8 of 14: George Peabody (1795-1869): A-Z Handbook…, By Franklin Parker & Betty J. Parker, bfparker@frontiernet.net

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8 of 14 Parts: George Peabody (1795-1869): A-Z Handbook of the Massachusetts-Born Merchant in the South, London-Based Banker, and Philanthropist’s Life, Influence, and Related People, Places, Events, and Institutions. ©2007, By Franklin Parker & Betty J. Parker, bfparker@frontiernet.net

This work updates and expands Franklin Parker, George Peabody, A Biography (Nashville, Tenn.: Vanderbilt Univ. Press, ©1971, revised with illustrations ©1995), and the authors’ related George Peabody publications. Note: To read on your computer most pages of Franklin Parker’s out-of-print George Peabody, A Biography, 1995, as a free Google E-book copy and paste on your browser: http://books.google.com/books?id=OPIbk-ZPnF4C&pg=PP1&lpg=PR4&dq=Franklin+Parker,+George+Peabody,+a+Biography&output=html&sig=6R8ZoKwN1B36wtCSePijnLaYJS8

Background: Why these 1 to 14 blogs on George Peabody? The authors attended George Peabody College for Teachers, Nashville (renamed Peabody College of Vanderbilt Univ. July 1, 1979). Franklin Parker’s doctoral dissertation, “George Peabody, Founder of Modern Philanthropy,” 1956, has been an ongoing research and writing interest for over 50 years. The authors’ intent is to perpetuate public memory of him.

George Peabody, now largely forgotten by scholars and the public, was significant as: 1-a Massachusetts-born merchant in the U.S. South, beginning as junior partner in Riggs, Peabody & Co. (1814-29); then head of Peabody, Riggs & Co. (1829-43), importing dry goods and other commodities worldwide for sale to U.S. wholesalers. He transformed himself from merchant into: 2-a London-based merchant-banker, George Peabody & Co. (1838-64), which helped finance the B&O RR, the 2nd Mexican War Loan, the Atlantic Cable, and by choosing Junius Spencer Morgan (1813-90) as partner Oct. 1, 1854, was a root of the JP Morgan international banking firm.

Merchant-turned-banker George Peabody finally became: 3-the best known U.S. philanthropist of the 1850s-60s, founding the Peabody Homes of London for the working poor; founder in the U.S. of 7 Peabody Libraries and Lecture Halls; the Peabody Conservatory of Music, Baltimore; three Peabody Museums at Harvard (Anthropology), Yale (Paleontology), and the Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA (maritime history); and founder of the Peabody Education Fund for the South (1867-1914), a model for all later larger U.S. funds and foundations.

Two tributes to George Peabody:

Historian John Steele Gordon called George Peabody the “Most Underrated Philanthropist…. Peabody is unjustly forgotten today, but his unprecedented generosity was greatly appreciated in his time.” Ref.: American Heritage. Vol. 50, No. 3 (May-June 1999), pp. 68-69.

“The Peabody Fund, established in 1867 by George Peabody to assist southern education, is often credited with being the first foundation….” Ref.: Reader’s Companion to American History, ed. by Eric Foner and John A. Garraty (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1991). Internet: http://HistoryChannel.com/

End of Background. HTML symbols are intended for blogging (ignore). This 8 of 14 blogs covers alphabetically: Peabody, George, Illustrations. R to PIB Music. 50.

P., G., Illus.: R.

Rigge, Henry (1803-?), London photographer, 35 New Bond St., W., made a sepia photo visiting card marked “1861-1862,” size 2.5″x3.6/8,” of GP standing full length near draped column with his hands across his chest. This photo is marked cdv66-01 for sale by The Eastern Window, seen on Internet Nov. 1, 2003: http://www.the-eastern-window.com/EWcdv-index.html?row1col2=EWcdv66-01.html See: also Ref.: Pritchard.

Rogers, Tom. “Londoners’ Homes Peabody Legacy,” Tennessean (Nashville), Nov. 28, 1976, p. 3-F, has three illustrations. 1-Photo of William W. Story’s GP seated statue on Threadneedle Street near Royal Exchange, London. 2-Photos of outside of two apartment blocks, part of the Peabody Homes of London. 3-Photo of interior of one apartment, Peabody Homes of London, showing resident couple.

P., G., Illus.: S

Salem Evening News (Salem, Mass.), Aug. 31, 1963, p. 3, “A World Benefactor is Peabody’s Pride,” has four illustrations. 1-Photo of Queen Victoria’s miniature portrait made in 1867 by British artist F.A.C. Tilt, baked on porcelain, set in a frame of solid gold, given to GP in 1867 for his $2.5 million gift for Peabody model homes for London’s working poor (from 1862); original in Peabody Institute Library, Peabody, Mass. [p. 8] (same, Hellman-8, Hill-5, Illustrated London News, Kenin-5, Kenyon-1, Parker-3, Parker-6, and Peabody Historical Society [Calendar]-40 above). 2-Photo of sculptured bust of GP. 3-Photo of GP’s birthplace, 205 Washington Street, Peabody, Mass.; now GP Civic Center. 4-Photo of Peabody Institute Library, Peabody, Mass.

Salem News (Salem, Mass.), Nov. 4, 1971, “New Book on Life of GP,” has portrait of GP in old age.

P., G., Illus.: S. (Cont’d.)

Salem Evening News (Salem, Mass.), March 10, 1995, p. 9, article titled “Peabody Today. Curious About George? Revised Book Details Life, Times of Peabody Namesake,” has profile of GP as a young man, made from the dust jacket of Franklin Parker, George Peabody, A Biography (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1971 and revised 1995 ed.). The dust jacket design was made by Gary Gore, design and promotion manager, Vanderbilt Univ. Press.

Salem Evening News, Dec. 16, 1999, p. A10, S.M. Smoller, “Was George Peabody a Character Model for Dickens?” (Three GP illustrations from Peabody Historical Society, Peabody, Mass.).

Salisbury, Lynne Trowbridge. Peabody Museum of Natural History: A Guide to the Exhibits (New Haven: Yale University, 1961), p. 6, has two illustrations. 1-Photo of GP, head and shoulders, in old age. 2-Photo of Yale paleontologist Othniel Charles Marsh (1831-99) in old age (GP’s nephew who influenced him to found three Peabody Museums at Harvard and Yale universities and in Salem, Mass.).

Salome, Louis J. “George Peabody, More Than Just a College Name,” Tennessean(Nashville), May 7, 1995, p. 2D, has photo of bust of GP by sculptor Hans Schuler, unveiled May 12, 1926, New York Univ. Hall of Fame Colonnade.

Schaaf, Elizabeth, “George Peabody: His Life and Legacy, 1795-1869,” Maryland Historical Magazine, Vol. 90, No. 3 (Fall 1995), pp. 269-285, has 10 illustrations, all from the Archives, Peabody Institute of the Johns Hopkins University, of which Elizabeth Schaaf is Archivist). 1-Frontispiece has sketch of British warship HMS Monarch which transported GP’s remains from Portsmouth, England, to Portland, Me., after which the coffin went by train to Danvers, Mass., “in what the Guinness Book of Records still lists as the longest funeral train in history.”

Schaaf, Elizabeth, “George Peabody: His Life and Legacy, 1795-1869,” Maryland Historical Magazine, Vol. 90, No. 3 (Fall 1995), pp. 269-285 (cont’d). 2-Portrait of Baltimorean Elizabeth Knox, oil on canvas by unknown artist, with whom GP was said to be in love but whose father Dr. Samuel Knox discouraged the marriage; p. 272 (same in Parker, George Peabody…’95-3 above). 3-Portrait of GP as a young man, oil on canvas, ca. 1830, by an unknown artist; p. 272 (see Smoller, “City Has…,” below).

Schaaf, Elizabeth, “George Peabody: His Life and Legacy, 1795-1869,” Maryland Historical Magazine, Vol. 90, No. 3 (Fall 1995), pp. 269-285 (cont’d.). 4-Sketch: “A whale interferes with [Atlantic] cable laying by HMS Agamemnon…”; p. 276. 5-Photo: “Plaque at 23 Great Winchester Street in London shows the progression of the business founded by Peabody;” p. 277. 6-Photo of GP standing, surrounded by crowd, front steps of the PIB, Mount Vernon Square, Oct. 25, 1866, dedication, as parade of school children march by; taken by Washington, D.C. photographer Richard Bell, looking down, from top of base of Baltimore’s Washington Monument; p. 279.

Schaaf, Elizabeth, “George Peabody: His Life and Legacy, 1795-1869,” Maryland Historical Magazine, Vol. 90, No. 3 (Fall 1995), pp. 269-285 (cont’d.).
7-Sketch of crowded slum room with sleeping poor at Pheasant Court, Grays Inn Lane, London; typical of worst housing before model Peabody’s Homes for London’s working poor; begun 1862; p. 280.

Schaaf, Elizabeth, “George Peabody: His Life and Legacy, 1795-1869,” Maryland Historical Magazine, Vol. 90, No. 3 (Fall 1995), pp. 269-285 (cont’d.). 8-Arial sketch of Peabody Homes, Islington, London, after 1862, p. 281. 9-Photo of GP, White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., summer 1869, middle of 5 seated figures behind whom stand 8 former Civil War generals, p. 283 (same, Conte, above). 10-Sketch of GP funeral with pallbearers carrying his casket, Peabody, Mass, Jan. 8, 1869, p. 284 (same Conte, above).

Schaaf, Elizabeth, compiler. Guide to the Archives: The Peabody Institute of the City of Baltimore, 1857-1977 (Baltimore: Archives of the Peabody Institute of the Johns Hopkins University, l987), has seven illustrations. 1-Drawing of the exterior of the PIB building, front cover. 2-1870s aerial photo of PIB building on Mount Vernon Place, Baltimore; taken from steeple of nearby church, facing p. 1. 3-Life-size photo portrait of GP by Philadelphia-born, London based photographer John Jabez Edwin (1810-1901). In 1866 the 8-ft. photograph print was overpainted in oil and is in the PIB art collection; p. 8 (see Peabody: An Illustrated Guide, 1977, above). 4-Reduced size photo of GP seated and the trustees of the PEF, probably 1867, p. 11 (same, Dabney, Kocher above). 5-Peabody Homes of London on Peabody Square, Spitalfields, London, p. 12. 6-Photo of GP standing amid crowd outside PIB building, Baltimore, at dedication, Oct. 25, 1866, p. 14. 7-Drawing of six levels of stacks inside PIB library building, Baltimore, p. 16.

Schoettler, Carl. “Peabody’s Legacy: Banker gave Baltimore a Musical Institute–and the Gift of Giving,” Sun (Baltimore), Feb. 16, 1995, has two illustrations. 1-Photo of GP standing amid crowd outside PIB building, Baltimore, at dedication, Oct. 25, 1866. 2-Painting of elderly GP (head and shoulders).

Smoller, S.M. “City Has a Ball in Honor of GP’s Birthday,” Peabody & Lynnfield Weekly News (Mass.), Nov. 9, 1995, p. 2, has portrait of GP as young man, said to be a recent (1995?) gift of the Peabody Trust in London to the “local museum,” Peabody, Mass. (see Schaaf, Maryland Historical Magazine, Vol. 90, No. 3 (Fall 1995), pp. 269-285, 3 above).
Southern Education Foundation Annual Report 1986-87, Toward Equity and Excellence; A 50 Year Commitment, 1937-1987 (Atlanta: Southern Education Foundation, 1987), has several illustrations.
1-Illustration of GP in old age, p. 8.
2-Illustrations of later philanthropists influenced by GP’s example whose gifts have aided the Southern Education Foundation: John L. Slater, p. 9; Anna T. Jeanes, p. 10; and others.

Stump, William. “Man in the Street: Peabody,” Sun (Baltimore), Jan. 25, 1953, has photo of portrait of GP in middle age, from Enoch Pratt Free Library, Baltimore.
Sun (Baltimore), Nov. 4, 1971, p. B-2, “At the Maryland Historical Society,” has portrait of GP in old age.

P., G., Illus.: V

Virginia Journal of Education, “George Peabody Fund,” Vol. 57 (Sept. 1963), pp. 32-40, has portrait of GP.

P., G., Illus.: W

Welch, Allen Howard. “George Peabody’s Funeral Voyage: A Tarnished Homecoming,” Essex Institute Historical Collections, Vol. 109, No. 2 (April 1973), pp. 116-137, has four GP funeral illustrations from the Peabody Essex Museum collection, Salem, Mass., on pp. 128-129. 1-Drawing, “Reception of Mr. Peabody’s Remains on Board HMS Monarch at Portsmouth [England].” 2-Drawing of HMS Monarch at Portsmouth [England]. 3-HMS Monarch with GP’s remains off Portland Light, Maine; oil painting by H. Brown of Portland. 4-Drawing of funeral ships in Portland, Maine, harbor, with crowds watching.

Welcome to–Peabody, Massachusetts: ‘The World’s Largest Leather City’ (tri-fold pamphlet). [Peabody, Mass.: Chamber of Commerce and Peabody Historical Society), n.d, has two illustrations. 1-Portrait of GP, seated, holding June 16, 1852, letter founding Peabody Institute, Peabody, Mass., with signature. 2-Photo of Queen Victoria’s miniature portrait made in 1867 by British artist F.A.C. Tilt, baked on porcelain, set in a frame of solid gold, given to GP in 1867 for his $2.5 million gift for Peabody model homes for London’s working poor (from 1862); original in Peabody Institute Library, Peabody, Mass. [p. 8] (same, Hellman-8, Hill-5, Illustrated London News, Kenin-5, Kenyon-1, Parker-3, Parker-6, Peabody Historical Society [Calendar]-40; and Salem News-l above).

Wells, John A. The Peabody Story: Events in Peabody’s History, 1626-1972 (Salem, Mass.: Essex Institute, 1972), has twelve illustrations.
1-Program for “Peabody Reception (Oct. 9th, 1856) Dinner in Honor of GP, Esq., of London, by the Citizens of His Native Town, at South Danvers” (between pp. 6 and 7). 2-Four illustrations: (1) GP, head and shoulders; bottom left; (2) exterior view of Peabody Institute, Peabody, Mass.; (3) center, Peabody Square, Islington, London, England; (4) bottom right, exterior view of PIB, between pp. 6 and 7.

Wells, John A. The Peabody Story: Events in Peabody’s History, 1626-1972 (Salem, Mass.: Essex Institute, 1972), has twelve illustrations (cont’d.). 3-Sketch of “Reception to George Peabody, Oct. 9, 1856, with large parade passing through Peabody Square,” between pp. 6 and 7. 4-Illustration of “The Peabody Institute at the Time of the Address of Welcome,” 1856, between pp. 6 and 7. 5-GP portrait with legend, “George Peabody, America’s First Great Philanthropist,” between pp. 17 and 18.

Wells, John A. The Peabody Story: Events in Peabody’s History, 1626-1972 (Salem, Mass.: Essex Institute, 1972), has twelve illustrations (cont’d.). 6-“George Peabody Addressing the School Children of South Danvers, Mass.,” in Peabody Institute, Oct. 15, 1866; sketch by J. W. Thyng, between pp. 17 and 18. 7-“The Peabody Funeral–Arrival in Peabody, Massachusetts, of the Special Train with the Remains” [from “The Last Honors,” Harper’s Weekly, Vol. 14, No. 686 (Feb. 19, 1870), p. 113], between pp. 22 and 23. 8-“Arrival of George Peabody’s Remains in his Native Town, Feb. 1, 1870. Shows Funeral Carriage In Front Of The Peabody, Massachusetts, Rail Depot, With Crowd Looking On” [from “The Last Honors,” Harper’s Weekly, Vol. 14, No. 686 (Feb. 19, 1870), p. 113], between pp. 22 -23.

Wells, John A. The Peabody Story: Events in Peabody’s History, 1626-1972 (Salem, Mass.: Essex Institute, 1972), has twelve illustrations (cont’d.).
9-“Peabody’s remains lying in state in the Peabody Institute, Peabody, Massachusetts” [from “The Last Honors,” Harper’s Weekly, Vol. 14, No. 686 (Feb. 19, 1870), p. 113], between pp. 22 and 23. 10-“Photo of exterior of Peabody Institute building, Peabody, Massachusetts, showing mourning decorations during Peabody’s 1870 funeral” [from “The Last Honors,” Harper’s Weekly, Vol. 14, No. 686 (Feb. 19, 1870), p. 113], pp. 24-25. 11-“Catafalque for George Peabody’s Remains guarded by two military men, lying in state at Peabody Institute, Peabody, Massachusetts, Feb. 1-8, 1870” [from “The Last Honors,” Harper’s Weekly, Vol. 14, No. 686 (Feb. 19, 1870), p. 113], pp. 24 -25. 12-Illustration of the Prince of Wales unveiling GP statue, Royal Exchange, Threadneedle Street, London, July 23, 1869.

Williams, David A. “George Peabody,” McGraw Hill Encyclopedia of World Biography (New York: McGraw Hill Book Co., 1973), VIII, p. 334, has engraving of GP in mid life, from the Library of Congress.
Peabody, George (1795-1869), Internet Related URL’s on the Internet. See: References. g. Internet (World Wide Web): alphabetically by last name of author or subject or by title (located in References at the end of Newspapers).

Peabody, George (1795-1869), Named Institutions, Firms, Buildings, Ships, Other Facilities, Music, & Poems Named for GP (32 entries below)

P., G.: …Named for GP. 1-Riggs, Peabody & Co. (1814-29). The three business firms containing GP’s name include Riggs, Peabody & Co., a firm importing dry goods from world markets for sale mainly to U.S. wholesalers. He met older established merchant Elisha Riggs, Sr. (1779-1853) as a fellow soldier in the War of 1812. Riggs took 19-year-old GP as junior partner. The firm began in Georgetown, D.C. (1814), moved to Baltimore (1815), and had warehouses in NYC and Philadelphia from 1822. See: Riggs, Sr., Elisha. Riggs, Peabody & Co.

P., G.: …Named for GP. 2-Peabody, Riggs & Co. (1829-48). When Elisha Riggs, Sr., withdrew to become a NYC banker (1829), the firm was renamed Peabody, Riggs & Co., with GP as senior partner. His junior partners were Samuel Riggs (d. 1853, Elisha Riggs, Sr.’s nephew), Henry T. Jenkins (b. 1815), and Adolphus William Peabody (b. 1814, GP’s younger first cousin. Based in London since Feb. 1837, GP withdrew his funds from the firm in 1843, although its business transactions went on to 1848. See: Peabody, Riggs & Co. Persons named.

P.,G.: …Named for GP. 3-George Peabody & Co. (Dec. 1838 to Oct. 1, 1864). In London from Feb. 1837 on his fifth commercial trip to Europe (during 1827-37), GP a-headed Peabody, Riggs & Co., b-was Md.’s agent to sell abroad Md.’s $8 Million bond sale to finance internal improvements (Chesapeake & Ohio Canal, B&O RR, and others); and c-founded the London-based banking firm, George Peabody & Co. He traded increasingly and successfully in U.S. bonds: state, federal, railroad, and others. He remained in London the rest of his life (except for three U.S. visits). To devote his last years to his considerable philanthropic institutions, he retired Oct. 1, 1864, and withdrew his name from the firm, knowing he would no longer exert control. George Peabody & Co. became J.S. Morgan & Co. (1864-1909, led by Boston merchant, Junius Spencer Morgan, 1813-90, GP’s partner since Oct. 1, 1854; then by J.S. Morgan’s son, John Pierpont Morgan, Sr. 1837-1913). The firm was renamed Morgan Grenfell & Co. (1910-18); Morgan Grenfell & Co, Ltd. (1918-90); and continues as Deutsche Morgan Grenfell (since June 29, 1990). See: firms and persons named.

P.,G.: …Named for GP. 4-Peabody Institute Library, Peabody, Mass., June 16, 1852. GP early told intimates and about 1850 said publicly that he would found an educational or other useful institution in every town and city where he had lived and worked. Invited but unable to attend his hometown’s 100th year of separation from Salem, Mass. (Danvers, Mass., Centennial Celebration, June 16, 1852), he sent instead a letter from London, May 26, 1852, enclosing funds for his first Peabody Institute Library and a motto: “Education: a debt due from present to future generations.” This first of GP’s seven libraries contained, besides a free library, a lecture fund and lecture hall, similar to the lyceums and later chautauquas of the time. Danvers, his birthplace (1752-1855) was renamed South Danvers (1855-68), and Peabody, Mass. (April 13, 1868). GP ultimately gave the Peabody Institute Library, Peabody, Mass., a total of $217,600. See: Corcoran, William Wilson. Peabody, George, Philanthropy (below).

P.,G.: …Named for GP. 5-Peabody Institute Library, Danvers, Mass., Dec. 22, 1856. After GP’s hometown of Danvers, Mass., was divided into South Danvers and North Danvers (1855), GP founded the Peabody Institute Library, North Danvers, Mass., Dec. 22, 1856. It also contained a free library, lecture hall, and lecture fund. In 1868 North Danvers became Danvers, Mass. To the Peabody Institute Library, Danvers, Mass., GP ultimately gave a total of $100,000. Ref.: Ibid.

P.,G.: …Named for GP. 6-Peabody Institute of Baltimore (PIB), Feb. 12, 1857. From 1854 GP urged distinguished Baltimoreans visiting London to help him plan a learning center in Baltimore. The PIB, founded Feb. 12, 1857, was largely planned by Baltimore novelist and statesman John Pendleton Kennedy (1795-1870). GP and Kennedy had also been fellow soldiers in the War of 1812. Kennedy’s plan, based partly on the British Museum, consisted of a-a specialized non-circulating reference library, b-lecture hall and lecture fund, c-academy of music (later conservatory of music), c-gallery of art, and d-gave annual prizes to the best Baltimore public school students. Delayed by the Civil War, opened Oct. 25, 1866, GP gave the PIB a total of $1.4 million. The PIB was economically viable (1866-1966) until financial difficulties led the PIB Reference Library to become part of Baltimore’s Enoch Pratt Free Library (July 2, 1966, to July 1, 1982). On July 1, 1982, both the PIB Reference Library and the PIB Conservatory of Music, became constituent units of the Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore. Since GP had influenced Enoch Pratt (1808-96) to found the Enoch Pratt Free Library and Johns Hopkins (1795-1873) to found the Johns Hopkins Univ., hospital, and medical school, many Baltimoreans thought it prophetic and fitting that their institutions aid his creation. See: Eaton, Charles James Madison. Persons named. PIB.

P.,G.: …Named for GP. 7-Peabody Library, Thetford, Vt. In the winter 1810 GP, then age 15, visited his maternal grandparents, Jeremiah Dodge (1744-1824) and Judith (née Spofford) Dodge (1749-1828), and their son, his uncle Eliphalet Dodge, in Post Mills Village, Thetford, Vt. In memory of his maternal grandparents and of his visit there, GP gave, $5,000 for a public library, Aug. 1866, which opened Oct. 9, 1867, as the Peabody Library, Thetford, Vt. Ref.: Internet site (seen) March 18, 2000): http://www.valley.net~conriver/V13-7.htm Baldwin, J. A. pp. 12-15. See Concord, N.H. Persons named. Thetford, Vt.

P.,G.: …Named for GP. 8-George Peabody PIB Medal for Music. Recipients of the PIB’s George Peabody Medal for Outstanding Contributions to Music in America, initiated in 1980, included: Leonard Bernstein and Eubie Blake (1980), Benny Goodman (1982), Ella Fitzgerald (1983), Joseph Meyerhoff (1985), Steven Muller (1990), Dominick Argento (1993), David Zinman (April 1996), and Wynton Marsalis (May 1996). Ref.: “On Music: David Zinman…”

P.,G.: …Named for GP. 9-Contemporary Music. “The Peabody Schottish. Dedicated to George Peabody. By Jas. E. MaCruder,” is the music for a round dance (in a circle), resembling a polka, published in Boston, 1857 (“Schottisch” means Scottish). An illustration of GP, under Good George Peabody, described as “The popular music halls echoed to the tune of a ballad entitled ‘Good George Peabody’ – the celebrity of the 1860s,” appeared in Peabody Trust (London). Peabody Trust 1862-11987. 125 Years Caring for Londoners (London: Peabody Trust, 1987), [p. 6]. Ref.: The Peabody Schottish music is listed on the Internet (seen March 20, 2000), out-of-print section, http//:www.barnesandnoble.com llc

P.,G.: …Named for GP. 10-Poems about GP. See: George T. Dole. Grace Greenwood. Oliver Wendell Holmes. Walt Whitman. John Greenleaf Whittier. See also Quotations by and about GP. For GP eulogies, see Blanc, Louis. Hugo, Victor Marie. Winthrop, Robert Charles.

P.,G.: …Named for GP. 11-Steamship: George Peabody, 1857. The Powhatan Steamship Co., Baltimore, which owned two freight packets, the Belvedere and Pocahontas, laid the keel of their third steamer, May 1, 1857. They were to name it the Hiawatha but when the board of directors met a few days after GP’s PIB gift was announced (Feb. 12, 1857), they decided to name their new $90,000 vessel George Peabody in tribute to GP’s gift to Baltimore and as good company advertisement. The George Peabody, commanded by Capt. Pritchard, the largest freighter then in the Chesapeake Bay trade, steamed between Baltimore, Petersburg, Va., and Richmond, Va. By one account, on Aug. 13, 1862, taken over as a federal steamship in the Civil War, the George Peabody collided with the West Point, another federal steamship, on the Potomac River, with a loss of 83 lives See George Peabody (ship).

P.,G.: …Named for GP. 12-Peabody Trust (Model Apts. For London’s Working Poor, Mar. 12, 1862). GP first mentioned his intended gift to London to Baltimore friends in 1857. He first considered and discarded the idea of city-wide purified water drinking fountains. He then considered endowing the Ragged School Union (charity schools for poor children, begun in 1838). He asked visiting longtime friend, Ohio Episcopal Bishop Charles Pettit McIlvaine (1799-1873), to consult the head of the Ragged School Union, social reformer Lord Shaftesbury (Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th Earl, 1801-85). Shaftesbury’s advice was that the London poor’s greatest need, even more than schools, was affordable model apartments near their work. This advice led GP to gather distinguished trustees and establish the Peabody Donation Fund (later renamed the Peabody Trust, London, total gift $2.4 million), from March 12, 1862, which built the Peabody homes of London. In 1999 there were 17,183 Peabody apartments in 26 London boroughs housing 34,500 low income Londoners; 59% white, 32% black, 9% others). See: Peabody Homes of London. Persons named.

P.,G.: …Named for GP. 13-Peabody Library, Georgetown, Mass., 1866. As boy and man GP often visited Georgetown, Mass., 28 miles northeast of Boston, his mother’s birthplace (it was then called Rowley) and where his sister Judith Dodge (née Peabody Russell Daniels (1799-1879) lived for some years. In 1866 he built a Memorial Church in Georgetown in his mother’s memory (cost, $70,000) and that same year gave $30,000 for a Georgetown public library, lyceum, and lecture fund. See: Georgetown, Mass. Memorial Church, Georgetown, Mass. Peabody, George, Philanthropy.

P.,G.: …Named for GP. 14-Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard Univ., Oct. 8, 1866. GP’s nephew Othniel Charles Marsh’s (1831-99) successful career as first U.S. paleontology professor at Yale and second such professor in the world led to GP’s seven gifts to science and science education. GP paid for this nephew’s entire education (Phillips Academy, Yale College, Yale’s graduate Sheffield Scientific School, three German universities, plus a science library and a mineral collection). GP’s first considered giving Harvard an astronomical observatory, then a school of design (art) and, influenced by talks on science with nephew O.C. Marsh, he founded the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology (anthropology), Harvard Univ., Oct. 8, 1866, $150,000. See: Othniel Charles Marsh. Science: GP’s Gifts to Science and Science Education.

P.,G.: …Named for GP. 15-Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale Univ., Oct. 22, 1866. The gift of the Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale Univ., soon followed, Oct. 22, 1866, also $150,00. Ref.: Ibid.

P.,G.: …Named for GP. 16-Peabody Education Fund, Feb. 7, 1867. Anti-slavery extremists and Radical Reconstructionists, bent on punishing the South for the Civil War, faulted GP for his merchant career in the South (1814-37), for his $l.4 million PIB gift to Md. “when that state was rotten with treason” (abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison’s words), for remaining in London during the Civil War, and especially for his $1 million (doubled to $2 million) PEF to advance public education in the South. The PEF (1867-1914) is the best known and most valued by U.S. historians of his U.S. philanthropies. See: PCofVU. PEF. Peabody Normal College.

P.,G.: …Named for GP. 17-Peabody Essex Museum. The 200 year history of the Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Mass. (oldest museum in the U.S.), began as the East India Marine Society (1799), with Salem’s acquisitive shipmasters’ maritime treasures from China, Sumatra, India, and the Pacific islands. Next door was the Essex County Natural History Society (founded 1833), with historical papers of Essex County, Mass. These two organization combined as the Essex Institute (1848). Next to the Essex Institute GP founded the Peabody Academy of Science (Feb. 26, 1867, $140,000 gift) which existed during 1867-1915, when it was renamed the Peabody Museum of Salem (1915-92). In 1992 the Essex Institute merged with its neighboring Peabody Museum of Salem, renamed the Peabody Essex Museum (1992). See: above named institutions.

P.,G.: …Named for GP. 18-George Peabody Room, Washington, D.C. Public Library (Georgetown Branch), April 20, 1867). GP’s $15,000 gift was intended with other donations for a public library in Georgetown, D.C. (“where I entered business for myself in early youth,” his April 20, 1867, letter). The George Peabody Library Association of Georgetown (as it was known from 1876) later merged with the Washington, D.C. public library system. The still-existing George Peabody Room of the public library of Washington, D.C., contains Georgetown, D.C., historiana. See: George Peabody Room, Washington, D.C. Public Library (Georgetown Branch).

P.,G.: …Named for GP. 19-George Peabody Building, Univ. of Miss., was built following closure of the PEF (1867-1914) and the distribution of its assets, $40,000 of which went to the Univ. of Miss. The GP Building, Univ. of Miss., occupies 12,500 sq. ft. of floor space, houses the Dept. of Psychology, and was completely renovated in 1972. Ref.: Univ. of Miss.

P.,G.: …Named for GP. 20-Peabody Building, College of Education, Louisiana St. Univ., Baton Rouge. Recipient of PEF grant, LSU, Baton Rouge, named the building which houses its College of Education Peabody Building after GP. Louisiana St. Univ.

P.,G.: …Named for GP. 21-Peabody Hall, College of Education, Univ. of Ga. Peabody Hall, Univ. of Ga., which houses its College of Education, was constructed during 1912-13 with a $40,000 grant from the PEF. It was known as the Peabody School of Education during 1908-32 when the Ga. Legislature created the Board of Regents to direct all of higher education in Ga. Ref.: Dissertations Abstracts International, Vol. 19, No. 8 (Feb. 1959), pp. 1986-1987.

P.,G.: …Named for GP. 22-Peabody Building, Univ. of N.C., Chapel Hill. Recipient of PEF grant, the Univ. of N.C. at Chapel Hill named the building which houses its College of Education Peabody Building after GP.

P.,G.: …Named for GP. 23-Peabody Building, Winthrop University, Rock Hill, S.C., was begun in 1915 and dedicated in 1916. It has housed the physical education department and gymnasium, had an addition in 1957, a swimming pool added in 1976, and is to be torn down in 2006. The Peabody Building was so named when a building fund drive in 1915 by Winthrop College [for women] raised over $65,00: $35,000 from the PEF and $30,000 from the S.C. legislature. Winthrop University began in 1886 when Columbia, S.C., Supt. of Schools David Bancroft Johnson (Tenn.-born, 1856-1928, Univ. of Tenn. educated), facing a teacher shortage, sought help in Boston, Mass., from Robert Charles Winthrop (1809-94), trustee president of the PEF. The PEF contributed $1,500 and Winthrop added $50. Winthrop Training School (so named by Supt. D. B. Johnson) opened in Columbia, S.C., in November 1886 with one teacher, 19 young women students. D. B. Johnson was its first president during1886-1928. The teacher training school received S.C. state funds from 1887. Enrollment grew. Pres. D. B. Johnson’s request to the S.C. General Assembly, Dec. 1891, led to the creation of the “Winthrop Normal and Industrial College of South Carolina” (Johnson’s credo was: To educate a man is to educate one person; but to educate a woman is to educate a family). Rock Hill, S.C., was chosen as the new campus site when its businessmen offered land and building materials. Winthrop College, Rock Hill, S.C., became coeducational in 1974 and became Winthrop University on July 1, 1992.. Ref.: Winthrop Update (Rock Hill, S.C.), Vol. 12, No. 2 (Winter, 2004), pp. 1-2. Internet: http://www.rockhillherald.com/community/back/v-print/story/964562p-1011333c.html. Internet: http://www.winthrop.edu/president/pastpresidents.htm (both seen March 20, 2004).

P., G.: Named for GP. 24-Peabody Magnet High School, Alexandria, (Rapides Parish, La. 71302, was founded in 1895 with a requested PEF grant as Peabody Industrial School, grades 1-7, the only Black public school in Alexandria. It became a state approved high school in 1933. Ref.: Internet (seen Aug. 125, 2003): http://rapides.K12.la.us/peabody/

P.,G.: …Named for GP. 25-St. Louis Public Schools, Mo., opened 1872, still existing in 2002 at 1606 South 18th St., St. Louis, Mo., three stories high, architect believed to be J.H. Maurice, probably named after GP in connection with PEF school grants. Ref.: Sharon A. Huffman, Records Center Supervisor/Archivist, 1615 Hampton Ave., St. Louis, Mo 63139, to Edward F. Nevins, 365 Mountain Ave., North Plainfield, NJ 07062-2304, June 21, 2002.

P.,G.: …Named for GP. 26-Peabody Park, Univ. of N.C. at Greensboro, was founded in 1901 with a gift of $5,000 by Columbus, Ga.-born George Foster Peabody (1852-1938), partly in honor of GP, his distant relative who lived earlier (1795-1869). Peabody Park is a vital refuge for animals and plants of the Piedmont region of the eastern U.S. Founder George Foster Peabody was a NYC-based investment banker and organizer of railroads and utility companies. Retiring early (1906, age 54), he was active in philanthropic funds (treasurer, General Education Board, and others). He was a philanthropist who aided higher education at the Univ. of Ga., and aided blacks and women at other higher education institutions. Retiring early (1906, age 54), he was an officer in philanthropic funds (treasurer, General Education Board, and others) and a philanthropist who aided higher education for blacks and women. He served with Charles Duncan McIver (1860-1906) on the Southern Education Board and gave the gift of the Peabody Park after McIver became the first president of the Univ. of N.C. at Greensboro. See: Peabody, George Foster.

P.,G.: …Named for GP. 27-Peabody Hall, Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, was completed following a $40,000 gift from the PEF in Oct. 1913. It is the only building on campus of Tudor-Gothic style, built according to the original 1905 campus. It housed the Univ. of Fla.’s first College of Education and first Library until 1925. Now an historical site, it is attached to Criser Hall to form the Marshall M. Criser Student Services Center, housing student registration, financial aid, and admissions. Ref.: “The History of Peabody Hall,” Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Internet: http://www.dso.ufl.edu/peabody.html

P.G.: …Named for GP. 28-Peabody Court Hotel, 612 Cathedral St., Baltimore, Md. 21201, named after GP, began as a luxury apartment building in 1928 and is within walking distance of Baltimore’s Peabody Conservatory of Music, Walters Art Gallery, and the Enoch Pratt Free Library. Ref.: Internet: http://www.georges.snbhotels.com/history.htm

P.,G.: …Named for GP. 29-Peabody Hotel, Memphis, Tenn., 1869. Robert Charles Brinkley (1816-78), met and admired GP on a trip to Europe, probably when GP left NYC for England on the Scotia, May 1, 1867). That year Brinkley built a hotel on Main and Monroe, Memphis, Tenn. (near Beale St., famous for its jazz music). His admiration for and the vast publicity accompanying GP’s death in London (Nov. 4, 1869) and unprecedented 96-day transatlantic funeral voyage induced Brinkley to name his new hotel “The Peabody.” In late 1869 he gave “The Peabody” as a wedding gift to his daughter, Annie Overton Brinkley (1845-1923), when she married Robert Bogardus Snowden (d. 1923). “The Peabody” soon became the hotel in Memphis to visit, to stay in, and to be seen in. It hosted such famous guests as U.S. Pres. Andrew Johnson (1808-75), U.S. Pres. William McKinley (1843-1901), and Confederate Generals Robert E. Lee (1807-70), Nathan Bedford Forrest (1821-77), and Jubal Early (1816-94). Ref.: “The Peabody, Memphis: A History,” on Internet Online Infoseek (seen April 10, 1999). Internet [Peabody Hotel, Memphis, Tenn.] Wilkening, David. Ref.: Semmer, p. 726.

