. National Archives, Washington, D.C.

National Gallery, London. GP, his niece Julia Adelaide Peabody (b. April 25, 1835), and Baltimore friend Charles James Madison Eaton (1808-93) were in Philadelphia, Jan. 10 to 18, 1857. GP sat for a portrait in artist James Read Lambdin’s (1807-89) Philadelphia studio. Lambdin took them on a tour through the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, of which he was director. GP preferred to sit on a bench to await their return. Lambdin later recorded GP as saying: “I do not feel much interested in such matters. You may be surprised when I tell you that, although I have lived for twenty years within pistol shot of the Royal Academy and the National Gallery in London, I have never been within their walls.” See: Eaton, Charles James Madison.

National Museum Building, Washington, D.C. GP and others are depicted in an “Apotheosis of America” transom design by artist Louis Amateis (1855-1913) on two bronze doors intended for the U.S. Capitol Building, Washington, D.C., which have been on view at the National Museum Building, Washington, D.C. See: Amateis, Louis.

Natural history. See: Peabody Museum of Natural History. Marsh, Othniel Charles. Yale Univ.

Navy, British. For the British Navy’s role in taking GP’s remains from Portsmouth, England, to Portland, Maine, see Death and funeral, GP’s.

Navy, U.S. See: Death and funeral, GP’s. Farragut, David Glasgow.

Painted GP’s Portrait

Neagle, John (1796-1865). 1-Painted GP’s Portrait. Artist John Neagle’s original portrait of GP in middle age is in the Karolik Collection, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Boston-born John Neagle grew up in Philadelphia, traveled in the west, and settled in Philadelphia where he married the stepdaughter of artist Thomas Sully (1783-1872) and was director of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts (1830-31). His best known portrait, “Patrick Lyon at the Forge” shows the blacksmith at work in his shop. Ref.: Grove Dictionary of Art Online (seen Feb. 9, 2000): http://www.groveart.com

Neagle, John. 2-Other GP Portrait Artists. Other known portraits of GP were painted by (in alphabetical order): a-British painter Lowes Cato Dickinson (1819-1908); b-Conway, Mass.-born Chester Harding (1792-1866); c-James Reid Lambdin (1807-89); c-Boston-born George Peter Alexander Healy (1813-94). d-Philadelphia-born photographer John Jabez Edwin Mayall (1810-1901), whose life-size photo of GP was said to have been painted over by Queen Victoria’s portrait painter, Jules Arnoult, to resemble an oil painting; and e-London-born Henry William Pickersgill (1782-1875). See: artists named. Engravers-artists. Peabody, George, Illustrations. Peabody, George, Portraits of. Schuler, Hans (for his bust of GP in N.Y.U. Hall of Fame). Story, William Wetmore (for his seated GP statue in London, a copy of which is in Baltimore).

Neanderthal skull. See: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard Univ. Science: GP’s Gifts to Science and Science Education.

Nevins, Edward F., is the retired U.S. Army chief warrant officer, a Peabody, Mass., native and GP booster who, in 1999 succeeded in securing a GP U.S. postage pictorial cancellation stamp. See: U.S. Postage Stamp Honoring GP.

New Haven, Conn. See: Marsh, Othniel Charles. Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale Univ.

New Orleans, La. During GP’s Sept. 15, 1856 to Aug. 19, 1857, U.S. visit, his first return to the U.S. after nearly 20 years’ absence in London (since Feb. 1837), he visited New Orleans, La., where he stayed at the St. Charles Hotel, declined a public dinner but attended a private dinner, and was made a Chamber of Commerce member (March 19-23, 1857). For GP’s March-April 1857 travel itinerary, see Augusta, Ga.

New York City Albion (May 19, 1866), p. 25, c. 3, reported that GP had to pay a huge U.S. tax soon after his arrival in NYC, during his May 1, 1866 to May 1, 1867, U.S. visit. See: Visits to the U.S. by GP.

New York Herald. Founder and editor James Gordon Bennett (1795-1872) was born in Keith, Scotland, came to the U.S. in 1819, was Washington, D.C., correspondent of the NYC Enquirer, assistant editor of the NYC Courier and Enquirer (1829-32), and founded the New York Herald (1835), a landmark U.S. newspaper in featuring sensational news. For Bennett’s critical articles on GP in the New York Herald during GP’s Sept. 15, 1856, to Aug. 19, 1857, U.S. visit, see Bennett, James Gordon. Corcoran, William Wilson. Moran, Benjamin. Morgan, Junius Spencer. For criticism of J.G. Bennett, see Visits to the U.S. by GP.

New York Historical Society, NYC, N.Y., has a file of Peabody Papers and relevant GP references in its Miscellaneous Papers.

New York, N.Y. For GP’s NYC visits, see Visits to the U.S. by GP.

New York Public Library manuscript department has some GP papers. See: References.

New York Times. Henry Jarvis Raymond (1820-69), founder and first editor of the New York Times (first issue Sept. 18, 1851), attended GP’s July 22, 1858, dinner at the Star and Garter Hotel, Richmond, near London. See: Raymond, Henry Jarvis.

New York Tribune. See: Corcoran, William Wilson. Greeley, Horace. Morgan, Junius Spencer. Visits to the U.S. by GP.

New York Univ. Hall of Fame. See: Hall of Fame, New York Univ.

GP Interviewed, April 1867

Newark, N.J., Daily Journal. 1-GP Interviewed April 29, 1867. GP’s philanthropic gifts during his whirlwind May 1, 1866 to May 1, 1867, U.S. visit totaled $2,310,450, attracted wide publicity, including an interview by a Newark, N.J., Daily Journal reporter (paraphrased): Reporter: What are your views on those who suggest you as President of the U.S.? GP: It is a kind and complimentary reference. If I were forty and could be elected unanimously, not as a partisan, I would like it. But I am seventy-two and my main concern is to preserve my health. The English climate suits me, but I will return to the U.S. in three years. Ref.: Newark, N.J., Daily Journal, April 29, 1867, p. 2, c. 3-4; and April 30, 1867, p. 2, c. 5.

Newark, N.J., Daily Journal. 2-GP Interviewed April 29, 1867, Cont’d.: Reporter (paraphrased): What will you do in the next three years? GP: Fish for salmon. I need the exercise and I enjoy it. It is good for my lungs and circulation. Reporter: Have you accomplished all you set out to do? GP: All the plans I made in London before I came have been accomplished with slight modification. Only the gift of $140,000 for science in Essex County was not then contemplated. In all my charities Robert Charles Winthrop gave me valuable advice. If I could choose the President of the U.S. he would be my choice. Ref.: Ibid.; also paraphrased in Parker, F.-t, p. 165; and Parker, F.-zh, p. 165. For GP’s specific 1866-67 philanthropic gifts, see Begging Letters to GP. GP’s Philanthropy.

GP ‘s Visit to Newburyport, Mass.

Newburyport, Mass. 1-GP at Age 16. GP was age 16 in 1811 when he assisted in older brother David Peabody’s (1790-1841) dry goods shop in Newburyport, 37 miles northeast of Boston. Two calamities occurred. 1-GP’s father died May 13, 1811, in Danvers (renamed Peabody, April 13, 1868) after an accident in which his leg was broken. 2-Eighteen days later, at 9 p.m., May 31, 1811, the Great Fire of Newburyport destroyed some 250 buildings, leveled the business section, including David Peabody’s store, causing property damage estimated at $1 million, and left over 90 families homeless. Boston gave $25,315.25 in relief and Salem gave $10,000 plus clothing. Ref.: Account of the Great Fire…Newburyport. Smith, E. Vale, pp. 188-191.

Newburyport, Mass. 2-Sailed for Georgetown, D.C. Newburyport became an exporter of young people. GP’s uncle, John Peabody (1768-before 1826), whose Newburyport store was also ruined, suggested that he and nephew GP open a store in Georgetown, D.C. Uncle John had no credit. GP, asking Newburyport merchant Prescott Spaulding (1781-1864) to stand surety for him, got a $2,000 consignment of goods from Boston merchant James Reed. On May 4, 1812, uncle John and 17-year-old GP left Newburyport on the brig Fame, went south along the Atlantic Coast to the Potomac River to Georgetown, D.C, where they opened a store (May 15, 1812) on Bridge St. Ref.: (With uncle to open store, Georgetown, D.C.): Proceedings…Reception…GP…Danvers…1856, p. 149. Brooks, p. 184. Cochrane (comp.), p. 48. Centennial Celebration…Danvers, 1852, p. 195. Chapple, p. 4. Hanaford, p. 43. Wilson, pp. 24-25.

Newburyport, Mass. 3-GP’s 1856 Visit. Forty-four years later, GP visited the Essex County Agricultural Fair, Newburyport, Mass. (Oct. 2, 1856). A man stepped from the crowd and said to GP: you don’t know me. Shaking the man’s hand GP replied, “Yes, I do, Prescott Spaulding,” explaining to all that this was the merchant who first stood surety him See: Georgetown, D.C. Prescott Spaulding. Visits to the U.S. by GP. War of 1812.

Newburyport, Mass., Library. On Feb. 20, 1867, GP gave $15,000 toward a book fund for the Public Library in Newburyport, Mass. See: Peabody, George, Philanthropy.

GP & Civil War Frictions

“Newcastle Story.” 1-U.S.-British Near-War Incidents: 1861-62. The “Newcastle Story” was one of at least three Civil War-connected U.S.-British near-war incidents (1861-62). These frictionable incidents worried and delayed announcement in the London press of GP’s March 12, 1862, gift establishing the Peabody Donation Fund for low cost model apartments for London’s working poor (total gift $2.5 million). First there was the Nov. 8, 1861, Trent Affair. See: Trent Affair.

“Newcastle Story.” 2-Trent Affair. On the stormy night of Oct. 11, 1861, four Confederate agents and some family members, evaded the Union blockade of Charleston, S.C., went by ship to Havana, Cuba, where they boarded the British mail ship Trent bound for Southampton, England. The Confederates sought aid and arms from Britain and France. On Nov. 8, 1861, Capt. Charles Wilkes (1798-1877) of the Union warship San Jacinto illegally stopped the Trent, forcibly removed the four Confederates, and took them to Boston Harbor’s Fort Warren prison. The U.S. North was jubilant. Britain, furious, demanded the four prisoners’ release, an explanation, and an apology. U.S. jingoism calmed. Pres. Lincoln’s cabinet met Dec. 26, 1861, disavowed the San Jacinto captain’s actions, and released the Confederates on Jan. 1, 1862. Ref.: Ibid.

“Newcastle Story.” 3-Alabama Claims. Then there was the CSS Alabama, best known of several British-built ships, purchased covertly by secret Confederate agents, and armed and outfitted as a Confederate warship. The Alabama alone sunk 64 Union ships. In all, British-built Confederate raiders destroyed 257 Union ships. An angry U.S. demanded reparations. In 1871-72 an international tribunal in Geneva required Britain to pay the U.S. $15.5 million indemnity. See: Alabama Claims.

“Newcastle Story.” 4-U.S. Secty. of State W.H. Seward. Then came the “Newcastle story,” printed in the London Times and widely circulated as true. U.S. Secty. of State William Henry Seward (1801-72) allegedly told the Duke of Newcastle (Henry Pelham, 1811-64), then Colonial Secty., that one way to end the U.S. Civil War and get the South to rejoin the North would be to start a war with Britain. So hostile were U.S.-British relations that many in the British press and public took this story seriously. Britain sent 8,000 troops to Canada, in case a U.S.-British war erupted. To deflect such U.S. jingoism, Pres. Lincoln reportedly quipped to his cabinet, “One war at a time.” See: Seward, William Henry.

“Newcastle Story.” 5-Seriousness of “Newcastle Story.” GP was saddened by these U.S.-British irritations. He had tried for 25 years to strengthen U.S.-British friendship. He explained the seriousness of the Newcastle story in a letter to his friend and adviser Thurlow Weed (1797-1882): “We talked over the mystery hanging over the Seward and the New Castle [sic] affair.” Ref.: GP to Thurlow Weed, Jan. 17, 1862, Weed Collection, Univ. of Rochester, quoted in Barnes, p. 365.

“Newcastle Story.” 6-Seriousness of “Newcastle Story” Cont’d. “Sir James E[merson] Tennent [1791-1869] said that there can be no doubt that what the Duke reported of Seward’s remarks had strongly influenced the government in this war preparation for several months past. The Bishop [Episcopal Bishop of Ohio Charles Pettit McIlvaine, 1799-1873] said that he had received the words from Sir H[enry]. Holland [medical advisor to Queen Victoria], and I think Lord Shaftesbury, both of whom had them from the Duke’s own lips. You should at once write to Mr. Seward for a letter to the Duke and have the matter cleared up.” Ref.: Ibid. Adams, I, pp. 114, 213, 277. Wallace and Gillespie, eds., II, p. 925.

GP”Newcastle Story.” 7-Peabody Homes Well Received. Serious at the time, these U.S.-British frictions dissipated. GP’s March 12, 1862, letter founding the Peabody Homes of London was well received. From that gift came many honors to GP. As of March 31, 1999, 34,500 Londoners (59% white, 32% black, and 9% others) lived in 17,183 Peabody homes; i.e. apartments including, besides Peabody Trust-built estates, public housing units whose authorities chose to come under the Peabody Trust’s better living facilities, playgrounds for the young, recreation for the elderly, computer training centers, job training, and job placement for working adults. See: Peabody Homes of London.

GP’s Visit at Newport, R.I.

Newport, R.I. 1-Visits to the Wetmores. GP visited longtime business friend William Shepard Wetmore (1802-62) in Newport, R.I., Sept. 18-19, 1856 (Wm. S. Wetmore had been a partner in the NYC-based mercantile firm of Wetmore & Cryder with whom GP dealt in corn, grain, and other commodities during 1844-47). Thirteen years later, Sept. 20, 1869, six weeks from death, an ailing GP visited Samuel Wetmore (1812-85) in Newport, R.I., where he spoke to then visiting Baltimore friend John Pendleton Kennedy (1795-1870). Kennedy’s journal entry for Sept. 20 read: “I had an interview with Mr. P…[for] about an hour, which was [as] long as he had strength to talk to us. He was very feeble and lay on the sofa apparently short of breath…..” See: Visits to the U.S. by GP.

Newport, R.I. 2-GP-Kennedy Last Meeting. GP wanted Kennedy to accompany him to Baltimore, but Kennedy was himself too ill. Kennedy’s last journal entry about GP, whom he had first known 55 years before as a brash soldier marching and drilling during the War of 1812 with a plume in his hat, read: “E. [Elizabeth, his wife] and I called upon him and after a short interview, took an affectionate leave, which both parties felt was probably a final one.” See: Kennedy, John Pendleton.

Newport, R.I. 3-Last Visit to the Samuel Wetmores. GP was in Newport, R.I., June 29, 1869, when he wrote his third letter to the PEF trustees, read to them at an early July meeting in Newport, R.I.: “I now give you additional bonds [worth] $1,384,000….. I do this [hoping] that with God’s blessing…it may…prove a permanent and lasting boon, not only to the Southern States, but to the whole of our dear country….” See: Visits to the U.S. by GP.

Newton, Hubert Anson (1830-96), was an astronomer and mathematician who taught math to GP’s nephew Othniel Charles Marsh (1831-99) at Yale Univ. See: Othniel Charles Marsh.

Newton Theological Seminary (Andover Newton Theological Seminary), Mass. The PEF’s first administrator Barnas Sears (1802-80) during 1867-80 was a graduate of Newton Theological Seminary (where he was ordained a Baptist minister, 1827) and was later a professor there and its president. See: Sears, Barnas. PEF.

GP in Nice, France

Nice, France. 1-To Rest and Recuperate. Frequently ill, GP occasionally went to rest and recuperate in Nice, France. He was there the first few months of 1863 on the advice of Sir Henry Holland (1788-1873), one of Queen Victoria’s physicians, and wanted Washington, D.C., business friend William Wilson Corcoran (1798-1888) to join him. But Corcoran could not make that visit. See: Corcoran, William Wilson.

Nice, France. 2-GP’s Dinner and Concert, 1863. In Nice in March (17?), 1863, GP gave a lavish dinner and concert in honor of the marriage of the Prince of Wales (Albert Edward, 1841-1910, reigned as King Edward VII, 1901-l0). Attending this dinner were King Louis (Ludwig) of Bavaria (1786-1868), British jurist and MP Lord Brougham [Henry Peter Brougham, 1778-1868], and William Slade (1817-1901), U.S. Consul in Nice. Always careful, GP conferred in advance with Consul Slade about toasts to avoid offending anyone. The affair was expensive, one bill being 12,000 francs. For U.S. Legation in London Secty. Benjamin Moran’s criticism of this dinner, see Moran, Benjamin. Persons named.

Nice, France. 3-March 1868. GP was again in Nice, France in March 1868 when he was on his way to visit the family of recently deceased Louise Morris (née Corcoran) Eustis (1838-67), only child of William Wilson Corcoran. See: Corcoran, William Wilson.

Nichols, Andrew, M.D. (1785-1853). 1-Treated GP Age 12. Andrew Nichols was a Harvard College-educated physician in Danvers (renamed Peabody, April 13, 1868), Mass., who removed a growth (a wen) above GP’s left eyebrow when GP was age 12 (1807 or 1808). Ref.: Wells, p. 286.

GP & Danvers Physician Andrew Nichols

Nichols, Andrew. 2-Career. Dr. Nichols, who then lodged at the house of Mr. and Mrs. John Saunders, began his medical practice in Danvers in 1808, was a member of the Mass. Medical Society, gave an early lecture on botany (1818), was president of the South Essex Medical Society, first president of the Essex County Natural Historical Society, which became the Essex Institute of Salem (he was its president 1836-48, renamed in 1992 the Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Mass.), was one of the founders of the Essex Agriculture Society, and gave the address at its first cattle show (1820). Ref.: Ibid.

Nichols, Andrew. 3-GP’s Trustee. Dr. Nichols early befriended young GP, proudly noted GP’s career as merchant and London banker, and was trustee of GP’s first Peabody Institute of Danvers (renamed Peabody, April 13, 1868), Mass. He wrote many poems and hymns, was buried in Monumental Cemetery, Walls St., Peabody, Mass., with this inscription on his monument: “Erected by the Friends of Humanity to Humanity’s Friend.” Ref.: Ibid.

Clergyman at GP’s Deathbed

Nolan, Thomas (1809-82). 1-Clergyman at GP’s Last Illness. Rev. Thomas Nolan, then vicar of St. Peter’s, Regent Sq., London (1857-73), was the London clergyman (Anglican) mentioned by Episcopal Bishop of Ohio Charles Pettit McIlvaine (1799-1873) and PEF trustee Pres. Robert Charles Winthrop (1809-94) as visiting GP several times before GP’s death (Nov. 4, 1869), at the 80 Eaton Sq., London home of longtime business friend Sir Curtis Miranda Lampson (1806-85). Ref.: (On Rev. Thomas Nolan): Boase, F., p. 1162 See: Death and Funeral, GP’s.

Nolan, Thomas. 2-McIlvaine on Rev. Nolan Bishop McIlvaine, GP’s longtime friend and PEF trustee, had the information from his daughter, present at GP’s deathbed. McIlvaine wrote to Winthrop, Nov. 20, 1869: “I have just received another letter from my daughter in London, giving further particulars of Mr. Peabody’s death…. The clergyman mentioned in the previous letter was Dr. Nolan, one of the London Church clergy…. A very earnest, good man, and an old friend of mine.” Ref.: Ibid.

Nolan, Thomas. 3-McIlvaine on Rev. Nolan Cont’d.: “He [Rev. Nolan] called several times, and once more Mr. Peabody could see him. And when Dr. Nolan prayed, he responded several times, Amen; but he could never say much, and it was at all times difficult to understand him. The last time Dr. Nolan saw him was on Tuesday the 2nd, or Wednesday, 3rd of October. He was heard to say to himself, ‘Great mystery’; and after some time adding–‘but I shall know all soon,’ showing that his mind was consciously working, though he seemed unconscious…. McIlvaine ended his letter to Winthrop with: “I am so glad such a man as Dr. Nolan was with him….” Ref.: Ibid.

Nolan, Thomas. 4-From Winthrop’s Eulogy. Winthrop’s eulogy for GP, South Congregational Church, Peabody, Mass., Feb. 8, 1870, repeated much of McIlvaine’s deathbed description. Winthrop said (in part): “While he [GP] was lying seemingly unconscious, on his death-bed in London…it was remarked, that a faithful minister of the Gospel, with whom he once made a voyage to America, was at the door; and his attention was instantly attracted. The ‘good man,’ as he called him with his latest breath, was received by him and prayed with him, more than once. ‘It is a great mystery,’ he feebly observed, ‘but I shall know all soon’; while his repeated Amens gave audible and abundant evidence that those prayers were not lost upon his ear or upon his heart.” Ref.: Ibid.

Nolan, Thomas. 5-Career. Thomas Nolan was educated at Trinity College, Dublin (B.A, 1831; M.A., 1833; D.D., 1857). He was Curate of St. Peter’s, Stockport (1837); Vicar of St. Barnabas, Liverpool (1841-49); Minister of St. John’s Chapel, Bedford Row, London (1849-54); Vicar of Acton, Cheshire (1854-57); Vicar of St. Peter’s, Regent Sq., London (1857-73); and Vicar of St. Saviours, Paddington (1873 to his death). He wrote The Pastor’s Account and the Pastor’s Duty, Two Sermons (1850), The Christian Sabbath and the Sydenham Palace (1854), and The Vicarious Sacrifice of Christ the Only Foundation for the Sinner’s Hope, the Only Motive to the Christian’s Holiness (1860). He died at Warrington Crescent, London, Nov. 19, 1882. Ref.: Boase, F., p. 1162 (which listed Guardian, Nov. 22, 1882, p. 1639).

Normal schools. Normal schools were teacher training schools popular in the U.S. from 1837 through the 1920s when most evolved into state teachers college and then state university branches. See: Peabody Normal College. PCofVU, history of. Sears, Barnas.

North Carolina. Davidson Academy (1785-1806), chartered as a collegiate institution on Dec. 29, 1785, by the N.C. legislature in Nashville, 11 years before Tenn. statehood, was rechartered by the State of Tenn. as Cumberland College (1806-26), rechartered as the Univ. of Nashville (1826-75), rechartered as State Normal School (1875-1889) and mainly PEF-financed (1875-89), renamed Peabody Normal College (1889-1911), and rechartered as GPCFT (1914-79), when it became PCofVU (since July 1, 1979). See: PCofVU.

North Danvers, Mass. The town first called Brooksby (1626) was later known as Salem Village (part of Salem, and the center of the witchcraft excitement in 1692), then Danvers (1752-1855), when it was divided into South Danvers, where GP was born Feb. 18, 1795, and North Danvers (after 1855). GP founded his first Peabody Institute in what was then Danvers, Mass., June 16, 1852 (called South Danvers after 1855 and renamed Peabody on April 13, 1868), to which he gave a total of $217,600. Because of the town’s division into North Danvers and South Danvers, he founded his second Peabody Institute in what was then called North Danvers, Dec. 22, 1856, to which he gave a total of $100,000. What was North Danvers is now named Danvers, Mass. See: Brooksby. Peabody, Mass.

Northwest Passage. See: Franklin, Sir John. Kane, Elisha Kent.

(U.S. London Vice Consul Joshua Nunn Attended GP’s Westminster Abbey Funeral Service)

Nunn, Joshua. 1-U.S. Vice-Consul, London. Joshua Nunn, U.S. Deputy Consul from April 9, 1863, Vice-Consul from Sept. 18, 1869, rode in the second coach of the official horse-drawn vehicles to attend GP’s funeral service at Westminster Abbey, Nov. 12, 1869. With Nunn in this second coach was U.S. Consul in London Freeman Harlow Morse (1807-91), George Lampson (1833-99), and Henry Lampson (sons of Sir Curtis Lampson [1806-85], longtime GP business friend, trustee of the Peabody Donation Fund, London, in whose home at 80 Eaton Square, London, GP died on Nov. 4, 1869). Ref.: (Joshua Nunn) U.S. Govt. National Archives, College Park, Md.

Nunn, Joshua. 2-U.S. Legation in London Secty. Moran’s Friend. U.S. Legation in London Secty. Benjamin Moran (1820-86), who lived with U.S.-born Joshua Nunn and his English wife during his years in London (1857-74), helped Nunn become Vice Consul, London (from April 27, 1863). After serving as U.S. Minister to Portugal (1874-76), and six more years there as chargé d’affaires, Moran, felled by a stroke (1882), returned to live with the Nunns, Essex, England, four more years as an invalid. They nursed him in his last illness. Ref.: Wallace and Gillespie, I, p. 22, footnote 5; II, pp. 1138, 1153. Ref.: “Moran, Benjamin (1820-1886),” p. 358. See: Death and Funeral, GP’s. Persons named.

O’Grady, Standish, 4th Viscount, Limerick, Ireland (1766-1840). In the summer of 1865 (June to Aug.), seeking relief from gout attacks, GP fished for salmon on a lake he rented on the Standish O’Grady estate, County Limerick, Ireland, then believed to be managed by 4th Viscount, Paget Standish (1835-77). See: Corcoran, William Wilson.