P.,G.: …Named for GP. 30-Peabody Hotel, Memphis, Tenn., 1869 Cont’d. Managed by the Snowden heirs, The Peabody closed in 1923 and was replaced in 1925 by a new $5 million Peabody Hotel on Union Ave., owned by Memphis Hotel Co., controlled by R. Brinkley Snowden, great grandson of the original owner. In 1932 when Peabody Hotel manager Frank Schutt returned from duck hunting in Arkansas, he put some live ducks in the hotel fountain to attract attention. In 1940 former circus animal trainer Bellman Edward Pembroke trained the ducks to waddle in step from the elevator to the lobby fountain. This famous daily “Peabody Duck March” has continued ever since, often seen by 1,500 visitors on weekends. The Peabody Hotel, refurbished in 1980, remains a Memphis landmark. Ref.: Wilkening. See: Peabody Hotel, Memphis, Tenn. Persons named

P.,G.: …Named for GP. 31-Other Peabody Hotels. The Peabody Hotel Group (founded 1960) includes, besides the Peabody Hotel, Memphis, the Peabody Hotel, Orlando, Fla., with the Peabody Hotel in Tempe, Ariz., under development or renovation as of Sept. 15, 1999, and a lease signed Sep. 21, 2000, converting the former Excelsior Hotel, Little Rock, Ark., into the Peabody Hotel, Little Rock, Ark., each continuing the “duck walk” tradition. Realtor company chairman emeritus Philip Belz (1904-2000), whose Belz Enterprises owned the Peabody Hotel Group, died Aug 4, 2000, in Memphis. Ref.: Internet (seen Nov. 14, 1999): Hospitality Online Profile, Peabody Hotel Group. (Philip Belz): “Noted philanthropist Philip Belz dies, Tennessean (Nashville), Aug. 7, 2000, p. 5B. (Little Rock, Ark.): “Little Rock’s Peabody Hotel to Include Ducks,” Tennessean (Nashville, Tenn.), Sept. 21, 2000, p. 4B.

P.,G.: …Named for GP. 32-George Peabody Riddle. George Peabody Riddle was named after GP in appreciation by his father, Edward W. Riddle of Boston, one of two U.S. Commissioners in charge of the U.S. exhibitors and their 599 exhibits at the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London, the first world’s fair. Embarrassed by lack of U.S. Congressional funds to adequately display their exhibits, GP’s timely $15,000 loan enabled U.S. art and industry to be seen to best advantage by over 6 million world visitors. See: Riddle, Edward W.

Peabody, George, Letters & Papers in Depositories. See: back of book under References for GP and related unpublished letters and documents in U.S. libraries and historical society depositories and in British libraries and other depositories.

Peabody, George (1795-1869), Overview
(As they appear alphabetically in this work the names of people are listed in reverse order after see Last, First Middle names)

P., G., Overview. 1-Events, People, & Circumstances. In approximate chronological order key GP events, people, and circumstances, numbered below are briefly identified, with see entries for further reading. Example: 1-GP’s ancestry: see Peabody Genealogy, Paternal and Maternal above. 2-GP’s parents: see Peabody, Thomas (1762-1811, GP’s father) and Peabody, Judith (née Dodge) (1770-1830, GP’s mother). 3-GP’s seven brothers and sisters, see (in order of birth): oldest brother Peabody, David (1790-1841), oldest unmarried sister Peabody, Achsah Spofford (1791-1821), younger unmarred sister Russell, Judith Dodge (née Peabody) Daniels (1799-1879), younger brother Peabody, Thomas (1801-35), youngest brother Peabody, Jeremiah Dodge (1805-77), younger married sister Peabody, Mary Gaines (née Marsh) (1807-34), and youngest married sister Little, Sophronia Phelps (née Peabody) (b.1809).

P., G., Overview. 4-GP’s Boyhood: see Proctor, Sylvester (1769-1852). 5-GP’s apprenticeship, Danvers, Mass., 1806-11, ages 11 to 14: see Proctor, Sylvester and Proctor, Jr., Sylvester (born c.1802). 5-GP’s visit to maternal grandparents, Thetford, Vt., 1810, age 15: see grandparents Dodge, Jeremiah (1744-1824) and Dodge, Judith (née Spofford) (1749-1828). Barnstead, N.H. Concord, N.H. Jewett, Temperance (née Dodge) (b.1772, maternal aunt) and her physician husband Jewett, Dr. Jeremiah (1757-1836). Mayall, John Jabez Edwin (1810-1901). Thetford, Vt. 6-GP as assistant in oldest brother David Peabody’s dry goods shop, Newburyport, Mass., 1811, age 16: see Newburyport, Mass., and Peabody, David (1790-1841, brother). 7-Consequences of GP’s father Thomas Peabody’s death, May 13, 1811, following an accident in which his leg was broken: see Peabody, Thomas (GP’s father).

P., G., Overview. 8-Great Newburyport Fire, May 31, 1811, & Consequences: see Great Fire of Newburyport, Mass. Georgetown, D.C. Peabody, David (GP’s brother). Peabody, Thomas (1762-1811, GP’s father). 9-GP’s sailing, May 4, 1812, with paternal uncle John Peabody on brig named Fame, commanded by Capt. Davis, from Newburyport, Mass., to Georgetown, D.C., where they opened a store on Bridge St., May 15, 1812: see Davis, Capt. of brig Fame. Fame (ship). Georgetown, D.C. Peabody, John (1768-before 1826, paternal uncle). War of 1812. 10-GP’s War of 1812 military service and later influential fellow soldiers John Pendleton Kennedy (1795-1870, statesman and PIB creator) and merchant and later partner Elisha Riggs, Sr. (1779-1853): see Kennedy, John Pendleton. Riggs, Sr., Elisha. Corcoran, William Wilson. War of 1812.

P., G., Overview. 11-Riggs, Peabody and Co. (1814-29); GP as junior partner in a dry goods importing firm: see Riggs, Sr., Elisha. 12-Peabody, Riggs & Co. (1829-48): see Corcoran, William Wilson. Corcoran & Riggs. Mexican War Loan. Riggs, Samuel (d.1853). 13-End of Peabody, Riggs & Co. (1845-48) and departure of Samuel Riggs to join Lawrence Stone & Co., connected with the Bay State Cotton Mills in Lawrence, Mass., and the departure of partners Henry T. Jenkins and Adolphus William Peabody: see Jenkins, Henry T. Peabody, Adolphus William. Riggs, Samuel.

P., G., Overview. 14-Elisha Riggs, Sr.’s financial connection with the Collins Line of five steamships plying between NYC and Liverpool: see Collins Line. Collins, Edward Knight. Riggs, Sr., Elisha. 15-GP-Elisha Riggs, Sr.’s business and friendship ties until Riggs’ death in 1853: see Riggs, Sr., Elisha.

P., G., Overview. 16-GP’s Visits to Canada: see Canada. Montreal, Canada. Quebec, Canada. Toronto, Canada.

P., G., Overview. 17-GP’s Commercial Trips to Europe (1827-37): see Visits to Europe, GP’s. 18-For GP’s fifth European trip (left U.S. Feb. 1837) as Md.’s fiscal agent to help sell the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal part of Md.’s $8 million bond issue abroad for internal improvements, his difficulty selling the bonds during the Panic of 1837, his ultimate success, and Md. legislative thanks transmitted by Gov. Thomas G. Pratt: see Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Co. Pratt, Thomas G. (1804-69, Md. Gov.). Speed, John Speed (1797-1852, Baltimore lawyer). Thomas, Philip Francis (1810-90, Md. Gov.). Md.’s $8 Million Bond Sale Abroad and GP.

P., G., Overview. 19-GP’s Visits to France: see Cannes, France. Eugénie, Empress. Eustis, Louise Morris (née Corcoran). Eustis, George. Napoleon III. Paris, France. Winthrop, Robert Charles.

P., G., Overview. 20-GP’s Visits to Germany (and nephew Othniel Charles Marsh’s study at German universities): see Berlin, Univ. of. Hamburg, Germany. Heidelberg, Univ. of. Breslau, Univ. of. Germany, Universities of.

P., G., Overview. 21-GP’s Visits to Ireland: see Bright, John. Castle Connell,. Dublin, Ireland. Ireland. Limerick, Ireland. O’Grady, Standish. Tennent, James Emerson.

P., G., Overview. 22-GP’s Visits to Italy: see Antonelli, Giacomo (Cardinal). Florence, Italy. Hospital of San Spirito, Rome, Italy. Italy. Pope Pius IX. San Spirito Hospital, Rome, Italy. Story, William Wetmore. Statues of GP. Winthrop, Robert Charles.

P., G., Overview. 23-GP’s visits to Scotland: see Scotland.

P., G., Overview. 24-GP’s U.S. Visits (Sept. 15, 1856, to Aug. 19, 1857; May 1, 1866, to May 1, 1867; and June 8-Sept. 29, 1869): see Visits to the U.S., GP’s.

P., G., Overview. 25-GP’s Business Career, 1838-64: see George Peabody & Co. (1838-64); Morgan, Junius Spencer (1813-90, partner during 1854-64); Morgan, Sr., John Pierpont (1837-1913, J.S. Morgan’s son who at age 19 began as NYC agent for George Peabody & Co.). 25-History of George Peabody & Co. (1838-64) and its successor firms: see Burk, Kathleen. Deutsche Morgan Grenfell. Hidy, Muriel. Hidy, Ralph W. Moody, John and George Kibbe Turner (“Masters of Capitalism in America…”). Morgan, Sr., John Pierpont. Morgan, Junius Spencer. Redlich, Fritz. Riggs, Sr., Elisha.

P., G., Overview. 26-Personal Views of GP: see Bright, John. See: Forney, John Wien, Philadelphia newspaper owner, GP’s fellow passenger aboard Scotia, NYC to England, May 1-9, 1867, and Forney’s subsequent description of his visit to the Peabody Homes of London. Kenin, Richard, whose Return to Albion: Americans in England 1760-1940 (1979) is perceptive about GP’s 32 years in London; GP’s character, motives, and importance as banker and as philanthropist.

P., G., Overview. 27-Personal Views of GP Cont’d: see Lawrence, William, for his insights on how and why GP publicized his banquets for the PEF trustees, their wives, and invited guests; of the good will and value that resulted for the work of the fund through his sense of good press and public relations. See: Moorman, John Jennings, M.D., for impressions of GP at White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., July 23-Aug. 30, 1869. See: British MP Bright, John, for his impressions when he fished for salmon with GP at Castle Connell, Limerick, Ireland, June 1867 and July 1868; and his views on GP which he expressed to Queen Victoria, Dec. 30, 1868.

P., G., Overview. 28-Critics and Criticisms of GP’s role in the Civil War and as philanthropist: see Baldwin, Leland DeWitt. Bigelow, John. Bowles, Samuel. Civil War and GP. Felt, Charles Wilson. Garrison, William Lloyd. Josephson, Matthew. Moran, Benjamin. Myers, Gustavus. Potter, John R. “S.P.Q.” Sandburg, Carl. Train, George Francis. For fuller description see also Peabody, George, Critics, above.

P., G., Overview. 29-Defenders of GP’s role in the Civil War and as philanthropist: see Civil War and GP. McIlvaine, Charles Pettit. “R.D.P.” Weed, Thurlow.

P., G., Overview. 30-Last Illness, Death, Funeral Ceremonies; in England, transatlantic funeral, U.S., eulogy, burial: see Death and Funeral, GP’s (most complete account, whose specific components are as follows): Alabama Claims (GP’s unusual funeral honors came in part from British officials first, then U.S. officials, who outdid each other in funeral honors for GP in order to reduce near war Civil War animosities from such incidents as the Nov. 8, 1861, Trent Affair and the later Alabama Claims. CSS Alabama and other British-built ships were bought covertly by Confederate agents, outfitted and armed as Confederate raiders. The U.S. demanded and in 1872 received reparations ($15.5 million) from Britain for lost U.S. ships, lives, and treasure.

P., G., Overview. 31-Last Illness, Death, Funeral Cont’d.: see Bismarck, Count von (to whom Minister Motley described GP’s deathbed scene). Blanc, Louis (French political writer who contributed a GP eulogy). Covey, William H. (medical attendant who with William Withey Gull, M.D., tended GP’s last illness and death). Farragut, David Glasgow, Adm., placed in charge of U.S. ships at Portland, Me., receiving port. Fish, Hamilton (PEF trustee and U.S. Secty. of State involved in transatlantic funeral decisions and events). Funchall Bay, Madeira and Madeira (Portuguese islands in North Atlantic where funeral ships took on coal). Gull, William Withey, M.D. (who with medical attendant William H. Covey tended GP’s last illness and death, with Dr. Gull supervising the embalming of GP’s remains). Hugo, Victor Marie (French novelist who sent a GP eulogy). Harmony Grove Cemetery, Salem, Mass. (where GP was buried, Feb. 8, 1870).

P., G., Overview. 32-Last Illness, Death, Funeral Cont’d: see Helps, Arthur (Queen Victoria’s advisor who, on Oct. 30, 1869, at her request and through Curtis Miranda Lampson, extended the Queen’s invitation for gravely ill GP to rest at Windsor Castle [but, too late; GP died Nov. 4, 1869]). Lee, Robert E. (former Confederate Gen. and Pres., Washington College [Washington and Lee Univ., from 1871]), with whom GP talked, walked arm in arm, dined, and was photographed at White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., July 23-Aug. 30, 1869; and to whose college GP gave Va. bonds later worth $60,000 for a professorship of mathematics. Fearing an incident, Robert Charles Winthrop and others wrote confidential letters to discourage Lee’s possible attendance at GP’s final funeral service, Peabody, Mass., Feb. 8, 1870, but Lee was too ill to attend).

P., G., Overview. 33-Last Illness, Death, Funeral Cont’d.: see Monarch, HMS (warship) and Commerell, John E. (captain of Britain’s newest and largest warship), chosen as funeral vessel to return GP’s remains for burial in the U.S., following early suggestion by Queen Victoria that his remains be returned on a royal vessel). McIlvaine, Charles Pettit (who reported GP’s deathbed scene to Robert Charles Winthrop). Maine Legislature (which debated officials’ attendance en masse). Moran, Benjamin (U.S. Legation in London secty. involved with Minister Motley in GP’s funeral events). Motley, John Lothrop (U.S. Minister to England heavily involved in GP’s funeral events). Nolan, Thomas (London clergyman who visited and prayed with dying GP).

P., G., Overview. 34-Last Illness, Death, Funeral Cont’d.: see Plymouth, USS (U.S. warship chosen to accompany HMS Monarch from Portsmouth, England, to Portland, Me.). Somerby, Horatio Gates (visited dying GP). Stanley, Arthur Penrhyn (Dean of Westminster Abbey who offered Abbey funeral service for GP). Trent Affair (GP’s unusual funeral honors came in part from British officials first, then U.S. officials, outdoing each other in GP funeral honors in order to reduce such near war Civil War incidents as the Nov. 8, 1861, Trent Affair and the later Alabama Claims. Illegal removal and jailing by U.S. naval forces from the British mail ship Trent of four Confederate agents seeking arms and aid from England and France caused anger in Britain until the U.S. disavowed the action and released the Confederates on Jan. 1, 1862.

P., G., Overview. 35-Last Illness, Death, Funeral Cont’d.: see Victoria, Queen (who through advisor Arthur Helps, on Oct. 30, 1869, invited gravely ill GP to rest at Windsor Castle [but, too late, GP died Nov. 4, 1869]) and who first suggested return of his remains to the U.S. on a royal vessel. Wills, GP’s (last will before death, Sept. 29, 1869). Winter, Simon (GP’s manservant present during his last illness and death, who supplied death certificate information and was listed as riding in carriages to and from the Nov. 12, 1869, Westminster Abbey funeral service). Portland, Me. (U.S. receiving port, Jan. 25-Feb. 1, 1870). Portsmouth, England (placing of GP’s remains aboard HMS Monarch). Winthrop, Robert Charles (gave final eulogy). Westminster Abbey (GP’s Nov. 12, 1869, funeral service, where his remains rested 30 days, Nov. 12-Dec. 11, 1869).

Peabody, George (1795-1869), Philanthropy of (& Philanthropic Influence)
(For particulars *see institutions, persons, and topics listed below)

P., G., .. 1-Libraries. GP funded seven libraries to which he gave a total of $1,828,120 (including publication funds for historical societies, below). In keeping with the adult education needs of the time, his library institutes included a lecture hall and lecture fund plus reading rooms and circulating books (except the non circulating PIB’s reference library). The PIB included a specialized non circulating reference library, lecture hall and lecture fund, an art gallery (whose art objects are now mainly on loan), and the Peabody Academy (Conservatory after 1874) of Music.

P., G., Philanthropy. 2-Libraries Cont’d. GP’s specific library gifts, date of gift (and total amount in parentheses) are: to the a-Baltimore Athenaeum and Library, June 3, 1845 ($500); Peabody Institute libraries at b-Peabody, Mass., June 16, 1852-69 (total $217,600); c-Baltimore, Feb. 12, 1857-69 (total $1.4 million for library, lecture hall and fund, music conservatory, and art gallery); d-Danvers, Mass., Dec. 22, 1856-69 ($100,000); e-Georgetown, Mass., 1868 ($30,000); f-Thetford, Vt., Sept. 1866 ($5,000), g-Newburyport, Mass., Feb. 20, 1867 ($15,000), and h-Georgetown, D.C., April 20, 1867 ($15,000).

P., G., Philanthropy. 3-Historical Society Publication Funds. Included in the library total are publication funds for the i-Historical Society of Philadelphia, Jan. 1857, $20; j-Md. Historical Society, Nov. 5, 1866, $20,000, and the k-Mass. Historical Society, Jan. 1, 1867; plus an unknown sum for abstracting Maryland colonial records from English depositories for the Maryland Historical Society, 1853-54.

P., G., Philanthropy. 4-Science and Science Education. GP’s seven gifts for science totaled $551,000, to: a-Md. Mechanics Institute, Baltimore, for a chemistry laboratory and school, Oct. 31, 1851, $1,000; b-Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard Univ., Oct. 8, 1866, $150,000; c-Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale Univ., Oct. 22, 1866, $150,000; d-mathematics and natural science professorship at Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass., Oct. 30, 1866, $25,000; e-mathematics and civil engineering professorship at Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio, Nov. 6, 1866, $25,000;

P., G., Philanthropy. 5-Science and Science Education Cont’d. f-Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Mass., Feb. 26, 1867, $140,000 (originally a maritime museum named Peabody Academy of Science [1867-1915], renamed Peabody Museum of Salem [1915-92], then combined with Essex County historical documents and renamed Peabody Essex Museum, since 1992); and a g-mathematics professorship at Washington and Lee Univ., Lexington, Va. (given to honor Pres. Robert E. Lee of the then Washington College), 1869, $60,000.

P., G., Philanthropy. 6-London Housing. GP’s gift of model apartment housing totaled $2.5 million to the Peabody Donation Fund, London, which built and managed low-rent apartments (March 12, 1862-69+), which on March 31, 1999, housed 34,500 low income Londoners (59% white, 32% black, and 9% others) in 17,183 affordable Peabody apartments in 26 London boroughs, GP’s most successful philanthropy. GP’s housing gift for London’s working poor was made on social reformer Lord Shaftesbury’s (1801-85) advice, deliberately sought by GP in 1857-58, that housing was the London poor’s greatest need.

P., G., Philanthropy. 7-Arctic Exploration. GP gave for Arctic exploration a total of $l0,000 to the Second U.S. Grinnell Expedition conducted during 1853-55 by U.S. Navy Commander Elisha Kent Kane (1820-57) to search for the missing British Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin (1786-1847).

P., G., Philanthropy. 8-Patriotic Causes. GP’s six gifts for patriotic causes totaled $71,850 as follows: a-the Battle of Lexington Monument, South Danvers, Mass. (renamed Peabody, April 13, 1868), 1835, $300; b-Revolutionary War Monument for General Gideon Foster, 1845, $50; c-Bunker Hill Memorial Monument, June 3, 1845, $500; d-State of Md. (GP declined commission due him for sale of bonds for internal improvements during 1837-48), $60,000; e-Washington Monument, in Washington, D.C., July 4, 1854, $1,000; and f-U.S. Sanitary Commission (Civil War medical care for Union soldiers), 1864, $10,000.

P., G., Philanthropy. 9-Hospitals. GP’s three gifts to hospitals totaled $19,565 as follows: to the a-City of London Hospital for Diseases of the Chest, 1850-55, $165; b-Mental Hospital, London, 1864, $l00; and c-San Spirito Hospital, Rome, Italy, April 1868, $19,300.

P., G., Philanthropy. 10-Churches and Other Charities. GP gave a total of $70,740 for churches and other charities as follows: to the a-South Congregational Church, Peabody, Mass., 1843 (or 1844), $250; b-London Refuge for the Destitute, 1858-60, $115; c-Church, Barnstead, NH, 1866, $450; d-Memorial Church (his mother’s church), Georgetown, Mass., 1866, $70,000; e-English Charity, date unknown $15; and f-gift of a stone-based metal railing in front of the Catholic Church, Limerick, Ireland, amount not known, given in the late 1860s.

P., G., Philanthropy. 11-Education. GP gave a total of $2,004,700 to Education as follows: for best scholars’ medals at Peabody High School, Peabody, Mass., 1854-67, $2,600, and Holton High School, Danvers, Mass., 1867, $2,000; to a London school, 1864, $l00; and to establish the Peabody Education Fund for 11 former Confederate states plus West Virginia, Feb. 7, 1867, and June 29, 1869, $2,000,000. At his death, Nov. 4, 1869, GP’s total philanthropic gifts were variously reported in the press as approaching $10 million (or an estimated $129.2 million in 2001 purchasing dollars), the largest up to that time, but considerably less than the total of $4.8 billion estimated in 1999 dollars given by Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919) and the total of $5.8 billion estimated in 1999 dollars given by John D. Rockefeller, Sr. (1839-1937). Ref.: (GP’s 1869 $10 million gifts or an estimated $129.2 million in 2001 purchasing dollars) See: Ref.: g. Internet: Philanthropic gifts, GP’s. (Carnegie and Rockefeller, Sr.): Time, Vol. 156, No. 4 (July 24, 2000), p. 52.

P., G., Philanthropy. 12-Philanthropy-Why He Gave. For exploration of GP’s motives for his philanthropy, with sources, see relevant GP letters and speeches in Preface, Sources, Overview. See: relevant GP speeches in London, Freedom of the City of London.

P., G., Philanthropy. 13-GP’s Philanthropic Influence. A-In Hawaii: See: Bishop, Charles Reed (founder, the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu; Hawaii’s most important museum). B-Influence via the Peabody Homes of London: See: Stewart, Alexander Turney (founder, Garden City, N.Y.). C-Influence via the PEF Trustees: See: Drexel, Anthony Joseph (founder, Drexel Univ., Philadelphia). See: Paul Tulane (founder, Tulane Univ., New Orleans). See: Robert Charles Winthrop (founder, Winthrop College, Rock Hill, S.C.). D-Influence via the PEF: See: John F. Slater Fund for Negro Education (1882-1937), Four Conferences on Education in the South (1898-1901), Southern Education Board (1901-14), and General Education Board (1902-14).

Peabody, George (1795-1869), Photographs

P., G., Photographs, are included in Peabody, George (1795-1869) Illustrations, above.

Peabody, George (1795-1869), Physicians

P., G., Physicians. See: Keep, Nathan Cooley, Dr.. Putnam, Charles Gideon, Dr..

Peabody, George (1795-1869), Portraits

P., G., Portraits (the 8 portrait artists described in Peabody, George [1795-1869] Illustrations are again listed alphabetically): 1-British-born Lowes Cato Dickinson (1819-1908), GP portrait in the PIB; 2-Conway-Mass.-born Chester Harding (1792-1866), GP portrait in Md. Hist. Soc.; 3-Boston-born George Peter Alexander Healy (1813-94), GP portrait in the National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.; 4-James Reid Lambdin (1807-89), GP portrait in PIB, 1857; 5-Philadelphia-born photographer John Jabez Edwin Mayall (1810-1901), with studios in London and Brighton, England, whose life-size photos of GP are at the (1) PIB, and at the Peabody Institute Libraries at (2) Peabody, Mass., (3) Danvers, Mass., and Thetford, Vt., were said to have been painted over by Queen Victoria’s portrait painter, French artist Aed Arnoult (or Aed Arnault), to resemble an oil painting (See: Peabody: An Illustrated Guide in Peabody, George, Illus.).

P., G., Portraits of (Cont’d.). 6-Philadelphia-born John Neagle (1796-1865) whose original portrait of GP in middle age is in the Karolik Collection, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 7-London-born Henry William Pickersgill’s (1782-1875); and 8-Penn.-born Thomas Buchanan Read’s (1822-72), portraits of GP are in the PIB, 1860. See: artists named. Engravers-artists. Peabody, George, Illustrations. Schuler, Hans (for his bust of GP in N.Y.U. Hall of Fame). Story, William Wetmore (for his seated GP statue in London, a copy of which is in Baltimore).

Peabody, George (ships connected with GP). See: Alabama, CSS (ship). Arctic (ship). Collins Line. Fame (ship). George Henry (ship). George Peabody (ship). Great Eastern (ship). Monarch, HMS. Persia (ship). Plymouth, USS (ship). Resolute, HMS (ship). San Jacinto, USS (ship). Scotia (ship). Trent Affair. West Point (ship).

Peabody, George. U.S. Ministers to Britain. See: Dinners, GP’s, London. U.S. Ministers to Britain and GP.

Peabody, George’s, Wills. See: Wills, George Peabody’s (1795-1869).

GP’s Same-Named Distant Cousin (often mistakingly confused with each other in printed sources).

Peabody, George (1804-92), of Salem, Mass. 1-GP’s Same-Named Distant Cousin. George Peabody of Salem, Mass., president of the Eastern Railroad, was the fifth son of famed Salem, Mass., clipper ship owner Joseph Peabody (1757-1844) and his second wife Elizabeth Smith. This distant cousin of GP went to Jacob Knapp’s school, Salem, Mass., then to Harvard College (class of 1823), went on his grand tour of Europe, and was active in banking, railroads, and shipping. Ref.: Hoyt, pp. 65, 70-71. See: Peabody, Francis (older brother). Peabody, Joseph (father).

Peabody, George, of Salem, Mass. 2-Same-Named Distant Cousins Confused by William Lloyd Garrison. The same named distant cousins were mistaken for each other by abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison (1805-79) who attacked GP’s patriotism for his PIB ($1.4 total gift, 1857) in Baltimore, “made to a Maryland institution at a time when that state was rotten with treason.” Garrison attacked GP’s PEF (1867-69, $2 million total) for giving more to white than to black public schools in the South. He attacked GP for not showing public sorrow at Pres. Lincoln’s assassination. He also attacked GP, when gravely ill, for going not to a northern but to a southern health spa (White Sulphur Springs, W.Va.), a “favorite resort of the elite of rebeldom,” where he accepted and thanked southerners for their resolutions of praise for his PEF. Garrison charged GP with favoring the 1850 Mass. Fugitive Slave Law, clearly confusing the same-named Eastern Railroad president with the merchant-banker-philanthropist GP, who was in London during 1837-69. See: Garrison, William Lloyd. Civil War and GP.

Peabody, George, of Salem, Mass. 3-Same-Named Distant Cousins also Confused by Others. Scott H. Paradise (1891-1959), Head of English Dept. and later pres. of Phillips Academy of Andover, Mass., in his article, “Peabody, George (Feb. 18, 1795-Nov. 4, 1869),” Dictionary of American Biography, ed. by Dumas Malone (New York: Charles Scribner’s Son, 1934), VII, Part I, pp. 336-338, also confused these same named distant cousins. S.H. Paradise mistakenly referred to GP as the “President of Eastern Railroad.” The same error was in Library of Congress card catalogs until Franklin and Betty Parker, authors of this work, informed Library of Congress authorities of the error in 1955. Ref. Ibid.

Peabody, George, of Salem, Mass. 4-Writings and Career of this Same-Named Distant Cousin. Socially less prominent than his brother Francis Peabody (1801-68), George Peabody (1804-92), Eastern Railroad president, passed his life in Salem, Mass., and increased his inheritance by shrewd investments. His two publications are: 1-George Peabody, Address at the Opening of the Eastern Railroad Between Boston and Salem, August 27, 1838, by George Peabody, President of the Corporation (Salem, Mass.: J.R. Choate and Co., 1888); and 2-George Peabody, Family Gathering Relating to the Smith and Blanchard Families (Danvers, Mass.: privately printed), p. 15, which gives the author’s genealogy. Ref.: Ibid.

GP’s Same-Named Nephew

Peabody, George (1815-32). 1-GP’s Nephew. GP’s nephew of the same name, the son of GP’s oldest brother David Peabody (1790-1841), died at age 17. GP was fond of this nephew, paid for his schooling at Bradford Academy, Bradford, Mass., received regular reports of his nephew’s progress, and planned to pay his way through Yale College. But sadly this favorite nephew died at age 17 on Sept. 24, 1832, in Boston of scarlet fever, his potential unfulfilled. GP’s reply to this nephew’s request for financial aid to attend Yale College shows GP’s regret at his own lack of education and may help explain his later philanthropy.

Peabody, George (1815-32). 2-“Deprived, as I was.” GP wrote (his underlining): “Deprived, as I was, of the opportunity of obtaining anything more than the most common education, I am well qualified to estimate its value by the disadvantages I labour under in the society [in] which my business and situation in life frequently throws me, and willingly would I now give twenty times the expense attending a good education could I now possess it, but it is now too late for me to learn and I can only do to those who come under my care, as I could have wished circumstances had permitted others to have done by me.” Ref.: GP, London, to George Peabody (1815-32), son of oldest brother David Peabody (1790-1841), May 18, 1831, Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass., also quoted in Schuchert and LeVene, p. 21. For other information on this nephew, see Dwight, Sereno Edwards. Daniels, Judith Dodge (née Peabody) Russell (GP’s sister). Peabody, David (GP’s oldest brother, above).

GP’s Distant Cousin

Peabody, George Foster (1852-1938). 1-Banker and Philanthropist. George Foster Peabody, a distant cousin of GP (1795-1869), was born in Columbus, Ga. His grandfather, William Henry Peabody, was born in 1760, Norwich, Conn. His father, George Henry Peabody, was born in 1807 near Woodbury, Conn. George Foster Peabody’s family, impoverished by the Civil War, settled in Brooklyn, New York, where his early success as investment banker and organizer of railroads and utility companies enabled him to retire at age 54 (1906). He became a well-known philanthropist in black higher education, women’s education and a trustee of Hampton Institute, the Tuskegee Institute, and other institutions. He was a charter member of the Southern Education Board and treasurer of the General Education Board. During his last years at Warm Springs, Ga. (where he died), he influenced polio-victim U.S. Pres. Franklin Delano Roosevelt to make his first visit there on Oct. 3, 1924, and sold FDR land in 1926, which FDR developed as the Georgia Warm Springs Foundation for polio therapy. Ref.: Ward, E.L. Gallagher.

Peabody Park, Greensboro, N.C.

Peabody, G.F. 2-Peabody Park, Univ. of N.C. at Greensboro. In honor of his deceased relative GP (1795-1869), George Foster Peabody gave $5,000 (1901) to establish Peabody Park at the north end of the Univ. of N.C. at Greensboro campus. It was originally 125 acres, has been reduced by univ. expansion, but its remaining 34 acres are a vital refuge for animals and plants characteristic of the Piedmont region of the eastern U.S. George Foster Peabody served with Charles Duncan McIver (1860-1906, later first president, Univ. of N.C. at Greensboro) on the Southern Education Board, where both had a special interest in the education of women and minorities (the Univ. of N.C. at Greensboro began as a women’s college). Ref.: “Peabody Park at UNCG,” internet http://biology.uncg.edu/peabody.html (seen Aug. 4, 1999).

Peabody, G.F. 3-Peabody Park, Univ. of N.C. at Greensboro. George Foster Peabody is today best known for the much-publicized George Foster Peabody Awards in radio and television, established 1939. The awards are administered by the Henry W. Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication, Univ. of Ga., and were named for George Foster Peabody who was a significant financial contributor to that university. Ref.: internet (seen in Feb. 2000): http://www.peabody.uga.edu/about.index.html

Peabody, George Harmon (b.1832), GP’s nephew, was the first born son of GP’s youngest brother Jeremiah Dodge Peabody (1805-77) and his first wife Ellen Murray (daughter of Andrew Hanna of Baltimore). George Harmon Peabody worked for Sargent, Harding Co., NYC, when he wrote to his uncle George (March 21, 1853): “I write for us all; it was the wish of our kind mother, deceased, that I would write this at some future time. We are obliged to you for assisting in educating us, in paving the way for us. I thank you for the kindness you are now exhibiting towards my sisters and Aunt Russell [GP’s younger sister Judith Dodge (née Peabody) Russell Daniels, 1799-1879] for her untiring willingness in attending to their many wants.” Ref.: George Harmon Peabody, NYC, to GP, March 21, 1853, Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass. See: Peabody, Jeremiah Dodge (GP’s youngest brother, below). Others named.

GP’s Grandnephew: George Russell Peabody

Peabody, George Russell (1883-d. May 1, 1946). 1-GP’s Grandnephew. George Russell Peabody was GP’s grandnephew, the grandson of GP’s youngest brother Jeremiah Dodge Peabody (1805-77). George Russell Peabody received the B.A. degree from Princeton Univ. (1905) and lived in NYC and in Cannes, France. He was urged in June 1925 by New York Univ. Hall of Fame director Robert Underwood Johnson (1853-1937) to help raise funds for a bust of GP, who was elected in 1900 to the N.Y. Univ. Hall of Fame as one of 29 of the most famous Americans. In 1901 a bronze tablet was unveiled in GP’s allotted space containing this selection from his Feb. 7, 1867, letter founding the $2 million (total) PEF: “Looking forward beyond my stay on earth I see our country becoming richer and more powerful. But to make her prosperity more than superficial, her moral and intellectual development should keep pace with her material growth.” Ref.: Burke, pp. 2856-2857. See Persons named.

Peabody, G.R. 2-GP Bust, Hall of Fame, Unveiled. The help of another GP grand nephew, Murray Peabody Brush (1872-1954), was enlisted to raise funds for the GP bust. Trustees of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard Univ., helped raise $300. Sufficient funds were raised and a GP bust by sculptor Hans Schuler (1874-1951) was unveiled May 12, 1926, at the University Heights N.Y. Univ. Hall of Fame colonnade. See: Hall of Fame of New York Univ. MacCracken, Henry Mitchell. Jeremiah Dodge Peabody (GP’s youngest brother, below).

GP’s Youngest Brother Jeremiah Dodge
Peabody, Jeremiah Dodge (1805-77). 1-GP’s Youngest Brother. Jeremiah Dodge Peabody was the sixth born child (and third born son of 8 children) of Thomas Peabody (1762-1811) and Judith (née Dodge) Peabody (1770-1830). Jeremiah Dodge worked for a time for Riggs, Peabody & Co. and then moved to Zanesville, Ohio, where he was a farmer. He married (first wife) Ellen Murray, daughter of Andrew Hanna of Baltimore, on Dec. 22, 1826. The third son of Jeremiah Dodge Peabody and Ellen (née Murray) Peabody was Arthur John Peabody (Oct. 8, 1835-1901). It was Arthur John Peabody’s second son, George Russell Peabody (1883-May 1, 1946), grandnephew of GP, who contributed funds and helped raise other funds for a GP bust at the N.Y. Univ. Hall of Fame (University Heights campus overlooking the Hudson River), made by sculptor Hans Schuler, unveiled May 12, 1926. Jeremiah Dodge Peabody’s second wife was Rosabella Ellen Beall of Baltimore, married Sept. 7, 1852. Ref.: Burke, p. 2856. See: Hall of Fame of NYU. Persons named.

Peabody, Jeremiah Dodge. 2-His Children. Jeremiah Dodge Peabody’s children were listed in a March 25, 1856, letter to GP by his older sister Judith Dodge (née Peabody) Russell (1799-1879). GP requested the list from her before leaving London for his first U.S. visit in nearly 20 years (since Feb. 1837). Jeremiah Dodge Peabody’s 8 children: 1-George Harmon Peabody, born 1832, in 1856 working for Sargent, Harding Co., NYC. 2-James Russell Peabody, born 1832, then a farmer in Powekick County, Iowa. 3-Arthur John Peabody, 1835-1901, then in Zanesville, Ohio, “has asthma badly.” 4-Robert Singleton Peabody, 1837-1904, then attending Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass. 5-Charles Breckenridge Peabody, born 1840, then in Zanesville, Ohio. 6-Judith Dodge Peabody, born 1842, then in Zanesville, Ohio. 7-Ellen R.H. Peabody, born 1844, then in Zanesville, Ohio. 8-Mary Gaines Peabody, born 1853, then in Zanesville, Ohio. Ref.: Mrs. Judith Dodge (née Peabody) Russell, Georgetown, Mass., to GP, March 25, 1856, Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass. See: persons named.

Peabody, John (1590-1667). The original spelling of GP’s paternal first generation was John Paybody, yeoman farmer of Glen Magna parish, south of Leicester, Leicestershire county. It was the second of his four children, Francis Peboddy (1612 or 1614-97), who lived in St. Albans, Hertfordshire County, England, where at age 21 he joined a group of dissenters who sailed in the ship Planter, under master Nicholas Trarace, on April 2, 1635, for New England, the first Peabody in the New World. See: Paybody, John (1590-1667). Peabody Genealogy, Paternal.

GP’s Paternal Uncle John Peabody

Peabody, John (b. Feb. 22, 1768-d, Feb. 25, 1827) was GP’s paternal uncle with whom, following the Great Newburyport Fire of 1811, GP, then age 17, left Newburyport, Mass. (May 4, 1812) for Georgetown, D.C., where they opened a store (May 15, 1812). Paternal uncle John Peabody, born in Newbury, Mass., was a general in the militia and a member of the General Court. He married Anna Little (1772-1826), in Newbury, Mass. Two of Uncle John’s children with whom GP had frequent contact as cousins were Sophronia Peabody (1792-1868), unmarried; and Adolphus William Peabody (b. 1814), both of whom GP supported. GP paid for Adolphus William Peabody’s education at Bradford Academy, Bradford, Mass., during 1827-29, where he lived with and was cared for by GP’s sister Judith Dodge Peabody (1799-1879). GP also employed cousin Adolphus William Peabody in the firm of Peabody, Riggs & Co., from the summer of 1837. See: Georgetown, D.C. Peabody, Anna (née Little) (Uncle John Peabody’s wife). Peabody, Augustus William (Uncle John Peabody’s son). Peabody, Sophronia (Uncle John Peabody’s daughter). War of 1812.

Peabody, Joseph (1757-1844) of Salem, Mass., owned 83 clipper ships, commanded 7,000 seamen in Far Eastern trade, and was a wealthy distant relative of GP. See: Hoppin, Esther Elizabeth. Peabody, Francis (Joseph Peabody’s son).

Peabody, Joseph (d. April 7, 1905). In 1857, Joseph Peabody, a distant younger cousin of GP, shared an apartment at 45 West 17 St., NYC, with John Pierpont Morgan (1837-1913, then age 20, later Sr.), son of GP’s partner in George Peabody & Co., London, Junius Spencer Morgan (1813-90). J.P. Morgan began his banking career as the NYC agent for George Peabody & Co. Ref.: New York Times Obituaries Index 1858-1968, p. 789. See: persons named.

Peabody, Josephine Preston (1874-1922), was a Brooklyn-born poet and dramatist. See: Peabodys (Famous U.S.) (above).

GP’s Mother: Judith (née Dodge) Peabody.

Peabody, Judith (née Dodge) (1770-1830). 1-GP’s mother, Judith (née Dodge) Peabody, was born July 25, 1770, in Rowley (later renamed Georgetown), Mass., and died June 22, 1830, age 59 in Lockport, N.Y. In his mother’s memory in 1867-68 GP built at a cost of $70,000 a Memorial Church in Georgetown, Mass., where she was born and lived when it was named Rowley, Mass. With GP about to return to London at the end of his 1866-67 U.S. visit, Georgetown, Mass., citizens chose April 18, 1867, to bid him farewell. He asked particularly that schoolchildren be present for his speech that afternoon. For details with sources, see Memorial Church (GP’s), Georgetown, Mass. Whittier, John Greenleaf.

Peabody, Judith (née Dodge). 2-GP’s Speech about his Mother. Of his mother GP said (April 18, 1867): “This reception is gratifying…. Here, since the earliest days of New England, my maternal ancestors lived and died. More of my family connections live here now than any other place. More than sixty years ago, I distinctly remember, a promised visit to Rowley was one of my brightest anticipations. Here my mother was born, she whom I loved so much, whose memory I revere. Here she passed her childhood and therefore these scenes are to me consecrated ground.” GP then said, “The church will soon be completed which will preserve my mother’s name. While I have the most kindly feelings for all religious societies in this town, I will place this church under that affiliation in which she worshipped [Orthodox Congregational]….” See: Peabody, Thomas (GP’s father).

Peabody, Judith Dodge (sister). See: Daniels, Judith Dodge (née Peabody) Russell.

Peabody, Julia Adelaide (b. April 25, 1835), was GP’s niece, daughter of his older brother David Peabody (1790-1841), who moved to Zanesville, Ohio. She married Charles W. Chandler (d. 1882), a lawyer in Zanesville, Ohio, in 1862. See: Chandler, Julia Adelaide (née Peabody).

Peabody, Mary Cranch’s (1806-87) birthname of Mary Tyler Peabody was legally changed on Dec. 10,1872. She was one of three famous Peabody sisters of Salem, Mass., distantly related to GP. Her sisters were Elizabeth Palmer Peabody (1804-94), educator who founded the first English speaking kindergarten (Boston, 1861) and Sophia Amelia Peabody (1809-70) married writer Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-64) in 1842. Mary Cranch Peabody married educator Horace Mann (1796-1859) in 1843 (she was his second wife, his first wife having died). See: Peabody (Famous U.S. Peabodys). Persons named.

Peabody, Mary Elizabeth (née Parkman) (1891-1981), was the wife of Episcopal Bishop Rt. Rev. Malcolm Endicott Peabody (1888-1974), cousin of former First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt (1884-1962), and mother of Endicott “Chubb” Peabody (1920-97), Mass. Gov. during 1963-65[?]. She made headline news when at age 72 she was arrested for protesting segregation in a St. Augustine, Fla. diner, March 31, 1964. Ref.: Branch, pp. 76-85. See persons named. Other Famous Peabodys (above).

Peabody, Mary Gaines (1807-34), GP’s younger sister who married Caleb Marsh (b. c1800) and was the mother of Othniel Charles Marsh (1831-99), first paleontology professor in the U.S. at Yale Univ. Othniel influenced his uncle GP in founding three museums of science. See: Marsh, Mary Gaines (née Peabody). Marsh, Othniel Charles. Paleontology. Science: GP’s Contributions to Science and Science Education,

Peabody, Mary Tyler (1806-87). See: Peabody, Mary Cranch (above).
Peabody, Mrs. Phebe (née Reynolds)(Mrs. David), was the second wife of GP’s oldest brother David Peabody (1790-1841). They lived in Zanesville, Ohio, and had a daughter, Julia Adelaide (née Peabody) Chandler (b. April 25, 1835), who became a favorite niece of GP. See: Chandler, Julia Adelaide (née Peabody), above.

Peabody, Robert Singleton (1837-1904), was GP’s nephew, the son of GP’s youngest brother Jeremiah Dodge Peabody (1805-77), who lived his last years as a farmer in Zanesville, Ohio. GP’s nephew Robert Singleton Peabody attended Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass., married Margaret Augusta (née Goddard) Peabody, and they had a son, Charles Peabody, born in Rutland, Vt. (Nov. 9, 1867-d. c1942). This Charles Peabody, GP’s grand nephew, earned the Ph.D. degree from Harvard Univ. (1893), was an architect, and was also a curator at the Peabody Museum of Harvard. GP’s last will of Sept. 9, 1869, named nephew Robert Singleton Peabody and nephew-in-law Charles W. Chandler (d. 1882) as his U.S. executors and left each $5,000 (ƒ1,000). Ref.: “Peabody, Charles.” Who Was Who in America, 1 (1897-1942), p. 947. See: Wills, GP’s.

Peabody, Sophia Amelia (b.1809), who married writer Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-64) in 1842, distantly related to GP, was one of three Peabody sisters of Salem, Mass. Her sisters were Mary Cranch Peabody (1806-87), married to educator Horace Mann (1796-1859) in 1843; and Elizabeth Palmer Peabody (1804-94), educator who founded the first English speaking kindergarten (Boston, 1861. See: persons named. Peabodys (Famous U.S.): 5), 6), and 7) above.

Peabody, Sophronia (GP’s cousin). See: Peabody, Adolphus William (brother of Sophronia Peabody and GP’s younger cousin).

Peabody, Sophronia Phelps (b.1809, d. ?), GP’s youngest sister who married physician Eldridge Gerrish Little (1807-1880). See: Little, Sophronia Phelps (née Peabody) (b.1809, d. ?). Little, Eldridge Gerrish (her husband).

GP’s Father

Peabody, Thomas (1762-1811, GP’s father). 1-Leather Worker & Small Farmer. Thomas Peabody, GP’s father, was born in Andover, Mass., of the sixth generation of Peabodys in America, and lived 49 years. He was age 14 when the Declaration of Independence was signed (1776), enlisted in the American Revolution, served as a private in Col. Gerrish’s regiment (1779) and in Lt. Col. Rufus Putnam’s (1738-1824) regiment (1781), was stationed at West Point, N.Y., at the time of American Gen. Benedict Arnold’s (1741-1801) treason, and was there when British spy Major John André (1751-80) was executed. It is interesting to note, in view of post-Civil War attacks on GP’s patriotism to the Union, that Thomas Peabody, some of whose forebears had fought in the French and Indian Wars, was one of 54 Peabodys who fought in the American Revolution. GP, his third-born son of eight children, served in the War of 1812.

Peabody, Thomas (GP’s father). 2-Eight Children. Thomas Peabody moved to Haverhill, Mass., where he met and married (July 16, 1789) Judith Dodge (1770-1830). The first two of their eight children were born in Haverhill: 1-David (1790-1841), and 2-Achsah Spofford (1791-1821). Thomas Peabody, a farmer and cordwainer, or leather worker, moved from Haverhill to Danvers (renamed Peabody, Mass., 1868) because Danvers water, good for tanning leather, made Danvers a leather center. Thomas bought twelve acres of land April 15, 1795, for £200. 3-GP was born in a two-story frame house at what is now 205 Washington St., then named Danvers (renamed South Danvers when Danvers was divided North and South; renamed Peabody, April 13, 186), the third child and second son of eight children. Civil records show GP’s birth as February 17, 1795, but acknowledge a Bible record of February 18, 1795. The later children and GP’s siblings were: 4-Judith (1799-1879), 5-Thomas (1801-35), 6-Jeremiah Dodge (1805-77), 7-Mary Gaines (1807-34), and 8-Sophronia Phelps (b.1809). Ref.: (Marriage): Vital Records of Rowley, Mass., p. 282.

Peabody, Thomas (GP’s father). 3-Died Age 49. Thomas Peabody’s leather work did not go well. He turned unsuccessfully to trading. He sold some of his land in 1805 and went back to leather work in 1806, when he sold more land and had to mortgage his home. Thomas Peabody died May 13, 1811, age 49, after an accident in which he broke his leg. The Peabody home at 205 Washington Street, Danvers (renamed Peabody, 1868), was heavily mortgaged. Danvers friends who helped settle the estate were Gideon Foster and Sylvester Proctor (1769-1852), in whose store GP was apprenticed. When Thomas died, his property was worth $1,250. His personal estate was $372.44. His debts totaled $2,118.97. Ref.: Chapple, p. 3. Probate Office, Courthouse, Salem, Mass., No. 20903, June 6, 1811.

Peabody, Thomas (GP’s father). 4-Died Age 49 Cont’d. Oldest son and legal heir David Peabody (1790-1841) sold some of his father’s land and mortgaged other portions. GP was then age 16. On May 15, 1812, GP had opened a dry goods store in Georgetown, D.C. By 1814 GP’s mother and six of his siblings had lost their family home in Danvers, Mass. (later South Danvers, and renamed Peabody April 13, 1868). By 1817, GP, age 22 and traveling junior partner in Riggs & Peabody, had paid all family debts, restored the family home for his mother and siblings, soon employed his brothers David Peabody (1790-1841) and Thomas Peabody (1801-35), and paid for the education of his younger siblings, their children, and some cousins. Ref.: Ibid.

GP’s Younger Brother Thomas

Peabody, Thomas (GP’s younger brother). 1-Improvident Brother. Thomas Peabody (1801-35), GP’s younger brother, was fifth born of eight Peabody children and next youngest of four brothers. The eight Peabody children were in order of age: David (1790-1841), Achsah (1791-1821), GP (1795-1869), Judith Dodge (1799-1879), Thomas (1801-35), Jeremiah (1805-77), Mary Gaines (1807-34), and Sophronia Phelps (b.1809). Of the four brothers oldest brother David was somewhat improvident and younger brother Thomas Peabody was much more so. Both worked as needed in the 1820s for Riggs, Peabody & Co. and both were burdens to GP and also to his senior partner, Elisha Riggs, Sr. (1779-1853).

Peabody, Thomas (GP’s brother). 2-Riggs Complained of Thomas. GP and Riggs were frequently in different parts of the country and extremely busy in importing dry goods and other products for resale to U.S. wholesalers. Younger brother Thomas Peabody was not dependable as Elisha Riggs, Sr.’s clerk. He evidently drank excessively, gambled, borrowed money at exorbitant rates which he could not repay, and neglected his work. Riggs wrote to GP on Feb. 4, 1827, of Thomas’s misdemeanors while working for him in Philadelphia and in NYC: “…My whole time was employed late & early in attending to various business, While I was also much trouble[d] in Mind, as to what course to take with Thomas P.[eabody] who I had nearly lost confidence in, and had to be attentive to every thing in the way of business myself, as but little appeared to be done as it should be without my personal attention.” See: Riggs, Sr., Elisha.

Peabody, Thomas (GP’s brother). 3-Riggs Complained of Thomas Cont’d.: “I have caused Thomas to remove from his old boarding place to Mr. Devens where I board. [H]e has been here about three days. [H]e promises to be regular in his habits for the future and is generally in the house of nights in good time–As I often have writing for him to do in my room. I have paid all his debts of borrowed money, taylors, shoe bills, etc., with the exception of about 150$ which he borrowed he says of Brokers & Lotter [lottery, i.e. gambling] men, of which [oldest brother] David Peabody was also bound. This I told him I would not pay at present. I keep a strick eye over him as well as my business will allow me to do–And have assured him, that if he ever acted again as he has done, that I would certainly get another Clerk–I have taken great pains and talked with him very carefully as to the consequences of his conduct–he appears penitent and I hope will keep his promise hereafter.” Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody, Thomas (GP’s brother). 4-Riggs Complained of Thomas Cont’d.: “I have acted the part of a good friend toward him in every respect, which he appears to feel and acknowledge. A short time will enable him to see and determine–I understand from Thomas that David is now employed in a lotery [lottery] office. He is occasionally in the Store….” Riggs ended in confidence: “This letter is written in haste for yourself only, as I have never mentioned to any person except yourself anything about T.P. [Thomas Peabody.] You will therefore destroy this letter–and [in] the future always be assured that I shall never neglect my duty in business–….Yours respectfully, E Riggs.” Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody, Thomas (GP’s brother). 5-Brothers Without Work. When not working for Riggs, Peabody & Co. brothers David and Thomas Peabody were often in financial trouble. David in NYC wrote brother Thomas in Baltimore that he needed money. Thomas replied, Nov. 18, 1828, that he was without a job and could do nothing. Four days later GP sent Thomas $15 which Thomas sent to David. Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody, Thomas (GP’s brother). 6-Mother Died. Thomas sought better prospects in South America. He wrote older brother David from Lima, Peru, April 30, 1830, that he was working there as bookkeeper for Alsop, Wetmore & Co.’s agent, that their brother GP was about to sail for England on his second European commercial buying trip (1831-32, 15 months), and that their mother, living in Lockport, N.Y., with married daughter Mary Gaines (née Peabody) Marsh (1807-34) was in poor health. Hearing from sister Mary on June 25, 1830, that their mother had died, David forwarded the sad news to GP by the next ship bound for England. He added to GP, in a postscript to Mary’s letter: “The above I just recd in time to forward by the Canada [ship]–which sails in an hour. I should have gone to Lockport a month since if it had been in my power to have paid the expense of the journey. Yrs. truly, D. Peabody.” Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody, Thomas (GP’s brother). 7-Thomas Improvident. Thomas Peabody was ill in Lima, Peru; had to give up his job there; worked his way back to the U.S. as a ship’s clerk, and lost that job when a new crew was hired. GP was out of the country on a European buying trip when Thomas landed in Baltimore without work. He wrote David in NYC: “George being out of the country my necessity for employment is very great & for the present I would be willing to take up with almost any situation.” Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody, Thomas (GP’s brother). 8-Thomas Died, 1835. Thomas Peabody worried the Peabody family, whose letters sadly hint at rather than detail his misdemeanors. In some unwholesome business matter he had wronged brother David and begged to be forgiven. Thomas Peabody died April 16, 1835, one day short of his thirty-fourth birthday. He had been operating a school and had gone to pay some debts in Buffalo, N.Y. Not having enough money to meet his obligations and overcome with remorse and shame, he met an unhappy end (details not given). Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody, Thomas (GP’s brother). 9- “a victim of his own vices.” The sad news of Thomas’s death was sent to GP abroad, in an April 20, 1835, letter, in care of the Brown Brothers business firm, Liverpool, England, by GP’s brother-in-law Dr. Eldridge Gerry Little (1807-1880), a physician, married to GP’s youngest sister Sophronia Phelps (née Peabody) Little (b.1809). Dr. Little wrote to GP: “It becomes my painful duty to inform you of the death of Thomas. He died in Buffalo on the 16th inst. a victim of his own vices.” Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody, Thomas (GP’s brother). 10-“poor misguided brother.” The exact cause of Thomas Peabody’s death is not given, leaving the reader of family letters to wonder if Thomas took his own life or died in a drunken stupor. Four months later sister Judith Dodge (née Peabody) Russell in her Aug. 23, 1835, letter to her brother GP, care of Brown, Liverpool, England, referred to Thomas as their “poor misguided brother.” Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody, Thomas (GP’s brother). 11-Unpaid Debt. Eighteen years later GP had a letter, July 19, 1853, from destitute rooming house owner Sarah Whitehorne, Brooklyn, N.Y. She wrote: “Mr. George Peabody, I take the liberty of addressing you a few lines presuming you are the Mr. Peabody who was formerly of the firm of Riggs & Peabody and who the Papers say is possessed of great wealth and much benevolence. I wish to call to your recollection many years ago when your Brother David and family boarded with me and his wife died at my Home.” Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody, Thomas (GP’s brother). 12-Unpaid Debt Cont’d.: “Two or three years after that your brother Thomas boarded with me and went away thirty dollars in my debt. I know not whether he is living but I am very destitute, far advanced in life, and with very feeble health, would you be so kind as to send me that small sum, it would be of great service to me for I need it now more than ever–when your Brother David with his Wife and Son George boarded with me, it was just after the yellow fever was in New York and I recollect your calling there of an evening in Greenwich Street–be assured Sir it is exactly as I have stated and you will not I trust refuse me. Address me No. 75 Fulton Avenue, Second door from Joy Street, Brooklyn, New York.” Ref.: Ibid. See: Sarah Whitehorne.

Peabody, William (1619-1701), sometimes spelled Peboddy. See: Peabody Genealogy, Paternal.

Peabody Academy of Science (1867-1915), Salem, Mass., was renamed the Peabody Museum of Salem, 1915-92, and renamed the Peabody Essex Museum since 1992. See: Science: GP’s Gifts to Science and Science Education.
Peabody & Co. See: George Peabody & Co., 1838-64.

Peabody Bay, Greenland. See: Arctic Exploration. Franklin, Sir John. Grinnell, Henry. Kane, Elisha Kent.

GP’s Family History

Peabody Coat of Arms. 1-GP’s Family History Search, 1838. Engaged to be married in late 1838 to Esther Elizabeth Hoppin (1819-1905), GP wanted to know his family history. He asked younger cousin Adolphus William Peabody (b. 1814) to send him the Peabody family history gathered from the London Heraldry Office by patriarch Joseph Peabody (1757-1844) of Salem, Mass., who once owned 83 clipper ships engaged in far eastern trade. Not dreaming that Esther Hoppin would break off the engagement about Jan. 1839, Adolphus dutifully sent GP what was then known about the family origins. See: Hoppin, Esther Elizabeth.

Peabody Coat of Arms. 2-Queen Boadicia Origin of “Peabody”? This family history, rejected by genealogist Charles H. Pope in 1909, indicated that the Peabody family name originated in 61 A.D. from Queen Boadicia, whose husband reigned in Icena, Britain, and was vassal to Roman Emperor Nero. When Queen Boadicia’s husband died and left half his wealth to Nero, Nero seized all of it. When Queen Boadicia objected, Nero had her whipped. Queen Boadicia and a kinsman named Boadie led an unsuccessful revolt against Rome. She ended her life with poison. Boadie fled to Wales. Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody Coat of Arms. 3-“Great Man of the Mountain.” Boadie in the Cambrian tongue meant “man” or “great man,” while Pea meant ‘hill” or ‘mountain.” By this account Peabodie meant “mountain man” or “great man of the mountain.” The coat of arms for the Peabodys, Adolphus related, was given by King Arthur shortly after the battle on the River Douglas. Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody Coat of Arms. 4-“Great Man of the Mountain” Cont’d. Adolphus W. Peabody related all this to GP and added (Jan. 14, 1838): “So with all these numbers and folios. If you are curious thereabout the next time you go over, you can see if it be a recorded derivation of our patronymic or not…. You have the garb, crest, and scroll etc. (enclosed). [Joseph] says, I have heard my mother say a great many things in this way. She mostly had her information from our paternal grandmother. Sophronia [Adolphus’ sister] can tell you as much as you can well listen of a long day.” Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody Coat of Arms. 5-Boadicia Origin of Peabody Disputed. The Boadicia origin of the Peabody name, recorded in M. Endicott’s A Genealogy of the Peabody Family, 1867, was disputed in Charles Henry Pope’s Peabody Genealogy, 1909. Pope held that when English surnames were crystallized in the 14th century, “Paybody” referred to trustworthy men who paid servants, creditors, and employees of barons, manufacturers, or public officials. They were selected by character and ability as paymasters or paying-tellers. Pope stated that the Latin motto of the Peabody coat of arms, Murus aereus conscientia sana, meant “A sound conscience is a wall of bronze,” or since the Romans thought of bronze as a hard metal, “A sound conscience is a solid wall of defense.” Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU Lineage

Peabody College of Vanderbilt Univ. (PCofVU), brief history. 1-Lineage Since 1785. PCofVU, which became Vanderbilt Univ.’s ninth school on July 1, 1979, has a lineage of over 210 years, making it the 15th U.S. college after the founding of Harvard College in 1636. This school struggled to survive in a then rural, rugged, sparsely populated frontier town (Nashville) destined to become “the Athens of the South.” PCofVU’s genealogy through seven name changes began with 1-Davidson Academy (1785-1806), which offered collegiate instruction after being chartered in 1785 by N.C., eleven years before Tenn. statehood, when Tenn. was still part of N.C. Davidson Academy’s first principal was Thomas B. Craighead (1750-1825) during 1785-1809. See: institutions and persons named. Conkin, Peabody College, index.

PCofVU. 2-Davidson Academy to Cumberland College. Davidson Academy was rechartered by the Tenn. legislature as 2-Cumberland College (1806-26), still under Principal Thomas B. Craighead, who was succeeded by Pres. James Priestley (1760-1821) from Oct. 24, 1809, to Feb. 4, 1821. James Priestley was born in Va. and had previously been principal of Salem Academy, Bardstown, Ky. Cumberland College suspended activities for three years (1816-19, with some private classes taught) and was open during 1820-26. [Note: U.S. Pres. Andrew Jackson (1767-1845) was a trustee of Davidson Academy and its successor institutions–Cumberland College (1806-26) and the Univ. of Nashville (1826-75) for over 50 years (1792 until his death, 1845)]. Pres. James Priestley was succeeded by Pres. Philip Lindsley (1786-c.1850) from Apr. 26, 1824, to 1850. Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 3-Univ. of Nashville. Under Pres. Lindsley and at his suggestion, Cumberland College was rechartered as the 3-Univ. of Nashville, from Nov. 27, 1826, to 1875. Pres. Lindsley graduated from (1804) and taught (1807-24) at the College of N.J. (renamed Princeton Univ., Oct. 1896), known for sending its graduates as Presbyterian missionaries to establish frontier churches and colleges. He resigned as president of the Univ. of Nashville in 1850 and was succeeded by his physician son, Dr. John Berrien Lindsley (1822-97), chancellor during 1850-72 and dean of the medical department. Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 4-Succeeded by his Son and E.K. Smith. The often financially pressed Univ. of Nashville was occupied by Union forces during most of the Civil War. Dr. John Berrien Lindsley, who resigned in 1872, was succeeded by Confederate Gen. Edmund Kirby Smith (1824-93), chancellor during 1872-75. Ref.: Ibid.

State Normal School

PCofVU. 5-Barnas Sears Wanted a Normal School. First PEF administrator Barnas Sears (1802-80) wanted a teacher training normal school in Nashville to serve as a model for the South. When the Tenn. legislature voted down several bills to establish and fund such a normal school, Sears, in 1875, with the help of the then newly inaugurated Tenn. Gov. James Davis Porter (1828-1912), got the Univ. of Nashville trustees to convert its nearly defunct Literary Dept. (predecessor to today’s college of arts and sciences) into a normal school. The legislature, encouraged by Gov. Porter, amended the Univ. of Nashville’s charter to legalize the normal school. Sears and the PEF trustees subsidized the normal school, expecting imminent state support. Ref.: Ibid. See: Porter, James Davis (for his account of helping Barnas Sears to establish Peabody Normal College, Univ. of Nashville).

PCofVU. 6-Overview. Thus in brief, 1-Davidson Academy (1785-1806), rechartered as 2-Cumberland College (1806-26), rechartered as 3-the Univ. of Nashville (1826-1875), was rechartered as 4-State Normal School (1875-89), renamed officially 5-Peabody Normal College (1889-1911, although informally so-called from the first because of its PEF origin and financial support), rechartered as 6-GPCFT (1914-79), which became 7-PCofVU since July 1, 1979. Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 7-Univ. of Nashville Medical Dept. The Univ. of Nashville’s medical department (1850-95) graduated a total of 1,699 physicians and was the second largest U.S. medical school during the Civil War. For a time it was jointly managed with Vanderbilt Univ.’s School of Medicine and then returned to independent medical school status (1895-1911), when it merged with the Univ. of Tenn. Medical College. Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 8-Univ. of Nashville’s Other Schools. The Univ. of Nashville also had a law department (1854-72); a school of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts (1872-75); a school of Civil Engineering (1872-75); a military institute (about 1854-59); and a preparatory school, Montgomery Bell Academy, funded in 1867 by wealthy Nashville iron manufacturer Montgomery Bell (1769-1855). Montgomery Bell Academy still functioned in 1999 under the Univ. of Nashville charter. Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 9-Distinguished Alumni, Trustees. GPCFT historian Alfred Leland Crabb (1884-1980) recorded that from the student bodies of Davidson Academy, Cumberland College, and the Univ. of Nashville came 28 U.S. senators, four U.S. cabinet officers, and eight U.S. ministers to foreign countries. Trustees of GPCFT and its predecessors have also included the following eight U.S. presidents (with their years as trustee): Andrew Jackson (during 1792-1845), James K. Polk (1839-41), Andrew Johnson (1853-57), U.S. Grant (1867-85), Rutherford B. Hayes (1877-93), Grover Cleveland (1885-99), William McKinley (1899-1901), and Theodore Roosevelt (1901-14). See: Presidents, U.S. and GP. For the high status of PEF trustees, see PEF.

PCofVU. 10-Normal School in Nashville (in brief). It was PEF Trustee Pres. Robert Charles Winthrop (1809-94) who found and urged Barnas Sears’s appointment as first PEF administrator. It was Sears, wanting a normal school in Nashville as a model for the South, who, aided by Tenn. Gov. James Davis Porter, induced the Univ. of Nashville trustees to convert its defunct Literary Dept. into a normal school. With the Univ. of Nashville’s charter so amended the normal school opened in Dec. 1875, subsidized by the PEF, with administrator Sears expecting Tenn. state support. The careers and interactions of these and other individuals, sparked by GP’s 1867 PEF, led ultimately to what is now PCofVU. See: persons named.

PCofVU. 11-Robert Charles Winthrop. Winthrop, statesman and orator of note, was descended from Mass. Bay Colony’s early governor, John Winthrop (1588-1649). He was a Harvard graduate (1828), trained in Daniel Webster’s law office, admitted to the bar (1831), a Whig member of the Mass. legislature, Speaker of the Mass. State House, elected to the U.S. House of Representatives (1842-50 and its speaker, 1847-50), and was appointed to fill Daniel Webster’s U.S. Senate seat (1850). At GP’s request (sometime in early 1866) Winthrop became his philanthropic advisor and PEF trustee president after Feb. 7, 1867. See: PEF. Winthrop, Robert Charles.

Barnas Sears

PCofVU. 12-Barnas Sears. Barnas Sears was born in Sandisfield, Mass., was a Brown Univ. graduate (1825), studied at Newton Theological Seminary (Mass.), was ordained a Baptist minister, was a Colgate Univ. (N.Y.) prof. (1831-33), studied in German universities, was Newton Theological Seminary prof. and later its president. He succeeded Horace Mann (1796-1859) as Mass. Board of Education Secty. (1848-55) and was Brown Univ. pres. (1855-67). See: PEF. Sears, Barnas.

PCofVU. 13-PEF. GP created the PEF with $1 million (Feb. 7, 1867), doubled the fund to $2 million (June 29, 1869), and transferred his intent to aid public education in the South to Winthrop and the trustees. They faced a daunting task: how to use the small income from a two million dollar fund to elevate twelve Civil War devastated southern states through public schools; how to convince lethargic parents, taxpayers, and political leaders that permanent tax supported public schools could help renew their economy and their lives; how to attract and train better teachers; and how to spread public elementary and secondary schools as seeds for a new South. Winthrop needed a plan and an administrator. See: PEF.

PCofVU. 14-Winthrop Met Sears. Winthrop found the plan and administrator he needed in long-time friend Barnas Sears. As told by Jabez Lamar Monroe Curry (1825-1903, second PEF administrator during 1881-85 and 1888-1903), they met casually “at the old Wednesday Evening Club in Boston,” March 13, 1867. Winthrop asked Sears how the PEF might carry out its mission. Sears’s remarks so impressed Winthrop that he “begged Dr. Sears to furnish in writing the results of his best reflection and judgment on the whole matter.” See: persons named.

PCofVU. 15-Winthrop Met Sears Cont’d. After a night of pondering, Sears called at Winthrop’s Brookline home near Boston and promised to send a letter recording his thoughts on how the PEF trustees might accomplish the PEF mission. Sears’s letter of March 14, 1867, from Providence, R.I., again impressed Winthrop. He shared Sears’s plan with the PEF trustees. Winthrop urged them to offer and persuaded Sears to accept the post as the PEF’s first administrator (during 1867-80, 13 years). Ref.: Ibid.

Sears’s Policy

PCofVU. 16-Sears’s Plan. The PEF trustees accepted Sears’s policy to 1-strengthen through grants existing public schools in larger towns to serve as models for other communities, 2-establish new public schools where needed, 3-require that PEF-aided schools become permanent tax-supported public schools under state control, 4-require that aided schools meet nine or ten months a year, 5-that they have at least one teacher per 50 pupils, 6-and that local citizens match PEF funds, if possible by two or three times the amount of PEF aid. Sears set a rising aid scale as enrollments rose: $300 a year for a school enrolling up to 100 pupils, $450 for 100 to 150 pupils, $600 for 150 to 200 pupils, $800 for 200 to 250 pupils, and $1,000 for 300 or more pupils. It was pump priming, using small grants for their multiplying effect, later used by Pres. Franklin Delano Roosevelt during the 1930’s depression. Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 17-Sears’s Three PEF Phases. Sears and his family moved to Staunton, Va. He wrote, spoke, and traveled widely during his 13 years as PEF administrator (1867-80). He used the PEF’s limited resources as a lever to accomplish the fund’s first phase: to establish tax supported elementary and secondary public schools and create a model teacher training college for the South in Nashville (Peabody Normal College, 1875-1911). Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 18-Sears’s Three PEF Phases Cont’d. The PEF’s second phase, short term teachers’ institutes (a week or less training for practicing teachers) and long term professional teacher training normal schools, was largely accomplished by PEF second administrator J.L.M. Curry during 1881-1903. The PEF’s third phase, rural public schools, was largely accomplished by PEF third administrator Wycliffe Rose (1862-1931) during 1907-14. Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 19-State Normal School Proposal. Barnas Sears saw Nashville, Tenn., as a cultural center for the South and a normal school in Nashville as a model for the South. Proposals in the Tenn. legislature to establish a state teacher training normal school had failed in 1857 and 1865. In June-July 1867, Sears offered PEF funds of $1,000 or more annually if Tenn. would establish one or more normal schools. Legislative bills for a state normal school failed in 1868, 1871, and 1873, even though the PEF offered (in 1873) $6,000 annually to match annual state funding. Rather than lose Nashville as a normal school site, Sears in 1874 asked the Univ. of Nashville trustees to give land and buildings for a normal school in place of their moribund Literary Dept. If this was done, he promised from $6,000 PEF funds annually. Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 20-State Normal School: 1875-1889. Glad not to spend state funds, the Tenn. legislature amended the Univ. of Nashville’s charter to allow it to establish a normal school, financed by PEF’s $6,000 annual contribution (Sears expected imminent and sustaining state aid). The new State Normal School on the Univ. of Nashville campus opened Dec. 1, 1875, with 13 students and ended the first year with 60 students. Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 21-Threat of a Move to Ga. State Normal School (1875-89), officially renamed Peabody Normal College (1889-1911), was cost-free to selected students with promise as future teachers. During 1877-1904, 3,645 of the most promising applicants received PEF-funded Peabody scholarships of $200 annually during 1877-91 and $100 annually plus railroad fare during 1891-1904. GPCFT historian A.L. Crabb noted that these 3,645 Peabody scholarship teachers formed an important core of southern educational leaders of the time. Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 22-Threat of a Move to Ga. Unable (or unwilling) to offer state aid, the Tenn. legislature defeated appropriation bills for the State Normal School in 1877 and 1879, leaving funding solely to the PEF until 1881. Disappointed, Sears and the PEF trustees considered moving State Normal School from Nashville to Georgia, whose legislature agreed on state support if the PEF continued its $6,000 annual contribution. But Georgia’s Constitution required that the State Normal School be state controlled as part of the Univ. of Georgia at Athens. This requirement irked Sears and the PEF trustees, who wanted state aid but without state control. Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 23-Tenn. State Aid. Threat of a move from Tenn. prompted Nashville citizens to guarantee $6,000 by April 1880 to keep the Normal School in Nashville. Stung into action, the Tenn. legislature gave the Normal School $10,000 annually (1881-83), raised to $13,300 annually (1883-95), and raised again to $23,000 annually (1895-1905). Peabody Normal College got $555,730 from the PEF (1875-1909) and $429,000 from the Tenn. legislature (1881-1905). Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 24-Three Presidents: 1875-1909. The three presidents of State Normal School (1875-89) and Peabody Normal College (1889-1911) were 1-Pres. Eben Sperry Stearns (1819-87) during 1875-87. Born in Mass. and Harvard Univ. educated, Stearns, under Mass. Board of Education Secty. Barnas Sears, was the second president of Newton Normal School, Mass. (first U.S. normal school). 2-Pres. William Harold Payne (1836-1907), during 1888-1901, had held the first professorship of education in the U.S. at the Univ. of Michigan during 1879-88. 3-Pres. James Davis Porter (1828-1912), president during 1901-11, the only Tennessean, was a Univ. of Nashville graduate (1846), a lawyer, Tenn. House member, Confederate officer, and Tenn. governor (1874-78). Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 25-Normal Colleges Became State Univ. Ed. Depts.. The Peabody Normal College years (1875-1911) coincided with the rise of normal schools as the chief U.S. agency to prepare elementary and secondary school teachers. After 1910, state univ. education departments increasingly replaced normal schools in the professional preparation of teachers, a changeover which coincided with the PEF’s dissolution in 1914. Ref. Ibid.

Transition to GPCFT

PCofVU. 26-Transition: Peabody Normal College to GPCFT. GP’s founding letter (Feb. 7, 1867) allowed the PEF trustees to end the trust after 30 years and to distribute its principal. On Jan. 29, 1903, the PEF trustees resolved to give most of its principal to found GPCFT (influential trustees then included Theodore Roosevelt and John Pierpont Morgan, Sr.). On Jan. 24, 1905, the PEF trustees committed $1 million to transform the Peabody Normal College into GPCFT (later raised to $1.5 million), contingent on 1-matching funds from Nashville, Davidson County, Tenn., and other donors; and on 2-relocating from South Nashville to 21st Ave. near Vanderbilt Univ. for added academic strength. See: PEF.

PCofVU. 27-Problems Reconciled. Two problems had to be reconciled in the transition from Peabody Normal College to GPCFT: 1-Ga. State Commissioner of Education G.R. Glenn, PEF acting administrator (1903), argued in his annual report that because public education in the South lagged behind national levels, PEF principal should largely be used in a campaign to raise local public school taxes. Fear of losing PEF assets led Peabody Normal College alumni to secure petitions supporting GPCFT in Nashville. After a deadlock on the issue for a year, the PEF trustees determined on GPCFT as successor, with a new campus near Vanderbilt Univ. Ref.: Dorn-b, pp. 13-14.