Oakland was the home of B&O RR Pres. John Work Garrett (1820-84), near Baltimore, Md., where GP sometimes stayed on his U.S. visits. Letters and news accounts indicate that GP was with Garrett at Oakland on Oct. 30 and Nov. 12, 1866; April 25, 1867; July 20-21, about Aug. 30 or 31, and about Sept. 21, 1869. Garrett was friendly with both GP and Johns Hopkins (1795-1873). Knowing that Hopkins wanted guidance in planning his philanthropy, Garrett brought both men together for supper at his home on or near one of these dates. At Hopkins’ urging, GP, without giving advice, told how and why he became a philanthropist. Hopkins is said to have recorded his will some 24 hours later in which he designated a large bequest for the Johns Hopkins University, hospital, and medical school. See: persons named.
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Ohio. During his Sept. 15, 1856 to Aug. 19, 1857, U.S. visit GP was in Zanesville, Ohio, Oct. 21-Nov. 3, 1856, visiting his youngest brother Jeremiah Peabody’s (1805-77) family; and on April 10, 1857, he was received at the Merchants Exchange, Cincinnati, Ohio, where he declined a public dinner. During his May 1, 1866 to May 1, 1867, U.S. visit he was again in Zanesville, Ohio, visiting relatives, Nov. 2-10, 1866, having given $25,000 to Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio, for a professorship of mathematics and civil engineering on Nov. 6, 1866. See: Visits to the U.S. by GP.

Old Broad Street No. 22, London. George Peabody & Co.’s first London office (called “counting house” in English parlance) was at 31 Moorgate St., Dec. 1, 1838-c.1845, then moved to 6 Warnford Court, Throgmorton St., 1845-55, then moved to 22 Old Broad St. (1855), all in London’s inner city near the Royal Exchange and near Threadneedle St., where GP’s seated statue by William Wetmore Story (1819-95) was unveiled by the Prince of Wales, July 23, 1869. See: Moorgate Street, No. 31, London. Other named streets. Statues of GP. Story, William Wetmore.

Old Congress Hall, Baltimore. Old Congress Hall, Baltimore, later designated as 215 1/2 Market Street, was the location of Riggs, Peabody & Co. (1814-29) after the firm moved from Georgetown, D.C., to Baltimore, Md., in 1815. See: Riggs, Sr., Elisha.

“Old Hundredth.” During GP’s last U.S. visit, June 8-Sept. 29, 1869, he visited during July 12-13 in Georgetown, Mass., the Peabody Institute Library and the Memorial Church he had built in memory of his mother. He joined the choir in singing the “Old Hundredth,” earliest used English version (1561) of and most widely used paraphrase of Psalm 100, by William Kethe (d. 1606). See: Visits to the U.S. by GP.

“Old White” was the name of the main building (main dining hall) of the Greenbrier Hotel, White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., where GP visited during July 23-Aug. 30, 1869, and met Robert E. Lee (1807-70), then president of Washington College, Lexington, Va. (renamed Washington and Lee Univ., 1871), and other southern and northern political, military, and educational leaders. See: Corcoran, William Wilson. Eaton, Jr., John. Greenbrier Hotel. Lee, Robert E. Visits to the U.S. by GP. White Sulphur Springs, W.Va.

Olney, Richard (1835-1917), was a PEF trustee who succeeded trustee William Crowninshield Endicott (1826-1900), a judge and the president of the Peabody Academy of Science, Salem, Mass. Richard Olney was born in Oxford, Mass., graduated from Brown Univ. (1856) and Harvard Law School (1858), was a Boston lawyer, served in the Mass. legislature (from 1874), was U.S. Atty. Gen. in Pres. Grover Cleveland’s cabinet (1893-95), and U.S. Secty. of State (from 1895), upholding the Venezuela Boundary Dispute, thus confirming the Monroe Doctrine’s declaration of U.S. sovereignty in the western hemisphere. Ref.: Curry-b, p. 103.

Onassis, Jacqueline Kennedy (1929-94). See: Kennedy, Jacqueline. Kennedy, John. Franklin, Sir Franklin.

O’Neill, Francis P. , is Md. Historical Society Reference Librarian who shared with the authors the content of James Wilson Leakin’s (1857-1922) undated manuscript entitled “Family Tree of the Knoxes and Their Connections,” donated in 1958 to the PIB Library. In that manuscript an Oct. 17 1902, letter from James Wilson Leakin to Henrietta Cowman on their Knox ancestry told of a romance between GP and Elizabeth (née Knox) Carson (1799-1880), daughter of Samuel and Grace (née Gilmore) Knox of Baltimore. GP is alleged to have twice asked for her hand in marriage and been twice refused. See: Carson, Elizabeth (née Knox).

“The Order of the Golden Shillelagh,” founded 1977 to promote financial support and high quality education at the Univ. of Missouri-Rolla, uses on the internet and elsewhere GP’s 1852 Education motto. See: “Education: a debt due from present to future generations.”

Origin of Species, by Charles Darwin, 1859. In 1880 Charles Darwin (1809-82) wrote to GP’s nephew Othniel Charles Marsh (1831-99), first prof. of paleontology in the U.S. at Yale, stating that Marsh’s description of his fossil finds over the past 20 years had provided the best proof of evolution. See: Marsh, Othniel Charles. Science: GP’s Gifts to Science and Science Education.

Orphaline Female School, Baltimore. In GP’s first will dated Oct. 1827, he left $2,000 to Orphaline Female School. See: Wills, GP’s.

Ortmann, Otto Randolph (1889-1979), was the third Peabody Conservatory of Music director during 1928-41 (13 years). See: PIB Conservatory of Music.

Oswego, N.Y. During GP’s Sept. 15, 1856 to Aug. 19, 1857, U.S. visit, his first return to the U.S. after nearly 20 years’ absence in London (since Feb. 1837), he visited Oswego, N.Y. (April 25, 1857). See: Augusta, Ga. Visits to the U.S. by GP.

Otley, Charles Bethell (1792-1867), was a British-born artist resident in Florence, Italy, who on April 24, 1863, donated U.S. sculptor Hiram Powers’ bust of GP to the Peabody Donation Fund governors. The bust is in the Peabody Trust, London, entrance way. See: Powers, Hiram (29).

GP’s Oxford Honorary Degree, June 26, 1867

Oxford Univ., England. 1-Honorary Doctor of Laws Degree. GP received an honorary Doctor of Laws degree, Oxford Univ., on Founders’ and Benefactors’ Day, June 26, 1867. The invitation came from Dr. Henry Longueville Mansel (1820-71) of Oxford’s Christ Church College. When offered the honor GP wrote to Dr. Mansel (June 5, 1867): “In reply to [your] very gratifying communication…I…request you to convey to the Council of the University the assurance of the high consideration [with] which I regard the distinction of the Honorary Degree which they have intimated their desire to confer upon me…I beg sincerely to thank you, and to accept [the hospitalities of your house]–with the less hesitation, as I am a bachelor, and so will not overtax your kindness. George Peabody.” Ref.: GP to Dr. H.L. Mansel, Christchurch, Oxford, June 5, 1867, original in possession of Charles Bramley, Humberstone, Leicester, Leicestershire, England. See: Mansel, Henry Longueville.

Oxford Univ., England. 2-Winthrop, Tennent, Lampson Attend. In early June 1867, from Castle Connell, Limerick, Ireland, GP wrote to PEF trustee president Robert Charles Winthrop (1809-94), then in London, that he was leaving for London and then for Oxford: “I reluctantly agreed to receive these honors…. My friends told me I could not refuse them.” With GP at Oxford were Winthrop, James Emerson Tennent (1791-1869) and wife, and Curtis Miranda Lampson (1806-85) and wife. Ref.: GP, Castle Connell, Limerick, Ireland, to Robert Charles Winthrop, June 9, 1867, Winthrop Papers, Mass. Historical Society, Boston, Mass. Winthrop-c, p. 42. Mass. Historical Society Proceedings, Vol. X (1867-1869), p. 339.

Oxford Univ., England. 3-Sheldonian Theater. The ceremony was held during Oxford’s Encaenia, a celebration occasioned by readings, poetry, music, lectures, and a full-dress university parade, reflecting centuries of tradition. The honorary degree ceremony was held in the Sheldonian Theater, Oxford’s famous assembly hall, a round building planned (1663) by architect Sir Christopher Wren (1632-1723), completed in 1669. Wren was then astronomy professor at Oxford Univ. It was Wren’s first major architectural commission and was named after the Archbishop of Canterbury, Gilbert Sheldon, who commissioned the theater while he was Oxford Univ.’s chancellor. See: Sheldonian Theater, Oxford Univ.

Oxford Univ., England. 4-Sheldonian Theater Cont’d. Undergraduates, exerting their traditional right of banter, called aloud the names of dignitaries whom they either cheered or hissed (they cheered Lord Derby, groaned at MP John Bright, both cheered and hissed PM William E. Gladstone, and acclaimed PM Benjamin Disraeli). Ref.: Ibid.

Oxford Univ., England. 5-GP, “Lion of the Day.” GP was one of six individuals granted an honorary degree that day. When GP’s name was called and he stood up undergraduates applauded him, waved their caps, and beat the arms of their chairs with the flat of their hands. Jackson’s Oxford Journal, June 29, 1867, recorded: “The lion of the day was beyond a doubt, Mr. Peabody.” Ref.: Ibid.

Oxford Univ., England. 6-Lewis Carroll’s Journal. On duty at Oxford the day the honorary degrees were given out was mathematics lecturer Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (1832-98), who wrote under the name of Lewis Carroll, Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland, 1864. Dodgson’s journal entry for June 26 recorded: “I was introduced to the hero of the day, Mr. Peabody.” C.L. Dodgson was born in Daresbury near Warrington, England; graduated from Christ College, Oxford (1854); took Anglican Church orders (1861), and taught mathematics at Oxford (1861-81). Ref.: Dodgson, I, p. 261. See: Peabody, George, Honors.

P

Pacific (ship). 1-Collins Line. The Pacific was one of five steamships (Atlantic, Arctic, Baltic, Pacific, and Adriatic) of the Collins Line carrying freight and passengers between NYC and Liverpool, organized by Edward Knight Collins (1802-78), inaugurated in 1849, and financed in part by GP’s former senior partner Elisha Riggs, Sr. (1779-1853), when he was a NYC banker. See: Arctic (ship). Collins Line.

GP’s Lost Va. Bonds Donated to Gen. R.E. Lee’s Washington College

Pacific (ship). 2-GP’s Va. Bonds Lost on Arctic. In the winter of 1854 the Collins Line Arctic was rammed and sunk off Cape Race, Newfoundland, with the loss of 321 passengers. Also lost on the Arctic was $35,000 in Virginia bonds belonging to GP. After waiting for years for Virginia to redeem the lost bonds, GP presented their value with accrued interest in Aug. 1869 as a gift for a mathematics professorship to General Robert E. Lee, then president of Washington College (renamed Washington and Lee Univ., 1871), Lexington, Va. The state of Virginia eventually honored the value of these bonds with accrued interest in the amount of $60,000. See: Lee, Robert E. Washington and Lee Univ.

Pacific Ocean. British Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin (1786-1847) was lost seeking the Northwest passage to the Pacific across the Arctic. GP gave $10,000 for scientific equipment for the unsuccessful Second U.S. Grinnell Expedition (1853-55) searching for the lost explorer. See: Franklin, Sir John. Kane, Elisha Kent.

Padua, Italy. In a lengthy Aug. 25, 1831, letter to sister Judith Dodge Peabody (1799-1879), GP described his second commercial trip to Europe during April 1830 to Aug. 15, 1831 (15 months). He went with a traveling companion (name not known) by carriage; with frequent change of horses, he covered 10,000 miles in England, France, Italy (including Padua), and Switzerland. See: Daniels, Judith Dodge (née Peabody) Russell. Visits to Europe by GP.

Paget, Lord Clarence Edward (1811-95). Thurlow Weed (1797-1882), influential N.Y. state political leader and founder and editor of the Albany, N.Y. Evening Journal, was in London in Nov. 1861 as Pres. Abraham Lincoln’s emissary to explain the Union cause and to keep Britain neutral in the U.S. Civil War. Weed had several talks with GP on the origins and issues of the Civil War and asked GP’s help in meeting political leaders. GP introduced Weed to his friend Sir James Emerson Tennent (1791-1869), British MP from Belfast, Ireland, through whom Weed met and explained the Union side to other leaders: 1-British Maj. Gen. John Morrillyon Wilson (1783-1868), 2-Lord Clarence Edward Paget (1811-95), 3-Foreign Secty. John Russell (1792-1878), 4-MP William W. Torrens, and others. See: Torrens, William W. Other persons named.

Pakenham, Richard (1797-1868), was the British envoy who, with James Buchanan (1791-1868), then U.S. Secty. of State, negotiated the June 1846 compromise over the Oregon-Canadian boundary dispute.

Palace Hotel, Buckingham Gate, London. Having heard that GP was about to leave London for a U.S. visit, Queen Victoria wrote him, March 28, 1866, to thank him for his additional gift (Feb. 1866) to the Peabody Homes of London (1862), and to say that she was having a miniature portrait of herself made especially for him, which when finished would be sent to him in the U.S. GP was at the Palace Hotel, Buckingham Gate, London, ready to depart London, when he replied (April 3, 1866) to thank her for her letter and the portrait. See: Victoria, Queen.

GP’s Nephew O.C. Marsh, 1st U.S. Paleontology Prof. at Yale

Paleontology. 1-Nephew O.C. Marsh. GP paid for the education of his nephew, Othniel Charles Marsh (1831-99), first U.S. prof. of paleontology at Yale, second such professor in the world. O.C. March influenced his uncle to found the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard Univ. (Oct. 8, 1866), the Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale Univ. (Oct. 22, 1866, $150,000 each), and in part the Peabody Academy of Science (Feb. 26, 1867-1915, $140,000), renamed the Peabody Museum of Salem (1915-92), renamed the Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Mass. (since 1992). See: Marsh, Othniel Charles. Peabody Museums mentioned. Science: GP’s Gifts to Science and Science Education.

Paleontology. 2-Praised by Darwin. Marsh as paleontologist was a prime collector and classifier of fossils, particularly dinosaur fossils. Charles Darwin (1809-82) wrote Marsh in 1880 stating that Marsh’s fossil findings had provided the best evidence of evolution. See: Science: GP’s Gifts to Science and Science Education.

Palmer, J.P. Horsley (d. 1858). Author Muriel Emmie Hidy in her George Peabody, Merchant and Financier, 1829-1854, listed Thomas Baring (1799-1873) and J.P. Horsley Palmer (d. 1858) as among the British notables (of some 800 guests) attending GP’s July 4, 1851, dinner at Willis’s Rooms, London, with the Duke of Wellington as guest of honor, in connection with the Great Exhibition of 1851, London (first world’s fair). See: Dinners, GP’s, London. Great Exhibition of 1851, London (first world’s fair). Persons named.

GP’s July 4, 1851, U.S.-British Friendship Dinner in London

Palmerston, Emily Mary Lamb (Lady), formerly Lady Cowper (1787-1869). 1-GP’s July 4, 1851, Dinner. GP asked U.S. Minister to Britain Abbott Lawrence’s (1792-1855) advice before proceeding with his planned July 4, 1851, U.S.-British friendship dinner in connection with the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London, the first world’s fair. Minister Lawrence discreetly asked the opinion of London social leaders. On June 26, 1851, he found a wary reaction to the idea. See: Dinners, GP’s, London. Lawrence, Abbott.

Palmerston, Lady. 2-GP’s July 4, 1851, Dinner Cont’d. In a private and confidential letter Minister Lawrence warned GP: “Lady Palmerston was here. She has seen the leading ladies of the town and quoted one as saying the fashionables are tired of balls. I am quite satisfied that the fashionables and aristocracy of London do not wish to attend this Ball. Lady Palmerston says she will attend. I do not under those circumstances desire to tax my friends to meet Mrs. Lawrence and myself–Your party then I think must be confined to the Americans–and those connected with America, and such of the British people as happen to be so situated as to enjoy uniting with us.” (Note: Lady Palmerston was the wife of the prime minister, Lord Palmerston, described below). Ref.: Ibid.

Palmerston, Lady. 3-GP’s July 4, 1851, Dinner Cont’d. GP however persisted. Through mutual friends he got the Duke of Wellington (Arthur Wellesley Wellington, 1769-1852), then England’s greatest living hero, to attend as honored guest. GP’s July 4, 1851, dinner succeeded enormously. Even the aristocratic London Morning Post took favorable note of the affair. Ref.: Ibid.

Palmerston, Lady. 4-GP’s July 4, 1851, Dinner Cont’d. Gushing with pride and thanks Minister Abbott Lawrence wrote GP: “I should be unjust…if I were not to offer my acknowledgments and heartfelt thanks for myself and our country for the more than regal entertainment you gave to me and mine, and to our countrymen generally here in London…. Your idea of bringing together the inhabitants of two of the greatest nations upon earth…was a most felicitous conception…. I congratulate you upon the distinguished success that has crowned your efforts…. [You have] done that which was never before attempted.” Ref.: Ibid.

Palmerston, Henry John Temple (1784-1865), British statesman, was an MP and prime minister during 1855-58 (Crimean War), and again during 1859-65. During the U.S. Civil War, while sympathetic to the South, he was officially neutral.

Panic of 1837. GP was one of three agents appointed from 1837 to sell abroad Md.’s $8 million bond issue, an experience which led to his transition from merchant to London-based securities broker and banker. See: Md.’s $8 Million Bond Sale Abroad.

Panic of 1857. For its causes, effect on GP, and George Peabody & Co., see Brown, William and James, Liverpool. Corcoran, William Wilson. Moran, Benjamin. Morgan, Junius Spencer.

GP Mistaken for Same Name Eastern RR Pres.

Paradise, Scott H. (1891-1959). 1-GP Mistaken for Eastern RR Pres. Scott H. Paradise, Head of English Dept. and later pres. of Phillips Academy of Andover, Mass., was the author of “Peabody, George (Feb. 18, 1795-Nov. 4, 1869),” Dictionary of American Biography, ed. by Dumas Malone. (New York: Charles Scribner’s Son, 1934), VII, Part I, pp. 336-338. Paradise mistakenly referred to GP as “President of Eastern Railroad,” confusing the Danvers, Mass.-born merchant, London-based banker, and philanthropist George Peabody (1795-1869) with the same named Salem, Mass.-born George Peabody (1804-92) who was pres. of the Eastern Railroad. Ref.: Parker, F.-f, and Merrill (January 1959), pp. 1-20; reprinted in Parker, F-zd, (Fall 1994), pp. 49-68.

Paradise, S.H. 2-GP Mistaken for Eastern RR Pres. Cont’d. The same error occurred in Library of Congress card catalogs until informed of the error in 1955 by the authors. Abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison made the same error in his attack on GP in his article, “Honored Beyond His Deserts,” New York Independent, Feb. 10, 1870, p.1, c. 2-3. See: Garrison, William Lloyd. Peabody, George (1804-92).

Paris Exposition, 1877, at which a gold medal and accompanying diploma were awarded to the PEF Board of Trustees “for what had been accomplished for education in the South.” Ref.: Curry,-b, p. 94. See: PEF.

Paris, France. On March 16, 1868, GP and his philanthropic advisor Robert Charles Winthrop (1809-94) were received by Napoleon III (Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, 1808-73) and Empress Eugénie (1826-1920) in Paris, France. For GP’s Feb.-Mar. 1868, visits to Rome, Italy, and Paris, France, with sources, see Eugénie, Empress.

Parker, Franklin (1921-) and Betty (1929-). See: authors’ Preface, Sources, Overview.

Parker, John (1852-1927), was fourth PIB librarian during 1913-27. See: PIB.

Parrish, Joseph (1818-91). For physician Dr. Joseph Parrish’s influence on Johns Hopkins (1795-1873) in founding the Johns Hopkins Univ., Medical School, and Hospital, Hopkins, Johns.

Parthenon Club, London. In 1844, although proposed for membership by two members of Parliament, GP was blackballed at the Reform Club. Americans were then in bad repute because nine U.S. states, forced by the financial Panic of 1837, had stopped interest payments on their bonds sold abroad. When the states resumed interest payments and it became known that GP had publicly urged this course, he was taken into membership at the Parthenon Club without opposition (1848) and was admitted as a member to the City of London Club (1850). See: City of London Club.

Passport, GP’s. For GP’s first passport, Oct. 22, 1827, see Daniels, Judith Dodge (née Peabody) Russell (GP’s sister).

(Embalming GP’s Remains)

Pavy, Frederick William, M.D. (1829-1911). 1-Embalmed GP’s Remains. Dr. Frederick William Pavy was the Guy’s Hospital, London, physician who embalmed GP’s remains after GP’s Nov. 4, 1869, death in London. Dr. Pavy is also known for “Pavy’s Solution” which modified German chemist Hermann “Fehling’s [1812-85] Solution” used to detect glucose and certain other sugars in treating diabetes. Born in Wroughton, Wiltshire, England, Frederick William Pavy was educated at Merchant Tailors School, London (1840-48), studied medicine at Guy’s Hospital (from 1848) and the Univ. of London, where he won honors and prizes in medicine and pharmaceutical chemistry, 1850, graduating in 1852. Ref.: Power, pp. 84-85.

Pavy, F.W., M.D. 2-Career. Dr. Pavy was house surgeon and physician at Guy’s Hospital, went to Paris in 1853 where he became a vice president of the English Medical Society of Paris, and came under the influence of French physiologist Claude Bernard (1813-78), pioneer investigator of the digestion processes. He returned to Guy’s Hospital where he lectured from 1854 and succeeded Sir William Withey Gull (1816-99) there as full physician, 1871 (Dr. Gull and medical attendant William H. Covey attended GP before his Nov. 4, 1869, death). Dr. Pavy delivered important named lectures, was greatly honored, and wrote important works on diabetes and other medical topics. For Dr. Pavy’s embalming of GP’s remains, see Death and funeral, GP’s.

Crystal Palace Architect Joseph Paxton

Paxton, Joseph (1801-65). 1-Crystal Palace Architect. Joseph Paxton was the British architect propelled to fame when he designed and built the Crystal Palace which housed the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London, the first world’s fair. The U.S. exhibitors found themselves without congressional funds to display U.S. industrial and art objects. GP’s $15,000 loan (repaid by Congress three years later) enabled over six million visitors to the fair (during May 1 to Oct. 19, 1851) to see to best advantage at the U.S. pavilion: Albert Hobbs’s (1812-91) unpickable lock, Samuel Colt’s (1814-62) revolvers, Hiram Powers’ (1805-73) statue, the Greek Slave, Cyrus Hall McCormick’s (1809-84) reapers, Richard Hoe’s (1812-86) printing press, and William Cranch Bond’s (1789-1859) spring governor. See: Great Exhibition of 1851, London (first world’s fair). Persons named.

Paxton, Joseph. 2-Attended Three GP Dinners, Joseph Paxton attended two GP London dinners connected with the Great Exhibition of 1851, the first on July 4, 1851, which attracted wide press attention because the Duke of Wellington was the guest of honor, and on Oct. 27, 1851, for the departing U.S. exhibitors. He was also one of 130 guests who attended GP’s U.S.-British friendship dinner, June 13, 1856, which introduced as guest of honor incoming U.S. Minister to Britain George Mifflin Dallas (1792-1864). GP’s 1851 loan improved the U.S. image in Britain, aided U.S.-British relations, and was for GP a springboard to prominence. The press gave favorable reports of his increasingly frequent U.S.-British friendship dinners, often on July 4, U.S. Independence Day. See: Corcoran, William Wilson. Dinners, GP’s, London. Great Exhibition of 1851, London (first world’s fair). Persons named.

Paybody, Isabel, was the wife of John Paybody (1590-1667). See: Peabody Genealogy, Paternal.

Paybody, John (1590-1667), a simple farmer from the parish of Glen Magna, south of Leicester, Leicestershire, England, was the ancestor of all the Peabodys in the U.S. He married Isabel Paybody, about whom little else is known. It was their son Francis Peboddy (1612 or 1613-97), who was the first of the family to leave on the ship Planter for Mass. on April 2, 1635. See: Ibid.

GPCFT’s First President Bruce R. Payne

Payne, Bruce Ryburn (1874-1937). 1-GPCFT’s First President. Bruce Ryburn Payne was GPCFT’s first president during 1911-37. He was born in N.C., the son of a Methodist minister and teacher, finished the Patten School (1892) while working as a part-time telegrapher, graduated from Trinity College (1896, Trinity became Duke Univ. in 1924), was principal of the Morganton (N.C.) Academy (1896-99) and county school superintendent the last year (1898-99), and was instructor in Durham (N.C.) High School and part-time Trinity College graduate student (1900-03). He attended Teachers College of Columbia Univ. (M.A., 1903; Ph.D., 1904); was professor of philosophy and education, College of William and Mary (1904-5), professor of secondary education and psychology, and summer session director, Univ. of Va. (1905-11), and arrived in Nashville Jan. 11, 1911. Ref.: Crabb-a, reprinted in Windrow, ed., pp. 257-266. See: PCofVU, history of. Conkin, Peabody College, index.

Payne, Bruce Ryburn. 2-Jefferson’s Architectural Plan. Bruce R. Payne hired architects, including Henry Clossen Hibbs (1882-1949), to design the GPCFT campus next to Vanderbilt Univ., after Thomas Jefferson’s architectural plan for the Univ. of Va. Hibbs, born in Camden, N.J., was educated at the Univ. of Penn, worked in Philadelphia and NYC, came to Nashville as head of NYC’s Ludlow and Peabody firm, and designed besides GPCFT other landmark Nashville buildings (Fisk Univ. Library, Meharry Medical College, and Scarritt College). Ref.: Hoobler, pp. 422-423. “Architect Helped Build City’s Colleges,” Tennessean (Nashville), Sept. 25, 1999, p. lB.