PCofVU. 28-Problems Reconciled Cont’d. 2-South Nashville property owners objected to moving Peabody Normal College from their area and began preventive court action. Pres. James D. Porter also preferred South Nashville but the PEF trustees’ endowment power determined the Vanderbilt Univ. location. Pres. J.D. Porter acquiesced, was compensated by a pension from the Carnegie Pension Fund, helped secure the legislation that permitted transfer of assets from the Univ. of Nashville’s Peabody Normal School to GPCFT. By June 1909 Pres. Porter also helped secure funds required to match the PEF’s $1.5 million endowment: $250,000 from the Tenn. legislature, $200,000 from the City of Nashville, and $100,000 from Davidson County. Pres. Porter resigned on Aug. 4, 1909, and GPCFT was incorporated on Oct. 5, 1909. See: PEF. Porter, James Davis.

PCofVU. 29-Vanderbilt Univ. Vanderbilt Univ. was chartered Aug. 6, 1872, as Central Univ. of the Methodist Episcopal Church. In Feb. 1873, its founder, Methodist Bishop Holland N. McTyeire (1824-89), needing building funds, visited Cornelius Vanderbilt (1794-1877) in NYC. Their wives were cousins and had been intimate girlhood friends in Mobile, Ala. (this was Cornelius Vanderbilt’s second wife, his first wife having died). See: Payne, Bruce R.

PCofVU. 30-Vanderbilt Univ. Cont’d. Bishop McTyeire told Vanderbilt of higher education needs in the South and of Central Univ. building needs in Nashville. Cornelius Vanderbilt, whose wealth came from ferry boats, steamship lines, and railroads (N.Y. Central, 1867), gave Central Univ. in Nashville $500,000 on March 12, 1873, later doubled to $1 million, leading to the renaming of Central Univ. to Vanderbilt Univ. on June 6, 1873. Ref.: (Methodist Bishop McTyeire and Cornelius Vanderbilt): Bolton-a, p. 307. Conkin, et. al. , pp. 15-17.

Vanderbilt-GPCFT Connection

PCofVU. 31-Takeover Attempt. Vanderbilt Univ.’s second Chancellor James Hampton Kirkland (1859-1939) wanted to make Nashville a great university center. He also knew that GPCFT’s endowment was initially greater than Vanderbilt’s endowment. He wanted a Vanderbilt-GPCFT connection similar to the successful Teachers College of Columbia Univ., and deeded Vanderbilt land to GPCFT, about which some contention later resulted. Ref.: Dorn-b, pp. 14-20.

PCofVU. 32-Takeover Attempt Cont’d. Kirkland’s hoped-for ally in making a Vanderbilt-GPCFT connection was Johns Hopkins Univ. Pres. Daniel Coit Gilman (1831-1908), the South’s most respected higher education leader and also an influential PEF trustee. Kirkland urged in 1900 and 1901 that Gilman, about to retire as Johns Hopkins president, become Peabody Normal College president and help form a Vanderbilt-GPCFT connection. While retaining his long friendship with Kirkland, Gilman adroitly sidestepped involvement. Invited to give a major address in Nashville in 1900, he declined. He also declined to head Peabody Normal College in its last years. Ref.: Bolton-a, p. 307. Conkin, et. al. , pp. 15-17. See: Kirkland, James H.

GPCFT’s First Pres. Bruce R. Payne

PCofVU. 33-GPCFT’s First Pres. Bruce Ryburn Payne. GPCFT’s first Pres. Bruce Ryburn Payne (1874-1937) during 1911-37 cooperated academically with Vanderbilt but kept GPCFT independent as the South’s leading teacher training institution. B.R. Payne was born in N.C., was a graduate of Trinity College (later renamed Duke Univ.), was principal of Morganton (N.C.) Academy, did graduate study at Trinity College and at Teachers College of Columbia Univ. (M.A., 1903; Ph.D., 1904), was professor of philosophy and education, College of William and Mary, Va. (1904-05); and was Univ. of Va. prof. of secondary education and psychology and summer school organizer. Ref.: (Bruce R. Payne): Crabb-a, reprinted in Windrow, pp. 257-266. Dorn-b. Dorn-a, pp. 2-3. Force-b. Payne, Jr., pp. 4-5.

PCofVU. 34-Pres. Bruce Ryburn Payne Cont’d. Payne assembled a first-rate faculty, modeled the new GPCFT campus on Thomas Jefferson’s Univ. of Va. architectural plan (a quadrangle of column buildings dominated by a Social-Religious Building with a commanding rotunda), and raised an additional $1 million for the new campus. Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 35-Pres. Payne’s Fund Raising. An example of Payne’s fund raising: banker and PEF trustee J.P. Morgan, Sr., had promised $250,000 toward GPCFT buildings when needed but died. Payne went to NYC to request the funds of Morgan’s son-in-law, Herbert Livingston Satterlee (1863-1947). Satterlee hesitated because Morgan had not left evidence of his promised aid. Payne felt he had failed in this fund raising until Satterlee, checking with Morgan’s son (J.S. Morgan, Jr.), released the promised amount. Ref.: Ibid.

PEF Assets Distributed, 1914

PCofVU. 36-PEF Assets Distributed. In 1914 the PEF trustees dissolved and distributed their total assets ($2,324,000) as follows: $1.5 million to endow GPCFT; $474,000 to education departments of 14 Southern universities ($40,000 each to the universities of Va., N.C., Ga., Ala., Fla., Miss., Ark., Ky., and La. [State]; $6,000 each to Johns Hopkins Univ. and to the universities of S.C., Mo., and Tex.; $90,000 to Winthrop Normal College, S.C. (now Winthrop College), founded by PEF trustees Pres. Robert Charles Winthrop. On receiving PEF money state universities of Ga., Miss., Fla. at Gainesville, N.C. at Chapel Hill ,and others named their Education buildings after GP. See: Payne, Bruce Ryburn. PEF. Peabody, George, Institutions, Buildings, Ships, Other Facilities, Music & Poems Named after GP.

Cautious VU-GPCFT Cooperation

PCofVU. 37-Payne-Kirkland Differences. Payne, like Kirkland, was a strong administrator with a vibrant personality. Their relations were polite but strained only in Payne’s determination to keep GPCFT independent yet cooperative in courses, students, and programs. Payne’s egalitarian concern for mass education followed the democratic educational philosophy of his Columbia Univ. mentor, John Dewey (1859-1952). In this, Payne differed from Kirkland’s elitism and sense of southern race and class distinction. See: persons named.

PCofVU. 38-Payne-Kirkland Differences Cont’d. Author Kreyling depicts Kirkland as “an educational conservative…who believed in a certain degree of intellectual and social elitism” while Payne “believed strongly in education for the masses, for social outsiders as well as insiders.” Author Cobb gives an example of Kirkland’s exalted sense of VU’s primacy. Ref.: Cobb, pp. 55-57. Kreyling, p. 22.

PCofVU. 39-GPCFT a Unique Mini-university. Cooperating with Vanderbilt Univ. academically but retaining independence, Payne and later presidents made GPCFT a unique mini-university with its own departments of liberal arts, music, physical education, art, a demonstration elementary school for teachers-in-training, Knapp farm for rural studies, and a school survey research unit widely used in the South. GPCFT had more graduates than undergraduates, and prepared mainly teachers, school librarians, and educational leaders. Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 40-Cautious Cooperation. During the 1920s-50s, more Peabodians took Vanderbilt graduate courses than the other way round. Irritations arose because GPCFT, with more women than men students, felt discrimination and a snobbish belittling of professional education courses by Vanderbilt liberal arts professors (some of whom gladly taught for extra pay in GPCFT’s large summer school). The GPCFT community sensed that Vanderbilt wanted to separate its graduate courses from them and that Vanderbilt deans and faculty disdained GPCFT’s teacher education mission and belittled its academic standards. Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 41-Cautious Cooperation Cont’d. In 1926 Vanderbilt’s Academic Dean Walter Lynwood Fleming (1874-1932) proposed and in 1930 Chancellor Kirkland established a short-lived Vanderbilt Education Dept. (1930-34), causing some GPCFT apprehension. It was headed by Joseph Kinmount Hart (1876-1949), who had taught at the universities of Chicago and Wisconsin, favored John Dewey’s progressive education ideas, and had written A Social Interpretation of Education, 1929, and other textbooks. Hart’s liberalism caused student disturbances. He ended his four-year Vanderbilt career (1930-34) with some bitterness and vague threats of a lawsuit. In 1937, Chancellor Kirkland retired and Pres. Payne died, ending a first phase (27 years) of sometimes strained but mutually beneficial GPCFT-Vanderbilt cooperation. Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 42-Joint Univ. Libraries. In 1935, Univ. of Chicago Libraries Assoc. Dir. A. Frederick Kuhlman (1889-1986) came to Nashville as American Library Association representative to study the library needs of Vanderbilt, GPCFT, and Scarritt College for Christian Workers (founded by Methodists in 1892 and currently an adult education conference center). Kuhlman’s finding of 280 quarter hours of duplicate courses led to their being eliminated. His study also led to the 1941 Joint Univ. Libraries (JUL, under Director Kuhlman). His study also helped clarify GPCFT’s focus on education, fine arts, practical arts, and summer school; and Vanderbilt’s focus on undergraduate and graduate liberal arts and sciences. The JUL (dedicated Dec. 5-6, 1941; renamed in 1984 the Jean and Alexander Heard Library) further aided GPCFT-Vanderbilt cooperation. See: persons and institutions named. Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 43-Joint MAT Program, 1952-55. Vanderbilt’s Chancellor [Bennett] Harvie Branscomb (1894-1998) and GPCFT’s Pres. Henry H. Hill (1894-1987, president during 1945-61) cooperated in a joint two-year Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT) program, funded by the Ford Foundation (1952-55). Subject content courses were taught at Vanderbilt and education courses at GPCFT. When GPCFT declined to continue in the joint MAT program, Vanderbilt added to its own small teacher certification program a special Ph.D. program to improve college teaching, with professional courses taken at GPCFT. When Vanderbilt added a full-time director of teacher education to supervise the certification of elementary teachers, GPCFT was again apprehensive. Vanderbilt’s elementary school teacher trainees took professional courses at GPCFT, and Vanderbilt’s secondary school teacher trainees took student teaching and one teaching methods course at GPCFT. Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 44-May 1962 Study. A May 1962 study by educator John Dale Russell (b.1895) recommended a Univ. Center for Nashville higher education institutions with a common school calendar, foreign languages area, geographic studies area, performing arts, research and grants, a faculty club, a university press, intramural and intercollegiate sports, and music and drama clubs and presentations. The plan stopped short of a GPCFT-Vanderbilt merger but mentioned raising GPCFT faculty salaries and reducing GPCFT teaching loads to Vanderbilt levels. Vanderbilt never fully embraced the plan, which was nursed along through the 1970s by a 1969 Ford Foundation grant. GPCFT officials thought the plan seemed Vanderbilt-centered. Ref.: (Russell Report of 1962): Russell. Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 45-May 1962 Study Cont. In retrospect, the 1962 Russell Plan was GPCFT’s last chance to affiliate with Vanderbilt from a position of strength. In the 1960s Vanderbilt grew in enrollment and endowment status, while GPCFT went into slow decline. Cooperation (academic, athletic, and JUL) continued, but Vanderbilt and GPCFT had different histories, missions, and faculty and student backgrounds, experiences, and attitudes. More affluent Vanderbilt students reflected their parents’ elitism and conservatism. Less affluent GPCFT students reflected their parents’ more rural, egalitarian, and working class backgrounds. Ref.: Mims-a. Mims-b. Vanderbilt Univ.

PCofVU. 46-Economic Turndown 1970s. A national recession affected higher education in the 1970s with rising energy and other costs and inflation. College of education enrollments declined nationally. During 1970-72 GPCFT lost 30 faculty, had unused facilities, and some Ph.D. programs faced loss of accreditation. By 1974, GPCFT reduced its music and accounting programs; eliminated some business education, home economics, and modern language programs; sold its Demonstration School; and cut arts and science courses. GPCFT’s undergraduates dropped from 1,200 in 1972 to 800 in 1976; graduate students declined to about 1,200. GPCFT’s plant and endowment were so threatened that it had little to offer in merger talks. Ref.: Ibid.

VU-GPCFT Merger Talks

PCofVU. 47-Merger Talks: 1970s. GPCFT’s sixth and last Pres. John Dunworth (1924-2005) during 1974-79, had been education dean at Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. In Aug. 1978 Pres. Dunworth persuaded GPCFT trustees to begin unpublicized merger talks with Vanderbilt officials. Not wanting to irritate already apprehensive GPCFT faculty, students, and alumni, he wanted merger talks to reach resolution before GPCFT interest groups organized resistance. Dunworth wanted a strong GPCFT to emerge from a merger but knew that faculty outside of education and human development would not be kept. No longer an equal, somewhat of a supplicant, Dunworth held merger talks during Sept.-Dec. 1978 with Vanderbilt Univ. Chancellor Alexander Heard (1917-) and Vanderbilt Pres. Emmett B. Fields (1923-d. Sept. 19, 2005). Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 48-Merger Talks: 1970s Cont’d. To Vanderbilt officials in Aug. 1978, absorbing GPCFT was less attractive than it had been during 1900-50. Still, Vanderbilt had a major stake in GPCFT’s survival, needing its programs in education, physical education, accounting, music education, and some psychology areas. Vanderbilt needed GPCFT cooperation in Medical Center research, student counseling, student health, band, choir, joint athletic teams (GPCFT athletes aided Vanderbilt’s intercollegiate sports competition), JUL, and dormitory space. Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 49-Merger Talks: 1970s Cont’d. Vanderbilt’s Pres. Fields wanted GPCFT’s assets but not at the price of guaranteeing indefinite continuation of a full-fledged college of education. Fields’ thoughts on merger included scaling down GPCFT to an educational policy study program or guaranteeing the existing college of education for eight years, after which Vanderbilt could convert GPCFT to whatever purposes it wished. Merger costs would have to come from GPCFT’s endowment, GPCFT’s earnings would have to cover its costs, and Vanderbilt must absorb GPCFT’s total assets. Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 50-Difficult Merger Talks. Vanderbilt Pres. Fields and Chancellor Heard told GPCFT’s Pres. Dunworth that merger talks must become public, with full disclosure of all separate and joint Vanderbilt-GPCFT committee talks. Faced with such difficult terms, Dunworth interrupted Vanderbilt negotiations in Dec. 1978 and talked of possible merger outside of Nashville with either Duke Univ. of Durham, N.C., or George Washington Univ. of Washington, D.C. Ref.: (GPCFT-Vanderbilt merger): “Boards Vote Peabody Merger,” pp. 1, 12. “The Committee of Visitors,” pp. 10, 12. Hiles, pp. 4-5. “How Students See the Merger,” pp. 13-14. “Peabody-Vanderbilt Merger Information,” pp. 98 a-h. “President Claunch Dies,” p. 2. Cullum, Ed.D. dissertation, GPCFT, 1963. Dillingham. Hoffschwelle-a, pp. 659-680.

Tenn. State Univ. Factor

PCofVU. 51-Tenn. State Univ. Factor. A new factor then emerged. Under court order in 1977 the formerly largely African American Tenn. Agricultural and Industrial Univ. in Nashville merged with the Nashville campus of the Univ. of Tenn., the latter mainly a night college for commuting students. The new Tenn. State Univ. (TSU) had tried but failed to work out a doctoral program in education first with Memphis State Univ. and then with GPCFT. Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 52-GPCFT-TSU Merger? In Jan. 1979, TSU representatives spoke with Tenn. State Board of Regents (governing state colleges) about a possible GPCFT-TSU merger. When Nashville people read on Feb. 13, 1979, of a possible GPCFT-TSU merger, they were surprised. Long cooperation had made a Vanderbilt-GPCFT merger seem like manifest destiny. Despite some racial concerns (the TSU image was of a largely African American institution), a GPCFT-TSU merger was more acceptable than having GPCFT leave Nashville. A GPCFT-TSU merger was also tolerable to those who wanted a public university in Nashville of lower cost than Vanderbilt’s high tuition cost. Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 53-Vanderbilt Univ. Dilemma. On Mar. 10, 1979, the Tenn. State Board of Regents voted 11 to 1 for a GPCFT-TSU connection. Vanderbilt trustees quickly reconsidered their position. A GPCFT-TSU merger would mean many African American students on a state-owned GPCFT next to Vanderbilt. Also, a state-owned GPCFT might have to give up cooperative programs with a private Vanderbilt. On March 17, 1979, Vanderbilt Chancellor Heard and Trustee Board chairman Sam M. Fleming (1909-2000) decided to offer formal terms. This offer was presented to the GPCFT trustees, Mar. 19, 1979. After six hours of debate, Vanderbilt’s offer was accepted, allowing a joint TSU-GPCFT doctoral program in education. On Apr. 27, 1979, Vanderbilt’s and GPCFT’s trustees signed a “Memorandum of Understanding.” On July 1, 1979, PCofVU became Vanderbilt’s ninth school. Ref.: Ibid.

Vanderbilt Univ. Terms

PCofVU. 54-Vanderbilt Univ. Terms. Vanderbilt absorbed some $11 million of GPCFT’s endowment, retained over $9 million after merger expenses, and allotted $8.5 million of that $9 million for continued PCofVU support. PCofVU was responsible for teacher education and teacher certification programs; kept its undergraduate degree programs in elementary education, early childhood education, and a master’s program in library science (dropped in 1987); kept its Ed.D. program; offered the Ph.D. program through Vanderbilt’s Graduate School; and kept its prestigious and well funded John F. Kennedy Center for Research on Education and Human Development (which see). Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 55-Vanderbilt Univ. Terms Cont’d. The new PCofVU gave up its liberal arts component and ended its undergraduate degrees in physical sciences, social sciences, and human development (except educational psychology); and gave up its master’s degree programs in art education and music education. These program changes went smoothly. Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 56-Faculty Settlement. Some former GPCFT faculty who lost jobs in a scarce job market protested, voted “no confidence” in Pres. Dunworth, and staged a symbolic march on the PCofVU administration building. The 40 staff employees let go received a parting bonus of five percent of annual wage for each year of service, or up to 75 percent of their annual pay. Many found jobs at Vanderbilt. Non-tenured faculty received one year’s pay plus $2,000 for relocation. Tenured faculty could either teach for a final year or receive severance pay of one year’s salary and also collect a bonus of two percent for each year of service and one percent for each remaining year until retirement. For a few near retirement, this amounted to paid leave plus a sizable bonus. Vanderbilt helped find new or temporary positions for those whose jobs were lost. Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 57-Backlash Reactions. The Tenn. branch of the American Association of Univ. Professors (AAUP) condemned the dismissals. The national AAUP took no action. In a show of solidarity, a small Vanderbilt faculty group urged Vanderbilt to retain all tenured former GPCFT faculty who, by Aug. 24, 1979, had signed waivers (some still jobless). By 1980, five dismissed faculty members had not found jobs. Two untenured faculty filed grievances; one initiated legal action but settled out of court. Most former GPCFT faculty and staff, dedicated to their mission, proud of their history, and saddened by the necessity of merger, cooperated with dignity and grace. Pres. Dunworth resigned May 1, 1979, with undisclosed severance pay. PCofVU Psychology Prof. Hardy C. Wilcoxon (1921-96) was acting dean until the Oct. 1980 appointment of new Dean Willis D. Hawley (1938-). Ref.: Ibid.

What Vanderbilt Gained

PCofVU. 58-What Vanderbilt Gained. To Vanderbilt’s over 9,000 enrollment were added GPCFT’s 1,800 students. Vanderbilt also gained 58 acres, 16 major buildings, dormitory and apartment space, and a president’s home in what some called Nashville’s greatest real estate transaction. PCofVU property was then valued at over $55 million. As a gesture of good will, Vanderbilt committed $700,000 per year for 10 years to PCofVU’s operating budget. PCofVU student tuition costs inevitably rose by 10 percent. Bruised psychologically at the time of merger, PCofVU was, ten years later, academically stronger than ever. Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 59-Why GPCFT Lost Independence. Ironically, GPCFT’s 65 years of prestigious success in training educational leaders (1914-79) contributed to its own demise. GPCFT’s own best graduates had become state university presidents, deans, leading professors, researchers, and education writers who had strengthened competing lower cost public university colleges of education. Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 60-Why GPCFT Lost Independence Cont’d. Wise Peabodians and others knew that the time was long past for the survival of a private single purpose teachers college like GPCFT, despite its proud history, high regional reputation, and national and international influence. The 1979 merger was a necessary and positive step that led to a stronger, more productive PCofVU. For a contested view that GPCFT could have survived on its own, see William Wilbur Force. Ref.: Ibid.

Why Vanderbilt Acquiesced

PCofVU. 61-Why Vanderbilt Acquiesced. At the merger signing, April 27, 1979, Vanderbilt Chancellor Heard explained how each institution benefited. He said that after seven decades of cooperation Vanderbilt and Peabody needed each other, that Vanderbilt was in the business of higher education, that the precollege schooling of its entering students needed improvement. He said that ours is a knowledge-based and science-and-technology-determined world. He explained that because Peabody College had the expertise to prepare better teachers, who in turn prepared better entering students, Vanderbilt needed Peabody, and Peabody needed Vanderbilt’s strong university base. He said that the risk each institution took in working together was worth taking because of the success both could achieve together. Ref.: Heard, pp. 4-5.

PCofVU. 62-Acting Dean Hardy C. Wilcoxon. Acting Dean Hardy C. Wilcoxon during 1979-80 knew that PCofVU had to “sharpen its focus as a professional school.” Like all Vanderbilt schools, PCofVU had to pay its own way from tuition, research grants, and fundraising. It also had to pay its share of total plant operating costs, personnel costs, and other services. H.C. Wilcoxon attended the Univ. of Arkansas (B.A., 1947; and M.A., 1948) and Yale Univ. (Ph.D., 1951), was psychology professor, Univ. of Ark. (to 1966), a GPCFT faculty member from 1966, and acting dean at the PCofVU merger, 1979-80. Ref.: Wilcoxon, pp. 2-3.

PCofVU. 63-Dean Willis D. Hawley. H.C. Wilcoxon’s successor as PCofVU’s new dean was Willis David Hawley (b.1938) from Oct. 15, 1980 to l989. He came to Vanderbilt Aug. 1980 to teach political science and to direct the Center for Education and Human Development at Vanderbilt’s interdisciplinary Institute for Public Policy. Born in San Francisco, he earned the B.A., M.A., and Ph. D. degrees in political science from the Univ. of California, Berkeley. He taught political science at Yale Univ. (1969-72) and co-directed Yale’s training of secondary school teachers. He taught political science at Duke Univ. (1972-80) and directed its Center for Education Policy. He was on leave from Duke (1977-78) to help plan the cabinet-level U.S. Dept. of Education under U.S. Pres. Jimmy Carter. Ref.: Bryan-a, pp. 12-15. Crawford-b, pp. 26-27. Hawley-a, p. 2. Hawley-b, p. 2. “Peabody gets $80,000 Grant,” Vanderbilt Register (Dec. 8, 1989), p. 7. “Technology Can Reconstruct Classroom Instruction,” Vanderbilt Register (Dec. 8, 1989), n.p.

Ed. Tech. Breakthroughs

PCofVU. 64-Educational Technology Breakthrough. Under Dean Hawley and amid a national surge of public education reform (inspired by A Nation at Risk, 1983, and other national reports), PCofVU had by 1983-84 upgraded its undergraduate and graduate programs, added new faculty, become proficient in using computers and telecommunications applied to teaching and learning, and moved PCofVU into national leadership in applying the new Educational Technology (Ed. Tech.) to improve public school teaching and learning. PCofVU’s scattered Ed. Tech. components were placed in a Learning Technology Center to assure better research and to secure grants to improve learning and public school teaching. Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 65-“America’s School of Education.” Hawley was able to state in 1986: “Peabody, more than any other school of education and human development, [is] national in scope and influence.” He cited PCofVU as “America’s School of Education” because “we are arguably better than anyone else at linking knowledge to practice.” After a 1987 self-study on PCofVU’s mission, Hawley wrote that “Peabody’s central mission is to enhance the social and cognitive development of children and youth,” focusing on the handicapped, and to transfer that knowledge into action through policy analysis, product development, and the design of practical models. Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 66-Library School Closed. The 1987 self-study led PCofVU to close its 60-year-old Library School. Reasons given for its closing were: 1-it had been understaffed, 2-student enrollment had not grown, 3-school librarians had become computer-based learning facilitators, and 4-American Library Assn. standards would require adding faculty. A two-day celebration in May 1987 honored Peabody’s Library School leaders and alumni. Ref.: “VU’s Peabody Holds Top Ranking Again,” Nashville Banner, February 18, 1991, p. B-5. “Peabody Top Choice in Education,” Peabody Columns, Vol. 1, No. 7 (March 1991), p. 2. Ref.: (Library School closed): “Centuries of Influence: A Celebration of Library Science at Peabody,” Peabody Reflector, Vol. 59, No. 2 (Fall 1987), pp. 9, 11.

10 Years After Merger

PCofVU. 67-Ten Years after Merger. Dean Hawley left the deanship after nine years (1980-1989) and became Univ. of Maryland’s education dean on July 1, 1993. He reflected on PCofVU’s ten years as Vanderbilt’s ninth school. To make it the best U.S. school of education and human development, he said, PCofVU improved two-thirds of its programs, collaborated with Fisk Univ. on increasing minority teachers, added new faculty, and increased its capacity to serve and influence educational policy makers and practitioners. It established the Center for Advanced Study of Educational Leadership, the Corporate Learning Center, the Learning Technology Center, and strengthened and broadened the mission of the John F. Kennedy Center for Research on Education and Human Development (which see). It increased student aid. It increased external research and development funding at an annual rate of 20 percent. In Ed. Tech. research and learning, he said, “we can claim to be the best in the country.” Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 68-Ten Years after Merger Cont’d. In 1989 Hawley listed the following among PCofVU’s achievements: 1-the U.S. Dept. of Education awarded PCofVU and Harvard Univ. a joint 5-year $2.5 million grant to study effective leadership in kindergarten through grade 12 school systems. The grant funded a National Center for Educational Leadership, housed at both PCofVU and at Harvard to study the leadership styles of school principals and school superintendents. 2-Apple Computer donated ten computers, with equipment and software matched by PCofVU, to improve math, science, and language arts teaching in a Nashville middle school. Besides better middle school learning, multimedia presentations showed prospective teachers how to apply Ed. Tech. in the classroom. PCofVU was one of a six-member Southeast research university consortium testing and evaluating new Ed. Tech. programs in teaching and learning. Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 69-Ten Years after Merger Cont’d. 3-PCofVU received a four-year $80,000 grant for 20 educators to develop and evaluate computer-based instruction to improve learning by children with disabilities. The 20 teachers so trained, in turn, were resource educators for other teacher education institutions, thus stimulating ongoing programs. Said a PCofVU special education professor in charge of the research: “We’re on the forefront of computer-based instruction and one of the leading institutions on technology as applied to teaching children with disabilities.” Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 70-Ed. Tech. Learning. Beginning in 1987-88, PCofVU’s Learning Technology Center developed a multimedia videodisk series of “Jasper” stories for middle school math learning. In the first 15-minute story, middle school student Jasper Woodbury buys a motorboat and must figure out whether or not he can take the boat home by sunset without running out of fuel. Using facts in the story, middle school students apply practical mathematics to solve the problem. The story also has “hooks” that introduce related subjects, as when Jasper buys the boat and the question of fuel source arises. A discussion about geography and natural resources follows. Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 71-Ed. Tech. Learning Cont’d. Children using Jasper stories were found to be better able to solve complex math problems than were children solving similar word-described problems. Math is made more interesting to teach and to learn, along with related subjects. The Jasper video story project soon involved eleven schools in nine states. For three consecutive years, PCofVU was named as having the “top choice” program to prepare guidance counselors. The judges (6l8 high school guidance counselors) most often named PCofVU as having the best program for undergraduates from among 650 quality four-year colleges, public and independent, listed in Rugg’s Recommendations on the Colleges for 1990, 1991, and 1992 Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU’s Dean J.W. Pellegrino

PCofVU. 72-Dean J.W. Pellegrino. After a two-and-a-half year search, James William Pellegrino (1947-) was chosen as the second dean of PCofVU, 1992-98. He had been acting dean at the Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, before joining Vanderbilt as holder of the Frank W. Mayborn Chair of Cognitive Studies. “I inherited a financially stable and intellectually robust institution,” he said in the fall of 1992 (enrollment was over 1,500 [870 undergraduate, some 630 graduate students]). His goals were to so undergird PCofVU’s instructional programs with innovative technology that they would be “uniquely superior” and set a standard for other universities. Ref.: (Dean James Pellegrino): “Campus Links…,” pp. 1, 6. “New Initiatives Strengthen….,” p. 2. “New Peabody Dean…., ” p. 3B. “Pellegrino Announces….,” p. 1. Pellegrino, James, “From the Dean,” inside front cover. Robertson, pp. 1, 11.

PCofVU. 73-Dean J.W. Pellegrino Cont’d. Dean Pellegrino said PCofVU was developing a college-wide blueprint to improve learning in U.S. schools. That blueprint included continued collaboration with school leaders and teachers in Nashville and elsewhere, focusing on PCofVU-developed innovative Ed. Tech. Besides continued collaboration after Sept. 1992 with Nashville schools, PCofVU also joined the U.S. Education Dept.-sponsored alliance to promote the six (later raised to eight) national education goals. Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 74-Social-Religious Building Remodeled. During 1993-96 PCofVU renovated and expanded by 50,000 feet its historic Social-Religious Building (later renamed Faye and Joe Wyatt Center after Vanderbilt Chancellor Joe B. Wyatt) at a cost of $15 million to make it PCofVU’s center for Ed. Tech. research and development. The focus was to use creatively computers, interactive video and audio, fiber optics, and satellite systems to improve learning and enhance teaching. The Social-Religious Building retained the main auditorium and housed PCofVU’s central administrative offices, the Dept. of Teaching and Learning, and the Learning Technology Center. It had built-in capabilities for multimedia presentations, productions, and conferences, and also a visitors’ center. Ref.: “SR Building to Return as Focal Point for Campus,” Peabody Columns, Vol. 3, No. 7 (March 1993), pp. 1-2. Vanderbilt Register (May 3-16, 1993), pp. 1, 5. Tucker, P.B., pp. 11-13.

PCofVU’s Dean Camilla Persson Benbow

PCofVU. 75-Dean Camilla Persson Benbow. PCofVU’s second Dean James William Pellegrino, who remained as research professor, was succeeded by PCofVU’s third Dean Camilla Persson Benbow (b.1956) from Aug. 1998, former interim dean, Iowa State Univ. College of Education and an authority on academically talented children. Under Dean Benbow, on April 30, 2000, the Social-Religious Building was renamed the Faye and Joe Wyatt Center for Education, after the retiring VU chancellor and his wife, under whom the 1993-96 building renovation took place. Since 1979, under deans Hawley, Pellegrino, and Benbow, PCofVU has advanced its small but excellent teacher education and other programs, especially Ed. Tech., has been financially stable, has refurbished its physical plant, and has enhanced its national reputation. Ref.: “VU honors Wyatt in concrete way,” Tennessean (Nashville), April 30, 2000, p. 1B. “Faye and Joe Wyatt Center,” Tennessean (Nashville), May 2, 2000, p. 8A. See: Benbow, Camilla Persson.

20 Years After Merger: New Perspective

PCofVU. 76-GPCFT’s sixth Pres. John Dunworth. Using recent reflections from selected GPCFT-VU merger participants, former managing editor G. Doll of VU’s alumni publications and the then Peabody Reflector editor P.B. Tucker presented a new 20-year perspective on the July 1, 1979, merger, confirming that both institutions emerged stronger and revitalized. Some highpoints of this 20-year perspective follow. GPCFT’s sixth Pres. John Dunworth described the college he found when he arrived in 1974: “Peabody was a magnificent institution whose accomplishments had put it at the pinnacle of colleges of education. It was clear, however, that its economic viability was in doubt. It was heavily graduate and research oriented, which requires good financial support. It was becoming more difficult to find and retain good faculty if we couldn’t remain competitive in the market.” Ref.: Doll and Tucker, pp. 15-22.

PCofVU. 77-PCofVU Exec. Dean Stovall, 1979. Thomas Stovall, PCofVU Executive Dean for Academic Affairs (from 1979), remembered: “A year or two before the actual merger, those of us in leadership positions began to talk about Peabody’s difficulties and the various alternatives in dealing with them.” [Since Vanderbilt was busy in a massive reassessment of its own programs, Peabody first began] “serious explorations with Duke Univ. and George Washington Univ. We considered whether Peabody ought to get out of the instructional business entirely and become something like the Brookings Institute.” [The scenario that came closest to realization was a merger with Tenn. State Univ., Nashville, which could have offered doctoral programs through Peabody]. Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 78-Dean Stova11 Cont’d.: “Some people outside the immediate situation might have suspected our discussions with TSU were a strategy on the part of Peabody leadership to prod Vanderbilt into action, but I don’t think that notion has any merit. We weren’t playing any kind of game.” Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 79-Formal VU Offer. [News of a possible Peabody-TSU merger caused a flurry of activity at Vanderbilt. On March 17, 1979, Sam Fleming, VU Board of Trust chairman, drafted a formal VU offer, delivered to Peabody trustee chairman Robert E. Gable. GPCFT Pres. John Dunworth explained the “swiftness and secrecy” which characterized the offer: “We [at Peabody] felt as a practical matter that it wasn’t the kind of issue that ought to be debated in public. A private institution depends greatly on the support of donors, and if they suspect you’re going out of business, they’re not going to be very generous.” Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 80-Peabody-VU Philosophical Differences. Peabody Psych. Prof. Bob Newbrough thus explained “the divide [philosophical differences] that created opposition on both sides”: “Peabody has a long tradition of theory and practice as a legitimate enterprise,…based on the John Dewey model, an expression of pragmatic philosophy…. The German model which Vanderbilt emulated, on the other hand, [distrusted] the service aspect.” Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 81-Peabody-VU Differences Cont’d. Peabody Psych. Prof. Paul Dokecki “put it [differences] this way”: “Vanderbilt is practical, and Peabody was never practical. Vanderbilt is classical, and Peabody was never classical. Vanderbilt is a very disciplinary place, whereas Peabody has been oriented toward students and social problems.” Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 82-Making Merger Work. Despite the loss of 38 Peabody faculty and 38 Peabody staff, and despite some hostility on both sides, Prof. Elizabeth Goldman, who later served as associate dean for undergraduate student affairs said, “Many of us who remained at Peabody after the merger…saw it as our personal goal to prove to Vanderbilt that they had acquired an asset and not a liability. We were determined that Peabody would be respected and survive within the University—and we succeeded.” Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 83-Hawley Hired Top Researchers. First PCofVU Dean Willis Hawley made it his mission to hire new faculty who were top researchers in order to make Peabody a viable partner with other VU schools. Searching for ways to meet new needs, he established the groundbreaking Learning Technology Center, central to Peabody’s national reputation for research on technology in teaching and learning. He also continued vital support of the John F. Kennedy Center for Research on Human Development (which see), which owes its success to interdisciplinary research. Dean Hawley stressed the Human Development Program, strengthening both Peabody’s psychology department and service orientation, which today has the largest undergraduate enrollment. Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 84-Continuing Peabody’s Strengths. PCofVU Assoc. Dean Joseph Cunningham (joined GPCFT in 1969 and was acting dean between the PCofVU deanships of W.D. Hawley and James Pellegrino) summarized merger success: “Peabody has not lost its pre-merger identity. Its emphasis [remains] on the community, on social action, and on schools. [Its] strong focus on research and training in special education and psychology [is] still very much alive. [PCofVU] is stronger than it was pre-merger. The financial stability that resulted from the merger made it possible to move forward in a strategic and planned fashion. That strengthened Peabody.” Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU. 85-20-Year Merger Summary. Authors Doll and Tucker conclude: “Vanderbilt enjoys a higher national profile because of Peabody. The prolific, multimillion-dollar research activity of Peabody’s faculty…is a major factor in the College’s continued climb among the top ten colleges of education, as ranked by U.S. News and World Report magazine. Currently, Peabody ranks sixth among the nation’s 188 graduate education programs—the highest rank among all graduate programs at Vanderbilt and in the last few years, programs in every department at Peabody have appeared among the top ten in their respective categories.” Ref: Ibid. “Best Graduate Schools.” Tennessean (Nashville), March 31, 2000, pp. B1, continued 6B.

PCofVU. 86-Recap. PCofVU’s predecessor collegiate institutions were 1-Davidson Academy (1785-1806), 2-Cumberland College (1806-26), 3-Univ. of Nashville (Nov. 27, 1826, to 1875), 4-State Normal School (1875-89), 5-renamed Peabody Normal College (1889-1911), 6-GPCFT (1914-July 1, 1979), and 7-PCofVU (from July 1, 1979).

PCofVU Predecessors’ 19 Chief Administrators

PCofVU. 87-Chief Administrators. Chief administrators were 1-Principal Thomas Brown Craighead (c.1750-1825) of Davidson Academy (1785-1806), plus three years (to 1809) of its rechartered successor Cumberland College (1806-26). Principal Craighead was succeeded by 2-Pres. James Priestley (1760-1821) of Cumberland College from Oct. 24, 1809, to Feb. 4, 1821. Pres. James Priestley was succeeded by 3-Pres. Philip Lindsley (1786-1850), at whose suggestion Cumberland College was rechartered as the Univ. of Nashville (Nov. 27, 1826, to 1875).

PCofVU. 88-Chief Administrators Cont’d. Pres. Philip Lindsley resigned, 1850, and was succeeded by his physician son, 4-Dr. John Berrien Lindsley (1822-97), chancellor during 1850-72, succeeded in turn by 5-Confederate Gen. Edmund Kirby Smith (1824-93), Univ. of Nashville chancellor during 1872-75. At PEF first administrator Barnas Sears’s (1802-80) urging and PEF funding, the Tenn. legislature revised the Univ. of Nashville’s charter to create from its moribund literary dept. State Normal School (1875-89), renamed Peabody Normal College (1889-1911), administered by 6-Pres. Eben Sperry Stearns (1819-87) during 1875-87, 7-Pres. William Harold Payne (1836-1907) during 1888-1901, and 8-Pres. Pres. James Davis Porter (1828-1912) during 1901-09.

PCofVU. 89-Chief Administrators Cont’d. Allowed by founder GP to dissolve after 30 years, the PEF trustees gave $1.5 million (requiring matching funds) to endow GPCFT, requiring it to move for academic strength from the Univ. of Nashville’s South Nashville location to a private site adjacent to Vanderbilt Univ. GPCFT (1914-79) administrators were 9-first Pres. Bruce Ryburn Payne (1874-1937) during 1911-37, 10-second Pres. Sidney Clarence Garrison (1887-1944) during 1937-44, 11-third Pres. Henry Harrington Hill (1894-1987) during 1945-60 and interim president, 1962-63, 12-fourth Pres. Felix Compton Robb (1914-97) during 1961-66, 13-fifth Pres. John Claunch during 1967-73, and 14-sixth Pres. John Dunworth (1914-) during 1974-79.

PCofVU. 90-Chief Administrators Cont’d. GPCFT merged with Vanderbilt Univ., July 1, 1979, as PCofVU, whose 16-acting dean was Hardy C. Wilcoxon (1921-96), during 1979-80, followed by 17-first Dean Willis D. Hawley (1938-) during 1980-89, 18-second Dean James William Pellegrino (1947-) during Jan. 1992-Aug. 1998, and 19-third Dean Camilla Persson Benbow (1956-) from Aug. l998.


PCofVU. 91-Retrospective. PCofVU is the vigorous descendant of over 210 years of a genealogically connected collegiate institution under seven names in Nashville, Tenn. Davidson Academy (1785-1806), Cumberland College (1806-26), and the Univ. of Nashville (1826-75) spread learning and culture in what was then a relatively isolated western frontier town and city. By strengthening public education in eleven southern states plus W. Va., GP’s PEF funds created Peabody Normal College (1875-1911) to advance a class-and-race-divided post-Civil War South. GPCFT (1914-79) was a leading teachers college in the South and the U.S., which aided education overseas in Korea and elsewhere.

PCofVU. 92-Retrospective Cont’d. Faced with greater financial challenges and class and race divisions than its northern and western counterparts, this institution rose phoenix-like again and again to produce educational leaders for the South, the nation, and the world. Strengthened since 1979 as part of Vanderbilt Univ., and annually in the 1990s and in 2001 voted among the best U.S. graduate schools of education, PCofVU carries into the 21st century GP’s 1852 motto, “Education, a debt due from present to future generations.” Ref.: Tennessean (Nashville), April 1, 2001, p. 3B; March 31, 2000, pp. B1, continued 6B. “Best Graduate Schools,” pp. 109, 111. (Note: For 2002-05 controversy over removing “Confederate” from Confederate Memorial Hall, Peabody campus dormitory, see: Confederate Memmorial Hall, PCofVU.

Peabody Conservatory of Music, Baltimore. See PIB.

Peabody Donation Fund, London, was the agency which managed the Peabody Homes of London, created by GP’s $2.5 million total gift (from March 12, 1862) for low income working family housing. The Peabody Donation Fund was later renamed the Peabody Trust London. On March 31, 1999, 34,500 low income Londoners (59% white, 32% black, and 9% others) lived in 17,183 affordable Peabody apartments in 26 London boroughs, GP’s most successful philanthropy. See: Adams, Charles Francis. Peabody Homes of London. Peabody Trust of London.

PEF Origin

Peabody Education Fund (PEF, 1867-1914). 1-Weed Explained Origin of PEF. Thurlow Weed (1797-1882), GP’s longtime friend, was Albany Evening Journal editor, N.Y. state political boss, and a national leader of the Whig Party and its successor Republican Party. When, amid the vast publicity on GP’s death (Nov. 4, 1869) and transatlantic funeral (Feb. 8, 1870, burial), anti-Union and pro-Confederate charges against GP reappeared, Weed sprang to GP’s defense in “The Late George Peabody; A Vindication of His Course During the Civil War,” New York Times (Dec. 23, 1869). In that defense he told, among other things, the origin and course of the PEF as it developed in GP’s mind. See: Civil War and GP. Corcoran, William Wilson. Weed, Thurlow.

PEF. 2-Behind Charges that GP was Pro-Confederate. Anti-slavery extremists faulted GP for his merchant career in the South (1814-37), his Southern friends, and his 1857 $1.4 million PIB gift, “made to a Maryland institution, at a time when that state was rotten with treason” (abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison’s [1805-79] words). Radical Reconstructionists, determined to punish the South after the Civil War, especially criticized GP’s 1867-69 $2 million PEF gift for public education to help revive the South. Ref.: Ibid.

PEF Origin Explained by Thurlow Weed

PEF. 3-Weed As Pres. Lincoln’s Emissary to Keep Britain Neutral. Weed was one of Pres. Lincoln’s emissaries in Nov. 1861 to keep pro-Confederate British leaders neutral in the Civil War. He told how GP in London helped him contact important leaders and gave other instances of GP as a Union supporter. Weed also explained that GP had told him in 1861 that as early as 1859 he (GP) considered making an educational gift to benefit NYC’s poor. But NYC had prospered, its public schools had expanded, and some of its businessmen became far richer than he. The Civil War turned his mind toward aiding public education in the South, a resolve confirmed by the devastation he observed early in his 1866-67 U.S. visit. Ref.: Ibid.

PEF. 4-Advisor Robert C. Winthrop. Second PEF administrator Jabez Lamar Monroe Curry (1825-1903) stated that when GP conferred with his philanthropic advisor, Robert Charles Winthrop (1809-94), in Brookline, a Boston suburb (in May, Oct. 1866 and later), GP said to Winthrop: “‘And now I come to the last,’…as he drew forth another roll [of papers] with a trembling hand. ‘You may be surprised when you learn precisely what it is; but it is the one nearest my heart, and the one for which I shall do the most, now and hereafter,’ and he then proceeded to read the rude sketch of the endowment for Southern education.'” Ref.: Ibid.

PEF. 5-“the South is ruined.” GP’s intent to aid public education in the South was strengthened when former S.C. Gov. William Aiken (1806-87) wrote him in despair on Jan. 25, 1867: “I think the South is ruined…. Nothing…can save the South from absolute want;… its destruction is certain.” For Gov. William Aiken’s full letter, see Corcoran, William Wilson.

Founding Letter, Feb. 7, 1867

PEF. 6-Founding Letter. GP’s Feb. 7, 1867, letter founding the PEF gave $1 million to 16 trustees “for the promotion and encouragement of intellectual, moral, or industrial education among the young of the more destitute portions of the Southern and Southwestern States of our Union.” Two years later (June 29, 1869) on doubling the fund to $2 million, he requested that it “be distributed among the entire population without other distinctions than their needs and the opportunities of usefulness to them.” This last request showed his clear intent to aid black as well as white public schools. Ref.: Ibid. See: Civil War and GP.

PEF. 7-Founding Letter Cont’d. GP’s total PEF gift was actually $3,484,000, but $1.1 million in Miss. state bonds, was repudiated by Miss. in 1870 and never redeemed; his $384,000 in Fla. bonds was repudiated by Fla. The trustees withheld PEF grants to those two states during 1867-90, then relented and included them in subsequent PEF grants. Ref.: Ibid.

PEF Trustees’ First Meeting

PEF. 8-Trustees’ First Meeting: Feb. 8, 1867. GP and Robert Charles Winthrop helped select the first distinguished PEF trustees (16, including Winthrop). Ten of these 16 trustees first met in an upper room of Willard’s Hotel, Washington, D.C., Feb. 8, 1867, to hear Winthrop read GP’s Feb. 7, 1867, founding letter. A contemporary account, basis of later versions, stated: “Ceremonies were held in [trustee] Mr. [William Maxwell] Evart’s [1818-1901] room, and were very impressive. The distinguished party knelt in prayer delivered by [Ohio Episcopal] Bishop [Charles Pettit] McIlvaine [1799-1873],” also a trustee. Ref.: (First PEF trustee meeting): New York Herald, Feb. 9, 1867, p. 4, c. 6. Curry-b, pp. 26-27. PEF, Proceedings-c, 6 vols.

J.L.M. Curry’s Account

PEF. 9-Curry’s Account. J.L.M. Curry later (1898) described that scene: “Mr. Peabody addressed his Letter of Gift to sixteen gentlemen on the 8th of February, 1867, ten of whom were assembled in a little upper chamber of Willard’s Hotel at Washington. Mr. Winthrop communicated the letter constituting them and their associates Trustees. Deeply sensible of the honor conferred, and of the responsibility and magnitude of the Trust, and realizing their dependence on the guidance and blessing of God, whose favor had been invoked by Bishop McIlvaine [a trustee], they received their credentials and the securities from the hands of Mr. Peabody himself, accepted the obligations prescribed, and inaugurated the work committed to them.” Ref.: (Feb. 7, 1867, PEF founding letter): Original letter is in PCofVU library archives. Parker, Ed.D. dissertation, GPCFT, 1956, pp. 707-708, lists sources where the PEF founding letter is printed in full. An excerpt from the founding letter is in Stevenson, p. 53, entry 3.

GPCFT’s First Pres. Bruce R. Payne’s Account

PEF. 10-B.R. Payne’s Account. GPCFT’s first Pres. Bruce Ryburn Payne’s (1874-1937) Feb. 18, 1916, Founders Day speech described that first PEF trustee meeting dramatically: “There stand several governors of states both North and South; senators of the United States, Ulysses Grant and Admiral Farragut. Mr. Winthrop is called to take the chair. Mr. Peabody rises to read his deed of gift. They kneel in a circle of prayer, the Puritan of New England [R.C. Winthrop], the pioneer of the West, the financier of the metropolis [GP], and the defeated veteran of the Confederacy. [On] bended knee they dedicate this great gift. They consecrate themselves to its wise expenditure. In that act, not quite two years after Appomattox, is the first guarantee of a reunited country.” Ref.: (Payne’s 1916 speech): Payne. PCofVU Education Library has dissertations that document the PEF’s work and influence.

GP’s Sense of Public Relations

PEF. 11-Trustee Lawrence on GP’s PEF Trustees’ Banquets. PEF trustee William Lawrence’s (1850-1941) memoir recorded GP’s wise sense of public relations in holding banquets after the trustees’ meetings. Lawrence wrote: “There was in Mr. Peabody a touch of egotism and a satisfaction in publicity which worked to the advantage of this fund; by the selection of men of national fame as trustees he called the attention of the whole country to the educational needs of the South and the common interests of North and South in building up a united Nation.” Ref.: Lawrence, pp. 268-269, quoted in Taylor, p. 25.

PEF. 12 -Trustee Lawrence Cont’d.: “The trustees brought their wives to the annual meeting in New York, and in the evening met at the most sumptuous [banquet] that the hostelry of those days, the Fifth Avenue Hotel, could provide; the report of which and of what they had to eat and drink was headlined in the press of the South and the North. This annual event took place upon the suggestion of Mr. Peabody and at the expense of the fund and in its social influence and publicity was well worth the cost.” (Note: Initially the press called GP’s gift the “Southern Education Fund,” or the “Peabody Fund for the South” before its formal incorporation as the “PEF”). Ref.: Ibid.

PEF. 13-Trustee Lawrence’s Career. Trustee William Lawrence was born in Boston, graduated from Harvard College (1871) and the Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Mass. (1875), where he was also a professor and dean (1884-93). He was university preacher at Harvard Univ. (1888-91) and was elected Episcopal Bishop of Mass. (1893-1926). An historic photo of the original 16 PEF trustees with GP was taken by famed Civil War photographer Mathew B. Brady (c.1823-96) in Brady’s NYC studio when the trustees met in NYC on or about March 23, 1867. For other accounts of PEF trustee meetings, see Farragut, David Glasgow. Grant, U.S. Brady, Mathew.

PEF First Administrator Barnas Sears

PEF. 14-First Administrator Barnas Sears. PEF trustee Pres. Robert Charles Winthrop and his fellow trustees knew they needed a policy strategy and an administrator to carry it out in order to achieve GP’s goal of advancing public education in the 11 former Confederate states plus W.Va. added because of its poverty. Winthrop found such a policy maker and administrator in a long-time friend, Barnas Sears (1802-80), distinguished educator and at the time Brown Univ. president. See: Sears, Barnas. Sears, Elizabeth Corey Sears, later Fultz, Mrs. John Hampton (his daughter who helped with PEF affairs in her father’s last years). Conkin, Peabody College, index.

PEF. 15-First Administrator Barnas Sears Cont’d. Sears was born in Sandisfield, Mass., was a Brown Univ. graduate (1825, and its president, 1855-67), a graduate of Newton Theological Seminary (later a professor there and its president), an ordained Baptist minister, and a professor at what is now Colgate Univ., N.Y. (1831-33). He studied at German universities and succeeded Horace Mann (1796-1859) as Mass. Board of Education Secty. (1848-55). Ref.: Ibid.

PEF. 16-Winthrop and Sears Meet. Second PEF Administrator J.L.M. Curry wrote that Sears and Winthrop met casually “at the old Wednesday Evening Club in Boston,” soon after the PEF’s Feb. 7, 1867, founding (they met most likely on March 12 or 13, 1867). Winthrop, seeking a strategy on how the PEF trustees would advance public schools in the southern states, asked Sears’s advice. According to Curry, Winthrop was impressed by what Sears said and “begged Dr. Sears to furnish in writing the results of his best reflection and judgment on the whole matter.” Ref.: (Winthrop-Sears meeting): Curry-b, pp. 30-32.

PEF. 17-Winthrop and Sears Meet Cont’d. After a night of pondering, Sears called at Winthrop’s Brookline home near Boston and promised to send a letter recording his thoughts on how the PEF might accomplish its mission. Sears sent his thoughts to Winthrop in a March 14, 1867, letter from Providence, R.I. Sears’s plan again impressed Winthrop, who shared Sears’s letter with the trustees. Winthrop persuaded the trustees to appoint Sears as the PEF’s first administrator (during 1867-80). Sears accept on March 30, 1867. His health had suffered by arduous labor at Brown Univ.; he was under physician’s order to rest in a warmer climate; and was about to ask for a leave of absence when he was asked to be PEF’s first administrator. Ref.: Ibid. Hovey, p. 122.

Sears’s PEF Policy

PEF. 18-Sears’s PEF Policy. Sears’s plan which the PEF trustees accepted was, through PEF grants, to: 1-strengthen existing public schools in larger towns as models for other communities, 2-establish new public schools where needed, 3-require local citizens to match PEF funds, if possible, by two or three times the amount of PEF aid, 4-require aided schools to meet nine or ten months a year, 5-have at least one teacher per 50 pupils, and require that PEF-aided schools become permanent tax-supported public schools by state enactment and under state control. Sears set a rising scale of aid as enrollments rose: $300 a year for a school enrolling up to 100 pupils, $450 for 100 to 150 pupils, $600 for 150 to 200 pupils, $800 for 200 to 250 pupils, and $1,000 for 300 or more pupils. It was pump priming at its best, using cumulative small PEF grants for their multiplying effect, to stimulate greater community effort, and to require ultimate state support under state control and by state legislative law. Pres. Franklin Delano Roosevelt used similar federal pump priming of the economy during the 1930’s depression. Ref.: Ibid.

PEF. 19-Sears’s PEF Policy Cont’d. Sears and his family moved to Staunton, Va. He wrote, spoke, and traveled widely during his 13 years as PEF administrator (1867-80). He used the PEF’s limited resources as a lever to achieve permanent tax-supported model elementary and secondary public schools, the goal of his first phase. He also established the Peabody Normal College (1875-1911), Nashville, Tenn., as a model teacher training college for the South. Ref.: Ibid.

PEF. 20-Sears’s PEF Policy Cont’d. Sears’s second phase for the PEF was to promote 1-short term teachers’ institutes (a few days to a week per term of teacher training) and to establish 2-permanent professional teacher training normal schools. This second phase was largely accomplished by the PEF’s second administrator, Ga.-born Ala. educator J.L.M. Curry (during 1881-1903). The PEF’s third phase, to promote rural public schools, was largely accomplished by the PEF’s third administrator (during 1907-14), Tenn.-born educator Wycliffe Rose (1862-1931). Ref.: (dissertations analyzing 47 years of PEF policy): Brouilette, Ph.D. dissertation, GPCFT, 1937. Carson, M.A. thesis, Johns Hopkins Univ., 1948. Peck, Ph.D. dissertation, GPCFT, 1942. Roberts, Ph.D. dissertation, GPCFT, 1936.

Peabody Normal College, Nashville

PEF. 21-Normal School, Nashville. Barnas Sears saw Nashville, Tenn., as a cultural center for the South. He wanted a normal school in Nashville as a model for the South. Although occupied by Union forces during most of the Civil War, Nashville had a tax-based public school system (1,892 pupils taught by 35 teachers in 1860); private schools, including Nashville Female Academy (since 1819); and the Univ. of Nashville (1826-75). Univ. of Nashville Chancellor John Berrien Lindsley (1822-97), a physician, was also dean of the Univ. of Nashville Medical Dept. (founded 1851), which was the second largest U.S. medical school during the Civil War. The Univ. of Nashville also had an engineering school and other professional schools, which helped make that city an important learning center. See: Sears, Barnas.

PEF. 22-Normal School Cont’d. Legislative bills to establish a teacher training normal school in Tenn. were introduced but failed to pass in 1857 and 1865. In June and July 1867, Univ. of Nashville Chancellor John Berrien Lindsley and his trustees discussed a normal school plan with Barnas Sears. Sears offered PEF funds of $1,000 or more annually if Tenn. would establish one or more normal schools. But state normal school legislation again failed in the Tenn. legislature in 1868, 1871, and 1873. In 1873 Sears offered $6,000 annually in PEF funds to match annual state funding of a normal school. Again, enabling legislation failed to be passed. Ref.: Ibid.

PEF. 23-Help from Univ. of Nashville. Sears knew that while the Univ. of Nashville’s professional schools were robust, its “Literary Department” (i., e., arts and science), devastated by the Civil War, was dormant. Rather than lose Nashville as a normal school site, Sears told the Univ. of Nashville trustees in 1874 that if they gave land and buildings for a normal school in place of their moribund “Literary Department,” then the PEF would contribute $6,000 annually. Ref.: Ibid.

PEF. 24-Univ. of Nashville’s Charter Amended. Glad not to have to spend state funds, the Tenn. legislature amended the Univ. of Nashville’s charter to allow it to establish a normal school, financed by the PEF’s $6,000 annual contribution. Sears, expecting imminent state aid, was disappointed when this aid was delayed. The new State Normal School on the Univ. of Nashville campus in South Nashville opened Dec. 1, 1875, with 13 students and ended the first year with 60 students. Ref.: Ibid.

PEF. 25-State Normal School. State Normal School (1875-89), officially so named but from the first commonly called and then officially renamed Peabody Normal College (1889-1911), was cost-free to selected students, 3,645 of whom during 1877-1904 received PEF-funded Peabody scholarships of $200 annually during 1877-91 and $100 annually plus railroad fare during 1891-1904. GPCFT historian Alfred Leland Crabb (1884-1980) noted that these 3,645 Peabody scholarship teachers, as they went to various leadership positions, formed a small but important core of southern educational leaders of the time. Ref.: Ibid.

PEF. 26-Threat of a Move to Ga. Unable (or unwilling) to offer state aid, the Tenn. legislature defeated appropriation bills for the State Normal School in 1877 and 1879. Disappointed, Sears and the PEF trustees considered moving State Normal School from Tenn. to Ga. Ga.’s legislature agreed on state support if the PEF continued its $6,000 annual contribution. But Ga.’s constitution required that the State Normal School be state controlled as part of the Univ. of Ga. at Athens. This requirement irked the PEF trustees, who wanted state aid but without state control.

PEF. 27-Tenn.’s State Aid. Threat of a move from Tenn. galvanized Nashville citizens to guarantee $6,000 by April 1880 to keep the Normal School in Nashville. Stung into action, the Tenn. legislature gave the Normal School $10,000 annually (1881-83), raised to $13,300 annually (1883-95), and raised again to $23,000 annually (1895-1905). Peabody Normal College’s total income from the Tenn. legislature was $429,000 (1881-1905); total income from the PEF was $555,730 (1875-1909). Ref.: Ibid.

PCofVU Lineage

PEF. 28-PCofVU Lineage. To recap: 1-Davidson Academy (1785-1806), chartered on Dec. 29, 1785 by N.C. eleven years before Tenn. statehood (1796), when Tenn. was still part of N.C., was rechartered by the Tenn. legislature as 2-Cumberland College (1806-26), which suspended activities for financial reasons for three years (1816-19, while some private classes were taught), and reopened during 1820-26. Cumberland College was rechartered as the 3-Univ. of Nashville (Nov. 27, 1826, to 1875), with thriving professional schools in engineering and medicine. Ref. Ibid.

PEF. 29-PCofVU Lineage Cont’d. From the Univ. of Nashville’s struggling post Civil War “Literary Department” Sears helped create and the PEF supported 4-State Normal School (1875-89), from the first commonly called and then officially renamed 5-Peabody Normal College (1889-1911), which was rechartered as 6-GPCFT, 1914-79, and rechartered as PCofVU since July 1, l979. For Vanderbilt Univ.’s Chancellor James Hampton Kirkland’s (1859-1939) scheme in 1900-01 involving Daniel Coit Gilman (1831-1908) for a GPCFT-Vanderbilt Univ. amalgamation, see PCofVU.

PEF Assets Distributed

PEF. 30-PEF Assets Distributed. GP’s founding letter of Feb. 7, 1867, allowed the PEF trustees to disband after 30 years. On disbanding in 1914 the PEF distributed its $2,324,000 in assets as follows: $1.5 million (plus required matching funds) went to transform Peabody Normal College into GPCFT, with a new campus built next to but not on Vanderbilt Univ. property; plus $474,000 which went to education departments of 14 Southern universities, as follows: $40,000 each went to education departments of state universities in Va., N.C., Ga., Ala., Fla., Miss., Ky., Ark., and La.; $6,000 each went to education departments of Johns Hopkins Univ. and to the universities of S.C., Mo., and Tex.; and $90,000 went to Winthrop Normal College, S.C. (now Winthrop College, named after PEF trustees Pres. Robert Charles Winthrop).

W.Va., Summer 1869

PEF. 31-PEF’s High Promise Began Summer 1869. In its 47 years of existence (1867-1914) the PEF spawned a wide legacy of aid to public education in the South, epitomized by ever-stronger southern state departments of education and by Peabody Normal College (1875-1911), which became GPCFT (1914-79), and PCofVU (since July 1, 1979). But in 1869, the year GP doubled the PEF to $2 million, and the last year of his life, the PEF held only promise, albeit high promise, to uplift by public education a broken and devastated South. Happily for a few weeks in the summer of 1869 the sun broke through Reconstruction gloom in the warm reception GP received at White Sulphur Springs mineral health spa, W.Va., July 23-Aug. 30, 1869. He arrived three week after doubling his PEF to $2 million (June 29, 1869), visibly ill, four months from death.

PEF. 32-White Sulphur Springs, W.Va. Four years after Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox, GP went for rest and recuperation to a mineral health spa in West Va. He was received as a national healer by the elites and opinion makers who were by chance gathered there, including Gen. Robert E. Lee (1807-70), then president of Washington College, Lexington, Va. GP and Lee talked, walked arm in arm, ate together, were applauded, and lionized. GP’s PEF gift was welcomed for its potential in rebuilding the South through public education. See: Corcoran, William Wilson. White Sulphur Springs, W.Va. Visits to the U.S. by GP.

Sears on GP in W.Va.

PEF. 33-Sears on GP in W.Va., 1869. First PEF administrator Barnas Sears, present at the springs, wrote: “Mr. P. is delighted with the establishment and with the gentlemen he has met. More attention and respect he could not wish, and yet (as he just said to me), they are very delicate in their attentions and do not weary him. Everything is as you desire. The people have received him as their benefactor. I regret to say he has not improved in health. Many persons have called on him just to take his hand. General Lee and General Beauregard, who are very attentive to him, and familiar with us all, are but secondary characters to him just now. He, both on account of his unparalleled goodness, and of his illness among a loving and hospitable people, receives tokens of love and respect from all, such as I have never before seen shown to any one.” Ref.: Ibid.

PEF. 34-Sears on GP in W.Va., 1869 Cont’d.: “This visit among the best families from all the Southern States will, in my judgment, do more for us than a long tour in a state of good health. This warm sympathy, added to the love and respect, will make coldness and jealousy, from any quarter, hereafter impossible. A whisper of dissatisfaction would wound the sensibilities of the whole people…. Yesterday he went to the public dinner-table with us (about 1500 persons are here and dine in a long hall), and then sat an hour in the parlor, giving the ladies an opportunity to take him by the hand, and he is the better for it to-day.” Ref.: Ibid.

John Eaton on GP in W.Va.

PEF. 35-John Eaton on GP in W.Va. Tenn.’s superintendent of public instruction and later U.S. Commissioner of Education John Eaton (1829-1906), was also there. He wrote: “Mr. Peabody shares with ex-Governor Wise, the uppermost cottage in Baltimore Row, and sits at the same table with General Lee, Mr. [William Wilson] Corcoran [1798-1888], Mr. Taggart, and others…. Being quite infirm, he has been seldom able to come to parlor or dining-room, though he has received many ladies and gentlemen at the cottage….” Ref.: Ibid.

PEF. 36-John Eaton on GP in W.Va. Cont’d. “His manners are singularly affable and pleasing, and his countenance one of the most benevolent we have ever seen. It is also indisputably handsome. It is pleasant to know that he is particularly gratified at the reception he has met here, and with the considerable attention that has been on every hand shown him. Such evidences of regard are highly appreciated by a man who has steadfastly declined titles and decorations at the hands of the greatest sovereign in Europe.” Ref.: Ibid. For educator John Eaton connection with the Freedmen’s Bureau, see Eaton, John.

Resolutions of Praise

PEF. 37-Resolutions of Praise. GP’s confinement to his cottage prompted a committee meeting on July 27, 1869. Ex-Gov. Henry Alexander Wise (1806-76) of Va. drew up resolutions. These were read aloud by committee chairman Judge James Lyon (1801-82) in GP’s presence amid a crowd on July 28 in the “Old White” hotel parlor: “We contemplate with great respect the character of George Peabody. Having amassed a fortune in a lifetime of honest effort he gave at least eight million dollars to benefit his fellow men. This has no precedent. “On behalf of the Southern people we tender thanks to Mr. Peabody for his aid to the cause of education…and hail him ‘benefactor.'” See: Corcoran, William Wilson.

PEF. 38-Resolutions of Praise Cont’d. GP, seated, rose painfully to reply: “While I live let me justify your good opinion. If I had strength I would speak more on the heroism of the Southern people. Your kind remarks about the Education Fund sound sweet to my ears. My heart is interwoven with its success. The Fund is still young, still growing, and will I hope help restore prosperity and happiness to the South.” Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody Ball

PEF. 39-Peabody Ball. Merrymakers at the “Old White” held a Peabody Ball, Aug. 11, 1869. Too ill to attend, GP from his cottage heard the gaiety. Historian Perceval Reniers wrote of this Peabody Ball: “The affair that did most to revive [the Southerners’] esteem was the Peabody Ball…[which] was given to honor the king of philanthropists, Mr. George Peabody, the Yankee-born millionaire of London. Everything was ripe for the Peabody Ball, everybody was ready for just such a climax, the background was a perfect build-up. Mr. Peabody appeared at just the right time and lived just long enough. A few months later it would not have been possible, for Mr. Peabody would be dead.” Ref.: Ibid.

Historic Photos

PEF. 40-Historic Photos. GP and Robert E. Lee were central figures in several remarkable photographs taken at the “Old White,” Aug. 12, 1869. In the main photograph, five men sat on cane-bottomed chairs: GP front middle, Robert E. Lee to GP’s right; William Wilson Corcoran to GP’s left; at the right end Turkish Minister to the U.S. Edouard Blacque Bey (1824-95); at the left end Richmond lawyer James Lyons (1801-82). Standing behind the five seated figures were seven former Civil War generals, from left to right: James Conner (1829-83) of S.C., Martin W. Gary (1819-73) of Penn., Robert D. Lilley of Va., P.G.T. Beauregard (1818-93) of La., Alexander Robert Lawton (1818-96) of Ga., Henry Alexander Wise (1806-76) of Va., and Joseph Lancaster Brent (1826-1905) of Md. (all but Gary were Confederate generals). There is also a photo of GP sitting alone and a photo of Lee, GP, and Corcoran sitting together. Ref.: Ibid. See: persons mentioned.

PEF. 41-GP’s Gift to Lee’s College. GP and W.W. Corcoran gave $100 each to repair Robert E. Lee’s Episcopal church in Lexington, Va. GP also gave Robert E. Lee’s Washington College (Washington and Lee University in 1871) Va. bonds ultimately worth $60,000 for a science professorship. The Va. bonds were worth $35,000 when they were lost on the Arctic, a Collins Line steamer, which was sunk in the winter of 1854 off Cape Race, Newfoundland, with the loss of 321 passengers. GP had unsuccessfully petitioned the Va. legislature to reimburse him for the lost bonds. In 1872 the value of the bonds and in 1881 the interest accrued were both paid by the state of Va. to Washington and Lee Univ. See: Arctic (ship).

PEF. 42-GP’s Gift to Lee’s College Cont’d. R.E. Lee’s biographer C.B. Flood thus wryly described GP’s gift of these lost Va. bonds: “It was generosity with a touch of Yankee shrewdness: you Southerners go fight it out among yourselves. If General Lee can’t get [this lost bond money] out of the Virginia legislature, nobody can.” On Aug. 30, 1869, amid a warm ovation, GP left White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., accompanied a short distance by Robert E. Lee, on a special railroad car provided by B&O RR Pres. John Work Garrett (1820-84). For GP it was the last summer of life, for Lee next to the last summer. Ref.: Ibid.

PEF Influence

PEF. 43-Far Reaching Consequences. The informal GP-R.E. Lee talks on the education needs of the South had far reaching consequences. In brief, Four Conferences on Education in the South eventually followed (1898-1901), attended by J.L.M. Curry and other PEF trustees. The Southern Education Board (1901-14), which grew out of the Four Conferences on Education in the South, again with Curry and other PEF trustees attending, led to John D. Rockefeller’s General Education Board (1902-14), which also included Curry and others from the Southern Education Board. Ref.: (PEF Influence): Parker, Ed.D. dissertation (GPCFT, 1956), pp. 702-715, 732-740, 776-777; Parker-t. Parker-zd. Parker-zh.

PEF. 44-Far Reaching Consequences Cont’d. Philanthropist John Fox Slater (1815-84) publicly acknowledged GP’s example in creating the $1 million Slater Fund for Negro Education in the South (1882-1937). The Anna T. Jeanes Fund (1907-1937) and the Julius Rosenwald Fund (1917-48) followed. The intent, trustees, and policies of these funds were interwoven. They worked in tandem to uplift the South through public education. The common problem was to advance public schools for whites and blacks in the South, to encourage state and local tax-supported public school laws, to hold teacher institutes, and to strengthen teacher training. Ref.: Ibid.

PEF. 45-The PEF Pioneered. The PEF pioneered in these areas, provided the first educational leaders, was the first U.S. multi-million dollar foundation with a positive attitude toward solving social ills, was the first U.S. education foundation without religious conditions, the first whose influence was national, the first to provide for modifications as conditions changed, and the first to set a pattern of selecting trustees of high standing from government, the professions, and business. The PEF’s precedents and policies, adopted by later foundations, influenced all subsequent philanthropic efforts in the South and the nation. Historians of American educational philanthropy, citing the PEF, have documented GP as among its leading founders. They credit him with first using private wealth as a lever to stimulate state aid for common good. Ref.: Ibid.

GP’s Influence

PEF. 46-GP’s Influence. Documentation supports GP’s direct influence on 1-Johns Hopkins (1795-1873, founder of Johns Hopkins Univ., Hospital, and Medical School, Baltimore); on 2-Enoch Pratt (1808-96, founder of Enoch Pratt Free Library, Baltimore); on 3-PEF trustee Paul Tulane (1801-87, founder of Tulane Univ., New Orleans); and on 4-PEF trustee Anthony Joseph Drexel (1826-93, founder of Drexel Univ., Philadelphia); and others. Many historians have cited GP as the founder of modern philanthropy in the U.S. Ref.: Ibid.

Hostile Post-Civil War Climate

PEF. 47-Hostile Post-Civil War Climate. Later praised for its pioneer effort in promoting public schools in the South, the PEF began its work in a hostile post-Civil War climate. The South was physically wrecked and economically ruined. Northern radical Republicans led by U.S. Rep. Thaddeus Stevens (1792-1868, Penn.) and U.S. Sen. Charles Sumner (1811-74, Mass.), aided by U.S. Secty. of War Edwin M. Stanton (1814-69), were bent on punishing the South. Radical Reconstructionists supplanted martyred Pres. Lincoln’s and Pres. Andrew Johnson’s gentler reconciliation plans.

PEF. 48-Hostile Post-Civil War Climate. To assert that Reconstruction was a congressional, not an executive (presidential) function, radical Republicans imposed military rule over the South (except in Tenn.) and rewrote state constitutions. Northern carpetbaggers and southern scalawags, more for personal gain than ideology, aided the radical Republicans and military governors. White southerners reacted with Black Codes that restricted former slaves. The Ku Klux Klan, a secret organization, physically intimidated the former slaves. Lawlessness was pervasive.

PEF. 49-Hostile Post-Civil War Climate Cont’d. Strengthened by the Nov. 1866 congressional elections, the radical Republicans determined to impeach Pres. Andrew Johnson. They focused on Pres. Johnson’s demand (Aug. 1867) for Secty. of War Edwin M. Stanton’s resignation (Stanton actively opposed Johnson’s conciliatory policies). Citing the Tenure of Office Act, Stanton refused to resign, was suspended, then reinstated (Jan. 1868) and then dismissed. Pres. Johnson’s impeachment trial in the U.S. Senate on March 5, 1868, failed by one vote. Secty. of War Stanton resigned. Thaddeus Stevens, the fanatical radical Republican, died Aug. 11, 1868. U.S. Grant won the Nov. 1868 elections but naively appointed officials who strengthened white southern rule. By the early 1870s, some free but racially segregated public schools sporadically began in the South.

Segregated School Dilemma

PEF. 50-Segregated School Dilemma. To accomplish its mission, the PEF needed acceptance by the southern power structure. State-mandated racially segregated schools in the South were a dilemma for the PEF. Another dilemma was integrated schools in La. Whites in La. refused to send their children to mixed schools. Those with means sent their children to private white schools, which poor whites could not afford. Sears also saw the strange anomaly of some black schools better supported than white schools during early Reconstruction (1865-74). This fact came from massive aid for former slaves from the Federal Freedmen’s Bureau and from northern missionary societies.

PEF. 51-Freedmen’s Bureau. The Freedmen’s Bureau (1865-69), created and funded by the U.S. Congress, managed 4,239 schools for 247,333 black children, taught by 9,307 teachers, at a cost of $3.5 million. Religious groups and black parents and teachers contributed some $2.5 million more for black schools. Many volunteer northern white teachers taught without pay (or little pay) in southern black schools. Sears also observed that black public schools cost less to maintain than white schools. To redress the balance he recommended that black schools get PEF grants at two-thirds the rate given to white schools. Knowing that this redress of balance would be condemned as discrimination, he told fellow PEF trustees: “Some will find fault with our making any distinction between the two races.” After 1871, many white communities met Sears’s PEF school aid requirements. Black communities were less able to meet those requirements. See: Sears, Barnas.

PEF. 52-La. Mixed Schools. In La. white parents who could pay circumvented state mandated racially mixed schools by sending their children to private fee-paying white schools. Poor white parents who could not afford private white schools let their children go unschooled rather than attend mixed schools. Sears felt that his only option in La. was to support private white schools or see most white children go unschooled. Sears determined that the only way to carry out the PEF’s mission was to keep the PEF out of politics, to avoid social strife. A northerner committed to free public schools for all, he soon saw that a fight against state segregation laws was not winnable. “Let the people themselves settle the question” of separate schools, he told the trustees.