Payne, Bruce Ryburn. 3-GPCFT Opened. The Peabody Normal College (1875-1911) closed at the Univ. of Nashville campus in South Nashville, while the new GPCFT campus was being built adjacent to Vanderbilt. The move, made for academic strengthening, was the decision of the PEF trustees, whose $1.5 million gift and required matching funds made GPCFT wealthier for a few years than Vanderbilt Univ. Payne spent his first three years as president (1911-14) assembling a first rate faculty and raising additional funds. Ref.: Crabb-a, reprinted in Windrow, ed., pp. 257-266.

Payne, Bruce Ryburn. 4-A Strong Independent Teachers College. GPCFT first Pres. B.R. Payne wanted the academic strength that came with cooperation with Vanderbilt Univ. But he adamantly resisted Vanderbilt’s Chancellor James H. Kirkland’s (1859-1939) desire to make GPCFT a Vanderbilt department or school, such as Teachers College of Columbia Univ. or the College of Education of the Univ. of Chicago, then the most prestigious U.S. education colleges. Payne saw GPCFT’s future as a strong regional and national teachers college with emphasis on graduate work. By the mid 1920s, Payne helped make GPCFT one of the elite colleges of education in the country. GPCFT historian Sherman Dorn stated that: “Peabody in the 1920s was clearly Bruce Payne’s institution, a mini-university emphasizing teacher education, in its time the best in the South.” Ref.: Ibid. Dorn-a, pp. 2-3. Force-b.

Payne, Bruce Ryburn. 5-“no entangling alliances.” Willing to cooperate with Vanderbilt in cross listing relevant courses in each institution’s catalogs, Pres. B.R. Payne fiercely defended GPCFT’s independence. GPCFT historian Sherman Dorn quoted B.R. Payne on this point: “There are no entangling alliances to quarrel about…. So long as the question as to who shall be lord over us cannot arise there will be perfect peace and friendship….” Ref.: Dorn-b, p. 31.

Payne, Bruce Ryburn. 6-“largest graduate school in the South.” B.R. Payne’s grandson wrote that “Peabody was the largest graduate school in the South with the largest graduate faculty. During the 1930s more Peabody faculty were presidents of U.S. learned societies than any other institution in the South.” Ref.: Payne, M. Carr, Jr., pp. 4-5.

Payne, Bruce Ryburn. 7-GPCFT Became PCofVU. But time passed and circumstances changed. Sixty-five years later, the time of the independent teachers college long past, GPCFT (1914-July 1, 1979) became PCofVU, Vanderbilt Univ.’s ninth school. In the 1990s PCofVU was among the top U.S. graduate schools of education, continuing GP’s motto: “Education, a debt due from present to future generations.” Ref.: “Best Graduate Schools,” pp. 109, 111. For how Bruce R. Payne secured $250,000 for GPCFT from John Pierpont Morgan, Sr.’s estate, see PCofVU, history of. For PCofVU’s six predecessor colleges and their nineteen chief administrators, see PCofVU, history of.

Payne, William Harold (1836-1907). 1-Peabody Normal College’s 2nd President: 1888-1901. Born in Farmington, N.Y., he attended the community school there and had less than a year at Macedon Academy. Despite limited formal education, W.H. Payne had a distinguished career as educator, administrator, and scholarly writer. His honorary degrees included the M.A. and LL.D., Univ. of Michigan; Ph.D., Univ. of Nashville; and D.Litt., Western Univ. of Pennsylvania. Ref.: Dillingham. PCofVU, history of. Conkin, Peabody College, index.

Payne, W.H. 2-Career as Educator. W.H. Payne began teaching at age 17, was a school principal at age 20, moved to Michigan (1858) where he was principal of several schools, headed the Ypsilanti Normal School (1867-69), was school superintendent in Adrian, Mich. (1869-79), and held the first U.S. chair as education professor, Univ. of Mich. (1879-88). Ref.: Ibid.

Payne, W.H. 3-“a rare place for influencing Pedagogics of the South.” W.H. Payne first declined to be Peabody Normal College’s second president. He changed his mind when John Eaton (1829-1906), Tenn. Supt. of Public Education (1867-69) and later U.S. Commissioner of Education (1870-86), told him, “You will have a rare place for influencing Pedagogics of the South.” Payne also thought that the PEF, on dissolution, would heavily endow Peabody Normal College (GP had told the trustees they could disband after 30 years). Faculty member Benjamin B. Penfield was temporary president between Pres. E.S. Stearns’s death (April 10, 1887) and Pres. Payne’s arrival in 1888, an interim marked by indecision and minor problems. Ref.: Ibid.

Payne, W.H. 4-Growth. After W.H. Payne’s arrival the Tenn. State Board of Education agreed on “Peabody Normal College” as the official name, which helped remove the local character implied in the name “State Normal College.” To Peabody Normal College’s 3-year Licentiate of Instruction, Pres. Payne added the Bachelor of Arts (1888) and Master of Arts (1889) degrees. He also added Bachelor of Science (1890) and Bachelor of Letters (1890) degrees. The Licentiate of Instruction was reduced from a three-year to a two-year program. Ref.: Ibid.

Payne, W.H. 5-Growth Cont’d. Enrollment grew from 178 to 359 and the faculty from 12 to 21 (1890). Peabody Normal College’s demonstration school, the Winthrop Model School (named after PEF trustee Pres. Robert Charles Winthrop, 1809-94) grew from a four-grade elementary school to include high school. Getting more support from Nashville people than had previous Pres. Eben S. Stearns, W.H. Payne raised college standards, expanded the library, and broadened the curriculum. Ref.: Ibid.

Payne, W.H. 6-Difficulties. During the summer of 1899 when most students were away, Pres. Payne’s son, William R. Payne (his father’s private secretary and informal business manager), was charged with improper use of funds. Pres. Payne himself was charged with improperly using funds from renting unused classrooms in Lindsley Hall. Payne removed his son and also dismissed three faculty members who had testified against his son. Ref.: Ibid.

Payne, W.H. 7-Difficulties Cont’d. The firing evoked attacks from the Nashville American, which called for Pres. Payne’s resignation. A Tenn. State Board of Education inquiry on August 2, 1899, finding that Pres. Payne had acted in the College’s best interest, was challenged. A lengthier inquiry and an independent financial audit exonerated Pres. Payne, mildly censuring him for not overseeing his son’s financial dealings. The PEF trustees backed Pres. Payne, as did local citizens, students, and faculty. One positive outcome was the hiring of a competent college business manager. Ref.: Ibid.

Payne, W.H. 8-Resigned. Pres. W.H. Payne resigned in 1901 to return to the Univ. of Michigan. He retired partly because of ill health, partly because the PEF trustees had delayed dissolution as anticipated and had not funded Peabody Normal College’s much-needed building improvement. After considering many applicants, PEF second agent (administrator) J.L.M. Curry (1825-1903) chose the 72-year-old former Tenn. Governor and Univ. of Nashville board of trustees chairman James Davis Porter (1828-1912) as Peabody Normal College’s third president (1901-09).

Payne, W.H. 9-National Reputation. During W.H. Payne’s presidency enrollment grew to 607 students (1901) and Peabody Normal College benefited from his national reputation as an educator. His books included School Supervision, Education of Teachers, Educational Doctrine, and Contributions to the Science of Education. He translated into English three best known works by French educational writer Gabriel Compayré: History of Pedagogy, Lectures on Teaching, and Elements of Psychology. Ref.: Ibid. For details of PCofVU’s six predecessor colleges and their nineteen chief administrators, see PCofVU, history of.

(Peabody-named persons are listed before Peabody-named institutions). See: also: Peabody, George (1795-1869), Named Institutions, Firms, Buildings, Ships, Other Facilities, Music, & Poems Named for GP

GP’s Genealogy

Peabody Genealogy. 1-GP’s 1838 Inquiry. GP, in London, was engaged to marry Esther Elizabeth Hoppin (1819-1905) in 1838 (she was from Providence, R.I., visiting London for Queen Victoria’s coronation). Before that engagement was broken about Jan. 1839, GP, wanting to know of his forebears, asked for Peabody family history gathered by distant cousin Joseph Peabody (1757-1844) of Salem, Mass., from London’s Heraldry Office. See: Hoppin, Esther Elizabeth.

Peabody Genealogy. 2-Queen Boadicia Origin of Peabody. This family history, rejected by genealogist Charles H. Pope in 1909, indicated that the Peabody family name originated in 61 A.D. from Queen Boadicia, whose husband reigned in Icena, Britain, and was vassal to Roman Emperor Nero. When Queen Boadicia’s husband died and left half his wealth to Nero, Nero seized all of it. When Queen Boadicia objected, Nero had her whipped. Queen Boadicia and a kinsman named Boadie led an unsuccessful revolt against Rome. She ended her life with poison. Boadie fled to Wales. Boadie in the Cambrian tongue meant “man” or “great man,” while Pea meant ‘hill” or ‘mountain.” By this account Peabodie meant “mountain man” or “great man of the mountain.” The coat of arms for the Peabodys was given by King Arthur shortly after the battle on the River Douglas. Ref Ibid.

Peabody Genealogy. 3-“Paybody” Origin of Peabody. Genealogist Charles H. Pope’s 1909 study rejected the Queen Boadicia origin of “Peabody.” Pope stated that when English surnames were crystallized in the 14th century, “Paybody” referred to trustworthy men who paid servants, creditors, and employees of barons, manufacturers, or public officials. They were selected by character and ability as paymasters or paying-tellers. Pope stated that the Latin motto of the Peabody coat of arms, Murus aereus conscientia sana, meant literally “A sound conscience is a wall of bronze.” Since the Romans thought of bronze as a hard metal, a better translation is, “A sound conscience is a solid wall of defense.” Ref Ibid.

GP’s Maternal Ancestry

Peabody Genealogy, Maternal. 1-Maternal Ancestry. When the Duke of Normandy parceled out the English lands following the Norman invasion of William the Conqueror in 1066, the name Spofford was among those in the Doomsday Book. The Spoffords were from Yorkshire, a northern county of England near Scotland, long known for its independent inhabitants. Ancestral names are given as they were then spelled. Ref. (Dodge genealogy): Austin, p. 72. New England Historical and Genealogical Register, Vol. 27 (1873), p. 87. Spofford, pp. 15, 37-41, 47-48, 64.

Peabody Genealogy, Maternal. 2-Maternal Ancestry Cont’d. Of the first Spofford generation in New England, John Spofford (1612-78) from Yorkshire and Elizabeth Scott (b.1625) from Ipswich, married after their arrival in New England. They settled in Rowley (now Georgetown), Mass. Through the second child and first son, named John Spaford (c.1648-96 or 97), of their nine children, John and Elizabeth née Scott Peabody were GP’s maternal great-great-great grandparents. Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody Genealogy, Maternal. 3-Maternal Ancestry Cont’d. Of the second Spofford generation in New England John Spaford married Sarah Wheeler (c.1652-1732) on March 9, 1675. Through their first-born son of eight children, named John Spaffard (1678-1735), John and Sarah (née Wheeler) Spafford were GP’s maternal great-great grandparents. Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody Genealogy, Maternal. 4-Maternal Ancestry Cont’d. Of the third Spofford generation, John Spafford had six children by his first wife, who died (name and dates not known). He married his second wife, Sarah Poor and the first of their three children was Daniel Spofford (1721-1803), the last male of the Spoffords from whom GP’s mother descended. Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody Genealogy, Maternal. 5-Maternal Ancestry Cont’d. Of the fourth Spofford generation, Daniel Spofford was a colonel in the Seventh Regiment Militia, Essex County, Mass., at the time of the Battle of Lexington (April 19, 1775), a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1780, and built several churches in and near Georgetown, Mass. This Daniel Spofford married Judith Follansbee (1720-99) Nov. 17, 1741. Through their fourth child and first daughter, named Judith after her mother, Daniel and Judith (née Follansbee) Spofford were GP’s maternal great grandparents. Ref. Ibid.

Peabody Genealogy, Maternal. 6-Maternal Ancestry Cont’d.: Of the fifth Spofford generation, Judith Spofford (1749-1828) from Rowley, Mass., married Jeremiah Dodge (1744-1824), a farmer from Wenham, Mass., on March 25, 1770. Through their first-born child, a daughter named Judith Dodge, Judith (née Spofford) Dodge and Jeremiah Dodge were GP’s maternal grandparents. Eight of the grandparents’ ten children, including GP’s mother Judith, were born in Rowley. Ref. Ibid.

Peabody Genealogy, Maternal. 7-Maternal Ancestry Cont’d.: GP’s grandparents moved to Thetford, Vt., in 1802. GP visited his grandparents when he was age 15, in the winter of 1810-11. Of the sixth generation, Judith Dodge (1770-1830) of Rowley, Mass., married (July 16, 1789) Thomas Peabody (1762-1811) of Andover. They met and lived in Haverhill, Mass., and moved to Danvers, Mass. GP was descended from maternal forebears named Spofford, Scott, Wheeler, Poor, Follansbee, and Dodge. Ref.: Ibid. Ref.: (Marriage): Vital Records of Rowley, Mass., p. 282.

GP’s Paternal Ancestry

Peabody Genealogy, Paternal. 1-Paternal Forebear. The Peabody family is of English origin, with various spellings of Peberdy, Pebody, Peboddy, Pabody, Paybody, Pabodie, and Peabody. Katherine Peabody Girling, biographer of Vt.-born educator Selim Hobart Peabody (1829-1903), suggested that an early ancestor may have come to England with William the Conqueror (1066) from the town of Pappedae in Northern France, since the earliest known English spelling is “Peberdy,” derived perhaps from the name of this town. Ancestral names are given as they were then spelled. Ref.: (Peabody genealogies): Endicott, comp. Girling, p. 16. New England Historical and Genealogical Register, II (1848), pp. 153-161 and 361-372; III (1849), pp. 359-373. Pope.

Peabody Genealogy, Paternal. 2-First Generation. The paternal first generation begins with John Paybody (1590-1667), yeoman farmer of Glen Magna parish, south of Leicester, Leicestershire county. The Puritan tradition was strong there, for Protestant reformer John Wycliffe (1630-84) lived and preached nearby at Lutterworth Hall. John Paybody married Isabel, about whom little is known. Through Francis Peboddy (1612 or 1614-97), second of their four children and the first to leave for New England, John and Isabel Paybody were GP’s great great great great grandparents (GP was of the seventh generation of Peabodys in America). Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody Genealogy, Paternal. 3-Second Generation. Francis Peboddy lived in St. Albans, Hertfordshire County, England, where he joined a group of dissenters who sailed on the ship Planter, under master Nicholas Trarace, on April 2, 1635. The passage preceding his name on the passenger list reads: “2 Aprilis 1635. Theis underwritten names are to be transported to New England imbarqued in the Planter Nicholas Trarice Master, bound thither. The parties have brought certificates from the minister of Great St. Albans in Hertfordshire, and attestacons from the Justices of Peace, according to the Lords order…. Husbandman Francis Peboddy [age] 21.” Ref.: Endicott, comp., p. 3. Girling, p. 15. Pope, p. 3.

Peabody Genealogy, Paternal. 4-Second Generation Cont’d.: Francis Peboddy’s arrival in New England in 1635 (he lived in Ipswich, Essex County, Mass.) was followed the next year, 1636, by the arrival from England of his father John Paybody (mentioned above in the first generation), brother William Paybody (1619-1707), and sister Annis. The father John Paybody and the brother William Paybody lived first in Plymouth, Mass., then in Duxbury, Mass. Brother William Paybody, according to genealogist C.M. Endicott, married Elizabeth Alden, third child and eldest daughter of John Alden and Priscilla Mullins, whose romance was made famous in Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s (1807-82) The Courtship of Miles Standish, 1858. From this brother William Paybody, who finally settled in Rhode Island, came all the Peabodys of Rhode Island. Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody Genealogy, Paternal. 5-Second Generation Cont’d.: Francis Peboddy, the first in New England, left Ipswich, Mass., in the summer of 1638 for Hampton (in New Hampshire when state lines were surveyed), where he served on the grand jury, was a lieutenant in the local militia, and became a freeman in 1642. Francis Peboddy sold his Hampton estate in 1650, returned to Mass. and settled permanently in Topsfield, Essex County, Mass. His first wife Lydia died young. Through the second born (John Peabody) of his 14 children with second wife Mary Foster (d.1705), Francis Peboddy and Mary (née Foster) Peboddy were GP’s paternal great great great grandparents. From Francis Peboddy came all of the Peabodys of Mass. Ref.: (Francis Peboddy’s 1635 Planter sailing): Endicott, p. 3. Girling, p. 15. Peabody, Mrs. H.W., p. 18. Pope, p. 3. Ref.: (William Paybody’s connection with John Alden and Priscilla Mullins): Endicott, p. 55. Wallis, p. 5.

Peabody Genealogy, Paternal. 6-Third Generation. John Peabody (1642-1720), born in Hampton, N.H., first married Hannah Andrews (c1640-1700 or 1701), Nov. 23, 1665. He then married Sarah Mosely, Nov. 26, 1703. He lived in Boxford, Mass., was made a freeman in 1674, served as a representative in the General Court, and earned the military rank of captain in the colonial wars. John and Hannah (née Andrews) Peabody, through the seventh child and fourth son of their eleven children, David Peabody (1678-1726), were GP’s paternal great great grandparents. Ref.: Endicott, pp. 3-4. Pope, pp. 7, 18.

Peabody Genealogy, Paternal. 7-Fourth Generation. David Peabody (1678-1726), born in Boxford, Mass., married Sarah Pope (1683-1756) of Dartmouth, Mass. He held the military rank of ensign. David and Sarah (née Pope) Peabody, through their ninth child and fourth son of their ten children (named like his father, David), were GP’s great grandparents. Ref.: Endicott, p. 5. Pope, p. 21.

Peabody Genealogy, Paternal. 8-Fifth Generation. David Peabody (1724-74), also born in Boxford, Mass., married Mary Gaines (1727-1803) of Ipswich, Mass., in 1747. They lived in Ipswich, Mass., Andover, Mass., and then in Newburyport, Mass. Through their sixth child and second son (Thomas Peabody) of their ten children, David and Mary (née Gaines) Peabody were GP’s grandparents. Ref.: Endicott, p. 11. Pope, p. 29.

Peabody Genealogy, Paternal. 9-Sixth Generation. GP’s father Thomas Peabody was born Sept. 7, 1762, in Andover, Mass., and died May 13, 1811, in Danvers, Mass. His future wife Judith Dodge was born July 25, 1770, in Rowley (now Georgetown), Mass., and died June 22, 1830, in Lockport, N.Y. Thomas Peabody was age 14 when the Declaration of Independence was signed (1776). He enlisted and served as a private in Col. Gerrish’s regiment (1779) and two years later (1781) served in Col. Rufus Putnam’s (1738-1824) regiment. Thomas Peabody was stationed at West Point, N.Y., at the time of American Gen. Benedict Arnold’s (1741-1801) treason, and was there when British spy Major John André (1751-80) was executed. He was one of 54 Peabodys who fought in the American Revolution. Ref.: (GP’s father, Thomas Peabody, in American Revolution): Girling, p. 18. Haverhill Gazette (Haverhill, Mass.), Sept. 28, 1866, p. 1, c. 6 and p. 2, c. l. Pope, p. 49.

Peabody Genealogy, Paternal. 10-GP’s Father. Thomas Peabody moved to Haverhill, Mass., where he met and married (July 16, 1789) Judith Dodge of Rowley (now Georgetown), Mass. He was a leather worker and farmer who, with his wife Judith (née Dodge) Peabody and their then two children, moved to Danvers, Mass., a prospering leather center whose pure water was good for leather tanning. In Danvers their third-born and second son GP was born Feb. 18, 1795, one of eight children: 1-David Peabody, born April 23,1790; died 1841, at age 51. 2-Achsah Spofford Peabody, born Nov. 14, 1791, in Haverhill, Mass.; died Feb. 7, 1821, at age 29 in Danvers, Mass. 3-GP, born Feb. 18, 1795, Danvers, Mass.; died London, Nov. 4, 1869, at age 74. 4-Judith Dodge Peabody, born April 5, 1799, Danvers, Mass.; died April 20, 1879, at age 80, in Georgetown, Mass. 5-Thomas Peabody, born April 17, 180l, Danvers, Mass.; died April 16, 1835, at age 34, in Buffalo, N.Y. 6-Jeremiah Dodge Peabody, born Jan. 23, 1805, in Danvers, Mass.; died in 1877 at age 72 in Zanesville, Ohio. 7-Mary Gaines Peabody, born Sept. 7, 1807, in Danvers, Mass.; died Aug. 28, 1834, at age 27 in Lockport, N.Y. 8-Sophronia Phelps Peabody, born Nov. 4, 1809, in Danvers, Mass.; died 1809. GP was descended from paternal forebears named Peabody, Foster, Andrews, Pope, and Gaines. Ref.: Ibid. Ref.: (Marriage): Vital Records of Rowley, Mass., p. 282.

Famous Peabodys

Peabody (Famous U.S. Peabodys). Besides GP, nationally famous Peabodys include (in approximate order by date of birth): 1-Nathaniel Peabody (1741-1823), Topsfield, Mass.-born physician and Revolutionary War patriot who lived in New Hampshire. 2-Joseph Peabody (1757-1844), Salem, Mass.-born wealthy clipper ship owner who employed some 7,000 seamen. 3-Oliver William Bourn Peabody (1799-1848), Exeter, N.H.-born lawyer and Unitarian clergyman, twin brother of 4-William Bourn Oliver Peabody (1799-1847), also a Unitarian clergyman. See: persons named.

Peabody (Famous U.S. Peabodys, Cont’d.).: 5-Elizabeth Palmer Peabody (1804-94), educator who founded the first English speaking kindergarten (Boston, 1861), was one of three famous Peabody sisters of Salem, Mass., of whom 6-Mary Cranch Peabody (1806-87, her birth name of Mary Tyler Peabody was legally changed Dec. 10, 1872, to Mary Cranch Peabody) married educator Horace Mann (1796-1859) in 1843, and 7-Sophia Amelia Peabody (1809-70) married writer Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-64) in 1842. See: persons named.

Peabody (Famous U.S. Peabodys, Cont’d.). 8-Andrew Preston Peabody (1811-93), Harvard Univ. professor of Christian morals, 1860-81, and Harvard overseer, 1883-93. 9-Selim Hobart Peabody (1829-1903), Rockingham, Vt.-born educator who was president of what is now the Univ. of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana. 10-Robert Swain Peabody (1845-1917), New Bedford, Mass.-born architect. 11-Francis Greenwood Peabody (1847-1936), Harvard Divinity School professor. 12-George Foster Peabody (1852-1938), Georgia-born banker and educational philanthropist-statesman. See: persons named.

Peabody (Famous U.S. Peabodys, Cont’d.). 13-Endicott Peabody (1857-1944), Episcopal minister, who founded in 1884 and was headmaster to 1940 of famous private Groton School, Mass., attended by Pres. Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) and other prominent persons (Rev. Endicott Peabody performed the FDR-Eleanor Roosevelt marriage ceremony). By one account Endicott Peabody often said in chapel to incoming students, “Ask not what Groton can do for you but what you can do for Groton,” a saying adapted later by Groton student John Fitzgerald Kennedy (1917-63) for his U.S. presidential inaugural address (“Ask not what your country can do for you but what you can do for your country”). See: persons named.

Peabody (Famous U.S. Peabodys, Cont’d.). 14-Josephine Preston Peabody (1874-1922), Brooklyn-born poet and dramatist. 15-Endicott “Chubb” Peabody (1920-97), Mass. Gov. during 1963-65, whose 16-mother, Mary Elizabeth (née Parkman) Peabody (1891-1981), wife of 17) Episcopal Bishop Rt. Rev. Malcolm Endicottt Peabody (1888-1974) and cousin of Former First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt (1884-1962), made headline news when at age 72 she was arrested for protesting segregation in a St. Augustine, Fla. diner, March 31, 1964. Ref.: (Arrest): New York Times, March 31, 1964, p. 25, c. 2-3; April 1, 1964, p. 1, c. 2, continued p. 27, c. 2-4; April 2, 1964, p. 18, c. 2; April 3, 1964, p. 23, c. 2. See: persons named.

Peabody, Achsah Spofford (1791-1821), was GP’s older sister, second born of eight children, the first of four daughters, who died at age 29. For her mental illness and difficulties with Sylvester Proctor, see Proctor, Sylvester. GP’s Brothers and Sisters.

GP’s First Cousin A.W. Peabody

Peabody, Adolphus William (b. 1814). 1-GP’s First Cousin. Adolphus William Peabody, GP’s younger first cousin, was the son of GP’s paternal uncle John Peabody (1768-1827), with whom GP at age 17 sailed from Newburyport, Mass., May 4, 1812, on the brig Fame under Capt. Davis, south along the Atlantic coast to the Potomac River for Georgetown, D.C., where they opened a store May 15, 1812, on Bridge St. Management of the store fell mainly on GP, his improvident uncle following other enterprises. For two years (1812-14) GP tended the store and was occasionally a pack peddler selling goods to homes in the area. See: Georgetown, D.C.

Peabody, A.W. 2-GP’s First Cousin Cont’d. GP served for 12 days in the military of the District of Columbia as a soldier in the War of 1812. Here he met older fellow soldier and established Georgetown, D.C., merchant Elisha Riggs, Sr. (1779-1853). Riggs, age 35, took GP, age 19, as traveling junior partner in Riggs & Peabody (1814-29), a dry goods importing firm, which moved in 1815 from Georgetown, D.C., to Baltimore, Md. (Note: GP also served two days in Mass., totaling 14 days as a soldier in the War of 1812). See: Riggs, Sr., Elisha. War of 1812.

Peabody, A.W. 3-GP Restored Family Home. The firm was successful. GP soon became the family breadwinner, his father having died May 13, 1811, in debt, with a mortgaged home. GP’s mother and siblings had to live with relatives. GP soon paid off the family debts, restored his mother and siblings to their Danvers, Mass., home, and paid for the schooling of younger relatives at Bradford Academy, Bradford, Mass. Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody, A.W. 4-Educated Relatives. Paternal uncle John Peabody had not been successful and died in 1827. His wife, Anna (née Little) Peabody, died in 1826, leaving an older daughter Sophronia Peabody (1792-1868) and a young son Adolphus William Peabody. GP supported these first cousins and offered to educate Adolphus. See: Bradford Academy, Bradford, Mass.

Peabody, A.W. 5-Educated Relatives Cont’d. Cousin Sophronia wrote GP in gratitude (March 9, 1827?): “I have decided I shall accept of your proposal for the education of Adolphus; his education is my first wish. If his life be spared, he may compensate you at some future time.” Adolphus William Peabody attended Bradford Academy, Bradford, Mass., during 1827-29. He lived with and was cared for by GP’s sister Judith Dodge Peabody (1799-1879) in a house in West Bradford GP bought for family members attending Bradford Academy. Judith Dodge Peabody taught at a nearby school. Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody, A.W. 6-Riggs, Peabody & Co. Elisha Riggs, Sr., left the firm in 1829 and became a successful NYC banker. His place was taken by his nephew Samuel Riggs (d.1853) in the renamed firm of Peabody, Riggs & Co. during 1829-48. Samuel Riggs managed the Baltimore and then the NYC warehouses while GP prepared for London where he remained from Feb. 1837 to his death, except for three U.S. visits.

Peabody, A.W. 7-Adolphus Worked for GP. First cousin Adolphus William Peabody was employed by the firm from the summer of 1837 along with Henry T. Jenkins (b.1815). Having taken cousin Adolphus under his wing, GP advised him not to try to economize, to dress and appear well, to be friendly with selected people but not intimate with anyone. Adolphus reported to GP, then in London (April 1, 1837): “Regarding my private affairs I could live here on $500 or $600. You kindly said that I might freely spend $800, that you wished me to appear respectable. I have visited but little…. I do not intend being familiar anywhere [but]…must appear as I think you would wish it….” Ref.: Adolphus William Peabody, to GP, April 1, 1837, Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass.

Peabody, A.W. 8-Adolphus Worked for GP Cont’d. Adolphus wrote GP again (July 22, 1837): “The friends which you pointed out, I have made mine, not intimately, and my expenses have been proportionate…. Mr. Samuel Riggs told me of his early days when he spent all he made and advised me to save from the $800. I shall not heed [him] because you told me it would be of no object for me to save at present. I spend as occasion requires…and appear as to reflect your position of wealth and respectability without extravagance…keeping your view, and feelings, rather than my means, in mind.” Ref.: Adolphus William Peabody, to GP, July 22, 1837, Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass.

Peabody, A.W. 9-1838 Genealogy Inquiry. Among the many Americans visiting London for young Queen Victoria’s coronation, June 28, 1838, was Esther Elizabeth Hoppin (1819-1905), of Providence, R.I. How, when, and where she at 19 and GP at 42 met is not known, but he fell in love with her and proposed marriage. Word spread quickly among his business associates that the proverbial bachelor was engaged to be married. Interested now in his family history, GP asked cousin Adolphus to learn about their forebears through family patriarch Joseph Peabody (1757-1844) of Salem, Mass., who had once owned 83 clipper ships engaged in far eastern trade. See: Hoppin, Esther Elizabeth.

Peabody, A.W. 10-1838 Genealogy Inquiry Cont’d. Adolphus dutifully sent GP what had earlier been gleaned from London’s Heraldry Office: that the Peabody family name originated in 61 A.D. from Queen Boadicia, whose husband reigned in Icena, Britain, and was vassal to Roman Emperor Nero. Her husband died, leaving half his wealth to Nero, who seized all of it. Queen Boadicia objected. Nero had her whipped. She and a kinsman named Boadie unsuccessfully revolted against Rome. She took poison. Boadie fled to Wales. “Boadie” in the Cambrian tongue meant “man” or “great man,” while “Pea” meant “hill” or “mountain.” Ref.: Adolphus William Peabody, Baltimore, to GP, Jan. 14, 1838, Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass.

Peabody, A.W. 11-1838 Genealogy Inquiry Cont’d. Adolphus sent this information to GP and added (Jan. 14, 1838 [note: possibly 1839]): “So with all these numbers and folios. If you are curious thereabout the next time you go over, you can see if it be a recorded derivation of our patronymic or not…. You have the garb, crest, and scroll etc. (enclosed). [Joseph] says, I have heard my mother say a great many things in this way. She mostly had her information from our paternal grandmother. Sophronia [Adolphus’ sister] can tell you as much as you can well listen of a long day.” Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody, A.W. 12-1838 Genealogy Inquiry Cont’d. Adolphus had dined with the Shaw family in Baltimore where they talked with satisfaction about the engagement. Everybody, Adolphus wrote GP, both talks about it and looks with favor on it. The Shaws, Adolphus reported, wanted GP and his lady to visit them. Adolphus, who told the Shaws GP might come home in June 1839, ended: “…and with a tender of respect to Miss Hoppin.” Adolphus did not know that Miss Hoppin would break the engagement (late 1838 or very early 1839) or that GP would not visit the U.S. for 18 years (Sept. 15, 1856 to Aug. 19, 1857). Ref.: Ibid. See: Hoppin, Esther Elizabeth. Visits to the U.S. by GP.

Peabody, A.W. 13-Boadicia Origin of Peabody Name Disputed. The Queen Boadicia origin of the Peabody family name, recorded in C.M. Endicott’s A Genealogy of the Peabody Family, 1867, was disputed by Charles Henry Pope’s Peabody Genealogy, 1909. Pope believed that 1-in the crystallization of surnames in the 14th century “Paybody” referred to trustworthy men who paid servants, creditors, and employees of barons, manufacturers, or public officials; and that 2-the Peabody coat of arms, Murus aereus conscientia sana, meant “A sound conscience is a solid wall of defense.” See: Hoppin, Esther Elizabeth. Peabody Genealogy, Paternal.

Peabody, A.W. 14-Panic of 1837. In London in the financial Panic of 1837 and the economic depression aftermath, GP faced two difficulties: 1-as Md.’s agent he had to sell the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Co. portion of Md.’s $8 million bond issue abroad; and 2-as head of Peabody, Riggs & Co., he had to save William and James Brown, a Liverpool dry goods firm, major source of his credit in England. By enormous effort he accomplished both tasks. In the process GP was in transition from merchant to London-based securities banker dealing in U.S. state bonds. Ref.: Hidy, M.E.-c, pp. 77-78., 80. Md.’s $8 Million Bond Sale Abroad and GP.

Peabody, A.W. 15-Panic of 1837 Cont’d. Business friend Richard Bell of the dry goods house of Gibson, Bell & Co. early warned GP to “prepare for a gale…as sure as fate evil times are coming on us.” GP made a great effort to collect debts and gain credits. Cousin Adolphus made a collection trip in the West and in Cincinnati met merchants from eastern cities doing the same thing. Back in Baltimore he let GP know that business conditions were very bad, that banks were failing, and goods were selling at very low prices. He wrote GP: eventually “you must sustain a heavy loss.” Ref. Adolphus William Peabody to GP, March 22, 1837, Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass.

Peabody, A.W. 16-Peabody, Riggs & Co. Decline. In April 1839 GP wrote of his intention to withdraw from Peabody, Riggs & Co. when its current partnership expired. In 1840 he wrote, “Business does not go on as in good old times.” His trade in dry goods and other commodities declined. He opened an office (“counting house”) at 31 Moorgate St., in London’s inner city (Dec. 1838), the informal beginning of George Peabody & Co. He dealt increasingly in U.S. state bonds. Funds left in his care drew good rates of interest. He was increasingly a safe, convenient, and influential securities broker and banker. See: Md.’s $8 Million Bond Sale Abroad and GP.

Peabody, A.W. 17-Peabody, Riggs & Co. Decline Cont’d. Partner Samuel Riggs wrote GP in disgust in 1842 that he might leave business and live in the country “on Milk and Bread.” Riggs wrote that he would have been better off to have been asleep during the depression of 1838-42. “Old Houses,” GP wrote to a business friend, “get indolent and do not make great exertions to obtain business.” Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody, A.W. 18-George Peabody & Co. Rose Like a Star. GP withdrew his capital from Peabody, Riggs & Co. in 1843. The firm kept his name until 1848. Samuel Riggs withdrew to NYC, where he again entered the drygoods business. Cousin Adolphus William Peabody and Henry T. Jenkins went into other business concerns. Peabody, Riggs & Co. had flourished, declined, and ended (1828-48). In its place George Peabody & Co., London, rose like a star. Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody, Annis (17th century, dates not known), originally spelled Annis Peboddy, was the sister of Francis Peboddy (1612 or 1613-97), first of the Peabody family to leave England for America in 1635. Annis Peboddy came to America the next year, 1636. See: Peabody Genealogy, Paternal.

Peabody, Arthur John (b. Oct. 8, 1835; d. Jan. 13, 1901), was GP’s nephew, third-born of youngest brother Jeremiah Dodge Peabody (1805-77), living in Zanesville, Ohio. See: Peabody, Jeremiah Dodge.

GP’s Grandnephew Charles Peabody
Peabody, Charles (1869-1939). 1-GP’s Grandnephew. Charles Peabody was the son of GP’s nephew Robert Singleton Peabody (1837-1904), fourth born son of GP’s youngest brother Jeremiah Dodge Peabody (1805-77), who lived his last years as a farmer in Zanesville, Ohio. GP’s last will of Sept. 9, 1869, named nephew Robert Singleton Peabody (1837-1904) and nephew-in-law Charles W. Chandler (d. 1882) as his U.S. executors, leaving each $5,000 for this responsibility.

Peabody, Charles. 2-Career. Charles Peabody was born in Rutland, Vt., Nov. 9, 1869; graduated from the Univ. of Penn. (bachelor’s degree, 1889) and Harvard Univ. (l890, master’s degree; 1893, Ph.D. degree); was archaeology department director, Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass.; was a curator at the Peabody Museum of Harvard; and wrote monographs on his archaeological investigations. Ref.: “Peabody, Charles.” Who Was Who in America, 1 (1897-1942), p. 947. See: Wills, GP’s.

Peabody, Charles Breckenridge (b.1840), GP’s nephew, was the 5th born son of GP’s youngest brother Jeremiah Dodge Peabody (1805-77). See: Peabody, Jeremiah Dodge.

GP’s Oldest Brother David Peabody

Peabody, David (1790-1841). 1-Oldest Brother. GP’s oldest brother David Peabody was born April 23, 1790, in Haverhill, Mass., first born of eight children. His three younger brothers were l-GP, born Feb. 18, 1795 (died Nov. 4, 1869, age 74); 2-Thomas Peabody, born April 17, 1801 (died April 16, 1835, age 34); and 3-Jeremiah Dodge Peabody, born Jan. 23, 1805 (died 1877, age 72). His four sisters were 1-Achsah Spofford Peabody, born Nov. 14, 1791 (died Feb. 17, 1821, age 29); 2-Judith Dodge (née Peabody) Russell, born April 5, 1799 (died April 20, 1879, age 80); 3-Mary Gaines (née Peabody) Marsh, born Sept. 7, 1807 (died Aug 28, 1834, age 26); and 4-Sophronia Phelps Peabody, born Nov. 4, 1809 (death year not known). See: Peabody Genealogy, Paternal.

Peabody, David. 2-Newburyport, Mass. GP attended a district school in Danvers (renamed Peabody, April 13, 1868), Mass., four years, ages 7-11 (1802-06). He was then apprenticed in Sylvester Proctor’s store in Danvers four years, ages 11-14 (1806-9). In 1810 at age 15 he visited his maternal grandparents in Thetford, Vt., and went on to his maternal aunt and uncle, the Jeremiah Jewetts, in Barnstead, N.H. In 1811 at age 16 he worked as clerk in oldest brother David Peabody’s dry goods store, which specialized in fabrics and men and women’s clothing. The store (David’s partner was Samuel Swett) was on the corner of State and Market Streets, Newburyport, Mass., 37 miles northeast of Boston. See: Newburyport, Mass.

Peabody, David. 3-Newburyport, Mass Cont’d. Two tragedies occurred, 18 days apart. 1-Their father, Thomas Peabody (1762-1811), died May 13, 1811, in debt, with a mortgaged home, forcing the mother and five younger children to live with relatives in Salem, Mass. 2-The Great Newburyport Fire followed, May 31, 1811, ruining business prospects in Newburyport. GP at age 17 joined the exodus, sailing with paternal uncle John Peabody (1768-before 1826) from Newburyport on May 4, 1812, on the brig Fame to Georgetown, D.C., where they opened a store on May 15, 1812. Serving briefly as a soldier in the War of 1812, GP met fellow soldier and older merchant Elisha Riggs, Sr. (1779-1853). Riggs took 19-year-old GP as junior partner (1814) in Riggs, Peabody & Co., which imported dry goods for resale to U.S. wholesalers. See: Riggs, Sr., Elisha.

Peabody, David. 4-Worked in Riggs, Peabody & Co. Brother David Peabody married Sally Caldwell, Jan. 20, 1814, in Newburyport. She died soon after 1815, leaving a son named George Peabody (1815-32) after his uncle. While David Peabody barely made a living, GP became the family supporter, paid the family debts, and by 1817 restored their mother and younger siblings to the Danvers family home, 205 Washington St. In the 1820s GP paid for the schooling of siblings and cousins at Bradford Academy, Bradford, Mass. As business increased Riggs, Peabody & Co. employed GP’s brothers David Peabody and Thomas Peabody (and later Jeremiah Peabody). Traveling for the firm, GP and Elisha Riggs, Sr., were frequently in different parts of the country, extremely busy in a volatile business market. Riggs, who supervised the work of GP’s brothers, often had difficulty with Thomas Peabody, who was not dependable. Riggs had some but lesser difficulty with David Peabody. Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody, David. 5-E. Riggs, Sr., on Thomas Peabody’s Shortcomings, 1827. GP complained to Elisha Riggs, Sr., Jan. 13, 1827, of unfilled orders. Riggs answered three weeks later, explaining his trouble with Thomas Peabody, working with him in Philadelphia and in NYC. Riggs wrote in part (Feb. 4, 1827): “…I have paid all his debts of borrowed money, taylors, shoe bills, etc., with the exception of about 150$ which he borrowed he says of Brokers & Lotter [lottery, i.e. gambling] men, of which David Peabody was also bound. This I told him I would not pay at present.” Ref.: Elisha Riggs, NYC, to GP, Baltimore, Sunday, Feb. 4, 1827, Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass.

Peabody, David. 6-E. Riggs, Sr., on Thomas Peabody’s Shortcomings, 1827 Cont’d. “I keep a strick eye over him as well as my business will allow me to do–And have assured him, that if he ever acted again as he has done, that I would certainly get another Clerk–I have taken great pains and talked with him very carefully as to the consequences of his conduct–he appears penitent and I hope will keep his promise hereafter. I have acted the part of a good friend toward him in every respect, which he appears to feel and acknowledge. A short time will enable him to see and determine–I understand from Thomas that David is now employed in a lottery office. He is occasionally in the Store….” Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody, David. 7-Brothers Often in Financial Need. David and Thomas Peabody were often in financial trouble when not working for Riggs, Peabody & Co. David in NYC wrote brother Thomas in Baltimore that he needed money. Thomas replied, Nov. 18, 1828, that he was without a job and could do nothing. Four days later GP sent Thomas $15 which Thomas sent to David. See: Riggs, Sr., Elisha.

Peabody, David. 8-Mother’s Death, June 22, 1830. ‘Thomas sought better prospects in South America. He wrote older brother David from Lima, Peru, April 30, 1830, that he was working there as bookkeeper for Alsop, Wetmore & Co.’s agent, that their brother GP was about to sail for England on his second European commercial buying trip (1831-32, 15 months), and that their mother was in poor health. Their mother was visiting married daughter Mary Gaines (née Peabody) Marsh (1807-34), Lockport, N.Y. (Mary Gaines Peabody married Caleb Marsh, April 12, 1827). See: Ibid.

Peabody, David. 9-Mother’s Death, June 22, 1830, Cont’d. On April 30, 1830, Mary wrote David in NYC that their mother was still in poor health, that she had the ague followed by a high intermittent fever. Caleb Marsh also wrote David that mother Peabody was seriously ill and that he did not think she would recover. On June 25, 1830, Mary sent David the melancholy news that their mother had died on June 22, 1830, a month short of her sixtieth year. David forwarded Mary’s letter about their mother’s death to GP by the next ship bound for England. He added to GP, in a postscript to Mary’s letter: “The above I just recd in time to forward by the Canada [ship]–which sails in an hour. I should have gone to Lockport a month since if it had been in my power to have paid the expense of the journey. Yrs. truly, D. Peabody.” Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody, David. 10-Brother Thomas Without a Job, 1835. Thomas Peabody, ill in Lima, Peru, had to give up his job there, worked his way back to the U.S. as a ship’s clerk, and lost that job when a new crew was hired. GP was out of the country on a European buying trip when Thomas landed in Baltimore without work. He wrote David in NYC: “George being out of the country my necessity for employment is very great & for the present I would be willing to take up with almost any situation.” Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody, David. 11-Brother Thomas’s Death, 1835. Thomas Peabody worried the Peabody family, whose letters sadly hint at rather than detail his misdemeanors. In some unwholesome business matter he had wronged brother David and begged to be forgiven. Thomas Peabody died April 16, 1835, one day short of his thirty-fourth birthday. He had been operating a school in that area and had gone to pay some debts in Buffalo, N.Y. Not having enough money to meet his obligations and overcome with remorse and shame, he met an unhappy end. Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody, David. 12-Brother Thomas’s Death, 1835 Cont’d. The sad news was sent to GP abroad, in care of the Brown Brothers firm, Liverpool, England, by GP’s brother-in-law Dr. Eldridge Gerry Little (1807-1880), a physician, married to GP’s youngest sister Sophronia Phelps (née Peabody) Little (b.1809). Dr. Little wrote to GP (April 20, 1835): “It becomes my painful duty to inform you of the death of Thomas. He died in Buffalo on the 16th inst. a victim of his own vices.” The exact cause of death is not given, leaving the reader of family letters to wonder if Thomas took his own life or died in a drunken stupor.: Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody, David. 13-David & Second Wife Move to Zanesville, Ohio. Four months later Judith Dodge (née Peabody) Russell wrote to her brother GP, care of Brown, Liverpool, England (Aug. 23, 1835). She referred to Thomas as their “poor misguided brother.” She also sent news that oldest brother David Peabody had married again. His second wife was Phebe (née Reynolds) Peabody, a widow with a 14-year-old daughter. He met his second wife when he boarded at her home in Brookline, near Boston, Mass. David and his new family had moved to Zanesville, Ohio, where their youngest brother Jeremiah Dodge Peabody had settled on a farm. Maybe, Judith added about David, having a wife again might teach him economy (i.e., to be prudent in earning and saving his money). Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody, David. 14-David’s Son, George. Whatever oldest brother David’s faults were, GP was fond of David’s children and paid for their care and education. GP paid for David’s son by his first wife (named after GP), George Peabody (1815-32), to attend Bradford Academy, Bradford, Mass., 1827, and for later tutoring. When this nephew wrote his uncle George to ask for financial help in attending Yale College, GP replied in a poignant letter (May 18, 1831). See: Peabody, George (1815-32, GP’s nephew).

Peabody, David. 15-GP’s Underlining to David’s Son: “Deprived, as I was, of the opportunity of obtaining anything more than the most common education, I am well qualified to estimate its value by the disadvantages I labour under in the society [in] which my business and situation in life frequently throws me, and willingly would I now give twenty times the expense attending a good education could I now possess it, but it is now too late for me to learn and I can only do to those who come under my care, as I could have wished circumstances had permitted others to have done by me.” But sadly this favorite nephew died at age 17 on Sept. 24, 1832, in Boston of scarlet fever, his potential unfulfilled. For other information on this nephew, see: :Daniels, Judith Dodge (née Peabody) Russell (GP’s sister). Dwight, Sereno Edwards.

Peabody, David. 16-David’s Daughter, Julia Adelaide. David Peabody died in July 1841, age 51, leaving a daughter by his second wife, named Julia Adelaide Peabody (b. April 25, 1835), in Zanesville, Ohio. It was during his first return U.S. visit since leaving for London, Feb. 1837, that GP became acquainted with and very fond of Julia Adelaide. When GP’s Feb. 12, 1857, PIB founding letter was published in Mass. newspapers, sister Judith, thrilled, wrote GP (April 20, 1857): “The latter part of it has been copied into all the religious newspapers, as being very important and impressive.” She was glad of his visit to Zanesville, Ohio. Knowing how lonely he was she was glad about how quickly he took niece Julia Adelaide to his heart and glad he had sent her to school in Philadelphia. See: Chandler, Julia Adelaide (née Peabody).

Peabody, David. 17-David’s Daughter, Julia Adelaide Cont’d. Sister Judith recalled how GP had worked for David in Newburyport, Mass., how GP had risen by determination and hard work, how David’s fortunes fell until he could not pay his rent in NYC, how time and again GP had aided brothers David, Thomas, Jeremiah, and all the family. Poor Thomas had been the worst in lack of gratitude. David, too, had incurred debts. GP helped pay these debts and made good on activities of both brothers that bordered on dishonesty. Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody, David. 18-David’s Daughter, Julia Adelaide Cont’d. “I trust,” Judith wrote GP (May 20, 1857), “that Julia will yet be a solace to your declining years, and by her affection, wipe away the remembrance of the wrongs you have received from her father.” For an unpaid rent debt owed by Thomas Peabody which came to GP’s attention in 1853, see Riggs, Sr., Elisha. Whitehorne, Sarah.

Peabody, Elizabeth Palmer (1804-94), educator who founded the first English speaking kindergarten (Boston, 1861, was one of three Peabody sisters of Salem, Mass., distantly related to GP. Her sisters were Mary Cranch Peabody (1806-87), married to educator Horace Mann (1796-1859) in 1843; and Sophia Amelia Peabody (1809-70) who married writer Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-64) in 1842. See: persons named. Peabodys (Famous U.S.): 5), 6), and 7) above.

Peabody, Ellen (Mrs. Jeremiah). See: Peabody, Jeremiah Dodge (GP’s youngest brother, below).

Peabody, Endicott (1857-1944), was an Episcopal minister who founded in 1884 and was headmaster to 1940 of famous private Groton School, Mass., attended by Pres. Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) and other prominent persons (Rev. Endicott Peabody performed the FDR-Eleanor Roosevelt marriage ceremony). By one account Endicott Peabody’s often given chapel admonition to students, “Ask not what Groton can do for you but what you can do for Groton” was adapted later by Groton student John Fitzgerald Kennedy (1917-63) for his U.S. presidential inaugural address (“Ask not what your country can do for you but what you can do for your country”). See: Peabodys (Famous U.S.) (above).

Peabody, Endicott [nicknamed “Chubb”] (1920-97), was Mass. Gov. during 1963-65. His mother, Mary Elizabeth (née Parkman) Peabody (1891-1981), wife of Episcopal Bishop Rt. Rev. Malcolm Endicottt Peabody (1888-1974) and cousin of Former First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt (1884-1962), made headline news when at age 72 she was arrested for protesting segregation in a St. Augustine, Fla. diner, March 31, 1964. Lawrence, Mass.-born Endicott Peabody (familiarly called “Chubb”) attended Harvard Univ. (undergraduate degree, 1942; law degree, 1948), served in the U.S. Navy (1942-46), and held various positions before becoming Mass. governor. Ref.: Sobel and Raimo, ed., pp. 735-736 See: Ibid.

GP’s Cousin Francis Peabody

Peabody, Francis (1801-68). 1-Cousin. Francis Peabody of Salem, Mass., GP’s distant cousin, was the fourth son of famed and wealthy Salem, Mass., shipmaster Joseph Peabody (1757-1844). Francis Peabody attended Dummer Academy in Mass., was in frail health as a boy, and was sent on one of his father’s ships to Russia to recover. He later developed interests in chemicals, produced lead pipe, manufactured fine book paper, refined whale oil, made candles, was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, became president of the Essex Institute of Salem, and played a role in establishing what is now the Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Mass. Francis Peabody’s younger brother, named George Peabody (1804-94) of Salem, Mass., Eastern Railroad president, fifth son of clipper ship owner Joseph Peabody, has been mistaken for Danvers, Mass.-born merchant-banker-philanthropist GP. See: Peabody, George (1804-94) below.

Peabody, Francis. 2-Loving Cup. Francis Peabody gave GP a loving cup made of English oak, inlaid with silver, inscribed “Francis Peabody of Salem to George Peabody, of London, 1851.” This loving cup was passed around and drunk from by GP’s 150 Oct. 27, 1851, U.S.-British friendship dinner guests, most of them departing U.S. exhibitors to the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London (first world’s fair). This dinner was held at the London Coffee House, Ludgate Hill, London. See: Dinners, GP’s, London.