PEF. 53-La. Mixed Schools Cont’d. Faced in La. with the reality of tax-supported schools that were in practice black schools from which most white parents withheld their children, Sears felt that the PEF’s only option in that state was to aid private white schools. To oppose southern state school laws, Sears felt, would end the PEF’s work and influence. Critics in the 1870s attacked Sears’s PEF policy: 1-for aiding black schools at two thirds the rate set for white schools; and 2-for aiding La.’s white private schools.

PEF Critics

PEF. 54-Post-1960 Critics. This criticism re-emerged among revisionist educational historians in the 1960s. William P. Vaughn, writing in 1964, faulted Sears and the PEF for perpetuating racial segregation in southern schools. Revisionist educational historian Henry J. Perkinson later wrote that, by going along with racially separate schools, the PEF “prevented the South from attaining educational equality with the North for the next seventy-five years.” These critical revisionist historians judged Sears and the PEF in light of post-1960s civil rights achievements. Faced with 1870s reality of state-mandated segregated schools, Sears and the PEF trustees felt they had to comply or fail in their mission. In La. the PEF’s influence was less successful and more controversial than in the other PEF-aided southern states. Other historians, however, have praised the PEF for advancing public education for both races in the South over its life span of 47 years. Ref.: (PEF criticism): Vaughn-b. Vaughn-a, pp. 260-274. Perkinson, p. 29. See: Sears, Barnas.

PEF. 55-Black Education Historian Horace Mann Bond. Writing in 1934 (revised in 1966) black education historian Horace Mann Bond described the separate-mixed school dilemma Sears and the PEF faced in the 1870’s: “Those who argued against mixed schools were right in believing that such a system was impossible in the South, but they were wrong in believing that the South could, or would, maintain equal schools for both races.” Ref.: Bond-a, pp. 28-29, 57, 63.

PEF. 56-Historian William Lee Richter (1942-). Historian William Lee Richter’s American Reconstruction, 1862-1877 (published 1996), also underscored Sears’s dilemma: the only way to aid black education was under southern white power sanction and rules. Richter wrote that the leading northern freedmen aid society (the American Freedmen’s Union Commission): “soon found that the only way to obtain the cooperation of Southern whites was to renounce the notion of integrated education and concentrate on race alone.” Ref.: Richter, pp. 174-177.

PEF. 57-Richter Cont’d.: Sears [too], Richter wrote: “had to face up to separation by race if he hoped to accomplish the fund’s mission.… Through a series of Southern tours, Sears found that the only way to gain local white support was to separate the races in school. This he unabashedly did, with two-thirds PEF grants for an African American school as for a white school in the same straits. The Peabody Fund also tended to stick to school systems in larger urban areas. This meant that the fund generally financed white schools and refused to help schools in Louisiana and South Carolina that were integrated by state law.” Ref.: Ibid.

PEF. 58-Richter Cont’d.: “Sears claimed that the Peabody Fund was going to stay out of politics…. He also lobbied to get the integrated education clauses removed from the Civil Rights Acts of 1875…. Ignoring [congressmen] who favored a strict integration of all public facilities,…Sears went to [other] senators and representatives and convinced them that to integrate schools would drive whites out of the public education system and into private schools….” [Sears found that Pres. U.S. Grant agreed fully with him]. “The result,” wrote Richter, “was a public accommodations law without the education clauses and a guarantee that Southern schools would be ‘separate but equal’ thirty years before the U.S. Supreme Court would endorse such an approach.” (Plessy vs. Ferguson, 1896). Richter concluded that, after the Panic of 1873, almost all agencies aiding black education “acquiesced to segregated education.” Ref.: Ibid.

PEF Trustees’ High Status

PEF. 59-First 16 Trustees, 1867. The 16 original PEF trustees GP and Robert Charles Winthrop selected were among the most prominent U.S. statesmen and financiers of the time. They were chosen to win public approval, North and South, for the intended work of the Fund. The 12 trustees from the North were: (1)-John Henry Clifford (1809-76), former Mass. Gov. (2)-William Maxwell Evarts (1818-1901), Boston-born former U.S. Atty. Gen. and U.S. Secty. of State. (3)-David Glasgow Farragut (1801-70), Tenn.-born U.S. Navy Admiral. (4)-Hamilton Fish (1808-93), NYC-born U.S. Secty. of State. (5)-Ulysses Simpson Grant (1822-85), Ohio-born U.S. general and U.S. president. (6)-Charles Macalester (1798-1873), Penn.-born financier. See: persons named.

PEF. 60-First 16 Trustees, 1867 Cont’d. (7)-Charles Pettit McIlvaine (1799-1873), N.J.-born Episcopal Bishop of Ohio. (8)-George Washington Riggs (1813-81), Washington, D.C. banker. (9)-George Peabody Russell (1835-1909), GP’s nephew and Mass.-born lawyer. (10)-Samuel Wetmore (1812-85), NYC merchant. (11)- Robert Charles Winthrop (1809-94), PEF trustee president, and Mass.-born member of U.S. House of Representative (1840-50, Speaker of the House, 1848-49). The 5 trustees from the South were: (12)-William Aiken (1806-87), former S.C. governor. (13)-Edward Anthony Bradford (1814-72), La. lawyer. (14)-Md.-born George Nathaniel Eaton (1811-74). (15)-William Alexander Graham (1804-75), N.C. governor and U.S. Navy Secty. (16)-William Cabell Rives (1793-1868), Va.-born former U.S. Minister to France. See: persons named.

PEF. 61-Later Trustees. Equally prominent were later PEF trustees, listed in alphabetical order: (17)-Joseph K. Barnes (1817-83), Philadelphia-born Surgeon-Gen. of the U.S. Army. (18)-George William Childs (1829-94), Baltimore-born Philadelphia newspaper publisher. (19)-Joseph Hodges Choate (1832-1917), Salem, Mass.-born former U.S. Ambassador to Britain. (20)-U.S. Pres. Grover Cleveland (1837-1908, trustee during 1885-99), N.J.-born. (21)-William Ashmead Courtenay (1831-1908), Charleston, S.C.-born manufacturer, bookseller, publisher, Confederate officer, mayor of Charleston (1879-87), and PEF trustee (from 1887). (22)-Jabez Lamar Monroe Curry (1825-1903), Ga.-born second PEF administrator and U.S. Minister to Spain.

PEF. 62-Later Trustees Cont’d. (23)-U.S. Atty. Gen. Charles Devens (1820-91), Charlestown, born in Mass. (24)-Anthony Joseph Drexel (1826-93), Philadelphia banker who attributed his founding of Drexel Univ., Philadelphia (1891), to his PEF trustee experience. (25)-William Crowninshield Endicott (1826-1900), judge and president, Peabody Academy of Science, Salem, Mass. (26)-Charles Erasmus Fenner (1834-1911) of New Orleans and La. legislator (27)-Melville Weston Fuller (1833-1910), Augusta, Maine-born U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice. (28)-Randall Lee Gibson (1832-92), Ky.-born member of the U.S. House of Representatives and U.S. Senator. (29)-Daniel Coit Gilman (1831-1908), Conn.-born president of the Univ. of Calif. and of Johns Hopkins Univ.

PEF. 63-Later Trustees Cont’d. (30)-Samuel Abbott Green (b.1830) was a Mass.-born educator who replaced J.L.M. Curry for three years as PEF administrator while Curry was U.S. Minister to Spain (1885-88). (31)-Rutherford Birchard Hayes (1822-93), Ohio-born 19th U.S. Pres. during 1877-81. (32)-William Wirt Henry (1831-1900), Va.-born lawyer, statesman, and historian. (33)-George Frisbie Hoar (1826-1904), Mass.-born U.S. Rep. and Senator who succeeded Judge John Lowell (35 below). (34)-Henry Rootes Jackson (1820-98), Ga.-born U.S. Minister in Austria and U.S. Minister to Mexico.

PEF. 64-Later Trustees Cont’d. (35)-Judge John Lowell (1824-97). (36)-Theodore Lyman (1833-97), Mass.-born U.S. Congressman. (37)-Thomas Courtland Manning (1825-87), N.C.-born lawyer, Confederate officer, La. adjutant general, La. supreme court associate justice (1864-65, 1882-86) and chief justice (1877-80), and U.S. Minister to Mexico (1886-87). (38)-John Pierpont Morgan, Sr. (1837-1913, trustee during 1885-1913), Conn.-born banker whose father J.S. Morgan was GP’s partner from 1854 in George Peabody & Co. (39)-Richard Olney (1835-1917, trustee during 1897-1914), Mass.-born U.S. Atty. General and U.S. Secty. of State.

PEF. 65-Later Trustees Cont’d. (40)-James Davis Porter (1828-1912), Tenn. Gov. (1875-79) and Peabody Normal College president (1901-11). (41)-Henderson Middleton Somerville (1837-1915), Va.-born editor of the Memphis (Tenn.) Appeal (1859-62), Univ. of Ala. Law School lecturer (1873-90), Ala. Supreme Court Assoc. Justice (1880-90), and PEF trustee (from 1890). (42)-Alexander Hugh Holmes Stuart (1807-91) of Va., Va. legislator, U.S. Interior Secty, and Univ. of Va. rector. (43)-Ky.-born Richard Taylor (1826-79), son of U.S. Pres. Zachary Taylor and a Confederate general.

PEF. 66-Later Trustees Cont’d. (44)-Conn.-born Morrison Remick Waite (1816-88) was an influential U.S. Supreme Court Justice during 1874-88. (45)-Samuel Watson (d. 1865). 46-R.I. Gov. George Peabody Wetmore (1846-1921). (47)-N.Y.-state born Henry Benjamin Whipple (1822-1901), who was Episcopal Bishop of Minn. Ref.: Curry-b listed above additional PEF trustees (as of 1898; others served until the board disbanded in 1914). See: persons named.

PEF. 67-Trustees’ High Status (state legislators). The high status of over 50 PEF trustees can be thus summarized (some trustees who held several high offices are repeated): Thirteen were members of state legislatures: (1)-William Aiken (1806-87), S.C. House of Rep., 1838-42, and S.C. State Senate, 1842-44. (2)-John Henry Clifford (1809-76), Mass. legislature, 1835, and Pres. of the Mass. Senate, 1862. (3)-J.L.M. Curry (1825-1903), Ala. legislature during 1847-55. (4)-Charles Devons (1820-91), Mass. Senate, 1848-49. (5)-Charles Erasmus Fenner (1834-1911) of New Orleans, La. legislature. (6)-Melville Weston Fuller (1833-1910), Ill. legislature, from 1863.

PEF. 68-Trustees’ High Status (state legislators) Cont’d. (7)-William Alexander Graham (1804-75), N.C. legislature, 1833-40 and 1854-55. (8)-William Wirt Henry (1831-1900), Va. legislature for four terms. (9)-George Frisbie Hoar (1826-1904), Mass. House of Rep., 1852-57, and the Mass. Senate, from 1857. (10)-Richard Olney (1835-1917), Mass. legislature, from 1874. (11)-James Davis Porter (1828-1912), Tenn. House of Representatives (1859-61). (12)-William Cabell Rives (1793-1868), Va. Senate, 1817-21 and 1822-23. (13)-Robert Charles Winthrop of Mass. (1809-94), Mass. Legislature, 1835-41, and its speaker the last three years.

PEF. 69-Trustees’ High Status (federal judge and U.S. Supreme Court Justices). At least one PEF trustee was a federal judge: John Lowell (b.1824). Two were U.S. Supreme Court justices: (1)-Melville Weston Fuller (1833-1910), Chief Justice from 1888. (2)-Morrison Remick Waite (1816-88), Chief Justice, 1874-88.

PEF. 70-Trustees’ High Status (U.S. ambassadors). Five were U.S. ambassadors abroad: (1)-Joseph Hodges Choate (1832-1917) of Mass., U.S. Minister to Britain, 1899-1905. (2)-J.L.M. Curry (1825-1903) of Ala., U.S. Minister to Spain, 1885-88. (3)-Henry Rootes Jackson (1820-98) of Ga., U.S. Minister to Austria, 1853-58, and to Mexico, 1885-86. (4)-James Davis Porter (1828-1912) of Tenn., U.S. Minister to Chile (1893). (5)-William Cabell Rives (1793-1868) of Va., U.S. Minister to France, 1829-32 and 1849-53.

PEF. 71-Trustees’ High Status (U.S. Senators). Eight were U.S. Senators: (1)-William M. Evarts (1818-1901) of N.Y., 1885-91. (2)-Hamilton Fish (1808-93) of N.Y., 1851-57. (3)-Randall Lee Gibson (1832-92) of Ky., 1882-92. (4)-William Alexander Graham (1804-75) of N.C., 1840-43. (5)-George Frisbie Hoar (1826-1904) of Mass., 1877-1904. 6-William Cabell Rives (1793-1868) of Va., 1832-34, 1835-39, and 1841-45. 7-George Peabody Wetmore (1846-1921) of R.I., 1895-1913. 8-Robert Charles Winthrop (1809-94) of Mass., appointed to complete Daniel Webster’s term, 1850-51.

PEF. 72-Trustees’ High Status (U.S. House of Representatives). Seven were U.S. House of Representatives members: . (1)-William Aiken (1806-87) of S.C., 1851-57. (2)-J.L.M. Curry (1825-1903) of Ala., 1857-61. (3)-Hamilton Fish (1808-93) of N.Y., 1843-45. (4)-Randall Lee Gibson (1832-92) of Ky., 1874-82. (5)-George Frisbie Hoar (1826-1904) of Mass., 1869-775 (6)-Theodore Lyman (1833-97) of Mass. (7)-Robert Charles Winthrop (1809-94) of Mass., 1842-50 and House Speaker, 1847-50.

PEF. 73-Trustees’ High Status (Civil War generals). Two were U.S. Civil War generals: (1)-Charles Devons (1820-91) of Mass. (2)-U.S. Grant (1822-85) of Ohio. Three were Confederate Generals: (1)-Randall Lee Gibson (1832-92) of Ky. (2)-Henry Rootes Jackson (1820-98) of Ga. (3)-Richard Taylor (1826-79) of Ky.

PEF. 74-Trustees’ High Status (U.S. Cabinet officer). Six were U.S. Cabinet Officers: (1)-Charles Devons (1820-91) of Mass., U.S. Atty. Gen., 1873-81. (2)-William M. Evarts (1818-1901), U.S. Atty. Gen. in Pres. Andrew Johnson’s cabinet, and Secty. of State in Pres. Rutherford B. Hayes’s cabinet. (3)-Hamilton Fish (1808-93) of N.Y., U.S. Secty. of State, 1869-77. (4)-William Alexander Graham (1804-75) of N.C., U.S. Navy Secty., 1850-52. (5)-U.S. Grant (1822-85), interim Secty. of War, 1867. (6)-Richard Olney (1835-1917) of Mass., U.S. Atty. Gen. in Pres. Grover Cleveland’s cabinet, 1893-95, and U.S. Secty. of State, from 1895.

PEF. 75-Trustees’ High Status (U.S. Dept. of State, U.S. Navy). One was U.S. Asst. Secty. of State: James Davis Porter (1828-1912), in Pres. Grover Cleveland’s cabinet, 1893. One was U.S. Naval Admiral David Glasgow Farragut (1801-70).

PEF. 76-Trustees’ High Status (state governors). Six were U.S. state governors: (1)-S.C. Gov. William Aiken (1806-87), during 1844-46. (2)-Mass. Gov. John Henry Clifford (1809-76) during 1853-54. (3)-N.Y. Gov. Hamilton Fish (1808-93) during 1848-50. (4)-N.C. Gov. William Alexander Graham (1804-75) during 1845-49. (5)-Tenn. Gov. James Davis Porter (1828-1912) during 1875-79. (6)-R.I. Gov. George Peabody Wetmore (1846-1921) during 1885-87.

PEF. 77-Trustees’ High Status (U.S. Vice Pres. candidate & Confederate Congress members). One, William Alexander Graham (1804-75) of N.C., was defeated as Whig Party candidate for U.S. Vice Pres. in 1852. Three were in the Confederate Congress: (1)-J.L.M. Curry (1825-1903) of Ala., in 1861-64. (2)-William Alexander Graham (1804-75) of N.C., in 1864. (3)-William Cabell Rives (1793-1868) of Va., in 1861-62.

PEF. 78-Trustees’ High Status (bishops). Two trustees were bishops: (1)-Charles Pettit McIlvaine (1799-1873), Episcopal Bishop of Ohio during 1832-73. (2)-William Lawrence (1850-1941), Episcopal Bishop of Mass. during 1893-1926.

PEF. 79-Trustees’ High Status (U.S. presidents). Eight were U.S. presidents: (1) Grover Cleveland (1837-1908, 22nd and 24th U.S. Pres., 1885-89, 1893-97) was PEF trustee during 1885-99, for fourteen years. (2)-U.S. Grant (1822-85, 18th U.S. Pres., 1869-77) was PEF trustee during 1867-85, for eighteen years. (3)-Rutherford Birchard Hayes (1822-93, 19th U.S. Pres., 1877-81) was PEF trustee during 1877-93, for sixteen years. (4)-Andrew Jackson (1767-1845, 7th U.S. Pres., 1829-37) was trustee of Davidson Academy (1785-1806), rechartered as Cumberland College (1806-26), rechartered as the Univ. of Nashville (1826-75). Andrew Jackson was a trustee of these three institutions during 1792-1845, or for over 50 years.

PEF. 80-Trustees’ High Status (U.S. presidents) Cont’d.: (5)-Andrew Johnson (1808-75, 17th U.S. Pres., 1865-69) was trustee of the Univ. of Nashville during 1853-57, for four years. (6)-William McKinley (1843-1901, 25th U.S. Pres., 1897-1901) was PEF trustee during 1899-1901, for two years. (7)-James Knox Polk (1795-1849, 11th U.S. Pres., 1845-49) was trustee of the Univ. of Nashville during 1839-41, for three years. (8)-Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919, 26th U.S. Pres., 1901-09) was PEF trustee during 1901-14, for thirteen years. Ref.: GPCFT-b, p. 6. See: U.S. Presidents.

PEF. 81-Trustees’ High Status Summarized. In sum: thirteen PEF trustees served in state legislatures (W. Aiken-S.C. house and senate, J.H. Clifford-Mass. house and senate, J.L.M. Curry-Ala. house, C. Devons-Mass. senate, C.E. Fenner-La. House, M.W. Fuller-Ill. house, W.A. Graham-N.C. house, W.W. Henry-Va. house, G.F. Hoar-Mass. house and senate, R. Olney-Mass. house, J.D. Porter-Tenn. house, C.B. Rives-Va., R.C. Winthrop-Mass. House. At least one was federal judge L. Lowell. Two were U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justices: M.W. Fuller and M.R. Waite.

PEF. 82-Trustees’ High Status Summarized Cont’d. Five PEF trustees were U.S. ambassadors: J.H. Choate-Britain, J.L.M. Curry-Spain, H.R. Jackson-Austria, W.C. Rives-France, and J.D. Porter-Chile. Eight were U.S. Senators: W. Evarts-N.Y., H. Fish-N.Y., R.L. Gibson-Ky., G.F. W.A. Graham-N.C., Hoar-Mass, W.C. Rives-Va., G.P. Wetmore-R.I., and R.C. Winthrop-Mass. Seven served in the U.S. House of Representatives: W. Aiken-S.C., J.L.M. Curry-Ala., H. Fish-N.Y., R.L. Gibson-Ky., G.F. Hoar-Mass., T. Lyman-Mass., and R.C. Winthrop-Mass.

PEF. 83-Trustees’ High Status Summarized Cont’d. Two PEF trustees were U.S. generals: U.S. Grant-Ohio and C. Devons-Mass. Three were Confederate generals (R. L. Gibson-Ky., H.R. Jackson-Ga., and R. Taylor-Ky. Six were U.S. Cabinet Officers: C. Devons-Mass., U.S. Atty. Gen.; W.M. Evarts-N.Y., U.S. Atty. Gen. in Pres. Andrew Johnson’s cabinet and Secty. of State in Pres. Rutherford B. Hayes’s cabinet; H. Fish-N.Y., U.S. Secty. of State; W.A. Graham-N.C., U.S. Navy Secty.; U.S. Grant-Ohio, interim Secty. of War; R. Olney-Mass., U.S. Atty. Gen. in Pres. Grover Cleveland’s cabinet and U.S. Secty. of State, from 1895.

PEF. 84-Trustees’ High Status Summarized Cont’d. One PEF trustee was U.S. Naval Adm. D.G. Farragut-Tenn.. One was U.S. Surgeon-Gen. of the U.S. Army Joseph K. Barnes-Penn.. Six U.S. state governors were: W. Aiken-S.C., J.H. Clifford-Mass., H. Fish-N.Y., W.A. Graham-N.C., J.D. Porter-Tenn., and G.P. Wetmore-R.I. Three in the Confederate Congress were: J.L.M. Curry-Ala., W.A. Graham-N.C., and W.C. Rives-Va. Two bishops were: McIlvaine-Ohio and Lawrence-Mass. Eight U.S. presidents were: G. Cleveland, U.S. Grant, R.B. Hayes, A. Jackson, A. Johnson, W. McKinley, J.K. Polk, and T. Roosevelt.

Historians on the PEF

PEF. 85-Historian E. Merton Coulter. Most historians have said that PEF aid came when it was most desperately needed, that PEF trustees were of high status, from North and South, and that PEF policy succeeded because it met rather than fought southern middle class interests. Educator-historians’ comments on the PEF include: E. Merton Coulter: “The greatest act of help and friendship that came to the South during the Reconstruction originated with George Peabody, Massachusetts-born English banker and benefactor….The South was deeply moved by this beam of light piercing their blackest darkness.” Ref.: Coulter, p. 327.

PEF. 86-Historian Harvey Wish: “Northern philanthropy tried to fill the gap left by Southern poverty and by Bourbon indifference to elementary education. No kindness had touched the hearts of Southerners quite as much as the huge educational bequest of the Massachusetts-born financier, George Peabody of England.” Ref.: Wish, II, p. 37.

PEF. 87-Historian Edgar W. Knight: “The Peabody Fund was a highly beneficial influence to education in the South.” (E.W. Knight again): “The Peabody Fund…was not only the earliest manifestation of a spirit of reconciliation on the part of the Northern man toward the southern states, but it was also one of the largest educational blessings which ever came from the outside to that section of the country.” Ref.: Knight,-a, p. 393; Knight-c, p. 555.

PEF. 88-Historian Paul Herman Buck: “As in his [George Peabody’s] gifts to England he had hoped to link two nations in friendly bonds, now after the Civil War it seemed to him most imperative to use his bounty in the restoration of good will between North and South…. The Peabody Education Fund…was an experiment in harmony and understanding between the sections…. Not only was the gift of Peabody one of the earliest manifestations of a spirit of reconciliation, but it was also a most effective means of stimulating that spirit in others.” Ref.: Buck, pp. 164, 166.

PEF. 89-Historian Abraham Flexner: “The trustees of the Peabody Fund were a distinguished group of men. No body of trust has ever contained men of higher character, greater ability and eminence, or more varied experience.” Ref.: Flexner, with Bailey, p. 11.

PEF. 90-Historian William Knox Tate (educator): “No sketch of Southern education should close without an expression of gratitude to our friends in the days of darkness–George Peabody and the Peabody Board of Trustees. No other $3,000,000 [sic, $1.5 million of Mississippi and $384,000 in Florida bonds were never honored by those states, leaving a total of $2 million] ever accumulated on the earth has done so beneficent a work as has this fund.” Ref.: Tate, p. 291.

PEF. 91-Historian J.L.M. Curry (educator): “Among the benefactors of education none have surpassed George Peabody in the timeliness and utility of his gift.” Ref.: Curry-a, p. 226.

PEF. 92-Historian Daniel Coit Gilman (educator): “Mr. George Peabody began this line of modern beneficence…. The influence exerted by this agency [Peabody Education Fund] throughout the states which were impoverished by the war cannot be calculated, and it is not strange that the name of George Peabody is revered from Baltimore to New Orleans….” [About post-Civil War southern philanthropy]: “Almost if not quite all of these foundations have been based on principles that were designated by Mr. Peabody.” Ref.: Gilman-c, pp. 648-52, 657 (Gilman credits GP’s example with influencing the principles of the John F. Slater Fund, John D. Rockefeller’s General Education Board, the Andrew Carnegie foundations, and the Russell Sage Foundation).

PEF. 93-Historian Thomas D. Clark: “Since 1867 the Peabody Fund has worked as an educational leaven, and by the beginning of the twentieth century such matters as consolidation, compulsory attendance, teacher training, vocational education and general lifting of Southern standards received ardent editorial support. Especially was this true in the first decade of this century when the famous education publicity crusades were under way.” Ref.: Clark, p. 30.

PEF. 94-Historian Charles William Dabney (educator): “George Peabody [was] the first of the line of philanthropists to aid the Southern states in their struggle for education after the Civil War.” [And]: “The gift of Mr. Peabody in its purpose to help cure the sores of a distressed people by giving them aid for a constructive plan of education was original and unique. It was not for the mere relief of suffering; it was to lay the foundations for future peace and prosperity through enlightenment and training. In this sense he was a pioneer of a new philanthropy, which did not seek only to palliate, or merely to eliminate the causes of evil and distress, but to build up a better and stronger human society.” Ref.: Dabney, I, pp. 101, 104.

PEF. 95-Historian William Torrey Harris (educator): “It would appear to the student of education in the Southern States that the practical wisdom in the administration of the Peabody Fund, and the fruitful results that have followed it, could not be surpassed in the history of endowments.” Ref.: quotation from W.T. Harris, fourth U.S. Commissioner of Education, in Curry-a, p. 230.

PEF. 96-Jesse Brundage Sears: “This [the Peabody Education Fund], as our first experiment, must be pronounced a decided success and it must stand as an excellent precedent both for the future public and for the future philanthropist.” Ref.: Sears, p. 91.

PEF. 97-A Summing Up. The rise of the U.S. South from Civil War ruin and bitterness has a long and still contentious history. The PEF was an early positive agent for both races in advancing public elementary and secondary schools, teacher education, and rural education, and as a model and inspiration for similar later funds and foundations aiding the South. The PEF’s most visible legatee is PCofVU.

PEF. 98-Praise and Criticism (Ref.): PEF, Proceedings, 6 vols. Curry-b. Ayres. Leavell. Taylor. Gilman-a, pp. 161-166. Brouilette, Ph.D. dissertation, GPCFT, 1940. Drake, Ed.D. dissertation, Tenn. State Univ., 1990. West-b, pp. 3-21. West, Ph.D. dissertation, GPCFT, 1961. Turner, Ph.D. dissertation, La. State Univ., 1944. Ref.: (On second PEF administrator J.L.M. Curry’s influence): Lewis, Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of Fla., 1955. Peck, Ph.D. dissertation, GPCFT, 1942. Rice. Spivey, pp. 28, 32, 37, 77-84.

PEF in Ala. & Fla. See: Refs. Johnson, K.R., pp. 101-126. Rosen, pp. 310-320.

PEF in N.C., according to one source: “stimulated some local support, helped establish excellent town schools which served as examples to the rest of the state, and tended to break down the bitter southern hatred of the North.” Ref.: Lefler, Hugh Talmage and Albert Ray Newsome, p. 538.

PEF in Tenn.

PEF in Tenn. 1-In the first 30 years (1868-1897) of its 47-year life span (1867-1914) the PEF gave the 12 southern states a total of $2,478,000 to advance public schools, teacher institutes, and teacher training normal schools. Since the PEF required local matching funds (often more than matching funds), total PEF-generated funds in the first 30 years may be conservatively estimated at over $5 million. Tenn. received about 9 percent of this total, second highest after Va. Add to this amount the PEF’s $1.5 million GPCFT endowment (1914) and the required $1.5 million matching funds, which enriched Tenn. with at least $3.5 million PEF-generated money–all from GP’s original $2 million investment. Ref.: Parker, F-zk, and BJP, pp. 725-726

PEF in Tenn. 2-More difficult to quantify is the extent of Tenn.’s benefit from Peabody Normal College (1875-1911) and its successor institutions, GPCFT (1914-79) and PCofVU (since 1979). Their faculties have trained, graduated, and continue to graduate thousands of professional educators, many of them educational leaders in the South, the U.S., and overseas, who give Peabody in Tenn. a national and international reputation, who help make Nashville the “Athens of the South.” These educators benefited and continue to benefit many lives, well into the millions, advancing GP’s 1852 motto: “Education, a debt due from present to future generations.”

PEF in Texas. In 1874 Texas was a relatively poor, agrarian state burdened by Civil War costs as a former Confederate state. That year its Gov. Richard Coke (1829-97) stated that teacher education was that state’s greatest educational need. Soon after, a $6,000 PEF teacher education grant, matched by the state of Texas, led to that state’s first normal school, the Sam Houston Normal Institute, 1879. The PEF thus helped initiate teacher education in Texas. Ref.: “Handbook of Texas online: Teacher Education,” seen on the Internet April 14, 2000: http://www.tsha.utexas.edu

PEF on African American Education. See: Refs. Boatner, p. 314. Brown. Bullock Bond-b. Bond-a, pp. 28-29, 57, 63. Range. Sherer.

PEF on African American Education. See: Refs. Boatner, p. 314. Brown. Bullock Bond-b. Bond-a, pp. 28-29, 57, 63. Range. Sherer.

Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Mass.

Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Mass. The Peabody Essex Museum (since 1992) was previously the Peabody Museum of Salem (1915-92), and was founded by GP as the Peabody Academy of Science (Feb. 26, 1867-1915), with a gift of $140,000. Museum historian Walter Muir Whitehill wrote in 1976: The “Peabody Museum of Salem, Mass., is the oldest museum in continuous operation in the United States, by virtue of perpetuating the collections of the East India Marine Society, founded in 1799.” This museum was one of GP’s five gifts to science, influenced in part by his nephew O.C. Marsh (1831-99). Ref.: Whitehill, IV, p. 436. For the Peabody Essex Museum’s history, holdings, and influence see Dudley, Robert. Marsh, Othniel Charles. Science: GP’s Gifts to Science and Science Education. American Neptune. George Peabody Bicentennial (Feb. 12, 1795-1995).

Peabody Essex Museum Collections, published by the Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Mass., is the oldest continuously published U.S. historical journal. Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody family trust. GP’s last will of Sept. 9, 1869, left the Peabody family trust an amount variously estimated from $1.5 million to $4 million. See: Wills, GP’s.

Peabody High School, Peabody, Mass. For GP’s Oct. 9, 1856, speech in his hometown, addressed in part to the school children, see South Danvers, Mass., GP Celebration, Oct. 9, 1856.

Peabody Historical Society, 35 Washington St., Peabody, Mass., is an historical center containing documents about the city of Peabody. The town was first called Brooksby (1626), later known as Salem Village, then Danvers (1752-1855), then South Danvers after Danvers was divided north and south (1855-68), and renamed Peabody after GP on April 13, 1868. See: Peabody, Mass.

Peabody Homes of London.

Peabody Homes of London. 1-First Mention: Feb. 7, 1857. On Feb. 7, 1857, GP first mentioned his intended gift to London to Baltimore friend John Pendleton Kennedy (1795-1870). GP was in Baltimore on Feb. 7, 1857, ill with gout, with PIB trustees John Pendleton Kennedy and William Edwards Mayhew (1781-1860) helping him draft his PIB founding letter (Feb. 12, 1857). A main reason for his Sept. 15, 1856 to Aug. 19, 1857, U.S. visit, was to found the PIB. This was his first return to the U.S. after nearly 20 years’ absence in London (since Feb. 1837). Thinking mainly about the PIB, but speculating on his other intended gifts, GP first mentioned to Kennedy and Mayhew his still unformed thought about a gift to London. Five years later, his March 12, 1862, letter founded the Peabody Donation Fund (later Peabody Trust Group) of London which managed the Peabody apartments for London’s working poor. See: Eaton, Charles James Madison Eaton.

Peabody Homes. 2-Kennedy’s Journal. Kennedy recorded the meeting in his journal as follows: “Saturday, Feby. 7 [1857]: At 12 Mr. Mayhew calls to go with us to see Peabody who is confined to his bed by gout…. He told us in confidence that he plans to return permanently to America and would show his gratitude to the City of London for his success there, by leaving, if his fortune should admit it, £100,000 sterling [$500,000] to some useful charity there. That he did not wish to bring away all the money he had amassed in England, but to manifest his regard for the country by leaving a good portion behind to some institution, hoping by this to promote kindness and respect between the people of the two countries.” Ref.: John Pendleton Kennedy’s journal, VIIj (August 1, 1855-March 14, 1857), entry dated Sat., Feb. 7, 1857, Kennedy Papers, PIB.

First Idea: London Drinking Fountains.

Peabody Homes. 3-First Idea: London Drinking Fountains. GP returned to London in late Aug. 1857. He spoke of his intended gift for London to long-time business associate and friend Curtis Miranda Lampson (1806-85). Lampson, born in Vt., and a London resident since 1830, was a merchant grown rich in the fur trade. He married (Nov. 30, 1827), had children, became a British subject, was later a director of the Atlantic Cable Co. (as was GP), and was knighted for this service. It was in Lampson’s London home at 80 Eaton Sq. that GP died on Nov. 4, 1869. Thinking of the London poor and groping for a useful gift to improve their condition, GP first discussed with Lampson constructing drinking fountains at strategic London locations, with water piped in and purified, and in time building a city-wide network of such drinking fountains.

Peabody Homes. 4-Bishop McIlvaine. GP also discussed his intended gift to London’s poor with Bishop Charles Pettit McIlvaine (1799-1873), who visited London in late 1858 and early 1859. McIlvaine was born in Burlington, N.J., graduated (1816) from the College of N.J. (renamed Princeton Univ. in 1896), was Episcopal minister of Christ Church, Georgetown, D.C. (1821-25), chaplain, U.S. Military Academy, West Point (1825), ethics professor, N.Y. Univ. (1831-32), Episcopal Bishop of Ohio (from 1832), Pres., Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio, and in 1861-62 Pres. Lincoln’s emissary to England to present the Union view in the Civil War. See: McIlvaine, Charles Pettit McIlvaine.

Second Idea: Aiding Ragged Schools.

Peabody Homes. 5-Second Idea: Aiding Ragged Schools. The London gift idea GP discussed with McIlvaine was to aid charity schools for the very poor run by the Ragged School Union. Ragged Schools originated with John Pounds (d. 1839), a cobbler who made and repaired shoes in Portsmouth, England. From 1819 to his death in 1839 he took in poor children and orphans and taught them fundamentals while he worked. Others took up the work to help ease the poverty accompanying the early industrial revolution. In 1838 a ragged school was opened in London. A widely read pamphlet by Dr. Guthrie, “Plea for Ragged Schools,” 1847, spread the movement throughout England. For 39 years the Ragged School Union was led by social reformer Lord Shaftesbury (Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th Earl, 1801-85).

Peabody Homes. 6-Bishop McIlvaine Consulted Lord Shaftesbury. At GP’s request Bishop McIlvaine, who had known Lord Shaftesbury since the 1840s, asked Shaftesbury by letter his opinion about a possible £100,000 (about $500,000) donation by a U.S. private citizen to the Ragged School Union. Could better teachers be trained, school buildings built or rented, and a model private school system created for poor but bright and ambitious children? Ref.: (Shaftesbury’s influence on GP via McIlvaine): Curry-b, pp. 73-74. Smith, E.T. Murray, p. 383. Ref.: (Shaftesbury): Bready.

Peabody Homes. 7-Lord Shaftesbury’s Reply. Bishop McIlvaine passed on to GP by letter Shaftesbury’s reply about aiding the Ragged Schools. McIlvaine wrote GP: “Shaftesbury does not think, at first view, that the scheme would meet with favor. It would, by most persons, be pronounced unnecessary. The education given [in] the Ragged School is sufficient for all practical purposes with those who are to emigrate or go away early in service of an honest description. If supposed to be desirable, it would create much feeling of suspicion.” Ref.: (McIlvaine on Shaftesbury’s views): Charles Pettit McIlvaine to GP, Jan. 21, 1859, Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass.

Peabody Homes. 8-Lord Shaftesbury’s Reply Cont’d. (sent to GP by McIlvaine): “Neither could we find a machinery to carry it into operation. We have great difficulty now in that respect; but under the present idea [GP’s gift idea], we must have an entirely paid agency. [McIlvaine interpreted Shaftesbury’s meaning: ‘He means I suppose, outside of teachers etc. to manage the whole.’] The expenses would be immensely increased and the duties of supervision beyond an ordinary committee.” Shaftesbury concluded: “These, however, are only my hasty opinions, I do not know the name of the American Gentleman. But, whoever he be, I thank God for so good and generous a man….” Ref.: Ibid.

.Housing for London’s Working Poor: Lord Shaftesbury.