Peabody, Francis. 3-Attended GP’s July 4, 1856, Dinner. Francis Peabody in London attended GP’s July 4, 1856 Independence Day dinner for over 100 Americans and a few Englishmen, Star and Garter Hotel, Richmond, eight miles from London on the Thames. GP prefaced his toast with these remarks: “I have before me two loving cups, one British the second of American oak, presented to me some years ago by Francis Peabody now present….” Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody, Francis Greenwood (1847-1936), was a Harvard Divinity School professor whose evening banquet speech was read (he was absent due to ill health) at the George Peabody Centennial Celebration (Feb. 18, 1795-1895) in Peabody, Mass. Born in Boston, Francis Greenwood Peabody graduated from Harvard Univ. (1869) and Harvard Divinity School (1872); was pastor, First Parish Church, Cambridge, Mass. (1874-80); theology professor, Harvard Divinity School (1880-86); and Harvard Univ. Plummer Prof. of Christian Morals (1886-1912). See: George Peabody Centennial Celebration (Feb. 18, 1795-1895). Peabodys (Famous U.S.) (above).

Peabody, George (1795-1869): Headings
(alphabetical headings of topics with relevant see headings, fully described below)

Peabody, George (1795-1869) and the Civil War. See: Civil War and GP.

Peabody, George (1795-1869), Biographies (Selected).

Peabody, George (1795-1869), Critics.

Peabody, George (1795-1869), Engravers-artists.

Peabody, George (1795-1869), Events Since His Death.

Peabody, George (1795-1869), Freedom of the City of London. See: London, Freedom of the City of London, and GP. See: Honors, GP’s, in Life and after Death (in chronological order).

Peabody, George (1795-1869), Gifts to Science and Science Education. See: Science: GP’s Gifts to Science and Science Education.

Peabody, George (1795-1869), Honors.

Peabody, George (1795-1869), Illustrations.

Peabody, George (1795-1869), Internet Related URL’s on the Internet. See: References. g. Internet (World Wide Web): alphabetically by last name of author or subject or by title (located in References at the end of Newspapers).

Peabody, George (1795-1869), Named Institutions, Firms, Buildings, Ships, Other Facilities; Music and/or Poems Named for GP.

Peabody, George (1795-1869), Letters & Papers in Depositories (See back of book under References for GP and related unpublished letters and documents in U.S. libraries and historical society depositories and in British libraries and other depositories).

Peabody, George (1795-1869), Overview.

Peabody, George (1795-1869), Philanthropy of (& Philanthropic Influence).

Peabody, George (1795-1869), Photographs (are included in Peabody, George, Illustrations).

Peabody, George (1795-1869), Physicians.

Peabody, George (179-1669), Portraits (the 8 portrait artists described in Peabody, George [1795-1869] Illustrations are again listed alphabetically).

Peabody, George (1795-1869), ships connected with GP.

Peabody, George (1795-1869), & U.S. Ministers to Britain. See: Dinners, GP’s, London. U.S. Ministers to Britain and GP.

Peabody, George (1795-1869), Wills. See: Wills, George Peabody’s (1795-1869).

<>BR>Peabody, George (1795-1869), Biographies of (Selected) .

<>BR>Peabody, George (1795-1869) Biographies (Selected). 1-Phebe Ann Hanaford’s (1829-1921) The Life of George Peabody (Boston: B.B. Russell, 1870), was the first book-length biography of GP. Being a member of the Essex Institute, Salem, Mass., with access to his papers but using mainly extensive news clippings about him, she fashioned these into a book of romantic hero worship. See: Hanaford, Phebe Ann.

P., G., Biographies. 2-Philip Whitwell Wilson’s (1875-1956) George Peabody, Esq., An Interpretation (Nashville: George Peabody College for Teachers, 1926), was written by a journalist and former member of the British House of Commons in connection with the fiftieth anniversary of GPCFT, Nashville, in 1925. Although not based on original sources, Wilson’s biography used London Times articles, made good use of previously publishing material, and has an introductory letter from Pres. Calvin Coolidge warmly praising GP. See: Chapple, W. D. Persons named. Wilson, Philip Whitwell.

P., G., Biographies. 3-Muriel Emmie Hidy’s (b.1906) George Peabody, Merchant and Financier, 1829-1854 (New York: Arno Press, 1978), the printed version of her 1939 Radcliffe College (woman’s college of Harvard Univ.) Ph.D. dissertation, was a thorough study based on GP’s papers by a skilled researcher and professor of economic history, Wheaton College, Norton, Mass. She had previously done research with her husband Ralph W. Hidy (1905-77), who also taught at Wheaton College, for his 1935 Harvard Univ. doctoral dissertation, published with additions as The House of Baring in American Trade and Finance, English Merchant Bankers at Work, 1763-1861. Harvard Studies in Business History (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1949). She read GP papers at what is now the Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Mass., and other depositories, intending to write his biography. See: persons named.

P., G., Biographies. 4-Franklin and Betty J. Parker’s writings on GP. See: Preface, Sources, Overview. (Under Reference see): Parker, Franklin and Betty J. Parker.

P., G., Biographies. 5-Van Riper, Robert, A Life divided: George Peabody, Pivotal Figure in Anglo-American Finance, Philanthropy and Diplomacy (Xlibris [electronic publisher], 2000). Publisher’s URL: http:www.Xlbris.com, 2000.

<>BR>Peabody, George (1795-1869), Critics: Pro Confederate Charges

<>BR>Peabody, George (1795-1869), Critics. 1-Pro Confederate Charges. Most European investors, uncertain who would win the Civil War, sold their U.S. securities and did not buy again until Union victory was assured. What galled some anti-Confederates was knowing that GP began as a merchant in the South (1812-37, 25 years), that he had southern and Confederate friends, that he gave a $1.4 million PIB to Md. when, as abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison (1805-79) put it publicly, that state was “rotten” with treason. Later radicals, bent on punishing the South, resented his $2 million PEF (founded 1867) to aid public education in the South. Civil War passions were fierce and firmly held. See: Civil War and GP.

P., G., Critics. 2-GP Defenders Not Believed. A writer in the New York Times, May 23, 1861, reported that Confederate emissary in London Ambrose Dudley Mann (1801-89) tried to negotiate a loan with GP but was firmly repulsed. This and similar accounts were simply not believed. Nor were GP’s public denials. Ref.: Ibid.

P., G., Critics. 3-GP’s Public Denials Not Believed. When an anonymous letter writer in Boston and NYC newspapers stated that in his opinion a civil war would be good for business, some inferred that the letter writer might be GP. GP wrote to the Boston Couriereditor, March 8, 1861: “I do not know who wrote this letter. My remarks would be the opposite. The threat of war has already lost the European market for United States securities. Concession and compromise alone would reinstate our credit abroad. I hope conciliation will prove successful. If not and war comes it will destroy the credit of North and South alike in Europe. Worse, our prestige and pride will disappear. Second rate powers may insult our flag with impunity and first rate powers wipe away the Monroe Doctrine. May Providence prevent this.” Ref.: Ibid.

P., G., Critics. 4-GP’s 1866-67 U.S. Visit. During his May 1, 1866 to May 1, 1867 U.S. visit, GP frequently faced charges of being pro-Confederate. He publicly denied “the insinuation in the strongest terms.” “From the beginning [and] throughout,” he said, “I condemned the cause of the South in taking up arms against the government. In adhering to the cause of the North I injured my reputation with some of my friends who advocated the cause of the South.” A few major GP critics are mentioned below. Ref.: Ibid.

GP Critic Benjamin Moran

P., G., Critics. 5-Critic Benjamin Moran. U.S. Legation in London Secty. Benjamin Moran (1820-86) wrote critically of GP in his private journal during 1857-1870. Benjamin Moran was perceptively described by historian Henry (Brooks) Adams, 1838-1918, son of and secretary to U.S. Minister to Britain Charles Francis Adams (1807-86, Minister during 1861-68), as: “a sort of dependable workhorse…[with] an exaggerated notion of his importance; …sensitive to flattery, and easily offended,…[whose] extensive diary…while it must be read from the point of view of his character…throws an interesting light on the Legation scene.” A few quotes from Moran’s journal illustrate his criticism of GP. See: Moran, Benjamin.

P., G., Critics. 6-Critic Moran on GP: “Monday, 31 Aug (’57)…George Peabody, the puffing American note shaver has returned to London from a tour of self-glorification in the United States. This is the fellow who gives private dinners on the Fourth of July at public taverns to which he invites everyone in a good suit of clothes who will applaud him and then publishes the proceedings, toasts, and all, in the public journals….” Ref.: Ibid.

P., G., Critics. 7-Critic Moran on GP Cont’d.: “Monday, 31 Aug (’57) cont’d.: “[H]e pays his clerks less and works them harder than any other person in London in the same business, and never gave a man a dinner that wanted it. His parties are advertisements, and his course far from benevolent. He never gave away a cent that he didn’t know what its return would be. He has no social position in London and cannot get into good Society. He generally bags the new American Minister for his own purposes and shows him up around the town, if he can, as his puppet to a set of fourth-rate English aristocrats and American tuft-hunters who eat his dinners and laugh at him for his pains.” Ref.: Ibid.

P., G., Critics. 8-Critic Moran on GP Cont’d. [May 28, 1858]: “George Peabody has been here today & I had a cold bow from his magnificence, which I stiffly returned.” [Feb. 1864]: “…Peabody is a rebel and does all in his power to destroy the credit of his country…. “So strong is the hold on American belief, that this man Peabody is loyal that no refutation will shake it, and he therefore goes on and does us ten times more injury that [sic] a flat rebel…. He is a rebel and don’t [sic] conceal it.”

P., G., Critics. 9-Critic Moran on GP Cont’d. [Nov. 12, 1869]: Moran’s criticism of GP relented only during GP’s last illness and death in London, Nov. 4, 1869. Moran’s better nature emerged in his touching entry on GP’s Westminster Abbey funeral (Nov. 12, 1869): “I thought of Peabody as I stood by his coffin and heard the priests chanting over his remains, and…mentally remarked that I could now forget that I had ever warred with the dust before me. And then I reflected on the marvelous career of the man, his early life, his penurious habits, his vast fortune, his magnificent charity; and the honor that was then being paid to his memory by the Queen of England in the place of sepulcher of twenty English Kings.” Ref.: Ibid.

GP Critic William Lloyd Garrison, Abolitionist

P., G., Critics. 10-Critic William Lloyd Garrison. Abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison first attacked GP, gravely ill in the summer of 1869, for going to recuperate not to a northern spa but to a Southern one, White Sulphur Spring, W. Va., which he called the favorite resort of the elite of “rebeldom.” There, GP was welcomed with congratulatory resolutions to which he responded by speaking of his own cordial esteem and regard for the high honor, integrity, and heroism of the Southern people. GP’s $2 million Education Fund, Garrison complained, went to white not black children. The conservative PEF trustees and agent Barnas Sears complied with rather than fought southern school segregation laws. Ref.: Ibid.

P., G., Critics. 11-Critic W.L. Garrison Cont’d.: Garrison next attacked three months after GP’s death on Nov. 4, 1869. His article, “Honored Beyond His Deserts,” Independent, Feb. 10, 1870, mocked the pomp and circumstance of GP’s death in London, his remains lying in state at Westminster Abbey, transport of his remains across the Atlantic on Britain’s newest warship, HMS Monarch, escorted by the U.S. warship, the Plymouth, the impressive U.S. Navy reception at Portland harbor, Me., led by Adm. D.G. Farragut (1801-70), and final burial in Harmony Grove Cemetery (Salem, Mass. Feb. 8, 1870). GP’s motive in his philanthropy, Garrison wrote (his underlining), as it was in returning to England to die, was to gain public attention, “to quickly make him[self] famous.” Ref.: Ibid.

P., G., Critics. 12-Critic W.L. Garrison Cont’d. GP was a pro-slaver, Garrison charged, citing as proof the fact that GP had signed an appeal denouncing Mass.’s “Personal Liberty Bill.” that prohibited southern slave hunters from removing from Mass. any slaves who had fled their southern masters. (Garrison mistakenly confused educational philanthropist GP [1795-1869] for a distant relative of the same name, George Peabody (1804-92) of Salem, Mass., who was president of the Eastern Railroad and who favored the Mass. Fugitive Slave Law). Garrison, who saw the South as the enemy long after the Civil War, raged at GP because the PEF was intended to revive the South. Ref.: Ibid.

GP Critic Samuel Bowles, Editor, Springfield Daily Republican

P., G., Critics. 13-Critic Samuel Bowles. Newspaper owner-editor Samuel Bowles (1826-78) in his Springfield [Mass.] Daily Republican, Oct. 27, 1866, wrote (without submitting proof): “They [GP and his partner Junius Spencer Morgan, 1813-90] gave us no faith and no help in our struggle for national existence…. No individuals contributed so much to flooding the money markets with evidence of our debts to Europe, and breaking down their prices and weakening financial confidence in our nationality, and none made more money by the operation.” See: Bowles, Samuel.

P., G., Critics. 14-Critics’ Harmful Effect. Major critics of GP’s course in the Civil War began with 1-U.S. Consul Gen. in Paris John Bigelow’s (1817-1911) unsubstantiated 1862 charge, made to U.S. Secty. of State William Henry Seward (1801-72), that GP had exaggerated federal reversals to cause financial panic and so reap a personal fortune. 2-Newspaper owner-editor Samuel Bowles’s equally unsubstantiated 1866 charges followed; compounded by 3-abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison in 1869-1870. (Note: For doubt cast about Bigelow’s criticism about GP’s loyalty, See: John Bigelow and “Bigelow, John…” in References end of book). See: persons named.

P., G., Critics. 15-Critics Harmful Effect Cont’d.: Historian-writers who repeated these unsubstantiated charges, none with proof, included 4-Gustavus Myers’s History of Great American Fortunes, 1910, 1936; 5-Matthew Josephson’s The Robber Barons, 1934; 6-Carl Sandburg’s (1878-1967) Pulitzer prize biography, Abraham Lincoln, 1939: 7-Leland DeWitt Baldwin’s The Stream of American History, 1952. See: Ibid.

P., G., Critics. 16-GP Defenders Not Fully Believed. Defenders in the press, such as journalist-political advisor Thurlow Weed (1797-1882) and Episcopal Bishop of Ohio Charles Pettit McIlvaine (1799-1873), Pres. Lincoln’s emissaries sent to keep England and France neutral in Nov. 1861, who publicly attested that GP in London helped them contact British leaders, were not fully believed. For full account, see Civil War and GP. Persons named. Potter, John R. “R.D.P.” “S.P.Q.” Train, George Francis.

GP Critic Hiram Powers, U.S. Sculptor

P., G., Critics. 17-Hiram Powers, U.S. Sculptor. Best known for his statue, The Greek Slave, Hiram Powers (1805-73), from his studio in Florence, Italy, asked for, received, and appreciated GP’s travel help for Powers’ son visiting England, financial help, and help in securing, shipping, and negotiating for the sale of Powers’ statues and statuary materials. Their falling out over two Powers-made GP busts left both men angry. In describing their estrangement Powers’ biographer Richard P. Wunder thus criticized GP to GP’s philanthropic advisor Robert Charles Winthrop (1809-94, President of the PEF board of trustees): “”…far from wishing…to [sully] the world-wide reputation of Mr. Peabody, I am…firmly persuaded of the falsity of his position…. He was once my very ideal of a generous man. He is now my ideal of a thoroughly selfish man…. I said to him that I determined…to make the bust…and present it to him for the first favor he ever did me. To use his own words [he—GP–replied], ‘You owe me nothing for that, for I knew that your friends would pay if you did not.'” For full details see Powers, Hiram.

Charge that GP Profited from the Slave Trade Dismissed

P., G., Critics. 18-Reparations for Slave Trade. A 2002 Chicago city ordinance required companies doing business in Chicago to search their firm’s history and disclose any slave trade connection. The ordinance was spearheaded by African American Chicago city alderwoman Dorothy Tillman, described as “Chicago’s most prominent promoter of reparations.” Slave reparation advocates are militant African Americans demanding payment to descendants of slaves from companies which profited from the slave trade. Advocates seek reparations for past wrongs (white wealth earned in the unjust slave trade), similar to payments made to World War II Japanese American detainees (1988), Holocaust survivors with Swiss bank accounts (1998), and a Nazi slave laborers’ fund in Germany. Advocates see reparations as a moral victory and a way to fund African American college scholarships. See: “Slave Trade” in References: g. Internet.

P., G., Critics. 19-JP Morgan Chase. In March 2004 NYC-based JP Morgan Chase bank officials, seeking to merge with Chicago’s Bank One, submitted required forms tracing the firm’s origin to John Pierpont Morgan, Sr.’s (1837-1913) partnership in Drexel, Morgan & Co., 1871, which became J.P. Morgan & Co. in 1895 and which through subsequent mergers became JP Morgan Chase. JP Morgan Chase initially declared no known slave trade connection. Ref: Ibid. Eric Ferkenhoff, Boston Globe, May 4, 2004 See: person and firms named.

P., G., Critics. 20-GP Charged with Slave Trade. Based on documents found by her daughter Ebony Tillman, supervising reparation researchers in the Library of Congress, Alderwoman Tillman challenged the JP Morgan Chase response; connected its origin to GP’s firms in the U.S. South and to George Peabody & Co., London. Tillman said that documents found by her daughter proved “that Peabody’s firm, in the 1830s, purchased item[s] for slaves, had a client who placed newspaper ads for the sale of slaves, and helped transport slaves aboard at least one ship.” The Salem News (Mass.), May 10, 2004, further quoted Tillman’s charges: “While…[doing business] in London…Peabody’s company…shipped goods abroad…cotton, sugar and turpentine…and slaves…. Peabody also did business with a slave trader in the Washington, D.C., area named William Corcoran…. In London [Peabody] was the agent for America responsible for all the cotton trade…. He had a very big role in the slave industry….” Ref.: Alan Burke, “George Peabody: a philanthropist or a slave trader?” Salem News (Mass), May 10, 2004, pp. A1, A12.

P., G., Critics. 21. Salem News (Mass.) Account. JP Morgan Chase spokesman Frederick Hill (an African American), representing the firm at the council hearings, “minimize[d] his company’s connection to George Peabody while also casting doubt on the evidence linking Peabody to slavery….” Hill said: “there are mistaken dates and leaps of logic leading to bogus connections….” Hill said that anyone who “worked… in the slaveholding communities of Maryland and northern Virginia…in the pre-Civil War South [had to have] some connection to the institution of slavery.” He suggested “that Tillman is only bringing this up to keep the dying cause of reparations for slavery alive….” Ref.: Ibid.

P., G., Critics. 22- Salem News (Mass.) Account, Cont’d. Salem News staff writer Alan Burke wrote that one document Tillman sent to the Salem News: “…a photocopy of a payment made [Oct. 5, 1832] by [William Wilson] Corcoran [1798-1888] to advertise a sale of slaves makes no mention of Peabody.” Barbara Doucette, unable to find evidence of a GP-slave connection in Peabody Historical Society records, said: “…He [GP] did not approve of slavery. But he had to deal with customers…who had slaves. If you did business in the South, you had to do it.” Historical Commission member Bill Power agreed, questioning Tillman’s assertions as “…scattershot, loose-cannon…talk…. Far from supporting slavery Peabody used his fortune to help newly freed slaves…[through] an educational fund for children of the war-torn South [Peabody Education Fund, PEF].” Peabody Historical Society member Ann Birkner said the U.S. Congress awarded GP a medal of thanks for the PEF as a national gift and that President Andrew Johnson (1818-75) thanked GP personally for it. Ref.: Ibid. See: PEF.

P., G., Critics. 23-GP Charges Dropped. JP Morgan Chase and Chicago’s Bank One merged on July 1, 2004. Legal precedent against a slave reparation case (Aetna and other insurance companies) had been set on Jan. 26, 2004, by Illinois U.S. District Court Judge Charles R. Norgle. Judge Norgle held that plaintiffs petitioning for slave reparations had no right to sue on behalf of dead ancestors, that the issue was no longer timely, that reparations was a political question, not a legal one, that it was a matter for the U.S. Congress, not his court. See:: “Slave Trade” in References: g. Internet.

P., G., Critics. 24-GP’s Post Civil War Critics. The 2004 slave reparation charge against GP is reminiscent of his post Civil War critics. Northern abolition extremists were angered that GP, a New Englander, had southern and Confederate friends [note: he worked in the South for 25 years, 1812-37]; gave a $1.4 million PIB to Md. when, as abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison (1805-79) charged, that state was “rotten” with treason; and further angered those bent on punishing the South when he gave a $2 million PEF (1867-1914) to aid public education for southern white and black children. GP then and since has been suspect by northern extremists for his good will toward the South (overlooking his northern gifts: public libraries, three museums, and other gifts). See: P., G., Critics 1-16 immediately above.

P., G., Critics. 25-Brief Career. GP at 17 with a paternal uncle left Newburyport, Mass., May 4, 1812, after a devastating fire ruined their separate stores there. Uncle and nephew opened a dry goods store, Georgetown, D.C., May 15, 1812. GP soon managed it alone and also peddled goods to nearby town and farm homes. He made a modest profit selling fabrics, manufactured clothing,, and other goods, mostly imported. His store’s advertisement listed such items as British Shirting cottons, Ladies Morocco Shoes, Prussian Binding, etc. See: Advertisement of goods for sale (Sept.-Dec. 1812) above.

P., G., Critics. 26-Dry Goods Importer. Older (age 33), experienced Georgetown, D.C., merchant Elisha Riggs, Sr. (1779-1853) made GP at 19 (they met as fellow solders in the War of 1812) his junior partner in Riggs, Peabody & Co. (1814-29), importer of foreign dry goods, resold to U.S. wholesalers and then to retailers. GP traveled, soliciting orders, collecting bills. After Riggs, Sr., left the firm in 1829 to become a NYC banker, he was replaced by his nephew Samuel Riggs (d. 1853) in the renamed Peabody, Riggs & Co. (1829-45). GP made five European buying trips, 1827-37. See: firms and persons named.

P., G., Critics. 27-Sold U.S. State Bonds Abroad. Far from dominating the U.S. cotton trade as Tillman charged, GP competed with larger, more successful importers of fabrics. Nor was GP wealthy before the late 1840s. The U.S. was a developing country with leading eastern states needing European investors to buy their bonds to finance state roads, canals, and railroads. On his fifth European buying trip, Feb. 1837, GP was appointed an agent to sell abroad Md.’s $8 million in bonds to finance the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Co. and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Co. Ref.: Md.’s 8 Million Bond Sale Abroad.

P., G., Critics. 28-Merchant to London Banker. The Panic of 1837, a subsequent depression, temporary inability of nine states to pay interest on their bonds sold abroad, and eventual resumption of those interest payments, kept GP in London almost all the rest of his life. He made a successful transition from merchant to broker-banker. He founded George Peabody & Co., London (1838-64), dealt in U.S. state bonds sold abroad, shipped European iron for U.S. railroads, and was a director of the Atlantic Cable Co. On retirement, 1864, without an heir, he asked that his name be removed from the successor firm over which he would have no control. George Peabody & Co. was renamed J.S. Morgan & Co. (1864-90). See: Panic of 1837 and firms mentioned.

P., G., Critics. 29-How GP Made His Money. Asked shortly before his death when and how he made his money, GP replied, “I made pretty much of it in 20 years from 1844 to 1864. Everything I touched within that time seemed to turn to gold. I bought largely of United States securities when their value was low and they advanced greatly.” See: Moorman, John Jennings.

P., G., Critics. 30-GP-W.W. Corcoran Relations. GP first dealt with William Wilson Corcoran over the sale in Europe of U.S. bonds to pay for the Mexican War of 1848. Washington, D.C.-born Corcoran, at 17, worked under two older brothers in dry goods combined with “a wholesale auction and commission business” (1815-23). Corcoran then managed the U.S. Bank’s real estate in D.C. to 1837. He then formed a D.C. broker-banker firm, Corcoran & Riggs (1840-48), whose partner, George Washington Riggs (1813-81), was the son of GP’s first senior partner Elisha Riggs, Sr. (mentioned above). To finance the Mexican War, the U.S. government sold U.S. bonds abroad, largely through Corcoran & Riggs, with GP in London selling part of those bonds. GP and Corcoran later corresponded and sometimes traveled together when Corcoran visited Europe. Some of Corcoran’s philanthropies preceded GP’s and included the renowned Corcoran Gallery (now Museum) of Art, Washington, D.C. (1869). Ref.: “Corcoran, William Wilson,” Appletons’ Cyclopedia of American Biography online: http://famousamericans.net/williamwilsoncorcoran/

P. G., Critics. 31-GP on Slavery and Union. Pres. Lincoln’s emissary to keep England neutral in the Civil War, Thurlow Weed (1797-1882), reported GP saying to him in London in Nov. 1861: “The business years of my life, as you know, were spent in Georgetown, District of Columbia, and in Baltimore. My private sympathies…have been against the institution of slavery.” GP also gave $10,000 to the U.S. Sanitary Commission which aided sick and wounded Union soldiers and sailors. Ref.: New York Times, Dec. 23, 1869, p. 2, c. 3-4. See: Civil War and GP. Weed, Thurlow. Slavery, U.S. South. U.S. Sanitary Commission (1861-65).

P., G., Critics. 32-GP Pro-Slavery Charges Unfair. Judge Norgle’s Jan. 26, 2004 dismissal of the reparation charges against Aetna and other insurance companies in effect threw out of court Alderwoman Tillman alleged but unproved GP pro-slavery charges. Still, unproved headline accusations leave an unfair taint, as McCarthyism showed. Had GP, publicly anti-slavery, been pro-slavery in any way, contemporaries and historians would have long since damned him. Instead, they praised his business morality, patriotism, Union support, promotion of U.S.-British friendship, and precedent-setting philanthropy in the U.S. and London. He left a goodly heritage. See: Peabody, George (1795-1869), Philanthropy.