Peabody Homes. 9-McIlvaine Sent GP Shaftesbury’s Views. “He [Shaftesbury, McIlvaine wrote GP] first described the wretchedness of the lodging houses of the working classes in London, as regards overcrowding, the dwelling of all ages and both sexes, crowded in the same room, brothers and sisters in the same beds, the crimes, the fevers, the dreadful air, the prostration of all energy, the impossibility of doing the people any good till they can dwell better–that many of these people are…able to pay for better lodging but cannot find them without going too far from their work.” Ref.: (McIlvaine wrote GP of Shaftesbury’s views): Charles Pettit McIlvaine to GP, Feb. 9, 1859, Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass.

Peabody Homes. 10-McIlvaine Sent GP Shaftesbury’s Views Cont’d.: “He [Shaftesbury] then said that the next unquestionable application he could think of for the large amount spoken of, which would do the greatest good and receive the approbation of all, was the provision of comfortable lodging houses under proper government with lending libraries and schools for the working people of London–that in five years the effect would be astonishing & in ten years it would have its effects on the whole class. Fever would be banished, Typhus [disappear] from among the people now dying so fast of it. Thus moral character [would be] elevated. They [the poor] seem to desire such a change but cannot effect it.” “Thus,” McIlvaine concluded, “I have given the substance of the conversation.” Ref.:: Ibid.

Peabody Homes. 11-London Housing. Lord Shaftesbury’s opinion–that affordable housing was the working poor’s greatest need–impressed GP and his advisers. The drinking fountain idea faded. Curtis Lampson wrote GP on April 9, 1859, expressing doubt about drinking fountains. The idea of aiding the Ragged Schools also faded. Subsidized apartments, suggested by social reformer Lord Shaftesbury, himself influenced by John Wesley’s Methodism, grew in GP’s mind. Ref Curtis Miranda Lampson to GP, April 9, 1859, Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass.

.London Housing Antecedents.

Peabody Homes. 12-London Housing Cont’d. Antecedents to the Peabody Homes of London (from March 12, 1862) included discussions at the Society for Improving the Conditions of the Labouring Classes (founded 1845). A block of model housing for the poor was built at the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London at the suggestion of Albert of Saxe-Co-burg-Gotha (Prince Albert, 1819-61), Queen Victoria’s husband, and was designed by architect Henry Roberts (1803-76). Ref.: Roberts. Pevsner, pp. 28-29. Society for Improving the Conditions of the Labouring Classes.

Peabody Homes. 13-London Housing Cont’d. Better housing for the poor was urged by such writer-reformers as Charles Dickens (1812-70), Charles Kingsley (1819-75), and John Ruskin (1819-1900). Charles Dickens wrote to reformer-philanthropist Angela Georgina Burdett Coutts (1814-1906), a great influence on his reform tendencies, that the poor “will never save their children from the dreadful and unnatural mortality now prevalent…or save themselves from untimely sickness and death, until they have cheap pure water in unlimited quantity, wholesome air, efficient drainage, and such alterations in building acts as shall preserve open space in the closest regions.” Ref.: Dickens-b, p. 142.

Peabody Homes. 14-London Housing Cont’d. Sir Sidney Hedley Waterlow (1822-1906) first proved that low cost housing could be a philanthropic and commercial success in his block of model housing opened in Mark St., Finsbury borough, London. Waterlow himself wrote of the Peabody Homes of London: “Beyond all doubt they materially stimulated the Government of [the day in promoting measures, not merely to facilitate the work of public housing] but to compel railway companies and others destroying any large number of houses occupied by the poor to provide to a certain extent new and commodious tenements suitable for the working classes.” Waterlow’s biographer wrote of housing reform: “The idea was in the air.” Ref.: (Sidney Waterlow): Price, p. 15. Smalley, pp. 8, 58-59. Welch, Charles, Supplement 2, III, pp. 600-601.

Peabody Homes. 15-London Housing Cont’d. The significance of GP’s gift, however, was its large amount ($2.5 million total), the many blocks of dwellings built, the public interest it aroused, the government effort it stimulated, and the fact that an American resident in London would give so large a gift for a city and country not his own. GP’s London gift announcement was delayed by his frequent illness during 1858-62, his search for the best possible trustees, and especially by frictionable British-U.S. relations over the U.S. Civil War.

.U.S.-British Frictions.

Peabody Homes. 16-U.S.-British Friction over Civil War. Britain early declared itself officially neutral in the U.S. Civil War (May 13, 1861). Ordinary Britons sided with the Union, where many of their relatives lived. But upper and middle class Britons felt a natural kinship for the southern aristocracy. Economically, the British textile industry was hurt when U.S. southern cotton on which it depended was cut off by the Union blockade of southern ports. Historian Shelby Foote noted that two million British workers in cotton mills and ancillary industries became jobless because of the Union blockade of southern ports. These circumstances encouraged the Confederacy, without a navy, to send secret agents to buy British-built ships, which were then, in international waters, armed as Confederate warships. Ref.: Foote.

Peabody Homes. 17-Alabama Claims. The most notorious of these British-built Confederate raiders, the CSS Alabama, for example, sunk 64 Union ships. U.S. anger flared; Britain was defensive. Near war tensions existed. Later (1872), an international court case over the Alabama Claims required that Britain pay the U.S. $15.5 million indemnity. The Trent Affair, described below, also provoked U.S.-British near-war hysteria and held up announcement of GP’s London housing gift. See: Alabama, CSS (ship). Alabama Claims.

Peabody Homes. 18-Trent Affair. The Confederacy sent agents to England and France to gain recognition, arms, and loans for the Confederacy: Pierre A. Rost (1797-1868), William L. Yancey (1814-63), and Ambrose Dudley Mann (1801-89); soon followed by James Murray Mason (1798-1871) of Va., bound for Britain, and John Slidell (1793-1871), bound for France. With them were their male secretaries (J.E. McFarland, Mason’s secretary, and George Eustice [1828-72], Slidell’s secretary) and Slidell’s family. See: Trent Affair. Persons named.

Peabody Homes. 19-Trent Affair Cont’d. On the stormy night of Oct. 11, 1861, they evaded the Union blockade of Charleston, S.C., reached Havana, Cuba, and boarded the British mail ship Trent bound for Southampton. A day out of Havana, Cuba, Capt. Charles Wilkes (1798-1877) of the USS San Jacinto stopped the Trent by firing shots across its bow. illegally seized Mason, Slidell, and their secretaries were illegally seized, placed aboard the San Jacinto, and imprisoned in Boston Harbor’s Fort Warren. Ref.: (Trent, Alabama, cotton, other U.S.-British Civil War conflicts): Foote, pp. 154, 157. Internet [Trent, ship]. Porter-a, pp. 63-74. Porter-b, pp. 621-658. See: persons named.

Peabody Homes. 20-Trent Affair Cont’d. The U.S. North was jubilant. Britain was furious. This same kind of illegal seizure and removal by Britain had provoked the War of 1812. Britain demanded release of the four Confederates, an explanation, and an apology. Near war angers over the Trent affair lasted well into 1862, worried GP and his advisors, and delayed the public announcement of the Peabody Donation Fund. Britain, near a war footing, sent 8,000 troops to Canada in case war erupted. See: Trent Affair.

Peabody Homes. 21-Trent Affair Cont’d. Under these circumstances, GP and his trustees feared that the British government, press, and public would not accept his London housing gift. But U.S. jingoism calmed. Pres. Lincoln reportedly told his cabinet on Dec. 26, 1861, “One war at a time, gentlemen,” and disavowed Capt. Wilkes’s action. The four Confederates were released on Jan. l, 1862. Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody Homes. 22-Worry and Delay. In Jan. 1862 at the height of the Trent affair, GP knew that four friends he had asked would agree to be Peabody Donation Fund trustees: 1-business friend Curtis Miranda Lampson, 2-Junius Spencer Morgan (1813-90), his George Peabody & Co. partner since Oct. 1, 1854, 3-U.S. Minister to Great Britain Charles Francis Adams (1806-86), and 4-longtime friend Sir James Emerson Tennent (1791-1869). He had asked Lord Stanley (Edward George Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, 1799-1869, MP and president of the Board of Control, i. e., trade) to be chairman of the board of trustees but because of British anger over the Trent Affair was not sure Lord Stanley would accept.

.Weed’s Report of Peabody Homes Little Noticed.

Peabody Homes. 23-Weed’s News of Peabody Homes Little Noticed. In early Jan. 1862 GP discussed his London gift plans with Thurlow Weed (1797-1882), N.Y. state politician, editor of the Albany Evening Journal, then visiting London. Weed’s letter of Jan. 12, 1862, printed in the Albany Evening Journal, reported that GP was maturing a large philanthropic gift for London’s poor. But it received small attention, even when reprinted weeks later in two London news sources. Ref.: Thurlow Weed’s Jan. 12, 1862, letter to the Albany Evening Journal was quoted in the London Times, Feb. 17, 1862, p. 9, c. 2; and The Court Journal (London), Feb. 22, 1862, p. 183, c. 3.

Announcement Postponed

Peabody Homes. 24-Announcement Postponed. After talking to Weed, GP drafted his founding letter. Lampson and Tennent read and approved the draft. GP asked them to confer with U.S. Minister Adams. Lampson, Tennent, Adams, and Bishop McIlvaine, who joined them, conferred. International tension was too volatile. They decided unanimously to postpone announcement of GP’s gift.

Peabody Homes. 25-GP Explained Delay to Weed. GP explained the delay in a note to Weed: “Two days ago we thought it exactly the right time, but one cloud between this country and ours is no sooner disposed than another appears. Today the Times and Post are at us again…[as are] ugly extracts from the World and other New York papers…. The feeling [is] as bad as it was before the Trent affair closed. The Post I have takes up strongly the blocking up of Charlestown harbour. Lampson told me that he thought both Sir Emerson [Tennent] and Mr. Adams were in rather a gloomy mood on our affairs with England and France, and Sir Emerson told me that France was pushing England very hard to join and recognize the Southern Confederacy.” Ref.: GP to Thurlow Weed, Jan. 17, 1862, Weed Collection, Univ. of Rochester, quoted in Barnes, p. 365.

Peabody Homes. 26-“Newcastle Story.” U.S.-British friction worried GP, who had promoted U.S.-British friendship for 25 years. He mentioned in his note to Weed the “Newcastle story,” printed in the London Times and widely circulated as true. U.S. Secty. of State William Henry Seward (1801-72) allegedly told the Duke of Newcastle, then Colonial Secty., that one way to end the U.S. Civil War and get the South to rejoin the North would be to start a war with Britain. Ref.: (Newcastle story): Adams, E.D., I, pp. 114, 213, 277. Wallace and Gillespie, eds., II, p. 925. Barnes, op. cit., p. 365.

Peabody Homes. 27-“Newcastle Story” Cont’d. GP’s note to Weed explained the seriousness of the Newcastle story: “We talked over the mystery hanging over the Seward and the New Castle [sic] affair. Sir James E[merson] Tennent said that there can be no doubt that what the Duke reported of Seward’s remarks had strongly influenced the government in this war preparation for several months past. The Bishop [McIlvaine] said that he had received the words from Sir H[enry]. Holland [medical advisor to Queen Victoria], and I think Lord Shaftesbury, both of whom had them from the Duke’s own lips. You should at once write to Mr. Seward for a letter to the Duke and have the matter cleared up.” Weed had managed Seward’s political career. Ref.: GP, London, to Thurlow Weed, Jan. 17, 1862, Weed Collection, Univ. of Rochester, quoted in Barnes, p. 365.

Peabody Homes. 28-Housing Gift Announced. GP’s founding letter of March 12, 1862, needed to be acknowledged by the trustees by letter with both letters published in the London Times and other newspapers. All but Lord Stanley had signed the acceptance letter on March 15. Sir James Emerson Tennent secured this last signature, arranged for publication in the Times with editor John Thaddeus Delane (1817-79, London Times editor during 1841-77), and communicated with other London newspapers.

Peabody Homes. 29-Housing Gift Announced Cont’d. On March 25, 1862, while all England discussed the duel between the ironclads, the Union Monitor and the Confederate Merrimac, Tennent wrote GP of his progress: “I am now in a condition to report progress….. Mr. [Junius S.] Morgan called this morning with a letter to you signed by Mr. Adams, so that now it only wanted the signature of Lord Stanley…. The Times secured, I shall next communicate with the other news-papers, Post, Herald, Daily News, Advertiser, Star, Standard, Telegraph, Saturday Review….”

Peabody Homes. 30-Housing Gift Announced Cont’d. Tennent’s son helped secure the signature of Lord Stanley. Tennent’s report to GP concluded: “Thus everything is now settled…. The money is conveyed and the future Trustees have accepted it and have all signed their acceptance.” Ref.: James Emerson Tennent to GP, March 25, 26, 1862, Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass. London Times, March 26, 1862, p. 9, c. 6.

.GP’s Founding Letter, March 12, 1862

Peabody Homes. 31-GP’s Founding Letter. The March 12, 1862, founding letter, addressed to trustees Adams, Lord Stanley, Tennent, Lampson, and Morgan, appeared in the Times, Wed. morning, March 26, 1862. GP’s letter stated: “Early in my commercial life I resolved that if my labors were blessed with success I would devote a portion of my property to promote the intellectual, moral, and physical welfare of my fellowmen wherever their need was greatest.” Ref.: London Times, March 26, 1862 p. 9, c. 6. Illustrated London News, April 5, 1862, p. 335. Peabody Donation, pp. 5-8.

Peabody Homes. 32-GP’s Founding Letter Cont’d. “A kind Providence has given me prosperity. In keeping with my resolution I found[ed] in 1852 an Institute and Library for the people of my native town of Danvers, Massachusetts. “After an absence of 20 years I visited my country in 1857 and founded in Baltimore, Maryland, where I had worked more than 20 years, a larger Institute of Science and art with a free library. The cornerstone was laid in 1858. The building is now completed but its dedication is postponed by the American Civil War.” Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody Homes. 33-GP’s Founding Letter Cont’d. “Twenty-five years ago I came to London to live and to engage in business. I did not feel myself a stranger in a strange land long. For in all my dealings with British friends I received courtesy, kindness and confidence. “With a sense of gratitude for the blessings of a kind Providence, and in keeping with my early resolve, I have confided to personal friends my desire to make a donation to the poor of London.” Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody Homes. 34-GP’s Founding Letter Cont’d. GP explained in his founding letter that he had mentioned his London gift idea to Lampson five years before, to Tennent and his partner Morgan three years before, and had consulted with Bishop McIlvaine. His letter went on: “My object is to relieve the condition of the poor and needy of this great city, to promote their comfort and happiness. I am pleased to announce that I have transferred to you £150,000….” [Note: $750,000, first part of a total of $2.5 million]. Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody Homes. 35-GP’s Founding Letter Cont’d. GP listed his conditions: “First,…that this fund be used exclusively to relieve the condition and raise the comfort of the poor who by birth or residence form part of the population of London.” “Second,…exclude…the influence of sectarian religion and exclusive party politics.” “Third, the sole qualification…is that the individual be poor, have moral character, and be a good member of society. No one should be excluded on grounds of religious belief or political bias.” Ref.: Ibid.

Praise for GP’s Gift of Model London Housing

Peabody Homes. 36-GP’s Founding Letter Cont’d. Published beneath GP’s founding letter was the trustees’ acceptance letter of March 15, 1862, which read in part: “The purity of your motive, the magnitude of the gift and the grand purpose makes this occasion one for the entire nation to appreciate a beneficence without parallel in modern times.” Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody Homes. 37-Tennent to GP on Warm Reception. News of GP’s gift swept London, captured England, echoed in the U.S., and made the world press. It came at precisely the right time to help offset Trent, Alabama, the “Newcastle story,” and years of U.S.-British antagonism. Sir James Emerson Tennent sent GP London press notices and added: “But the press is only a faint echo of the voice of Society which is so forcible in praise of an act so utterly beyond all precedent. It is the topic of conversation and laudation in every circle of London, from the Palace down. And if such a deed could be repaid it must be recompensed to you by the admiration and gratitude expressed by all classes in London.” Ref.: James Emerson Tennent to GP, March 27, 1862, Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass.

Peabody Homes. 38-Tennent to GP on Warm Reception Cont’d. “As yet we only know the effect in the Metropolis but the country papers will be coming in, & I expect they will attest the astonishment of the people of England at the magnificence of your generosity.” Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody Homes. 39-“Magnitude of your Gift.” After spending March 27, 1862, with the Commissioners of Charities arranging for their legal acceptance of the gift, Tennent wrote GP: “I have returned after spending a very long time with the Commissioners of Charities who enter with the most lively interest into the arrangements for our trust. They tell me that in the whole range of charities of England there is nothing to compare with the disinterestedness and magnitude of your gift.” Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody Homes. 40-Praise from J.P. Kennedy. Newspaper readers wanted to know who GP was. The only good biographical account was in Hunt’s Merchants’ Magazine, April 1857, which the London Examiner used as its source. Baltimorean John Pendleton Kennedy, with whom GP first mentioned his intended gift to London (Feb. 7, 1857), wrote GP: “It is pleasant to forget [Civil War] difficulties in the contemplation of the noble work you have projected in London.” Ref.: John Pendleton Kennedy, Baltimore, to GP, April 21, 1862, Peabody Papers, PEM, Salem, Mass.

Peabody Homes. 41-Future Honors. GP’s gift to London brought unusual honors: Freedom of the City of London, his name inscribed in London’s Roll of Fame, honorary membership in two ancient guild companies (Clothworkers’ Co. and Fishmongers’ Co.), an Oxford Univ. honorary degree, letters from Queen Victoria, her offer of a title, and, when he declined, the gift of a priceless miniature portrait of the Queen, and a GP statue near the Royal Exchange in London erected while he lived and paid for by popular subscription. See: Honors, GP’s.

Peabody Homes. 42-“so much excitement.” GP rested in Bath, England, late March and early April 1862. His friend and sometime agent Horatio Gates Somerby (1805-72), a Vt.-born London resident genealogist, sent him London newspaper clippings. GP answered Somerby with: “I had not the least conception that it would cause so much excitement over the country.” GP was 67, in ill health, with seven years to live. Ref.: GP, York Hotel, Bath, England, to Horatio Gates Somerby, n.d., but late March or early April, 1862, Somerby Papers, Mass. Historical Society. For a journalist’s May 25, 1867, description of the Peabody homes in Islington, a London slum borough, with sources, see Forney, John Wien.

Favorable Press Reports

Peabody Homes. 43-Press: London Times, March 26, 1862: “We announce today an unusual act of beneficence. Mr. George Peabody has placed £150,000 in the hands of a committee to relieve the condition of the poor of London. It is seldom that good works are done on such a scale as this one by an American in a city where he is only a sojourner. Many have bequeathed fortunes to charity posthumously, leaving behind what cannot be taken to the grave. But this man gives while he lives to those who can make no return. “He gives a fortune so that one part of this vast, ill-built, ill-kept city, which the rich never see, will be more comfortable and respectable for the poor. He does this in a country not his own, in a city he may leave any day for his native land. Such an act is rare in the annals of benevolence.” Ref.: (Editorials on the 1862 Peabody Donation Fund): Peabody Donation.

Peabody Homes. 44-Press: London Daily News, March 27, 1862: “An American Gentleman whom an accident of commercial speculation brought to the Old World, has by thrift and enterprise realized a fortune. On the eve of retirement, while preparing to return to his own homeland, he looks at the city where he has lived so long and desires to give a portion of his wealth to the poor. The distinctions of birth and breeding are nothing to a man casting up his account with the world. This is a noble protest against international ill-will. A Thousand pens dipped in anger will not efface this generous deed.” Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody Homes. 45-Press: London Daily Telegraph, March 27, 1862: “The noble gift of Mr. Peabody actually takes away the public breath…and sends a thrill through the public heart. Had this been a legacy it would have been welcomed; instead, a man gives his fortune during his lifetime for an object going back to a resolution he had held more than a quarter of a century…to elevate the poor. Party strife and national bickering have not changed this good American; wars and rumours of wars have not turned him…from his…purpose.” Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody Homes. 46-Press: London Morning Post, March 28, 1862: “We English are prone to doubt that the New American spirit can bring forth valuable fruit in any area. Now an American living among us has done a great act in advancing our social welfare. His only condition in this gift is the protection of civil and religious tolerance. In recommending…dwellings for the poor, Mr. Peabody has…gracefully…paid…tribute to the memory of the Prince Consort, who had this cause so much at heart. The gift is in some measure, an Albert memorial…which no contemporary Englishman has surpassed, or…equaled.” Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody Homes. 47-Press: London Morning Herald, March 27, 1862: “One of the merchant princes of the world has just presented [London] with a gift for which thousands will bless his name. The widow, the orphan, and the poor, for ages to come…will hallow the name of George Peabody…who, in his lifetime, gave for the outcast and the destitute.” The article concluded: “When the grave is closed over him a man parts with his money by necessity…. Not so this merchant ‘stranger’…in our land. Whilst his countrymen are warring…with each other, this generous American is working out…good-will among his adopted people.” Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody Homes. 48-Press: London Standard, March 27, 1862: “The spirit of Mr. Peabody’s letter donating £150,000 to the poor of London parallels the greatness of Benjamin Franklin.” London Sun, March 27: “One express condition of the benefaction is a noble example to the present generation and a rebuke of much done by the past. How can England ever go to war with a nation whose leading man among us thus sympathizes with and blesses her poor? Who of us will not set the deed of Mr. Peabody…against that of Captain Wilkes….? Let the noble act of one American, who knows us by five-and-twenty years’ experience, atone for the foolish ravings of scores of American journalists who never set foot on English soil.” Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody Homes. 49-Press: London Morning Advertiser, March 28, 1862: “Mr. Peabody has set all the wealthy men in the land an example of the most commendable kind. And our hope is that they will follow it. To one and all we say with words that Mr. Peabody says in acts,–‘Go and do likewise.'” London’s Saturday Review, March 29, 1862: “Mr. George Peabody’s gift was too noble to have political meaning. Yet such is its effect. It does much good for the Northern cause in public sentiment here. The remarkable thing is that it is a gift of a stranger. Equally remarkable is that the gift is a sacrifice given in his lifetime. We cannot at this moment recall an exact precedent for liberality such as Mr. Peabody’s.” Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody Homes. 50-Press: London Review, March 29, 1862: “From America of late has come war, desolation, and animosity. The close ties of…friendships that linked Englishmen and Americans…seemed dissolved…. In the midst of this comes Mr. Peabody’s gift to discard prejudices on both sides of the Atlantic. We have had a desperate family quarrel, and almost come to blows; Mr. Peabody…by a well-timed act…awakens…better sentiments.” London John Bull, March 29, 1862: “It is for the trustees appointed by Mr. Peabody to see that his generosity is not abused, or the value of his gift diminished by careless administration.” Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody Homes. 51-Press: Illustrated London News, April 5, 1862: “Mr. Peabody’s career has another aspect…. The Anglo-American merchant, though no professional politician [acted] as a link between the English and American people. His Fourth of July dinners [brought together] American…and English gentlemen…. These dinners were discontinued when there was a body of American residents who were ready to take the good work out of Mr. Peabody’s hands. New Orleans has had her [John] McDonogh [1779-1850], Philadelphia her Stephen Girard [1750-1831], Boston her John Lowell [1799-1836] and Abbott Lawrence [1792-1855], Oswego her Gerrit Smith [1797-1874], New York her John Jacob Astor [1763-1848] and William B. Astor [1792-1875] and her Peter Cooper [1791-1883], and Baltimore her George Peabody. While they will be remembered by the United States, he earns the gratitude and remembrance of his own and this country.” Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody Homes. 52-Press: London Press, March 29, 1862: “[Mr. Peabody] will henceforth be justly ranked among the great private benefactors not only of this city but of mankind. Here is the frank and honest gift of an honorable man, who has become wealthy by honest means, and in his lifetime gives up a part of that wealth, in the hope to do good at once.” Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody Homes. 53-Press: London Medical Times and Gazette, March 29, 1862: “On behalf of that part of the English community, which is engaged in the practice of medicine, we offer our thanks to Mr. Peabody for his munificent gift to the poor of London. He does not squander his wealth on doles and almsgiving which relieve but do not cure. On the contrary, he aims at prevention…. Mr. Peabody gives schools and libraries to his own countrymen. To our poor he offers what is one of the necessities of civilized existence–the decent home–without which schools are useless.” Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody Homes. 54-Press: Manchester Examiner and Times, March 27, 1862: “This generosity is not the result of a fitful impulse, but the carrying out of a design,…the fulfillment of a vow, which dates from the beginning of his business career. Like knights of old, when chivalry was in flower, he promised that if God should increase his wealth, he would tithe it for the good of his poorer brethren. Guarding well the spiritual side of his philanthropy…he has made it in its early aspects a matter of pure business. He planned this gift for years, spoke of it to his friends, sought their advice and suggestions…. There is a moral bravery about this, which is admirable because it is so rare. There are moments in the lives of most men when they are capable of doing the grandest things.” Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody Homes. 55-Press: Leeds Mercury, March 27, 1862: “America is a wonderful country, and the Americans are a wonderful people…. An American citizen has now come forward to excite the wonder and admiration of the world.” Liverpool, England. Liverpool Mail, March 29, 1862: “Mr. George Peabody has been his own embalmer. His name will live, and his memory be fragrant, throughout all time. His example…will…tend to propagate and reproduce itself.” Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody Homes. 56-Press: New York Albion (The organ of the English public in New York), April 12, 1862: “With a sense of infinite relief, we turn from…blood and strife, and international bickering, and comparisons between Monitors and Warriors…to an act so munificent in itself and so gracious in the doing, that we lack words…to offer an acknowledgment. It has been rumored that George Peabody was about to close his business career in London with a large gift to that city. This rumor has now become fact and has been widely acknowledged by the public and press.” Ref.: Ibid. For a May 1867 journalist interview with GP about the Peabody Homes of London and a journalist’s description of Peabody homes in Peabody Square, Islington (200 families with 650 residents), See: Forney, John Wien.

Royal Albert Hall Box for Trustees

Peabody Homes. 57-Royal Albert Hall Box for Trustees. On or before Feb. 23, 1866, GP bought for ƒ1,000 ($5,000) in perpetuity for the trustees’ use the 10-seat Box No. 19 at the Royal Albert Hall of Arts and Sciences, then being built. His Feb. 23, 1866, letter read: “To the Right Honorable Lord Stanley, Chairman, and the other Trustees of the Peabody Donation Fund,–London Feby. 23d 1866. My Lord & Gentlemen, I beg to acquaint you that I have purchased for the Trustees of the Peabody Donation Fund a box on the first tier of the Central Hall of Arts and Sciences now about to be erected at South Kensington.– The box will contain seats for ten persons and the value is one thousand pounds.” Ref.: Copy of documents sent to authors by Christine Wagg, Central Administration, Peabody Trust, London, Aug. 25, 1998.

Peabody Homes. 58-Royal Albert Hall Box for Trustees Cont’d.: “It is my desire & intention that this box shall be the property of the Trustees in perpetuity and instructions to that effect have been entered by me on the face of the document by which I made application to become a purchaser.– “I desire now to place this box in your hands, and to request your acceptance of it as a testimonial and acknowledgment for the manner in which you have managed the trust you have undertaken and for the onerous duties which must hereafter devolve upon your successors.–“With great respect I have the honor to be Your humble Svt, George Peabody.” Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody Homes. 59-Royal Albert Hall Box for Trustees Cont’d. On Dec. 18, 1867, Royal Albert Hall Secty. Henry Scott wrote Peabody Donation Fund Trustee Sir James Emerson Tennent to confirm the trustees’ acceptance. Secty. Hall wrote: “No. XIX, one of the boxes included within the line which was marked by you on the Hall plan to indicate the position you desired to have allotted to Mr. Peabody’s Trustees, is now at your disposal. “I shall be much obliged if you will inform me as soon as possible whether you wish to have this box. “Mr. Peabody considers the matter in the hands of Lord Stanley and yourself. “The plan marked by you is enclosed. I have the honor to be Sir Your obedient Servant (signed) Henry Scott, Secretary.” Sir James Emerson Tennent accepted for the trustees. Secty. Henry Scott’s letter is marked: “Offer & Acceptance of Box 19 by Peabody Trustees. Royal Albert Hall. 19 Dec. 1867.” Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody Homes. 60-Royal Albert Hall Box for Trustees Cont’d. The final document is an official receipt which reads: “Royal Albert Hall of Arts and Sciences. No. 11. Certificate of ƒ1,000 Box. This is to Certify that the Trustees of the Peabody Donation Fund of 64 Queen Street, Cheapside, E.C., is the Proprietor of Box No. 19 in the Royal Albert Hall of Arts and Sciences, containing Ten Sittings, subject to the Regulations prescribed by the Royal Charter of Incorporation Dated 8th April 1867. Given under the Common Seal of the Corporation…. Examined & Entered [signed] James Richards Accountant.” The Peabody Trust, London, which builds and manages the Peabody apartments, still owns the Albert Hall box. Its governors and senior managers use it to entertain guests and business people at concerts and other events. When the box is not needed for hospitality purposes, it is used by Peabody Trust staff. Ref.: Ibid.

Centenary Celebration, 1862-1962

Peabody Homes. 61-Centenary Celebration, 1862-1962. The centenary celebration of the GP Donation Fund (1862-1962) was held on July 11, 1962. Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother (1900-2002), unveiled a plaque at the Peabody Estate in Blackfriars, London (built in 1871). Tribute was paid to GP by Earl Jellicoe (George Patrick John Rushworth Jellicoe [1918-], second Earl of Jellicoe), then Joint Parliamentary Secty., Ministry of Housing. Earl Jellicoe said: “Few men have brought to the disbursement of a great fortune such imagination–such a sense of creative purpose–as did George Peabody…. We are celebrating the Centenary of one of the most striking and successful products of his wisdom and generosity, and because I believe that the wider movement which he ignited has a great role to play in the future–it is for these reasons that it is a very real pleasure for me to ask you to rise and to drink the toast of ‘The Founder and the Fund.'” Ref.: Peabody Donation Fund-b. Parker, F-t, p. 128. Parker, F-zh, p. 128.

GP’s 200th Birthday Celebration, Feb. 18, 1995

Peabody Homes. 62-GP’s 200th Birthday (Feb. 18, 1995), London. The Peabody Trust played a key role in ceremonies in London marking the bicentennial of GP’s birth. On Nov. 16, 1995, Westminster Abbey, where GP’s remains rested for 30 days, Nov. 12-Dec. 11, 1869, held a “Bicentenary Service of Thanksgiving for the Life and Work of George Peabody, 1795-1869.” The service began when the Dean and Chapter of Westminster, The Rev. Michael Mayne, received the Lord Mayor of Westminster. Participants who read parts of the service included 1-George Johnstone, a Peabody Homes of London tenant; 2-Adm. William J. Crowe, Jr., the U.S. Ambassador to the Court of St. James; and 3-Sir William Benyon, Peabody Trust chairman. See: George Peabody Bicentennial Celebrations.

Peabody Homes. 63-GP’s 200th Birthday (Feb. 18, 1995), London Cont’d. The Rev. Ronald Bowlby, prominent in the British movement to improve low-income housing, gave the main address. Other participants in the Abbey ceremony were 4-Johnny Moss of the J.P. Morgan banking firm, and 6-Lord Catto of the Deutsche Morgan Grenfell Group banking firm. Some 1,400 people attended the Westminster Abbey celebration, 1,200 of them from the 27,000 low income Londoners then living in Peabody apartments in London. Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody Homes. 64-GP’s 200th Birthday (Feb. 18, 1995), U.S. At 1-Yale Univ., GP’s bicentennial event sponsored by the Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale consisted of a display of GP photos and letters showing his influence, especially on the scientific career of GP’s nephew Othniel Charles Marsh (1831-99), whose scientific education, paid for by GP, enabled Marsh to become the first U.S. professor of paleontology at Yale, second such professor in the world, and to influence his uncle’s founding of three museums of science: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard Univ. (Oct. 8, 1866), Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale Univ. (Oct. 22, 1866, $150,000 each to Harvard and Yale), and the Peabody Academy of Science (Feb. 26, 1867, $140,000), renamed Peabody Museum of Salem, 1915-92, and the Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Mass., since 1992, Salem, Mass. Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody Homes. 65-GP’s 200th Birthday (Feb. 18, 1995), U.S. Cont’d. In 2-Nashville, Tenn., the GP bicentennial was celebrated on March 25, 1995, as “A Day of Service.” PCofVU students, faculty and friends cleaned, painted, and refurbished the Edgehill community area near the Peabody campus. In 3-Peabody, Mass., the Peabody Historical Society held a bicentennial dinner and reception, Sept. 30, 1995. PCofVU Dean James Pellegrino spoke on the history of Peabody College of Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville.

Peabody Homes. 66-GP’s 200th Birthday (Feb. 18, 1995), U.S. Cont’d. In (4-Danvers, Mass., at the Peabody Institute Library, a lecture series included (4a-Franklin and Betty Parker’s dialogue on “Educational Philanthropist George Peabody (1795-1869) and Danvers, Mass,” March 23, 1995; (4b-Gordon Sykes, Canadian glassware collector, on “GP Commemorative Glassware” (manufactured in Sunderland, England, and sold in Dec. 1869, after his much publicized death and funeral), on May 18, 1995; and (4c-James William Pellegrino, PCofVU dean, on Peabody College’s work and influence, on Sept. 30, 1995. A traveling George Peabody Bicentennial Exhibition was also shown in London, Baltimore, and in Peabody and Danvers, Mass. Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody Homes. 67-Status, March 31, 1999. The Peabody Trust Group, London, GP’s most successful philanthropy, on March 31, 2006 owned or managed over 20,000 affordable homes in London housing over 50,000 low income Londoners (about 59% white, 32% black, and 9% others). These include, besides Peabody Trust Group-built estates, other London public housing units whose authorities deliberately chose to come under the Peabody Trust Group because of its efficient management, facilities, playgrounds for the young, recreation for the elderly, computer centers, job training, and job placement for its working adults. Ref.: Peabody Trust Group, London-c, annual report, 2006 (and later reports). Ref. g. Internet. “Peabody Buildings,” URL: http://www.vauxhallsociety.org.uk/Peabody.html

Peabody Homes. 68-Peabody Trust Chief Executives. The Peabody Trust chief executives have been: 1-H.G. Somerby during 1862-72, 2-J. Crouch during 1872-1901, 3-F.B. Crouch during 1901-09, 4-Viscount Dunluce (Earl of Antrim from 1918) during 1909-32, 5-Nigel Bond during 1920-45 (held jointly with the Earl of Antrim during 1920-32), 6-James MacNabb during 1945-62, 7-Martin Bond during 1963-77, 8-Thomas Hearn during 1977-86, 9-George Barlow during 1987-1999, and 10-Richard McCarthy, from June 1999. Ref.: (Names and dates of Peabody Trust Chief Executives): from Howard Doe, Secty. to the Peabody Trust, London, to the authors, March 11, 1997.

Peabody Hotel, Memphis, Tenn.

Peabody Hotel, Memphis, Tenn. 1-Founded 1869. Robert Charles Brinkley (1816-78), met and admired GP on a trip to Europe, probably when GP left NYC for England on the Scotia, May 1, 1867). That year he built a hotel on Main and Monroe, near music-famous Beale St., Memphis, Tenn. His admiration for and the vast publicity accompanying GP’s death in London (Nov. 4, 1869) and unprecedented 96-day transatlantic funeral voyage induced Brinkley to name his new hotel “The Peabody.” In late 1869 he gave “The Peabody” as a wedding gift to his daughter, Annie Overton Brinkley (1845-1923), when she married Robert Bogardus Snowden (d. 1923). See: Persons named.

Peabody Hotel, Memphis, Tenn. 2-Famous Guests. “The Peabody” soon became the hotel in Memphis to visit, to stay in, and to be seen in. It hosted such famous guests as Presidents Andrew Johnson (1808-75), William McKinley (1843-1901), and Confederate Generals Robert E. Lee (1807-70), Nathan Bedford Forrest (1821-77), and Jubal Early (1816-94). Ref.: “The Peabody, Memphis: A History,” on Internet Online Infoseek (seen April 10, 1999). Internet [Peabody Hotel, Memphis, Tenn.]. Wilkening, David). Ref.: Semmer, p. 726.

Peabody Hotel, Memphis, Tenn. 3-“Peabody Duck March.” Managed by the Snowden heirs, The Peabody closed in 1923 and was replaced in 1925 by a new $5 million Peabody Hotel on Union Ave., owned by Memphis Hotel Co., controlled by R. Brinkley Snowden, great grandson of the original owner. In 1932 when Peabody Hotel manager Frank Schutt returned from duck hunting in Arkansas, he put some live ducks in the hotel fountain to attract attention. In 1940 former circus animal trainer Bellman Edward Pembroke trained the ducks to waddle in step from the elevator to the lobby fountain. This famous daily “Peabody Duck March” has continued ever since. The Peabody Hotel, refurbished in 1980, remains a Memphis landmark. Ref.: Ibid.