P., G., Critics. 33-Aftermath Findings. A year after JP Morgan Chase absorbed Chicago’s Bank One, JP Morgan Chase officials reported (on Jan. 20, 2005) that their firm’s researchers found that two La. banks during 1831-66 (of JP Morgan Chase’s acquired 300 predecessor banks) had accepted slaves as collateral for loans. The officials stated that they abhorred this historical occurrence and had created a $5 million La. college scholarship fund to redress that wrong. Black pro-reparations advocates criticized the amount of the scholarship fund as insufficient. JP Morgan Chase was the first major U.S. company to publicly admit and provide scholarship redress for past slave profits. Ref.: Alan Burke & Jamie Jamieson, “George Peabody rescued,” Salem (Mass.) News, Jan. 7, 2005, p. A4. Erin Texeira, “Reparations Movements Becoming Mainstream,” Tennessean (Nashville), July 10, 2006, p. 4A. See: “Slave Trade” in References: g. Internet. Ref http://www.washtimes.com/upi-breaking/20050121-035055-8785r.htm

<>BR>Peabody, George (1795-1869), Engraver-artists (in Alphabetical Order)

<>BR>Peabody, George (1795-1869), Engraver-artists. 1-Aed Arnoult (fl. 1860s), was a French-born artist, birth and death years unknown (an alternate spelling of his name is Aed Arnault), who may have worked in London and is mentioned in one account as Queen Victoria’s portrait painter. He painted over a life-size photograph of GP to make it resemble an oil painting. The photograph of GP was taken by Philadelphia-born London-based photographer John Jabez Edwin Mayall (1810-1901). The original copy, first exhibited at the Royal Pavilion, Brighton, 1867, is in the PIB art collection. Copies that have appeared in print were signed by GP in 1868, with his handwritten quotation from his Feb. 7, 1867, PEF founding letter. Ref.: (John Mayall): Browne, Turner, and Partnow, p. 401. (Aed Arnoult): Schaaf, Larry J., pp. 279-288. See: Engraver-artists. Peabody, George, Illustrations. Peabody, George, Portraits.

P., G., Engraver-artists. 2-John Chester Buttre (1821-93), who made a widely published engraving of a GP photo, half-length facing right, taken by famed Civil War photographer Mathew B. Brady (1823-96) on March 23, 1867, in his NYC studio. On that occasion Brady also took photos of the PEF trustees, following their second meeting in NYC, March 19-22, 1867. . Ref.: (J.C. Buttre): Bryan-b, pp. 2-7. See persons named.

P., G., Engraver-artists. 3-Robert Dudley (fl. 1865-91), was the artist whose painting, HMS Monarch Transporting the Body of George Peabody,” 1870, large oil on canvas, 43″ x 72,” depicted the British warship HMS Monarch, leaving Portsmouth harbor, England, to transport GP’s remains across the Atlantic for burial in New England, accompanied by the USS corvette Plymouth. A photo by Mark Sexton of the painting appeared as the cover on The American Neptune, Fall 1995 (published at the Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Mass.), and identified as “a recent museum acquisition in recognition of the bicentennial of George Peabody’s birth. The same Robert Dudley is believed to have made a set of lithographs entitled “Memorial of the Marriage of HRH Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, to HRH Alexandra, Princess of Denmark,” published 1864, London, by Day and Son. Ref.: http://www.pem.org/neptune/desc554.htm (seen Dec. 29, 1999). See: American Neptune. Death and Funeral, GP’s. Dudley, Robert. GP Bicentennial Celebration (Feb. 18, 1795-1995). Peabody, George, Illustrations. Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Mass.

P., G., Engraver-artists. 4-W.H. Forbes, whose engravings of GP are in Peabody, George, Illustrations (below: Wilson, P.W., p. 3; Curry; Bryan, p. 3; and Mass. Historical Society Proceedings, IV (1866), frontispiece.

P., G., Engraver-artists. 5-H.B. Hall, Jr. (1808-84), born in London; died in NYC.

P., G., Engraver-artists. 6-Jules-Ferdinand Jacquemart (1837-80), who made an etching of the Congressional gold medal the U.S. Congress awarded GP (March 5, 9, 14, 16, 1867) for his PEF ($2 million gift for public education in the South. Ref.: Loubat, II, plate 78. See: Persons named. (Note: These engraver-artists are also listed in Peabody, George, Illustrations of (below).

Peabody, George (1795-1869), Related Events Since His Death

Peabody, George (1795-1869), Events Since His Death. 1-For a statement made soon after GP’s death (1870), see Brantz Mayer. 2-For memorial GP glassware manufactured for sale after his death, see Glassware. Bessie M. Lindsey. Gordon Sykes. 3-For annual dinners on GP’s birthday after his death; and for programs, speeches, and messages on the 100th year of his birth (Feb. 18, 1795-1895), see GP Centennial Celebration. 4-For the unsuccessful movement for a GP statue in the U.S. House of Representatives Statuary Hall, mid-1890s, see J.L.M. Curry. Statuary Hall, U.S. House of Representatives, U.S. Capitol Bldg. Statues of GP.

P., G., Events Since His Death. 5-For bicentennial celebration programs on the 200th anniversary of his birth (Feb. 18, 1795-1995), see Bicentennial Celebration of GP’s (1795-1995) Birth (programs held at the a-Peabody Museum at Yale Univ.; b-Westminster Abbey, London; c-PCofVU, Nashville; d-Peabody Institute Library, Danvers, Mass.; e-GP House Civic Center, Peabody, Mass.; e-Peabody City Hall, Peabody, Mass.; and elsewhere).

Peabody, George (1795-1869), Freedom of the City of London. See: London, Freedom of the City of London, and GP. See: Honors, GP’s, in Life and after Death (in chronological order).

Peabody, George (1795-1869), Gifts to Science and Science Education. See: Science: GP’s Gifts to Science and Science Education.

<>BR>Peabody, George (1795-1869), Honors. See: Honors, GP’s, in Life and after Death (in chronological order). Brush, Murray Peabody. Cooper, Peter. Hall of Fame of N.Y.U. Johnson, Robert Underwood. MacCracken, Henry Mitchell. Payne, Bruce R. Schuler, Hans. Shepard, Mrs. Finley J.

Peabody, George (1795-1869), Illustrations

Peabody, George (1795-1869), Illustrations. (All known prints of GP’s portraits, photographs, engravings, and other illustrations, are listed alphabetical by their author’s or artist-creator’s last name, or by publication title if there is no author, or by name of artist-creator, or by name of depository if source is in an unpublished document. Second and further entries by the same author are in chronological order).

P., G., Illus. A

Allen, Jack. “Peabody: A Tale of Two Centuries,” Peabody Reflector, Vol. 58, No. 2 (Spring 1986), pp. 19-23, has several illustrations. 1-GP photo in old age, seated, from waist up, p. 19. 2-Four photos of GPCFT, pp. 21-23.

P., G., Illus. B.

Baltimore News, “Baltimore in Pictures” (March 6, 1928), has photo of GP’s seated statue in front of the PIB, statue given to Baltimore by Robert Garrett (1847-96), April 7, 1890 (copied after William W. Story’s GP statue in Threadneedle Street, near the Royal Exchange, London).

Barson, Susie and Martin O’Rourke. The Peabody Estates Conservation Guidelines. London: Peabody Trust, 2001. GP illustration, p. 6; about 19 photos, 7 engravings, and 5 drawings of the first erected (1865) Peabody Homes at Islington, London.

Branch, Robert. “‘Happy Birthday, George!’ Danvers and Peabody to Celebrate Noted Philanthropist’s 200th Birthday,” Danvers Herald, Feb. 16, 1995, p. 3.

Brooke, Bissell. “Peabody Outwitted a Queen,” Sun (Baltimore), Feb. 13, 1955, has GP portrait, middle aged, from Enoch Pratt Free Library, Baltimore.

Brown, Thomas J., ed. See: “George Peabody,” American Eras: Civil War and Reconstruction, 1850-1877 (Detroit: Gale, 1997), pp. 172-173, below, has GP illustration similar to one in Hidy, Muriel E., below.

P., G., Illus. B. (Cont’d.)

Bryan, Nelson. “The Life of a Philanthropist: George Peabody,” Peabody Reflector, Vol. 62, No. 2 (Winter 1994), pp. 2-7. 1-GP photo in old age, head to waist, leaning on column, on contents page (from PCofVU archives, Nashville). 2-Engraving by W.H. Forbes of GP in old age, head and shoulders, with GP’s signature beneath, p. 3. 3-Street scene sketch of sculptor William W. Story’s seated GP statue in Threadneedle Street, near Royal Exchange, London, p. 4 (taken from Philip Whitwell Wilson, George Peabody, Esq., An Interpretation (Nashville: George Peabody College for Teachers, 1926). 4-Sketch of the Peabody Homes of London, p. 5. 5-Sketch of funeral scene, carrying GP’s coffin aboard HMS Monarch, p. 6.

P., G., Illus. B. (Cont’d.):

Bryan, Nelson. “The Life of a Philanthropist: George Peabody,” Peabody Reflector, Vol. 62, No. 2 (Winter 1994), pp. 2-7 (cont’d.). 6-Photo of 16 original PEF trustees plus GP taken at their second meeting on March 23, 1869, at Civil War photographer Mathew Brady’s (1823-96) NYC studio: seated, left to right, George Peabody Russell (1835-1909), Mass.; William Alexander Graham (1804-75), N.C.; GP; Robert Charles Winthrop (1809-94), Mass.; William Cabell Rives (1793-1868), Va. Standing, left to right: George Washington Riggs (1813-81), Washington, D.C.; George Nathaniel Eaton (1811-74), Md.; William Maxwell Evarts (1818-1901), N.Y.; Edward Anthony Bradford (1814-72), La.; Charles Macalester (1798-1873), Penn.; John Henry Clifford (1809-76), Mass.; Adm. David Glasgow Farragut (1801-70); Gov. Hamilton Fish (1809-93), N.Y.; Gen. Ulysses Simpson Grant (1822-85); Gov. William Aiken (1806-87), S.C.; Bishop Charles Pettit McIlvaine (1799-1873), Ohio; Samuel Wetmore (1812-85), N.Y.; p. 7. 7-sketch of the first Peabody Institute, Peabody, Mass., p. 9.

P., G., Illus. B. (Cont’d):

Burk, Kathleen. Morgan Grenfell 1838-1988: The Biography of a Merchant Bank (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1989), has six illustrations. 1-Photo of GP seated statue in Threadneedle Street, near Royal Exchange, London, frontispiece (same in Bryan-3 above). 2-Portrait of GP (c.1854) by George Peter Alexander Healy (1813-94), in National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., facing p. 80. 3-Cartoon of GP and John Bull from Fun (London), Feb. 24, 1866 (about the Peabody Donation Fund (Peabody homes in London), following p. 80. 4-Engraving of Peabody Square model dwellings on Blackfriars Road, London; from Morgan, Grenfell, following p. 80. 5-Junius Spencer Morgan (1813-90) portrait, from Morgan, Grenfell Group, following p. 80. 6-John Pierpont Morgan, Sr. (1837-1913) portrait, from Bettman Archives, following p. 80.

P., G., Illus. C

“Capitalists & Financiers: Wealth and Empire Builders,” Internet URL (seen Dec, 29, 2003): http://www.kipnotes.com/CapitalistsFinanciers.htm has a photo of GP, standing, in old age, no description given. To the left of his photo is a list of three books about GP.

Carosso, Vincent P. The Morgans, Private International Bankers, 1854-1913 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1987), following p. 218 (from Pierpont Morgan Library), has three illustrations. 1-Photo of GP seated. 2-Photo of Junius Spencer Morgan (1813-90) in 1881 at age 68. 3-Photo of John Pierpont Morgan, Sr., in 1889 at age 52.
Chevalier, Michel, et. al. Les Contemporains Célèbres/Illustrés: 106 Portraits, 106 Études (Paris: Librairie Internationale, 1869), pp. 164-170: GP portrait.

Civil War Preservations, 3650 Nazareth Pike #144, Bethlehem, Pa 18020, had for sale (U.S. price $45) a GP visiting card (Carte de Visite) photograph, size 2.5″x4″, year c1860, Internet URL: http://www.civilwarpreservations.com/catdet.asp?TargetItem=SM416&CategoryType=CDV, seen Dec. 26, 2003. For other GP visiting card photographs, See: P., G., Illus.: picturehistory, and P., G., Illus.: R. Rigge, Henry (both below).

Conkin, Paul K., et. al. Gone with the Ivy: A Biography of Vanderbilt University (Knoxville: Univ. of Tennessee Press, 1985), has photo of GPCFT campus, Nashville, Tenn., after World War II, p. 473.

P., G., Illus. C. (Cont’d.):

Conte, Robert S. The History of the Greenbrier: America’s Resort (White Sulphur Springs, W. Va.: The Greenbrier, 1989), pp. 69-71, has photo of Robert E. Lee, GP, William W. Corcoran, and seven former civil war generals at White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., taken Aug. 12, 1869, p. 70 (same photo in Dabney, facing p. 3; Freeman, Robert E. Lee [full identification], Kocher and Dearstyne, p. 189, Lanier, ed., p. 4; Meredith, pp. 84-85; Miller, ed., p. 4; and Murphy, p. 58).

P., G., Illus. C. (Cont’d.):

Crichton, Mary. “Peabody in England: Bridging the Cultural Gap,” Peabody Reflector, Vol. 65, No. 1 (Fall 1994), pp. 14-17, has two illustrations. 1-Photo of sculptor William W. Story’s GP seated statue in Threadneedle Street, near Royal Exchange, London, p. 15 (same in Bryan-3 above). 2-Photo of burial marker, GP’s temporary burial site, Westminster Abbey, London.

P., G., Illus. C. (Cont’d.):

Cullen, Tom A. “Peabody Pioneer: First Slum Push,” Austin American (Texas), March 18, 1964, has engraving of “Peabody’s Apartment Houses” (London).

Curry, J.L.M. A Brief Sketch of George Peabody, and a History of the Peabody Education Fund Through Thirty Years (New York: Negro Universities Press, 1969; reprint of John Wilson and Son, 1898 edition), has engraving by W.H. Forbes of GP in old age, frontispiece (same in Bryan-2 above).

P., G., Illus. D

Dabney, Charles William. Universal Education in the South. In Two Volumes. Volume I: From the Beginning to 1900 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1936) has four illustrations. 1-Photo of Robert E. Lee, GP, and William W. Corcoran at White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., Aug. 12, 1869, facing p. 83 (same in Conte, p. 70; Kocher and Dearstyne, p. 19; Lanier, ed., p. 4; Meredith, pp. 84-85; Miller, ed., p. 4; Murphy, p. 58. 2-photos of Barnas Sears (1802-80), first PEF administrator, facing p. 122, upper left. 3-Jabez Lamar Monroe Curry (1825-1903), second PEF administrator, upper right. 4-photo of the 16 original PEF trustees plus GP, March 23, 1867; facing p. 123 (with names in Bryan-6 above). 5-illustration of Pres. Philip Lindsley (1786-1855) of the Univ. of Nashville; facing p. 287.

P., G., Illus. D. (Cont’d.):

De Mare, Marie. G. P. A. Healy, American Artist (New York: David McKay Co., 1954). No illustration but p. 206 mentions 1862 exhibition of portraits by Healy, including his portrait of GP (see Burk-2).

Dickinson, Lowes Cato (1819-1908), British artist: one copy of his portrait of GP is owned by the Peabody Trust of London which built and managed the Peabody homes of London; a second copy was owned by Henry Astley Darbishire (1825-99), British architect, who designed the 19th century estates containing Peabody homes of London (information supplied by Christine Wagg, Peabody Trust Central Administration, London, Aug. 25, 1998); and a third copy is in the PIB.

P., G., Illus. D. (Cont’d.)

Doll, Gaynelle and Phillip B. Tucker. “Partners in Time,” Peabody Reflector, Vol. 69, No. 1 (Winter 2000), pp. 15-22, has 1-GP photo in old age, head and shoulders; 2-Civil War photographer Mathew Brady’s (1823-96) NYC studio photo of 16 original PEF trustees plus GP, taken at their second meeting, March 23, 1867 (for names see Bryan-6 above); and 3-an 191l drawing of the GPCFT campus, Nashville, based on Thomas Jefferson’s design for the Univ. of Va.

Dorsey, John. Mr. Peabody’s Library: The Building, The Collection, The Neighborhood (Baltimore: Enoch Pratt Free Library, 1978), has four illustrations. 1-Engraving of GP, head and shoulders, p. 4. 2-Interior of PIB Library, Baltimore, p. 2. 3-PIB Provost Nathaniel H. Morison (1815-90), p. 6. 4-scenes of Mount Vernon Place, Baltimore, site of PIB.

Durant, John, and Alice Durant. Pictorial History of American Presidents. 2nd revised. (New York: A.S. Barnes and Co., 1962), p. 139, has idealized drawing depicting GP’s $2 million 1867-69 PEF gift for public education in the South to heal Civil War scars and educate both southern whites and blacks (original in the Library of Congress).

P., G., Illus. E

Economist (London), “Victorian Yankee,” Vol. 242, No. 6704 (Feb. 19, 1972), p. 53, has engraved portrait of GP in old age seated at desk, with head supported by right hand.

P., G., Illus. F

Freeman, Douglas Southall. Robert E. Lee; A Biography. The Pulitzer Prize Edition (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1935, 1936), next to last photo in appendix titled “Illustrations Specially Selected for the Pulitzer Prize edition,” has photo of 13 figures at Greenbrier Hotel, White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., taken Aug. 12, 1869, including five seated figures, left to right: Turkish Minister to the U.S. Edouard Blacque Bey (1824-95), Gen. Robert E. Lee (1807-70, then president of Washington College, renamed in 1871 Washington and Lee Univ., Lexington, Va.), GP, William Wilson Corcoran (1798-1888, GP’s longtime friend and former Washington, D.C. banker), and James Lyon (1801-82, Va. judge). Standing behind the five seated, left to right, are eight figures, seven of them former Confederate generals: James Conner (1829-83, of S.C.), Martin Witherspoon Gary (1831-91, of S.C.), Robert Doak Lilley (1836-86, of Va.), P. G. T. Beauregard (1818-93, of La.), Alexander Robert Lawton (1818-96, of Ga.), Henry Alexander Wise (1806-76, of Va.), and Joseph Lancaster Brent (1826-1905, of Md.).

P., G., Illus.: F. (Cont’d.):

Freeman, Douglas Southall. Robert E. Lee; A Biography Cont’d. This photo, described in the New York World, Sept. 14, 1869, p. 12, c. 2, by Gen. John Bankhead Magruder (1810-71), was preserved for over 40 years by Confederate veteran James Blair of Richmond, Va., with the Confederate generals’ identity in dispute until correctly named by Leonard T. Mackall of Savannah, Ga., in 1935. Ref.: Greenbrier Hotel archives, White Sulphur Springs, W. Va. Miller, ed., Vol. 10, p. 4.

P., G., Illus.: F. (Cont’d.)

Freeman, Douglas Southall. Robert E. Lee; A Biography. Cont’d. Note: the authors believe that this Pulitzer Prize Edition incorrectly named among the standing generals John White Geary (1819-73) of Penn. (the authors believe this figure to be Martin Witherspoon Gary [1831-81] of S.C.). The authors believe that John Bankhead Magruder (1810-71) of Va. and Lew Wallace (1827-1905) of Ind., both listed in this Pulitzer Prize Edition, were not present; and that Alexander Robert Lawton, 1818-96 , of Ga., not listed in this edition, was in fact present at the photo taking. The same photo appears in Conte; Dabney, I, facing p. 83; Kocher and Dearstyne-Vol. 1, p. 189; Lanier, ed., p. 4; Meredith, pp. 84-85; Miller, ed., p. 4; and Murphy, p. 58. See: Corcoran, William Wilson. Confederate Generals. Lee, Robert E. Visits to the U.S. by GP.

P., G., Illus.: F. (Cont’d.)

Freeman, Douglas Southall. Robert E. Lee, A Biography (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1947), IV, p. 438, has photo of GP sitting alone at White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., as described in Freeman, Pulitzer Prize Edition, above.

Frizzell, Mildred Armor. “George Peabody Cup,” Hobbies, Vol. 86, No. 4 (June 1981), pp. 41, 62, has photo of GP pressed glass cup made in Sunderland, England, for sale after GP’s Nov. 4, 1869, death. See: Glassware, GP. Lindsey, Bessie M. Sykes, Gordon S.

P., G., Illus.: G.

“George Peabody,” American Eras: Civil War and Reconstruction, 1850-1877, ed. by Thomas Brown. (Detroit: Gale, 1997), pp. 172-173, below, has GP illustration similar to one in Hidy, Muriel E., below.

P., G., Illus.: G. (Cont’d.)

George Peabody Bicentennial, Town of Danvers (Danvers, Mass.: Danvers Preservation Commission for the George Peabody Bicentennial Celebration, 1995), has 18 illustrations from the Danvers Archival Center (18 illustrations below).
1-GP birthplace, 205 Washington Street, Peabody, Mass; now GP House Civic Center.
2-Sketch inside the Sylvester Proctor store, where GP was apprenticed.
3-Waterfront, Newburyport, Mass., where GP worked in his older brother David’s dry goods store, 1811.
4-Sketch of Baltimore, Md., harbor about the time GP went with his uncle to open a store in Georgetown, D.C. (May 1812).
5-London skyline from the Thames, showing Houses of Parliament about 1827-37 during which years GP made his first five commercial buying trips abroad, remaining in London 1837-69.
6-Sketch of the opening of the first Peabody Institute of Peabody (named Danvers, then South Danvers to April 13, 1868), Mass.
7-Sketch of front and back of GP medals presented to outstanding Danvers and South Danvers high school students.
8-Sketch of Maple Street Church, Danvers (now Peabody), Mass., where the parade started (Oct. 9, 1856) honoring GP during his 1856-57 U.S. visit.
9-Sketch of schoolgirls marching under arch honoring GP’s Oct. 9, 1856, hometown visit.
10-Sketch from photo of Peabody Institute Library in what is now Danvers, Mass.
11-Sketch from photo of Langley/Melcher house at 11 Sylvan Street, Danvers, Mass., where GP stayed in 1857.
12-Sketch of the outside of “The Lindens,” Sylvan Street, Danvers, Mass., where GP was entertained in 1866.
13-Sketch from photo of Joshua Silvester’s home, 13 Peabody Avenue, Danvers, Mass., where GP stayed on his U.S. visit in 1866.
14-Sketch of the Peabody Institute Library building, Danvers, Mass., at the July 14, 1869, dedication, with GP present.
15-Sketch of HMS Monarch returning GP’s remains to the U.S.
16-Sketch from photo of Peabody Institute Library, Danvers, Mass., dedicated in 1892 after original building burned in 1890.
17-Sketch of street decoration for parade honoring GP’s Danvers, Mass., visit (Oct. 9, 1856), marking his first return to the U.S. after nearly 20 years’ absence in London.
18-Illustration of the Prince of Wales unveiling sculptor William W. Story’s seated GP statue in Threadneedle St., near Royal Exchange, London (July 23, 1869).

P., G., Illus.: G. (Cont’d.)

George Peabody College for Teachers, Nashville. The Historical Background of Peabody College. Covering a Period of One Hundred and Fifty-five Years. Bulletin, Vol. 30, No. 10 (Oct. 1941), with Preface by Alfred Leland Crabb (1884-1980); 15 illustrations below.
1-Photo of GP in old age, full torso and head, left hand holding gloves, left arm leaning on furniture, p. 4.
2-Photos of eight U.S. Presidents who were trustees of GPCFT and its predecessors, with dates as trustees (clockwise): James K. Polk (trustee during 1839-41); U.S. Grant (trustee, 1867-85); Grover Cleveland (trustee, 1885-99); Theodore Roosevelt (trustee, 1901-14); William McKinley (trustee, 1899-1901); Rutherford B. Hayes (trustee, 1877-93); Andrew Johnson (trustee, 1853-57); and Andrew Jackson (trustee, 1792-1845), p. 6.
3-James Priestley (1760-1821), president of Cumberland College during 1809-21, p. 11.
4-Pres. Philip Lindsley (1786-1855) of Univ. of Nashville during 1824-50, p. 11.
5-Sketch of campus, Univ. of Nashville, 1856, p. 15.
6-Chancellor John Berrien Lindsley (1822-97) of Univ. of Nashville during 1855-70, p. 19.
7-Kirby Smith (1824-93, also known as Edmund Kirby Smith and Edmund Kirby-Smith), last Confederate general to surrender; who was chancellor, Univ. of Nashville during 1870-75, p. 21.
8-Photo of 16 original PEF trustees plus GP, taken at their second meeting on March 23, 1867, at Civil War photographer Mathew Brady’s (1823-96) NYC photo studio, p. 24 (for names see Bryan-6 above).
9-Photo of Pres. Eben S. Stearns (1819-87) of Peabody Normal College during 1875-87, p. 25.
10-Photo of Pres. William Harold Payne (1836-1907) of Peabody Normal College during 1888-1901, p. 29.
11-Photo of Pres. James Davis Porter (1828-1912) of Peabody Normal College during 1901-09, p. 30.
12-Photo of Pres. Bruce Ryburn Payne (1874-1937) of GPCFT during 1911-37, p. 35.
13-Photo of first GPCFT summer school 1914 under tent, p. 37.
14-Photo of Pres. Sidney Clarence Garrison (1887-1945) of GPCFT during 1937-44, p. 39.
15-Photo of Joint Univ. Library serving GPCFT, Vanderbilt Univ., and Scarritt College, p. 40.

P., G., Illus.: G. (Cont’d.)

Gwyn, Ann. “Changing Hands: Johns Hopkins Acquires Peabody Library,” Wilson Library Bulletin, Vol. 57, No. 5 (Jan. 1983), pp. 401-404, has engraving of GP, p. 401.

P.,G., Illus.: H

Hearn, Nicholas. George Peabody (1795-1869) “One of the Poor’s Greatest Benefactors?” (London: Peabody Donation Fund, 1980) has seven illustrations.
1-Engraving of GP in old age, cover.
2-Lithograph of the U.S. products and arts display at the Great Exhibition of 1851, from a lithograph at the Queen’s Library, Windsor Castle, p. 6.
3-Engravings of Peabody Homes of London buildings, pp. 20-21.
4-Engraving of the July 23, 1869, unveiling of sculptor William W. Story’s GP seated statue, near London’s Royal Exchange, p. 24 (same in Bryan-3 above).
5-Engraving of GP’s funeral in Westminster Abbey, from Illustrated London News (Nov. 20, 1869), p. 26.
6-Engraving of GP’s remains being taken aboard HMS Monarch at Portsmouth harbor, England; from Graphic, Vol. 1, No. 4 (Dec. 25, 1869), p. 27.
7-Engraving of GP’s remains in mortuary chapel aboard HMS Monarch; from Graphic, Vol. 1, No. 3 (Dec. 18, 1869), p. 28.

P.,G., Illus.: H. (Cont’d.)

Hellman, Geoffrey T. “The First Great Cheerful Giver,” American Heritage, Vol. 17, No. 4 (1966), pp. 28-33, 76-77, has the following five illustrations):
1-Portrait of GP in old age, seated, holding letter founding the PEF, with three lithographs on top and three lithographs on bottom depicting Oct. 9, 1856, GP celebration street scenes, Danvers, Mass., marking his first return to the U.S. after nearly 20 years abroad as London banker, p. 28.
2-Engraving of sketch of Peabody Square model dwellings, London, p. 30.
3-Engraving with legend: “A gold snuff box…presented to GP by the Mayor and Citizens of London,” appeared in Harper’s Weekly, Vol. 10 (Nov. 8?, 1866), p. 31.
4-Engraving with legend: “Escorted by American vessels, H.M.S. Monarch arrives in Portland, Maine, in 1870 with the remains of George Peabody,” from Peabody Museum, Salem, p. 33.
5-Engraving with legend: “The Peabody Institute in Baltimore, opened in 1866, offered the public a library, a lecture hall, an art gallery, and an academy of music, plus the funds to keep them going,” p. 76.

P.,G., Illus.: H. (Cont’d.)

Same Geoffrey T. Hellman article was reprinted in Peabody Reflector, Vol. 40, No. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1967), pp. 4-11, with the following ten illustrations: 1-Portrait of GP in old age, seated, holding letter founding the PEF, front cover. 2-Engraving by John Chester Buttre (1821-93) of GP in middle age from a daguerreotype, p. 4. 3-Photo of GP in old age, with right hand resting inside jacket, p. 4. 4-Photo of GP’s bust by sculptor Hans Schuler (1874-1951) unveiled May 12, 1926, at New York Univ. Hall of Fame (Washington Heights), p. 4. 5-Photo of GP in old age holding glasses in right hand and letter in left hand, p. 5. 6-Engraving of sketch of Peabody Square model dwellings, London, p. 6. 7-Lithograph of street scene with welcoming arches on GP’s visit to South Danvers (renamed Peabody since April 13, 1868), Mass., Oct. 9, 1856, p. 8.

P.,G., Illus.: H. (Cont’d.)

Same Geoffrey T. Hellman article was reprinted in Peabody Reflector Vol. 40, No. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1967), pp. 4-11, with the following ten illustrations: 8-Queen Victoria’s miniature portrait made in 1867 by British artist F.A.C. Tilt, baked on enamel, set in a frame of solid gold, given to GP in 1867 for his $2.5 million gift for Peabody model homes for London’s working poor (from 1862); original in Peabody Institute Library, Peabody, Mass., p. 9. 9-Engraving of sketch of HMS Monarch bearing GP’s remains; before docking in Portland, Maine., Jan. 25, 1870, p. 10. 10-Photo of GP taken by Philadelphia-born, London based photographer John Jabez Edwin Mayall photographer (1810-1901), signed by GP in 1868, with handwritten quotation from his Feb. 7, 1867, PEF founding letter, p. 11. See: Peabody: An Illustrated Guide (below).

P., G., Illus.: H. (Cont’d.)

Herringshaw’s Encyclopedia of American Biography of the Nineteenth Century , ed. By Thomas William Herringshaw (Chicago: American Publishers’ Association, 1902), p. 726, has a GP illustration, head view, in old age.

Hidy, Muriel E. “The George Peabody Papers,” Bulletin of the Business Historical Society, Vol. 12, No. 1 (Feb. 1938), pp. 1-6, has engraving of GP, “engraved by J.C. Buttre from a daguerreotype,” with signature, copied from “George Peabody,” Hunt’s Merchants’ Magazine, Vol. 36, No. 4 (April 1857), pp. 428-437.

Hill, Eloise Wilkes. “The Peabody Influence….A New Book,” Peabody Reflector, Vol. 42, No. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1969), pp. 15-16, has photo taken in 1961 of GPCFT’s Pres. Henry H. Hill (1894-87) and Mrs. Hill standing near sculptor William W. Story’s seated GP statue in Threadneedle St., near Royal Exchange, London, p. 16 (same in Bryan-3 above).

P.,G., Illus.: H. (Cont’d.)

Hill, Ruth Henderson. George Peabody “The Great Benefactor” 1795-1869; for the Centennial of the Peabody Institute, Peabody, Massachusetts. (Peabody, Mass.: Peabody Institute, 1953, reprint, 1989) has seven illustrations.
1-Illustration of GP holding letter, cover.
2-Peabody Institute Library, Peabody, Mass., p. 4.
3-Birthplace of GP, 205 Washington Street, Peabody, Mass; now GP House Civic Center, p. 8.
4-Tablet at birthplace, p. 10.
5-Queen Victoria’s miniature portrait done in 1867 by British artist F.A.C. Tilt (fl. 1866-68), baked on enamel, set in a frame of solid gold, given to GP in 1867 for his $2.5 million gift for Peabody model homes for London’s working poor (from 1862); original in Peabody Institute Library, Peabody, Mass., p. 14 (same in Hellman-8, Illustrated London New, and others above).
6-GP’s grave, Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Mass., p. 16. 7-GP memorial inscription on floor of Westminster Abbey, London.

P.,G., Illus.: H. (Cont’d.)

“Historical Funerals, George Peabody, 1795-1869, Philanthropist and Financier,” American Funeral Director, Vol. 75, No. 5 (May 1952), pp. 46-48, has several contemporary drawings of GP’s transatlantic funeral from his death in London on Nov. 4, 1869, to final burial in Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Mass., on Feb. 8, 1870, including
1-handing over ceremony of GP’s remains from Westminster Abbey, London, to Portsmouth harbor on Dec. 11, 1869, and
2-placing the coffin aboard HMS Monarch for transatlantic crossing to New England.

P.,G., Illus.: H. (Cont’d.):

Hoyt, Edwin P. The Peabody Influence: How a Great New England Family Helped to Build America (New York: Dodd, Mead and Co., 1968), facing p. 110, has three illustrations. 1-Engraving of GP in old age. 2-Drawing of GP’s birthplace, 205 Washington Street, Peabody, Mass; now GP House Civic Center. 3-Drawing of Peabody Square (Peabody model homes), Islington, London.

P.,G., Illus.: I.
Illustrated London News, May 26, 1867, p. 513, illustration of Queen Victoria’s enameled miniature portrait done in 1867 by British artist F.A.C. Tilt, set in a frame of solid gold, given to GP in 1867 for his $2.5 million gift for Peabody model homes for London’s working poor (from 1862); original in Peabody Institute Library, Peabody, Mass. (same, Hellman-8 and Hill-5 above).

P.,G., Illus.: J

Jones, J.E., was reported in the London Times, July 7, 1856, p. 10, c.5-6, as an Irish sculptor who made a bust of GP in 1856 and who was among those attending a GP-sponsored July 4, 1856, dinner at the Star and Garter Hotel, Richmond, near London.

P.,G., Illus.: K

Kenin, Richard. Return to Albion: Americans in England 1760-1940 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1979) has seven illustrations.
1-Portrait of GP (c.1854) by George Peter Alexander Healy (1813-94), in National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, p. 94.
2-Portrait of Junius Spencer Morgan (1813-90) by Braga, p. 98.
3-Facsimile of GP’s March 12, 1862, letter founding the Peabody Donation Fund for low-rent housing for London’s working poor (total gift, $2.5 million, original in Peabody Institute Library, Peabody, Mass.), p. 100.
4-Photo of gold box with parchment granting GP Freedom of the City of London, July 10, 1862 (original in Peabody Institute Library, Peabody, Mass.), p. 102.

P.,G., Illus.: K. (Cont’d.)

Kenin, Richard. Return to Albion: Americans in England 1760-1940 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1979) has seven illustrations (cont’d.).
5-Photo of Queen Victoria’s enameled miniature portrait done in 1867 by British artist F.A.C. Tilt, set in a frame of solid gold, given to GP in 1867 for his $2.5 million gift for Peabody model homes for London’s working poor (from 1862); original in Peabody Institute Library, Peabody, Mass. (same, Hellman-8, Hill-5, and Illustrated London News above), p. 103.
6-Photo of U.S. Congressional gold medal made by Starr and Marcus, NYC goldsmiths, awarded unanimously by U.S. Congress to GP in appreciation for his $2 million PEF, 1867-69 (original in Peabody Institute Library, Peabody, Mass.), p. 104.
7-Photo of wood engraving of GP’s Nov. 12, 1869, funeral service in Westminster Abbey, London, from Illustrated London News, Nov. 20, 1869 (original in Library of Congress), p. 105 (same, Hearn above).

P.,G., Illus.: K. (Cont’d.)

Kenyon, Paul. “Professor Tells How Peabody Pioneered in Giving Away Millions Constructively,” North Shore ’71 (Gloucester, Mass.), Vol. 6, No. 50 (Dec. 11, 1971), pp. 1-2, 4f, has eleven illustrations.
1-Enlarged photo of Queen Victoria’s miniature portrait made in 1867 by British artist F.A.C. Tilt, baked on enamel, set in a frame of solid gold, given to GP in 1867 for his $2.5 million gift for Peabody model homes for London’s working poor (from 1862); original in Peabody Institute Library, Peabody, Mass. (same, Hellman-8, Hill-5, Illustrated London News, and Kenin-5 above). Below this miniature, from left to right, are photos of:
2-Gold Box containing GP’s membership in the Fishmongers’ Co. of London.
3-Congressional Gold Medal awarded GP for the PEF.

P.,G., Illus.: K. (Cont’d.)

Kenyon, Paul. “Professor Tells How Peabody Pioneered in Giving Away Millions Constructively,” North Shore ’71 (Gloucester, Mass.), Vol. 6, No. 50 (Dec. 11, 1971), pp. 1-2, 4 + (cont’d).
4-Gold box containing GP’s Freedom of the City of London; cover.
5-Portrait of GP in middle age by John Neagle (1796-1865), original in Karolik Collection, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, p. 2.
6-Photo of open vault, Peabody Institute Library, Peabody, Mass., showing Queen Victoria’s porcelainized miniature portrait (same, Hellman-8, Hill-5, and Kenin-5 above), Congressional Gold Medal, and gold boxes containing membership in Fishmongers’ Co. and the Freedom of the City of London, p. 4.

P.,G., Illus.: K. (Cont’d.)

Kenyon, Paul. “Professor Tells How Peabody Pioneered in Giving Away Millions Constructively,” North Shore ’71 (Gloucester, Mass.), Vol. 6, No. 50 (Dec. 11, 1971), pp. 1-2, 4f (cont’d).
7-Photo of GP’s birthplace, Peabody, Mass., 205 Washington Street, Peabody, Mass; now GP House Civic Center, p. 4.
8-Photo of Shadwell Estate, 1935, Peabody Homes of London, p. 4.
9-Sketch of Peabody Square, Islington, Peabody Homes of London.
10-Photo close-up of Queen Victoria’s enameled miniature portrait made in 1867 by British artist F.A.C. Tilt set in a frame of solid gold, given to GP in 1867 in appreciation for his $2.5 million gift for Peabody model homes for London’s working poor (from 1862); original in Peabody Institute Library, Peabody, Mass. (same, Hellman, others, and Illustrated London News above).
11-Photo clasp of GP’s Congressional Gold Medal.

P.,G., Illus.: K. (Cont’d.)

Kocher, Alfred Lawrence, and Howard Dearstyne. Shadows in Silver, a Record of Virginia, 1850-1900, in Contemporary Photographs taken by George and Huestis Cook with Additions from the Cook Collection (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1954) has two illustrations.
1-Photo of GP, former Civil War generals, northern and southern educators and statesmen at White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., taken Aug. 12, 1869, p. 189 (same, Conte; Dabney, I, facing p. 83; Freeman, Pulitzer Prize Edition; Kocher and Dearstyne-I; Lanier, ed.; Meredith; and Miller, ed., p. 4; Murphy.).
2-Photo of GP sitting alone, p. 190 (same, Dabney I, facing p. 83; Freeman, Robert E. Lee, A Biography, IV, p. 438; Meredith, pp. 84-85; Miller (ed.), X, p. 4.

P.,G., Illus.: L

Ladies Newspaper and Pictorial Times (London), July 26, 1851, p. 43, has large woodcut illustration of GP introducing the Duke of Wellington to U.S. Minister to Britain Abbott Lawrence at GP’s July 4, 1851, U.S.-British friendship dinner, Willis’s Rooms, London, during the Great Exhibition of 1851, London (first world’s fair).

P.,G., Illus.: L. (Cont’d.):

Lane, William Coolidge, and Nina E. Brown, eds. A.L.A. Portrait Index, Vol. III (New York: Burt Franklin, 1906, reprinted 1960), p. 1129, listed GP illustrations in the following 15 sources:
1-American Annual Cyclopedia and Register of Events of the Year 1867 (New York: Appleton, 1867), VII, engraving by Henry Bryan Hall, Jr. (1808-84), frontispiece, p. 7.
2-“George Peabody,” Appletons’ Cyclopedia of American Biography. Ed. by James Grant Wilson and John Fiske (New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1888), IV, engraving by H. B. Hall, Jr., p. 688.
3-Sarah Knowles Bolton, Lives of Poor Boys Who Became Famous (New York: Crowell, 1885), frontispiece.

P.,G., Illus.: L. (Cont’d.)

Lane, William Coolidge, and Nina E. Brown, eds. A.L.A. Portrait Index, Vol. III (New York: Burt Franklin, 1906, reprinted 1960), p. 1129, listed GP illustrations in 15 sources (cont’d).
4-Lillian C. Buttre, American Portrait Gallery (New York: Buttre, 1877), I, plate 39, engraving by J.C. Buttre based on a GP photo.
5-Evart A. Duyckinck, Portrait Gallery of Eminent Men and Women of Europe and America. II (New York: Johnson, 1873), photo, p. 291.
6-Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, Vol. 118 (1884). Illustration of sculptor William W. Story’s seated GP statue in Threadneedle St., near Royal Exchange, London, p. 773 (same, Bryan-3 above).
7-“George Peabody,” Harper’s Weekly Magazine, Vol. 6 (May 17, 1862), woodcut, p. 309.
8-Harper’s Weekly, Vol. 10 (1866), woodcuts, pp. 221 and 701.

P.,G., Illus.: L. (Cont’d):

Lane, William Coolidge, and Nina E. Brown, eds. A.L.A. Portrait Index, Vol. III (New York: Burt Franklin, 1906, reprinted 1960), p. 1129, listed GP illustrations in 15 sources (cont’d).
9-Harper’s Weekly, Vol. 11 (1867), woodcut of group, p. 228.
10-“George Peabody,” Harper’s Weekly, Vol. 13, No. 673 (Nov. 20, 1869), woodcut, pp. 749 and 808.
11-Frederick G. Harrison, Biographical Sketches of Preeminent Americans. 4 vols. (Boston: Walker, 1892-1893). II (1892), plate 22.
12-Joseph Florimond Loubat, Medallic History of the U. S. 1776-1876 (New York: Loubat, 1880). II, etching of GP’s U.S. Congressional gold medal by engraver Jules-Ferdinand Jacquemart (1837-80), plate 78.
13-Magazine of Art (London). Vol. 13 (1890), p. 49, has J. M. Johnstone’s engraving of GP portrait by G. F. Watts.
14-Massachusetts Historical Society Proceedings, IX (1866), frontispiece, has W.H. Forbes engraving of GP.
15-William T. Brigham, “New England in Baltimore,” New England Magazine (New Series), Vol. 22 (1900), pp. 218-231 (illustration, p. 227).

P.,G., Illus.: L. (Cont’d.)

Lanier, Robert S., ed. Photographic History of the Civil War. Vol. 5, The Armies and Leaders: Poetry and Eloquence (Secaucus, NJ: Blue & Grey Press, 1987), p. 4, has photo, White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., taken Aug. 12, 1869, of five seated figures, including GP and Robert E. Lee, plus seven standing former Confederate generals (same, Conte, p. 70, above; Dabney, I, facing p. 83 above; fully identified in Freeman, Robert E. Lee, Pulitzer Prize Edition above; Kocher and Dearstyne-1, p. 189 above; Miller, ed., p. 4 below; and Murphy below).

“Last Honors, The,” Harper’s Weekly, Vol. 14, No. 686 (Feb. 19, 1870), p. 113, has five GP-related funeral scenes from his Nov. 4, 1869, death, to Feb. 8, 1870, final burial.

P.,G.,, Illus.: L. (Cont’d.)

Law, Frederick Houk. Great Americans (New York: Globe Book, 1953), pp. 391-396, has portrait of GP on p. 389.

Library of Congress BIOG FILE, Washington, D.C., has J.C. Buttre engraving of GP photo by Civil War photographer Mathew Brady (1823-96).

Liebenson, Bess. “The Country’s First Modern Philanthropist,” New York Times, July 14, 1995, XIII-CN, p. 17, has portrait of a seated GP, commissioned to honor his Oct. 22, 1866, $150,000 gift founding the Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale Univ.

P.,G., Illus.: L. (Cont’d.)

Lossing, Benson J. Mathew Brady’s Illustrated History of the Civil War, 1861-65 (New York: Fairfax Press, 1912), p. 486, has photo titled “Peabody Fund Commission.” It shows nine of the 16 original PEF trustees plus GP. These nine are the right hand group of the 17 figures (GP is the 17th) usually seen in this historic photo, taken March 23, 1867, at famed Civil War photographer Mathew Brady’s NYC studio. The nine trustees in this photo of part of the group are, from left to right: Adm. David G. Farragut, GP, Hamilton Fish, U.S. Grant, William Aiken, Robert Charles Winthrop, Charles Pettit McIlvaine, William Cabell Rives, and Samuel Wetmore (all 17 are listed in Bryan, Dabney, Kocher, and GPCFT above).

P.,G., Illus.: M

McCabe, Kathy. “Peabody Festivities Will Last All Year,” Boston Sunday Globe, Feb. 12, 1995, has head and shoulders photo of GP in old age.
Marney, Betty. “Fascinating Life of Great Philanthropist,” Nashville Banner (Tenn.), Dec. 10, 1971, p. 56, has photo of engraving of GP in old age.

P.,G., Illus.: M. (Cont’d.)

Maryland Historical Society, Prints and Photographs Division, 201 West Monument St., Baltimore, Md. 21201.
1-Uncataloged extensive photos and prints of GP.
2-1866 photo of GP and various dignitaries on the steps of the Peabody Institute of Baltimore watching parade in GP’s honor.
3-Photos of PIB.
4-Signed GP photo, 1867, cataloged as Z24.1354, seen Internet (Feb. 2002), see Ref.: g. Internet (World Wide Webb): http://www.mdhs.org/library/Z24Port2.html

5-Has Conway, Mass.-born Chester Harding’s (1792-1866) portrait of GP. See: Peabody, George, Portraits.

Maryland History Notes, “Baltimore’s 150th Birthday,” Vol. 5, No. 3 (Nov. 1947), pp. 1-2.
1-GP portrait painted by James Reid Lambdin (1807-89) in 1857 (original at Maryland Historical Society) is mentioned on p. 1 (PIB Art Catalog also listed Lambdin’s 1857 portrait of GP in its possession).
2-GP portrait, “Painted during the early years of his maturity” (probably in his early thirties) by Chester Harding (1792-1866, original in Maryland Historical Society, oil on canvas, 30″ x 25,” in oval frame), donated by Mrs. Charles R. Weld (née Frances Eaton, who died March 13, 1947), p. 1. See: Harding, Chester.

P.,G., Illus.: M. (Cont’d.)

Maryland State Archives, Peabody Art Collection, Annapolis, Md. 21401, owns six GP illustrations:
1-GP painted photo by John Jabez Edwin Mayall, 94″x60.”
2-GP painting, 1857, oil on canvas, 36″x30.”
3-GP painting, artist unknown, c. 1840, oil on canvas, 30″x25.”
4-GP bronze sculpture by Leonce Rabillon (1814-86), 19″ high.
5-GP marble sculpture by John Jones (-).
6-GP painting by Lowes Cato Dickinson, oil on canvas, 56″x44.”
7-GP painting by Thomas Buchanan Read (1822-72), 1860, oil on canvas, 58″x98.” For Mayall, see Peabody: An Illustrated Guide…and Peabody Library, Thetford, Vt., both under P.G., Illus.; and under Peabody, George, Portraits.

P.,G., Illus.: M. (Cont’d.)

Menu: “Dinner Given by Mr. Peabody, at the Clarendon Hotel, Bond Street, on the Anniversary of George Washington’s Birth-Day, Feb. 22, 1854, to His Excellency Minister, Mr. Buchanan.” Front of menu, GP Bicentenary Dinner, Wednesday, 15 Feb. 1995, The Picture Room, The Athenaeum, London.

P.,G., Illus.: M. (Cont’d.)

Moody, John, and George Kibbe Turner. “The Masters of Capital in America: Morgan: The Great Trustee,” McClure’s Magazine, Vol. 36, No. 1 (Nov. 1910), pp. 3-24, has portrait of aged seated GP on p. 7.

Murphy, Richard W. The Nation Reunited: The Civil War: War’s Aftermath (Alexandria, Va.: Time-Life Books, 1987), p. 58, photo of five seated figures (Blacque, Lee, GP, Corcoran, Lyons) and seven standing former Civil War generals (Conner, Gary, Lilley, Beauregard, Lawton, Wise, Brent), taken Aug. 12, 1869, White Sulphur Springs, W.Va. (full names, birth and death dates, and states represented are listed in Douglas Southall Freeman above).

P., G., Illus.: N

New York Times, Sunday, Feb. 28, 1988, John Gross, “A Banker with a Gift for Giving, A Golden Touch and a Taste for Dining Well,” Section 2, p. 39, c.1 (“Creating a Legend: George Peabody and the House of Morgan,” part of a larger Pierpont Morgan Library of N.Y. exhibit, shown from about Feb. 28 through May 8, 1988, described GP’s career, his founding of George Peabody & Co., London, that firm’s subsequent history, and other facts, and illustrated with a GP portrait and menus from GP’s London U.S.-British friendship dinners).

New York University Hall of Fame for Great Americans. Hall of Fame for Great Americans at New York University: Official Handbook (New York: New York University Press, 1962), has portrait of GP.

P.,G., Illus.: Parker (Chronological Order)

Parker, Franklin. “Founder Paid Debt to Education,” Peabody Post (GPCFT), Vol. 8, No. 8 (Feb. 10, 1955), p. 1, has portrait of GP seated holding Feb. 7, 1867, letter founding the PEF.

Parker, Franklin. George Peabody, A Biography (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1971).
1-Engraving of photo of GP, with his signature, holding Feb. 7, 1867, letter founding the PEF, facing title page.
2-Profile of GP as a young man, made on dust jacket after an original by Gary Gore, then design and promotion manager, Vanderbilt Univ. Press (his design was awarded a Gold Medal by the Art Directors’ Club, Nashville, 1971). This GP profile also appeared in: Herbert A. Kenny, “The Old Tycoons,” Globe (Boston), Dec. 17, 1971; and Nashville Banner, Dec. 9,1971, p. 39.

P.,G., Illus.: Parker (Cont’d.)

Parker, Franklin. George Peabody, A Biography (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, Revised and Updated, 1995) has 15 illustrations:
1-Engraving of photo of GP, with his signature, holding Feb. 7, 1867, letter founding the PEF, facing title page.
2-Profile of GP as a young man, on dust jacket, after an original by Gary Gore (same, Parker above).
3-Sketch of GP’s birthplace, 205 Washington Street, Peabody (South Danvers before April 13, 1868), now GP House Civic Center (this illustration and the following are between pp. 112-113).

P.,G., Illus.: Parker (Cont’d.)

Parker, Franklin. George Peabody, A Biography (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, Revised and Updated, 1995) has 15 illustrations (cont’d.):
4-Oil painting of young GP, original in the Maryland Historical Society.
5-Portrait of Elizabeth (née Knox) Carson (Mrs. George Carson), to whom GP is alleged to have twice proposed marriage.
6-Sketch of PIB building, Charles and Monument Streets, Baltimore, about 1866.
7-Photo of interior, PIB Library of the Johns Hopkins Univ.
8-Sketch of three buildings, Peabody Homes of London, 1866.
9-Illustration of the Prince of Wales unveiling GP’s seated statue by William W. Story, Royal Exchange, Threadneedle Street, London, July 23, 1869.

P.,G., Illus.: Parker (Cont’d.)

Parker, Franklin. George Peabody, A Biography (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, Revised and Updated, 1995) has 15 illustrations (cont’d.):
10-Letter from Queen Victoria to GP, March 28, 1866.
11-Autographed photo of GP, full length, right arm leaning on mantle, 1867;
12-same photo is on back of dust jacket.
13-Photo of 16 original PEF trustees, with names, March 23, 1867 (same, Bryan, Dabney, GPCFT)
14-Sketch of GP’s temporary funeral at Westminster Abbey, London, Nov. 12, 1869.
15-illustration of crowd and carriages at GP’s burial, Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Mass., Feb. 8, 1870.

P.,G., Illus.: Parker (Cont’d.)

Parker, Franklin. “George Peabody and the Peabody Museum of Salem,” Curator, Vol. 10, No. 2 (1967), pp. 136-153.
1-Full figure photo of GP, standing, one hand tucked inside front of coat, p. 134.
2-Fig. 2, GP’s birthplace, 205 Washington Street, Peabody, Mass; now GP House Civic Center; and
3-Fig. 3, artist’s sketch of Peabody Homes in London, both p. 139.
4-Fig. 4, scene of GP’s temporary funeral ceremony at Westminster Abbey, Nov. 12, 1869; and
5-Fig. 5, HMS Monarch leaving Portsmouth Harbor, England, with GP’s remains aboard, p. 141.
6-Fig. 6, photo of the Peabody Museum of Salem (now Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Mass.), p. 147.
7-Fig. 7 and Fig. 8, photos inside East India Marine Hall (now Peabody Essex Museum), Salem, Mass., p. 149.
-Fig. 9 and 10-Fig. 10, photos of exhibits, Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Mass., p. 151.

P.,G., Illus.: Parker (Cont’d.)

Parker, Franklin. “George Peabody and the Spirit of America,” Peabody Reflector, Vol. 29, No. 2 (Feb. 1956), pp. 26-27.
1-Photo of bronze doors with tableaux depicting the Spirit of America designed by Louis Amateis (1855-1913), featuring as part of the design the head of GP; the bronze doors were intended for the U.S. Capitol Building; p. 26.
2-Photo of enlarged portion of above featuring GP’s face on right end of transom, p. 27.

P.,G., Illus.: Parker (Cont’d.):

Parker, Franklin. George Peabody (1795-1869), Founder of Modern Philanthropy. (Nashville: George Peabody College for Teachers, 1955), pamphlet containing Founders Day Address, given Feb. 18, 1955, at GPCFT, has eight illustrations.
1-Color portrait of GP, head and chest, cover.
2-Handwritten copy of last part of Feb. 7, 1867, letter founding the PEF, with GP’s signature, inside front cover.

P.,G., Illus.: Parker (Cont’d.)

Parker, Franklin. George Peabody (1795-1869), Founder of Modern Philanthropy. (Nashville: George Peabody College for Teachers, 1955), pamphlet containing Founders Day Address, given Feb. 18, 1955, at GPCFT, has eight illustrations (cont’d.).
3-Photo of Queen Victoria’s miniature portrait made in 1867 by British artist F.A.C. Tilt, baked on porcelain, set in a frame of solid gold, given to GP in 1867 for his $2.5 million gift for Peabody model homes for London’s working poor (from 1862); original in Peabody Institute Library, Peabody, Mass. (same, Hellman-8, Hill-5, Illustrated London News, Kenin-5, and Kenyon-1 above), p. 7.
4-Queen Victoria’s letter, March 28, 1866, to GP, before his May 1, 1866-May 1, 1867, U.S. visit, thanking him for his second gift to the Peabody Donation Fund for model housing for London’s working poor; original in Peabody Institute Library, Peabody, Mass., p. 7.
5-Photo of GP’s bust by sculptor Hans Schuler (1874-1951) unveiled May 12, 1926, at New York Univ. Hall of Fame, p. 11.

P.,G., Illus.: Parker (Cont’d.)

Parker, Franklin. George Peabody (1795-1869), Founder of Modern Philanthropy. (Nashville: George Peabody College for Teachers, 1955), pamphlet containing Founders Day Address, given Feb. 18, 1955, at GPCFT, has eight illustrations (cont’d.).
6-Photo of the 16 original PEF trustees with GP, taken March 23, 1867 (names in Bryan, Dabney, GPCFT), p. 13.
7-Photo of GP seated statue in front of PIB, copied after William W. Story’s seated GP statue near Royal Exchange, London (same in Bryan above). The statue in Baltimore was given by Robert Garrett of Baltimore, April 7, 1890, p. 16.
8-Photo of sculptor William W. Story’s seated GP statue, near Royal Exchange, London, unveiled July 23, 1869, p. 25, from “The Last Honors,” Harper’s Weekly, Vol. 14, No 686 (Feb. 19, 1870), p. 113.

P.,G., Illus.: Parker (Cont’d.)

Parker, Franklin. “The Girl George Peabody Almost Married,” Peabody Reflector, Vol. 28, No. 8 (Oct. 1955), pp. 215, 224-225; reprinted in Peabody Notes, Vol. 17, No. 3 (Spring 1964), pp. 10-14, has portrait of Esther Elizabeth (Hoppin) Lardner (1819-1905) by Thomas Sully (1783-1872), completed Dec. 3, 1840. 20″ x 24,” original in Frick Art Reference Library, NYC, p. 215.

Parker, Franklin. “Maryland’s Yankee Friend, George Peabody, Esq.,” Maryland Teacher, Vol. 20, No. 5 (Jan. 1963), pp. 6-7, 24.
1-Sketch of GP (head and chest) in old age, p. 6.
2-Sketch of South Danvers, Mass., Oct. 9, 1856, street scene of victory arches honoring GP during his visit to the U.S., p. 7.
3-Sketch of GP’s coffin being received aboard HMS Monarch in Portsmouth harbor, England, for transport to the United States, p. 7.

P.,G., Illus.: Parker (Cont’d.)

Parker, Franklin. “Pantheon of Philanthropy: George Peabody,” National Society of Fundraisers Journal, Vol. 1, No. 1 (Dec. 1976), pp. 16-20, has portrait of GP in old age, head and shoulders. p. 17.

Parker, Franklin. “To Live Fulfilled: George Peabody, 1795-1869, Founder of George Peabody College for Teachers,” Peabody Reflector, Vol. 43, No. 2 (Spring 1970), pp. 50-53, has portrait of GP, with Feb 7, 1867, letter founding the PEF, p. 51.

P.,G., Illus.: Parker (Cont’d.)

Parker, Franklin “Educational Philanthropist George Peabody (1795-1869): Photos and Related Illustrations in Printed Sources and Depositories,” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), Vol. 18, No. 2 (June 1994), Fiche 1 D1Z; and abstracted in Resources in Education, Vol. 30, No. 6 (June 1995), p. 149 (ERIC ED 397 179). (Has earlier, less complete list of GP illustrations than in this more current George Peabody…Handbook listing).

P.,G., Illus.: Peabody. (Cont’d.)

Peabody: An Illustrated Guide (Baltimore: Peabody Institute of the Johns Hopkins University, 1977).
1-Life-size photo of GP by Philadelphia-born, London based photographer John Jabez Edwin Mayall (1810-1901); was painted over by French artist Aed Arnoult (or Aed Arnault), to resemble an oil painting; first exhibited at the Royal Pavilion, Brighton, 1867; original in PIB art collection; facing p. 3.
2-Photo at White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., of five seated figures, including GP and Robert E. Lee, and seven standing former Confederate generals who are named in Douglas Southall Freeman above.
3-Black and white etching of GP’s Feb. 8, 1870, burial in Salem, Mass., p. 7.
4-Photo of GP’s seated statue in front of PIB, copied after William W. Story’s GP seated statue near Royal Exchange, London; p. 19 (same, Bryan above).
5-Photo of GP and crowd outside PIB Building, Baltimore, at dedication, Oct. 25, 1866; inside back cover.

<>BR>P.,G., Illus.: Peabody

Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Mass., its holdings of GP illustrations:
1-Oil portrait of GP by A. Bertram Schell.
2-Three photos of GP in old age.
3-One engraved portrait of GP.
4-GP London dinner menus of Oct. 27, 1851, and July 4, 1856.
5-Two photos of GP’s birthplace, 205 Washington Street, Peabody, Mass., now GP House Civic Center.
6-Photo close-up of marker at GP’s birthplace, 205 Washington Street, Peabody, Mass; now GP House Civic Center, placed June 13, 1902.
7-“HMS Monarch Transporting the Body of George Peabody,” 1870, large oil on canvas, painted by Robert Dudley (fl. 1865-91), 43″ x 72,” depicts the British warship HMS Monarch, leaving Portsmouth harbor, England, to transport GP’s remains across the Atlantic for burial in New England, accompanied by the USS corvette Plymouth. Photo of painting by Mark Sexton appeared as cover on The American Neptune, Fall 1995 (published at the Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Mass., and identified as “a recent museum acquisition in recognition of the bicentennial of George Peabody’s birth. . The same Robert Dudley is believed to have made a set of lithographs entitled “Memorial of the Marriage of HRH Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, to HRH Alexandra, Princess of Denmark,” published 1864, London, by Day and Son Ref.: http://www.pem.org/neptune/desc554.htm (seen Dec. 29, 1999). See: American Neptune. Peabody Essex Museum. Dudley, Robert.

<>BR>P.,G., Illus.: Peabody. (Cont’d.)

Peabody Historical Society, Peabody, Mass. [Bicentennial Calendar] George Peabody, 200th Anniversary, 1795-1995 (Peabody, Mass.: Peabody Historical Society, 1995), 28 pp., has 41 illustrations.
1-Cover photo of GP in old age, seated.
2-First Peabody medals given to best graduates of South Danvers and Peabody High School and Holton High School [p. 2].
3-Engraving of Peabody’s birthplace, 205 Washington St., Peabody, Mass. [p. 4].
4-Sketch of Capt. Sylvester Proctor (1769-c1850), under whom GP was apprenticed [p. 4].
5-Painting of Peabody Square, Peabody, Mass., 1828, showing school building GP attended [p. 4].

P.,G., Illus.: Peabody (Cont’d.)

Peabody Historical Society, Peabody, Mass. [Bicentennial Calendar] George Peabody, 200th Anniversary, 1795-1995 (Peabody, Mass.: Peabody Historical Society, 1995), 28 pp., has 43 illustrations (cont’d.).
6-Photo of unveiling of the Peabody Historical Society plaque, at GP’s birthplace, 205 Washington Street, Peabody, Mass; now GP House Civic Center, 1902 [p. 4].
7-Dinner menu, GP’s Birthday, Feb. 18, 1867, W. Simonds’ Hotel, South Danvers, Mass. Cover and Bill of Fare [p. 6].
8-Etching of portrait (with signature), GP in middle age [p. 6].
9-Photo of Peabody Library, Thetford, Vt. [p. 6].

P.,G., Illus.: Peabody (Cont’d.)

Peabody Historical Society, Peabody, Mass. [Bicentennial Calendar] George Peabody, 200th Anniversary, 1795-1995 (Peabody, Mass.: Peabody Historical Society, 1995), 28 pp., has 43 illustrations (cont’d.).
10-Photo of Peabody Memorial Church, Georgetown (formerly Rowley), Mass.[which GP had built in memory of his mother] [p. 6].
11-Photo of crowd with GP outside entrance to PIB, Baltimore, at Oct. 25, 1866 dedication [p. 8].
12-Photo of auditorium, PIB Conservatory of Music, Baltimore [p. 8].

P.,G., Illus.: Peabody (Cont’d.)

Peabody Historical Society, Peabody, Mass. [Bicentennial Calendar] George Peabody, 200th Anniversary, 1795-1995 (Peabody, Mass.: Peabody Historical Society, 1995), 28 pp., has 43 illustrations (cont’d.).
13-Photo of exterior of PIB [p. 8].
14-Small photo of GP in old age seated in chair near desk [p. 9].
15-Photo of GP seated holding glasses, from Archives, Pierpont Morgan Library, New York [p. 10].
16-Photo of Junius Spencer Morgan, Archives, Pierpont Morgan Library, New York [p. 10].
17-Copy of partnership agreement, GP and Junius Spencer Morgan, Aug. 10, 1854 [p. 10].
18-Small photo of William W. Story’s seated statue of GP [p. 11].

P.,G., Illus.: Peabody (Cont’d.):

Peabody Historical Society, Peabody, Mass. [Bicentennial Calendar] George Peabody, 200th Anniversary, 1795-1995 (Peabody, Mass.: Peabody Historical Society, 1995), 28 pp., has 43 illustrations (cont’d.). 19-Photo of GP and crowd at Peabody Institute Library, South Danvers, Mass., Oct. 15, 1866 [p. 12].
20-Sketch of Peabody Institute, South Danvers, Mass. [p. 12].
21-Sketch of Peabody Institute, Danvers, Mass. [p. 12].
22-Envelope containing GP’s May 26, 1852, sentiment, “Education, a debt due from present to future generations,” when he began his first institute library, Danvers (renamed Peabody, 1868), Mass. [p. 12].

P.,G., Illus.: Peabody (Cont’d.)

Peabody Historical Society, Peabody, Mass. [Bicentennial Calendar] George Peabody, 200th Anniversary, 1795-1995 (Peabody, Mass.: Peabody Historical Society, 1995), 28 pp., has 43 illustrations (cont’d.).
23-Photo of GP and crowd in front of Peabody Institute, South Danvers, Mass., Oct. 9, 1856 [p. 14].
24-Cover of dinner menu, South Danvers, Mass., to GP, Oct. 9, 1856 [p. 14].
25-Sketch of parade greeting GP, South Danvers, Mass., Oct. 9, 1856 [p. 14].
26-Sketch of different view of parade greeting GP, South Danvers, Mass., Oct. 9, 1856 [p. 15].
27-Small sketch of GP bust [p. 15].

P.,G., Illus.: Peabody (Cont’d.)

Peabody Historical Society, Peabody, Mass. [Bicentennial Calendar] George Peabody, 200th Anniversary, 1795-1995 (Peabody, Mass.: Peabody Historical Society, 1995), 28 pp., has 43 illustrations (cont’d.).
28-Menu of dinner given by GP at Clarendon Hotel, Bond St., London, on anniversary of George Washington’s birthday, Feb. 1854 [p. 16].
29-Photo of W. W. Story’s statue of GP, Royal Exchange, London [p. 16].
30-Menu of dinner given by GP at Willis’s Rooms, London, July 4, 1855 [p. 16].
31-Photo of U.S. Congressional gold medal given to GP, March 16, 1867, for his education gift to the South (PEF) [p. 17].
32-Photo of PEF trustees, 1867.

P.,G., Illus.: Peabody (Cont’d.)

Peabody Historical Society, Peabody, Mass. [Bicentennial Calendar] George Peabody, 200th Anniversary, 1795-1995 (Peabody, Mass.: Peabody Historical Society, 1995), 28 pp., has 43 illustrations (cont’d.).
33-Photo of entrance door, Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard Univ. [p. 18].
34-Photo of the seal of GPCFT, Nashville, Tenn. [p. 18].
35-Photo of East India Marine Hall (now Peabody Essex Museum), Salem, Mass. [p. 18].
36-Small photo of GP, head and shoulders [p. 19].
37-Photo of GP in old age, leaning on column [p. 19].
38-Painting of GP seated in old age, [p. 20].
39-Sketch of Peabody Homes of London at Peabody Square, Islington, London [p. 20].

P.,G., Illus.: Peabody (Cont’d.)

Peabody Historical Society, Peabody, Mass. [Bicentennial Calendar] George Peabody, 200th Anniversary, 1795-1995 (Peabody, Mass.: Peabody Historical Society, 1995), 28 pp., has 43 illustrations (cont’d.).
40-Three photos of the exteriors of Peabody Homes of London at Herne Hill, Tottenham, Pimlico, London [p. 20].
41-Small photo of Peabody Homes at Shaftesbury Park Estate, London [p. 21].
42-Photo of Queen Victoria’s miniature portrait by British artist F.A.C. Tilt, baked on porcelain, set in a frame of solid gold, given to GP in 1867 for his $2.5 million gift for Peabody model homes for London’s working poor (from 1862); and her earlier March 28, 1866, letter of thanks to GP for his gifts to London; both originals in Peabody Institute Library, Peabody, Mass. (same, Hellman-8, Hill-5, Illustrated London News, Kenin-5, Kenyon-1, Parker-3, and Parker-6 above) [p. 22].
43-Photo of GP seated at desk holding quill pen, in old age [p. 22].
P.,G., Illus.: Peabody. (Cont’d.)

Peabody Institute Library (Peabody, Mass.: Peabody Institute Library, n.d), unpaged, has six illustrations.
1-Color portrait of GP in old age, right hand in jacket, left hand holding letter; leaning on table, front cover.
2-Color photo of Queen Victoria’s miniature portrait made in 1867 by British artist F.A.C. Tilt, baked on porcelain, set in a frame of solid gold, given to GP in 1867 for his $2.5 million gift for Peabody homes for London’s working poor (from 1862); original in Peabody Institute Library, Peabody, Mass.[p. 8] (same, Hellman-8, Hill-5, Illustrated London News, Kenin-5, Kenyon-1, Parker-3, Parker-6, and Peabody Historical Society [Calendar]-40 above).
P.,G., Illus.: Peabody (Cont’d.)

Peabody Institute Library (Peabody, Mass.: Peabody Institute Library, n.d), unpaged (cont’d.).
3-Engraving of Peabody Institute Library, Peabody, Mass., 1854 [p. 10].
4-Broadside notice of dedication of the Peabody Institute Library, Peabody, Mass., 1854 [p. 11].
5-Engraving of Peabody Institute Library, Peabody, Mass., after GP’s death, Nov. 4, 1869 [p. 13].
6-Portrait of GP in old age, black and white, reduced from cover portrait, inside back cover [p. 15].

P.,G., Illus.: Peabody. (Cont’d.)

Peabody Library, Thetford, Vt., has a life-size oil portrait of GP by Philadelphia-born photographer John Jabez Edwin Mayall (with studios in London and Brighton, England), donated by GP in Aug. 1869, with the following printed on the back: “This portrait of George Peabody Esq. was first photographed by Mr. Mayall at this studios in Brighton, England, in March 1866. Then magnified by the Polar Camera to its present size, the outline traced on canvas, and painted in oil. The sittings for colour being given by Mr. Peabody in May 1869.” Ref.: Baldwin, J.A., pp. 12-15.
P.,G., Illus.: Peabody (Cont’d.)

Peabody Reflector, Vol. 38, No. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1965), issue cover has a black and white portrait of GP holding PEF founding letter of Feb. 7, 1867, addressed to the Honorable Robert C. Winthrop.

Peabody Reflector, Vol. 41, No. 4 (Fall 1971), back cover has copy of silhouette of a young GP, taken from front of dust jacket of Franklin Parker, George Peabody A Biography (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1971 edition; revised 1995 edition).

Peabody Reflector, Vol. 52, No. 4 (Winter 1980), issue cover has engraving of GP in old age.
P.,G., Illus.: Peabody. (Cont’d.)

Peabody Trust, Anticipate: Annual Report and Accounts 1997/98 (London: Peabody Trust, 1998), [p. 4]. Photo of GP’s seated statue on Threadneedle St., near Royal Exchange, London, unveiled July 23, 1869; green-tinted artistic photo viewed from below GP’s shoe looking up at seated statue with building looming behind.

Peabody Trust (London). Peabody Trust 1862-1987: 125 Years Caring for Londoners (London: Peabody Trust, 1987), has four illustrations.
1-Illustration of GP in old age, cover.
2-Portrait in color of GP holding March 12, 1862, letter founding the Peabody Donation Fund of London, facing p. 1. 2-Portrait of GP on cover of music score, “Good George Peabody,” [p. 6].
3-Drawing of Peabody Homes at Spitalfields, London, p. 2.
4-Engraving of GP’s funeral in Westminster Abbey, p. 2.

P., G., Illus.: Pickersgill

Pickersgill, Henry William (1782-1875), British artist, member of the Royal Academy of Art, whose portrait of GP is in the Corporation of London’s Guildhall, paid for by Philip Cazenove.

P., G., Illus.: picturehistory

http://www.picturehistory.com/search?word1=Peabody+Trust+Commission&submit.x=5&submit.y=5 internet URL. Enter “Peabody Fund Commission” in “Search” for a 1867 photo of GP and 8 of his original 16-member PEF trustees: standing left to right Adm. David Farragut, Hamilton Fish, Gen. U.S. Grant, William Aiken, Charles P. McIlvaine, Samuel Wetmore; seated left GP, J.P. Chase, and Robert Charles Winthrop (see P., G., Illus. Bryan, Nelson above for their dates and other original trustees). This source also has 9 other GP photos in old age, some of them visiting card photos (Carte de Visite), two by photographer J. Gurney (probably Jeremiah Gurney, New York City, N.Y.) , and one by French photographer Andre Adolphe Eugene Disderi (1819-89). Photos can be sent free as e-cards or purchased. See: also: P., G., Illus.: Civil War Preservations; and P., G., Illus.: R. Rigge, Henry .

P., G., Illus.: Pollard

Pollard, Michael. People Who Care (Ada, Okla.: Garrett Educational Corp., 1992), pp. 12-13, has three illustrations.
1-Portrait of GP. Henry C. Rauch, “Tale of Two Cities,” Sun (Baltimore), May 2, 1948.
2-Photo of sculptor William W. Story’s GP statue, near Royal Exchange, London (same, Bryan above).
3-Photo of GP seated statue in front of PIB, copied after William W. Story’s GP seated statue near Royal Exchange, London (same, Bryan above), given by Robert Garrett of Baltimore, April 7, 1890.

P., G., Illus.: Princeton Univ.

Photo of white-haired GP, three-quarter pose, taken on Fifth Ave., NYC, date and photographer unknown, in Ms. Division, Dept. of Rare Books and Special Collections, Lawrence Hutton Photographic Albums, Box 3, Album 6, Princeton Univ. Library, N.J. Ref.: Email (seen Feb. 22, 2000): mmsherry@Princton.EDU

P., G., Illus.: “Prophetic Eye.”

“The Prophetic Eye: The George Peabody Bicentenary Exhibition,” Peabody Institute of the Johns Hopkins University, in collaboration with the Peabody Trust in London, shown in the Treasury Gallery of the Museum of London, February 16 to July 9, 1995,…assembled by Peabody Institute of Baltimore Archivist Elizabeth Schaaf. Leaflet, unfolded, 15 and 1/2″ x 21 3/4″; 3 folds, 4″ wide, 11″ long.
Side 1, bottom:
1. Front cover, oval illustration of GP in old age.
2. Right front under “George Peabody: His Life and Legacy,” illustration of GP as a young man.
3. Left side: photo of fossil skeleton dinosaur Deinonychus in Front Hall, Peabody Museum at Yale, model used in Stephen Spielberg movie Jurassic Park.

P., G., Illus.: “Prophetic Eye.” (Cont’d.)

All on side 1: Midtop:
4. Johns Hopkins illustration (whose philanthropy GP influenced).
Midbottom:
5. Illustrated stern of ship Agamemnon laying transatlantic cable, 1857 (GP was an Atlantic Cable Co. director).
Left side.
6. Illustration of Elizabeth Knox, Baltimore belle, to whom GP proposed marriage, but whose father rejected the suit.

P., G., Illus.: “Prophetic Eye.” (Cont’d.)

Side 2: Top:
7. GP seated in group photo on lawn of Greenbrier Hotel, White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., Aug. 12, 1869; seated left to right: Turkish Minister Edouard Blacque Bey, Gen. Robert E. Lee, GP, William Wilson Corcoran, and Va. Judge James Lyon. Standing behind them are eight figures, seven of them former Confederate generals (same photo in Conte; Dabney, facing p. 3; Freeman, Robert E. Lee [full identification], Kocher and Dearstyne, p. 189, Lanier, ed., p. 4; Meredith, pp. 84-85; Miller, ed., p. 4; and Murphy, p. 58).

P., G., Illus.: “Prophetic Eye.” (Cont’d.)

Side 2: Middle top:
8. Photo of GP’s nephew Othniel Charles Marsh, Yale paleontologist, with Chief Red Cloud, 1883.
Middle bottom:
9. O.C. Marsh and six fossil-hunting members of Yale Expedition of 1872.
Lower left: 10. Illustration of U.S. Navy Capt. Elisha Kent Kane who led the 1852-53 search for lost British Arctic explorer, to which GP gave $10,000 for scientific equipment. Below Kane:
11. Illustration of one of original London Peabody buildings for housing London’s working poor.

P., G., Illus.: “Prophetic Eye.” (Cont’d.)

Side 2: Left side, extreme bottom: 12. Queen Elizabeth II with Peabody Trust Chairman Sir William Benyon opening Bruce House, near Covent Gardens to house homeless young people, July 1955. Extreme right bottom: 13. Illustration of GP’s funeral service, West Minister Abbey, London, Nov. 1869. Below Westminster Abbey: 14: Photo of Queen Victoria in old age; legend tells of correspondence between the Queen and GP in the Windsor Castle Archives.

End of 7 of 14. Continued on 8 of 14. Send corrections, questions to: bfparker@frontiernet.net

End of  7 of 14 Parts. Continued on 8 of 14 Parts.  E-mail corrections, questions to: bfparker@frontiernet.net

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