Peabody Hotel, Memphis, Tenn. 4-Other Peabody Hotels. The Peabody Hotel Group (founded 1960) includes, besides the Peabody Hotel, Memphis, the Peabody Hotel, Orlando, Fla., with the Peabody Hotel, Little Rock, Ark.; and the Peabody Hotel in Tempe, Ariz., under development/renovation as of Sept. 15, 1999. Ref.: Internet (seen Nov. 14, 1999): Hospitality Online Profile, Peabody Hotel Group.

PIB Overview

Peabody Institute of Baltimore. 1-Overview. Coverage below begins with a-GP’s contacts with Baltimore friends during 1854-57 about his intended PIB gift. b-GP’s Feb. 12, 1857, founding letter. c-Management discord between the PIB trustees and the Md. Historical Society trustees, aggravated by Civil War differences, and resolution of this discord before the PIB’s dedication and opening, Oct. 25-26, 1866. d-The PIB Reference Library from its first director and librarian (1860) to merger with Enoch Pratt Free Library (July 2, 1966 to July 1, 1982). e-PIB Reference Library as part of Johns Hopkins Univ. Library since July 1, 1982. f-PIB Academy of Music, later Conservatory of Music, from 1866 to merger as part of Johns Hopkins Univ. since July 1, 1982. g-PIB Gallery of Art which functioned during 1873-mid-1930s.

PIB. 2-GP’s 22 Baltimore Years. GP lived in and worked out of Baltimore during 1815-37, aged 20-42, 22 of his 74 years. He had many business and personal friends in Baltimore. He early told intimates and about 1850 said publicly that he would found an educational or other useful institution in every town and city where he had lived and worked. His first such gift came when, invited to attend but busy in London, he sent instead a letter, check, and sentiment to be read aloud at the June 16, 1852, centennial celebration of Danvers, marking its hundredth year of separation from Salem, Mass. That letter and check founded his Peabody Institute Library in Danvers, Mass. (renamed Peabody, Mass., on April 13, 1868), total gift $217,000 (1852-69). With his founding letter and check he enclosed this sentiment: “Education–a debt due from present to future generations.” See: Danvers, Mass., Centennial Celebration, June 16, 1852.

PIB Origin

PIB. 3-Educational Institution in Baltimore. An educational gift for Baltimore was on his mind when, in 1854, he asked Baltimore friend Reverdy Johnson (1796-1876) visiting London to ask other Baltimore leaders to help him plan an educational institution in Baltimore. See: Eaton, Charles James Madison. Johnson, Reverdy. Kennedy, John Pendleton.

PIB. 4-J.P. Kennedy. In Baltimore, Reverdy Johnson shared with John Pendleton Kennedy (1795-1870) GP’s request that he (Reverdy Johnson), John Pendleton Kennedy, and William Edward Mayhew help draft a plan for an educational institution. Kennedy, chief planner of the proposed PIB, recorded in his journal (Dec. 8, 1854): “This morning Reverdy Johnson called. He has just returned from London. He wanted to tell me of George Peabody’s request in a matter of some importance. Mr. Peabody desires to found some great charitable establishment for the benefit of the City of Baltimore.” Ref.: Kennedy’s Journal, VII (July 1, 1854-July 31, 1855), entry Dec. 8, 1854, pp. 197-199 ff, Kennedy Papers, PIB.

PIB. 5-J.P. Kennedy Cont’d.: “Thinks a school or a large and useful foundation may be the best. He wishes Reverdy Johnson and myself and Mr. Mayhew to digest some plan to which he says he will contribute $100,000 or $150,000 if necessary, and will afterwards bequeath some three or four hundred thousand more. He wants an advertisement to be made for a plan of organization and buildings, which will be published in the United States and in England. Johnson wants me to prepare something to be sent out to Mr. P. by the next steamer. I promise to do it.” Ref.: Ibid.

PIB. 6-J.P. Kennedy Cont’d. (journal, Dec. 19, 1854): “I saw Mayhew yesterday and he showed me Peabody’s letter from London, which requests him (Mayhew) together with Reverdy Johnson and myself to devise a plan for a large beneficent establishment for the City of Baltimore, which Mr. Peabody is anxious to institute–and to communicate with him on the subject. I tell Mayhew I will endeavor to plan something on a munificent scale which may serve to educate a large number of students in the most useful arts & sciences.” Ref.: Ibid.

PIB. 7-J.P. Kennedy in London 1856. J.P. Kennedy visited London and attended GP’s June 13, 1856, dinner to honor incoming U.S. Minister to Britain George Mifflin Dallas (1772-1864), who succeeded departing minister James Buchanan (1791-1868). Kennedy and GP likely spoke of PIB plans but Kennedy’s June 13, 1856, journal entry does not mention it: “A great banquet given by Mr. P., with tickets to the Concert there at 3…. We got to dinner about 7. We number nearly 130.…” See: Crimean War. Dinners, GP’s, London.

PIB. 8-J.P. Kennedy in London 1856 Cont’d. Kennedy’s later journal entries read: “June 17. Visit Peabody etc.,–see the papers [GP’s office received major U.S. newspapers and journals for U.S. visitors’ use]. June 19. Peabody takes us to the Royal Opera house. July 19. Then to Old Broad and see Peabody who lectures me for not having come to his Fourth of July dinner.” GP was then planning a U.S. visit, Sept. 15, 1856, to Aug. 19, 1857 (11 months). It was during this U.S. visit, his first in nearly 20 years (1837-56), that GP presented to his Baltimore trustees his Feb. 12, 1857, letter founding the PIB. Ref.: Ibid.

J.P. Kennedy’s PIB Plan

PIB. 9-Kennedy’s PIB Plan. GP’s Feb. 12, 1857, letter founding the PIB was drafted by John Pendleton Kennedy, with whom GP had served in the War of 1812. Born in Baltimore, Kennedy was a many-talented novelist, statesman, and U.S. Navy Secty. (in 1852-53; he sent Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry [1794-1858] to open trade with Japan). It was Kennedy’s plan, based partly on the British Museum in London, and GP’s total gift of $1.4 million, which created the five-part PIB: a-a specialized reference library; b-lecture hall, lecture series, and speakers’ fund; c-academy of music, d-gallery of art; e-and prizes for best Baltimore public school scholars–all administered jointly by trustees of the PIB and the Md. Historical Society, with the latter housed in the PIB building. See: Kennedy, John Pendleton. Md. Historical Society.

PIB. 10-Baltimore in 1857. In 1857, Baltimore, with a population of over 200,000 people, was a thriving port city and a commercial, industrial, and shipbuilding center, but without cultural distinction. It had a little used Mercantile Library and a struggling members-only Library Company of Maryland founded in 1797 (Md. Historical Society-sponsored, some of whose books were later transferred to the PIB Library). Compared with culturally superior NYC, Boston, and Philadelphia, Baltimore seemed a cultural wasteland. It was the only major U.S. city without a noteworthy univ. or art gallery or music school or public library. Now, GP’s PIB held high promise for a cultural awakening. Ref.: Ibid.

PIB Delay & Discord

PIB. 11-Opening Delayed Nine Years. Nine years passed between GP’s Feb. 12, 1857, founding letter and the PIB dedication and opening on Oct. 25-26, 1866. The delay was caused by a-the Panic of 1857 and the economic recession that followed; b-jurisdictional disputes between the PIB trustees and the Md. Historical Society trustees over building site, cost and which set of trustees had decision making authority; and c-Civil War differences (Md. was a divided border state), which aggravated earlier differences and put the two sets of trustees into hostile camps. The clash came when the PIB trustees asked (by letter, Feb. 12, 1866) for the Md. Historical Society trustees to relinquish the role assigned them in GP’s founding letter. When the Md. Historical Society trustees refused and initiated legal action, the split seemed irreconcilable. Ref.: Ibid. See: Eaton, Charles James Madison.

PIB. 12-Discord. GP in London had reports of but could do little about Md. Historical Society trustees-PIB trustees jurisdictional disputes. In reviewing the correspondence, he saw that the Md. Historical Society was in the right, that it would win a legal decision, and that he had to act to soften this dispute. Md. was rife with Civil War differences which aggravated disputes about the Mount Vernon Place PIB building site and cost. PIB planner John Pendleton Kennedy expressed the dilemma in his journal: “I am myself responsible for Mr. Peabody’s committing the Institute to the Society but this was done at a time when the Society nobly showed some appreciation of its object….” Kennedy helped draft GP’s May 8, 1866, letter to the Md. Historical Society, acknowledging their moral and legal right, and admitting the wrong done by the PIB trustees. Ref.: Ibid.

PIB Opening, Oct. 25, 1866

PIB. 13-Reconciliation. GP was at the PIB building dedication, Oct. 25-26, 1866, during his May 1, 1866 to May 1, 1867, U.S. visit. One purpose of his 1866-67 U.S. visit, GP told Md. Historical Society members, was to see the PIB dedicated. Its opening, he told them, depended on the Society’s forbearance and good will. His presence helped to reconcile serious divisions. He asked both sets of trustees: “May not this Institute be a common ground, where all may meet, burying former differences and animosities?” Blaming himself for jurisdictional disputes between PIB trustees and Md. Historical Society trustees, GP humbly asked Society members as a personal favor to him to withdraw from the original agreement. Ref.: Ibid.

PIB. 14-Reconciliation Cont’d. GP’s character cut through painful animosity built up over nine years and eight months. Moved by his plea, Md. Historical Society members on May 24, 1866, relinquished the PIB role GP had originally assigned them. Harmony returned. GP waited until Nov. 5, 1866, to thank Md. Historical Society members personally and asked for the privilege of contributing $20,000 to their publications fund. Ref.: Ibid.

PIB. 15-PIB Opening, Oct. 25, 1867. The PIB building was designed in a grand new Renaissance style by Edmund George Lind (1828-1909), young British-born architect practicing in Baltimore. Johns Hopkins Univ. art historian Phoebe Baroody Stanton (b.1914) recorded that architect E.G. Lind modeled the PIB library exterior and interior after London’s exclusive Reform Club to reflect scholarly contemplation amid classical grandeur. The PIB building opened Oct. 25, 1866, in fashionable Mount Vernon Place, near the Washington Monument. It was the Washington Monument in Baltimore, designed by architect Robert Mills (1781-1855) in 1815, that helped give Baltimore the title “The Monumental City.” The same Robert Mills also designed the Washington Monument in Washington, D.C. (1833). Ref.: Ibid.

PIB. 16-Overview 1866-Present. PIB librarians were hired, a remarkable reference library of books was carefully purchased, instruction in the Academy of Music began in 1868 (“Conservatory” of Music after 1874), and a Peabody Gallery of Art was started in 1873. For over 90 years (1866-early 1960s) the PIB was a largely self-contained cultural boon to Baltimore and the nation. As will be shown, when financial difficulties in the early 1960s overtook the PIB Reference Library, it was aided by amalgamation with the Enoch Pratt Free Library for 16 years (July 2, 1966 to June 1, 1982) and in 1982 became part of the Johns Hopkins Univ. library system. Although the PIB remains a physical whole, its parts–the Research Library (from 1860), Academy (later Conservatory) of Music, and Gallery of Art (1873-mid 1930s)–are each described in the order of their opening: library, music, and art. Ref.: Bohner, pp. 214-215, 234, 235, 238, 239.

PIB. 17-GP’s Influence Through the PIB. The Minutes of the PIB Board of Trustees, 1857-1976, II. A, states that:
[PIB’s treasurer] Enoch Pratt…founded the Enoch Pratt Free Library; [PIB trustees] William and Henry Walters…formed the Walters Art Gallery; [GP] persuaded Johns Hopkins to found The Johns Hopkins University [and hospital and medical school]; and several [PIB] trustees were instrumental in creating the Baltimore Museum of Art; and Director Harold Randolph and members of the Peabody [Conservatory of Music] faculty formed the Baltimore Symphony Orchestra.” Ref.: URL: http://www.peabody.jhu.edu/archives/api/guide/E.txt. See:: persons named.

PIB Library Directors

PIB Reference Library. 1-John Gottlieb Morris, First PIB Director & Librarian. The PIB Reference Library activities began (1860) before the PIB Academy (later Conservatory) of Music offered instruction (1868). In 1860 the PIB was inactive, its building not finished, its books not yet bought. To begin this work, the trustees chose (June l, 1860) John G. Morris (1803-95) from four candidates as first PIB director and librarian. He began work on Aug. l, 1860. John Gottlieb Morris was pastor of Baltimore’s First English Lutheran Church (1827-60) and a scholar in several fields. GP had listed John Gottlieb Morris along with others to fill vacancies as they occurred among the trustees. He became a trustee in 1858. Ref.: (John G. Morris): Genzmer, VII, pp. 212-213. “Morris, John Godlove-a,” III, p. 6l. Morris-b. See: PIB (above) for overview.

PIB Ref. Library. 2-John Gottlieb Morris, First PIB Director & Librarian Cont’d. John G. Morris corresponded with European and U.S. book dealers, went to Boston and NYC to purchase books and to study libraries and their management, compiled and printed a first want list of 50,000 books in 1861, and printed a second want list in 1863. While the Civil War delayed construction of the PIB building, Morris, aided by library committees, located and bought over 50,000 of the world’s best reference and research books, which overflowed the PIB Library’s temporary quarters. When his contracted period as librarian ended (1860-67), he returned to the pastorate at Baltimore’s Third Lutheran Church and spoke and wrote on religious and scientific subjects. Ref.: Ibid.

PIB Ref. Library. 3-Nathaniel Holmes Morison-First Provost, 2nd Librarian. Nathaniel Holmes Morison (1815-90) was the first PIB provost and second librarian during 1867-90 (23 years) Born in Petersborough, N.H., Morison worked his way through both Phillips Exeter Academy, N.H., and Harvard College (1839). He came to Baltimore to teach at a private day school for girls (1839-41), established his own Morison School for Girls in Baltimore (1841-67), and then became PIB provost. Provost N.H. Morison was described by his descendant Harvard historian Samuel Eliot Morison (1887-1976) at the PIB’s centennial (1957) as Baltimore’s most outstanding intellectual until around 1880, when the Johns Hopkins Univ. and its Pres. Daniel Coit Gilman (1831-1908) began to overshadow the PIB and its Provost N. H. Morison. Ref.: Morison, S.E. “Morison, Nathaniel Holmes-a,” pp. 323-324. [Morison, Nathaniel Holmes]-c.

PIB Ref. Library. 4-PIB Lecture Series. The PIB Lecture Series began before Provost Morison’s appointment in 1867 with a talk in 1866 by the Smithsonian Institution’s first director, Joseph Henry (1797-1878). The outstanding arts, sciences, and literature lecturers Provost Morison secured and often introduced himself included poet James Russell Lowell (1819-91), who lectured in 1871-72 on Edmund Spenser (1552-99) and John Milton (1608-74); and Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-82), who lectured in 1872, with poet Walt Whitman (1819-92) and naturalist John Burroughs (1837-1921) in the audience. Emerson’s well attended four 1872 PIB lectures were on: a-“Imagination and Poetry,” Jan. 2; b-“Resources and Inspiration,” Jan. 4; c-“Homes and Hospitality,” Jan. 9; and d-“Art and Nature,” Jan. 11. Ref.: Ibid. See: persons named.

PIB Ref. Library. 5-PIB Lecture Series Cont’d. Noting poor attendance at other Institute lectures when there was no entry fee, Provost Morison made a modest charge, which improved attendance. When attendance dropped the Lecture Series was suspended (1899-1906). Lectures were restored in 1907 when U.S. Naval Commander Robert Edwin Peary (1856-1920) spoke on his North Pole explorations. Lectures were discontinued (1915-69) and were revived in 1969 under PIB President (and PIB Conservatory of Music Director) Richard Franko Goldman (1910-80). Ref.: Ibid. See: persons named.

PIB Architect Edmund George Lind

PIB Ref. Library. 6-Architect Edmund George Lind. The need for space in 1875 led to a spectacular new PIB library building on the east side of the original structure, also designed by Baltimore architect Edmund George Lind. The new building, opened on Sept. 30, 1878, was so expertly joined to the old that the two appear as one structure. So spectacular was the new PIB Library building that it drew visitors and scholarly users from around the world. Visitors were struck by the six tiers of book stacks which soared 56 feet to a skylight ceiling The book stacks were supported by pillars and cast iron gilt-covered railings. The impressive interior of five decorated balconies of books framed the large oblong interior reading room with study desks. Ref.: Ibid. See: Lind, Edmund George.

PIB Ref. Library. 7-“Cathedral of Books.” The PIB Library was early called a “Cathedral of Books.” Architects, scholars, and general visitors are still struck by the library’s architecture, unique collection, and extensive book catalogs. Library school students and others came to inspect the collection, observe library operations, and view the spectacular interior. They came from the N.Y. State Library, Columbia Univ. Library School, Drexel Institute (Philadelphia) Library School and elsewhere. Chicago’s Newberry Library is said to be modeled in part on the PIB Library. The building’s classical exterior, striking interior, and unique collection made the PIB library building one of most noted research and reference libraries in the U.S. Ref.: Ibid.

PIB Ref. Library. 8-Morison’s Philosophy of Excellence. In an annual report Provost-Librarian N. H. Morison expressed the philosophy of excellence behind the PIB library as follows: “Education always proceeds from the above downward, from the best to the common minds, from the leaders of the people to the people themselves. Furnish…the foundations of intelligence and thought, and they will…stimulate and improve the whole community.” Ref.: Morison, S.E., p. 16. “Morison, N.H.-a,” pp. 323-324. [Morison, N.H.]-c.

PIB Ref. Library. 9-Philip Reese Uhler, Third Librarian. The third PIB librarian during 1890-1913 (23 years) was Philip Reese Uhler (1835-1913), who first assisted librarians John G. Morris and N.H. Morison. Philip Reese Uhler had been an entomologist at Harvard Univ. working for scientist Louis Agassiz (1807-73). Between 1890 and 1910 the PIB reference collection was exceeded in quality only by the Harvard Library and the Library of Congress. PIB library holdings in ancient history and literature surpassed even those of the Library of Congress. It was with some pride that PIB librarians filled interlibrary loan requests from the Library of Congress. Ref.: (Philip Reese Uhler): “Uhler-a,” pp. 576-577. “Uhler,-b,” VI, no page. “Uhler-c,” VIII, p. 251. “Uhler-d,” p. 1263. Howard, L.O., XIX, pp. 106-107.

PIB Ref. Library. 10-Philip Reese Uhler, Third Librarian Cont’d. Book catalogs, used before card catalogs were common, were important bibliographic tools. Using as models book catalogs of the NYC Astor Library and the British Museum Library, PIB librarians Morison, Uhler, and some assistants spent 14 years (1869-1882) completing the first five-volume Catalogue of the Library of the Peabody Institute of the City of Baltimore (Baltimore: Peabody Library, 1883-93), listing some 100,000 volumes by author, title, with many cross referenced content articles. A second catalog of eight volumes listing additional books appeared in 1905. Ref.: Peabody Institute Library, Baltimore. Catalogue….

PIB Ref. Library. 11-Enoch Pratt Free Library. The Enoch Pratt Free Library of Baltimore owes its founding (1882) in part to the PIB. The PIB reference library was non-circulating, used mainly by scholars, while still open to all. Its librarians and especially N.H. Morison saw the need for a tax-supported public circulating library. Baltimore merchant and financier Enoch Pratt was a PIB trustee and treasurer intimately involved in day by day PIB library activities. Encouraged by PIB provost N.H. Morison, Pratt endowed the Enoch Pratt Free [public] Library of Baltimore. Morison helped Pratt design the building and select the books. Baltimoreans eagerly welcomed the Enoch Pratt Free Library’s opening (1886), located near the PIB. The Enoch Pratt Free Library is one of the great U.S. public libraries. See: Pratt, Enoch.

PIB-Johns Hopkins Cooperation

PIB Ref. Library. 12-PIB-Johns Hopkins Cooperation. On Feb. 22, 1876, under Provost N.H. Morison (with Asger Hamerik conducting the Peabody Conservatory of Music Orchestra), the PIB hosted in its first music building Daniel C. Gilman’s (1831-1908) inauguration as first president of the Johns Hopkins Univ. As mentioned above, during GP’s 1866-67 U.S. visit B&O RR Pres. John Work Garrett (1820-84) brought GP and Johns Hopkins together for an after dinner talk on philanthropy. Johns Hopkins’ will, made 24 hours later, provided for the establishment of the Johns Hopkins Univ., Medical School, and Hospital. See: persons named.

PIB Ref. Library. 13-PIB-Johns Hopkins Cooperation Cont’d. In 1876 the Johns Hopkins Univ. opened as the first U.S. graduate university to promote original research and new knowledge. It was deliberately sited four blocks from the PIB so that faculty and students could use the PIB Library’s rich resources. Good relations continued after the Johns Hopkins Univ. moved in 1916 three miles north to its Homewood campus. The two institutions cooperated from the beginning, sharing library materials and sharing rather than duplicating expensive serial publications. As late as 1893 the Johns Hopkins Univ. library had only half PIB library volumes. Johns Hopkins scholars long used the closer PIB Library rather than the more distant Library of Congress, knowing that to about 1910 in some fields the PIB Library collection was superior. Ref. Morison, S.E., p. 20.

PIB Ref. Library. 14-Famous PIB Library Users. PIB Library users from the Johns Hopkins Univ. included historian Herbert Baxter Adams (1850-1901), a founder of modern U.S. historiography, and his students. Other famous users were southern poet and musician Sidney Lanier (1842-81); Baltimore Sun journalist H. L. Mencken (1880-1956; he wrote The American Language, 1919, at the PIB); Democratic presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan (1860-1925); Johns Hopkins professor and later U.S. President Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924; he wrote Congressional Government, 1901, at the PIB); and novelist John Roderigo Dos Passos (1896-1970; he wrote Three Men Who Made the Nation, 1957, at the PIB). Ref.: (on H.L. Mencken and John Dos Passos): Dorsey-b, ed., p. 54. Manchester, p. 292. Mencken, p. 422. Ludington, p. 456. See: persons named.

PIB Ref. Library. 15-John Parker & Louis Henry Dielman, Fourth & Fifth Librarians. Fourth PIB librarian was John Parker (1852-1927) during 1913-27 (14 years). He was followed by fifth librarian Louis Henry Dielman (1864-1959) during 1926-42, for 16 years. Dielman was better known because of his long career as librarian and historian. He was born in New Windsor, Md., then famous for its mineral springs, where his father managed the local Dielman Inn. Dielman was card cataloguer for the Md. State Library (1900-04); assistant librarian at the Enoch Pratt Free Library (1904-11); and first joined the PIB as one of its librarians in 1911. While still with the PIB, Dielman compiled biographical reference cards on some 100,000 prominent Marylanders for the Md. Historical Society. He was the second editor of the Maryland Historical Magazine (1910-38). He retired to New Windsor, Md., a much admired local historian whom the townspeople familiarly called “Mr. Lou.” Ref.: (below).

PIB Ref. Library. 16-Ref.: (Louis Henry Dielman): [Dielman, Louis Henry], Baltimore New-Post, May 30, 1942. “Dielman…,” p. 2. Robert G. Breen, “A Carroll Colloquy: College Left Its Cachet,” Sun (Baltimore), Feb. 8, 1952.

PIB Ref. Library. 17-Lloyd Arnold Brown, Sixth Librarian. The sixth PIB librarian was Lloyd Arnold Brown (1907-66) during 1942-56 (14 years). He came to the PIB Library from Ann Arbor, Mich., where he had been curator of maps at the Univ. of Michigan Library. After his PIB Library years he was director of the Chicago Historical Society (1956-58), and director of research for Historic Annapolis, Inc., working with maps and other historical records to restore the Annapolis waterfront area. Ref.: (Lloyd Arnold Brown): Peter Young, “Back to the Stacks: Lloyd Brown to Assemble Historical Annapolis Data,” Evening Sun (Baltimore), Nov. 30, 1960. “Kerr Gets Post in Annapolis,” Evening Sun (Baltimore), October 31, 1960. Naomi Kellman, “Mr. Peabody’s Pet Project,” Sun (Baltimore), Feb. 9, 1947.

PIB-Johns Hopkins Merger Talks

PIB Ref. Library. 18-L.A. Brown, Sixth Librarian Cont’d. PIB Librarian Brown found meeting budget needs from the income of GP’s original endowment ($1.4 million total) increasingly difficult. Library deficits became worrisome in the early 1950s. The library was less used than in its heyday. During 1949-52 the PIB library served an average of 15 researchers a day. Library hours were extended in 1952 from 9 a.m. to 9 p.m. on weekdays, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. Saturdays, and 2 p.m. to 5 p.m. Sundays (50 attended the first Sunday opening, July 14, 1952). Talks about possible merger between the PIB Library and the Enoch Pratt Free Library were reported in 1953, but nothing happened. Ref.: Ibid. Ref.: (Library concerns, 1947-52): “”Fifty Turn Out for First Sunday Open-Day at Peabody Library,” Sun (Baltimore), Jan. 14, 1952. James H. Bready, “Peabody Institute Library,” Sun (Baltimore), Jan. 6, 1952.

PIB Ref. Library. 19-Frank Nicholas Jones, Seventh Librarian. The PIB Library’s seventh librarian was Frank Nicholas Jones (b.1906) during 1956-66 (10 years). Jones was born in Reading, Penn., and had degrees from Harvard College and Columbia Univ. School of Library Service. He had been assistant librarian of the NYC Bar Association Library; librarian in Newburyport, Mass. (where GP had worked in his older brother David’s dry goods shop); was deputy supervisor of Boston Public Library Reference Division; served in the U.S. Army in Europe; was administrative assistant at Harvard College Library; and came to the PIB Library after being librarian at Ohio Univ. in Athens. The PIB’s centennial celebration (1857-1957) occurred during librarian Jones’s tenure as librarian. See: Jones, Frank Nicholas.

PIB Ref. Library. 20-Library Merger Talk. Library merger talk surfaced again during 1963-64 under librarian Jones, just as the reference section of the Johns Hopkins Univ.’s Milton S. Eisenhower Library was being enlarged. A Nov. 12, 1963, Sun article reported some Baltimoreans’ objections to the suggested transfer of the PIB Library collection from its PIB Library building to the Johns Hopkins Univ. Library. Such a move, some said, would be contrary to founder GP’s intent. Others accepted the idea to help solve the PIB Library’s financial troubles and to keep the reference collection intact, even if not in its original building. Although Johns Hopkins Univ. President Milton S. Eisenhower (U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower’s brother) urged the merger as mutually beneficial, it did not occur until 1982. The stumbling block was that the Johns Hopkins Univ. officials could not afford to maintain the PIB Library building as a library facility, as the PIB trustees insisted. Ref.: Ibid.

PIB Library & Enoch Pratt

PIB Ref. Library. 21-Part of Enoch Pratt Free Library. Failed 1963-64 PIB Library-Johns Hopkins Univ. merger talks gave way to informal discussions about Enoch Pratt Free Library affiliation. The suggestion was made in March 1966 that the Enoch Pratt Free Library administer the PIB Library, that most of the research collection be transferred to the Enoch Pratt, and that the PIB Library building, as the George Peabody Branch of the Enoch Pratt Free Library, become a center for genealogy, maps, and medieval studies. Objections to this proposal reverberated for several years. A legal suit brought against the PIB and the City of Baltimore to prevent transfer of the PIB Library collection to the Enoch Pratt was not settled until July 1970, when the Md. Court of Appeals ruled in favor of the proposed transfer. Ref.: (PIB Library-Enoch Pratt Free Library merger, 1966-82): Arthur Joseph Gutman [Letter], “Peabody Library,” Morning Sun (Baltimore), June 14, 1966.

PIB Ref. Library. 22-Part of Enoch Pratt Free Library Cont’d. What bothered Baltimore scholars about a PIB Library-Enoch Pratt merger was the proposal to sell some 100,000 PIB Library volumes, since the Enoch Pratt could not house them all, and use the money to restore the PIB Library building. A Johns Hopkins Univ. faculty resolution of Oct. 7, 1966, voiced “deep apprehension” about “the possible loss to this city of one of its richest scholarly and cultural resources.” The resolution stated that the 100,000 volumes to be sold (for about $1 million) were among the most valuable and irreplaceable in the PIB Library collection Ref.: Ibid. Gerald W. Johnson [Letter], “The Real Question About the Library,” Sun (Baltimore), April 22, 1966.

PIB Ref. Library. 23-Part of Enoch Pratt Free Library Cont’d. This proposed book sale did not materialize. But the PIB Library did become part of the Enoch Pratt Free Library, July 2, 1966, to July 1, 1982 (16 years), supported by the City of Baltimore. A June 23, 1966, Sun article described the PIB Library as “among the nation’s largest and finest scholarly libraries” but added that “dwindling income and exploding knowledge” had “caught up with [it].” Ref.: George Rodgers, “Some of Peabody Library Books Set for Disposal,” Evening Sun (Baltimore), June 23, 1966.

PIB Ref. Library. 24-Restoration, 1977. A successful fundraising campaign in the early 1970s helped clean and refurbish the main PIB Library reading room and provided air conditioning and better lighting. Restoration in early 1977 costing $27,000 removed a century of soot and revealed gold leaf rosettes on the five-tier library cast iron grillwork. The PIB Library collection in its original building was thus saved to serve as part of the Enoch Pratt and as a continued source of Baltimore’s cultural pride. Ref.: (below).

PIB Ref. Library. 25-Restoration, 1977 Cont’d. Ref.: Ibid. Ref.: Frank P. L. Somerville, “Peabody-Pratt Tie-Up Weighed,” Sun (Baltimore), Jan. 22, 1966. Frank P. L. Somerville, “Peabody’s Shift of Books Fought,” Sun (Baltimore), Oct. 1, 1966. Frank P. L. Somerville, “Pratt Board is Silent on Peabody Plan,” Sun (Baltimore), Jan. 22, 1966. Dorsey-a. McCrank, pp. 183-187. “Pratt Takes Over Peabody,” News American (Baltimore), July 3, 1966, p. 9B. “Soot Hides Treasures. Peabody Library Spruced Up,” Sun (Baltimore), Feb. 19, 1977.

PIB Library & Johns Hopkins Univ.

PIB Ref. Library. 26-Part of Johns Hopkins Univ. Library System. Late 1970s and early 1980s budget cuts forced the City of Baltimore to discontinue supporting the PIB Library as part of the Enoch Pratt Free Library. In the summer of 1982 trustees from the Enoch Pratt, the PIB, and the Johns Hopkins Univ. agreed to transfer administration of the PIB Library to the Johns Hopkins Univ. Library system. Ref.: Garland, pp. 46-51, 102-106. James H. Bready, “What’s Ahead for Peabody Library Now That Hopkins Owns It?” Sun (Baltimore), July 4, 1982. “The Peabody Library,” Sun (Baltimore), July 5, 1982

PIB Ref. Library. 27-Evelyn Hart Supervised Merger. After July 1, 1982, Enoch Pratt Librarian Evelyn (née Linthicum) Hart (1923-85) skillfully supervised the merger of the PIB Library’s 250,000 volumes and seven staff members into the Peabody Library department of the Milton S. Eisenhower Special Collections Division of the Johns Hopkins Univ. Born in Baltimore, Lynn Hart, as she was familiarly called, was a Goucher College graduate with a master’s degree in library science from Catholic Univ. of America. She worked at Enoch Pratt (1942-50) as school liaison librarian, was head circulation librarian at Goucher College (l950-58), returned to Enoch Pratt as head of book selection (1965-76), then headed the PIB Library of Enoch Pratt Free Library and administered the transfer of the Peabody Library to the Johns Hopkins Univ. library system. Ref.: “The Peabody Library Returns,” Peabody News (Aug./Sept.. 1982), p. 4. Gwyn, pp. 401-404.

PIB Ref. Library. 28-What Johns Hopkins Univ. Gained. For the Johns Hopkins Univ., the PIB Library was a valuable acquisition, since its holdings included such treasures as 55 incunabula (books published before 1500), 500 Bibles in 18 languages, a rare four-volume set of John James Audubon’s (1785-1851) Birds of America, and an extensive genealogical collection. (Most PIB Library genealogical records were transferred to the Maryland Historical Society). A proposal in 1989 to raise funds by selling ten sets of rare Peabody Library books, including Audubon’s Birds of America, raised a lament in a letter in the Sun that the collection “is a time capsule of 19th century intelligence whose integrity deserves respectful maintenance.” Ref.: (On selling PIB Library books in 1989): Gunther Wertheimer, “Disgrace at the Peabody,” Evening Sun (Baltimore), June 9, 1989.

PIB Ref. Library. 29-A Fitting Connection. Many thought it fitting that the PIB Library continue as a productive research and reference library, helped by the Enoch Pratt Free Library and the Johns Hopkins Univ. GP had known their founders as fellow Baltimore merchants. His philanthropic example had influenced Pratt to found the Enoch Pratt Free Library (1882) and influenced Hopkins directly in 1867 to found the Johns Hopkins Univ., medical school, and hospital (opened 1876). It seemed a nice turn that their philanthropic institutions, in turn, had helped to perpetuate the PIB.

PIB Ref. Library. 30-A Fitting Connection Cont’d. Ref.: (PIB Library 1957 centennial): McCrank, pp. 183-187. Dorsey-a. “Gifts to the Peabody Double Last Year’s,” Sun (Baltimore), July 7, 1978. Peabody Institute and Its Future. “Peabody to Join Hopkins,” Sun (Baltimore), Dec. 21, 1976, pp. A1, c. 1; A8, c. 2-c.5. Snyder, Jr., pp. 37-38. “Peabody Library Starts 260,000-Card Index,” Evening Sun (Baltimore), Jan. 10, 1952. Ingalls, p. B5.

PIB Ref. Library Map Thief, 1995

PIB Ref. Library. 31-Map Thief Gilbert Joseph Bland, Jr. On Dec. 7, 1995, afternoon, PIB Ref. Library user Jennifer Bryan (she was also Md. Historical Society’s manuscript curator doing research for her Ph.D. degree) became suspicious of a fellow male library user who she thought she saw cut a page out of a library book. Bothered by his furtive looks and the card catalog drawer he pulled open to obstruct her view of him, she reported him to library officials. Ref.: Harvey, chap. 1.

PIB Ref. Library. 32-Map Thief Cont’d. As security officers approached the suspect he hastily gathered his belongings, and hurried out of the library. He was pursued by the security officers at a trot across Charles St. past the statues of Washington and Lafayette. Finally, after throwing his notebook into a bush, the security officers overtook him on the back steps of the Walters Art Gallery. He was asked to return to the library for questioning. Stuck in the man’s retrieved notebook were three maps cut from the PIB Library’s rare 1763 book, John Entick, General History of he Late War. The suspect admitted entering the library under a false Univ. of Fla. ID card with the name of James Perry, said that he was Gilbert Joseph Bland, Jr., a Fla. map dealer, and offered then and there to pay $700 to restore the three maps cut from the library book. Ref.: Ibid.

PIB Ref. Library. 33-Map Thief Cont’d. Having recorded basic facts about the incident and been $700 to restore the damaged book, the library authorities, in a decision later criticized, let Mr. Bland leave (reasons: he had paid to restore damages; libraries try to avoid bad publicity of book theft, fearing it will inhibit donors; and local police said that if arrested and on bail, Bland, being out of state, would likely skip bail). Ref.: Ibid.

PIB Conservatory of Music

PIB Conservatory of Music. 1-First Founded, Fourth to Offer Instruction. The PIB Academy (Conservatory after 1874) of Music was the first music conservatory founded in the U.S (1857) but the fourth to offer instruction (1868). Its predecessors were Oberlin College Music Conservatory, Ohio, 1865; the New England Music Conservatory, Boston, 1867; and the Cincinnati Music Conservatory, Ohio, also 1867. See: Eaton, Charles James Madison. PIB (above, for overview).

PIB, Music. 2-U.S.-European Music Conservatories Compared. European music conservatories had church origins, received state support, and emphasized superior virtuoso performances. Private U.S. music conservatories, without state support, had to meet mass musical tastes and needs in order to survive financially. For accreditation, U.S. music conservatories needed to offer their own liberal arts courses or to affiliate with a nearby liberal arts college or university. The PIB’s Conservatory of Music went through these stages in adapting to changing needs and times. Ref.: Ibid.

PIB, Music. 3-James M. Deems. To begin the PIB Academy of Music the trustees in 1865-66 turned to Baltimore composer James Monroe [or Munroe] Deems (1818-1901), former Univ. of Va. adjunct professor (1849-58), Civil War Union officer (served as Major, 1st Md. Cavalry, Dec. 20, 1861; promoted Lt. Col. Nov. 10, 1862; breveted Brig. Gen.; mustered out Nov. 1863), and trained in music in Dresden, Germany. Deems organized twelve PIB concerts in 1866, eleven concerts in 1867; hired local musicians, performers, and soloists; and wrote the then popular Telegraph Quickstep. Ref.: Boatner, p. 229. Keefer, p. 158f. Schaaf-c, p. 275.

PIB, Music. 4-Lucien H. Southard. Deems also hired Boston musician Lucien H. Southard (1827-81). Southard, who gave three lectures on the history of music in Feb. 1867, became the PIB Academy of Music director during 1867-71 at the Academy’s first quarters at 34 Mulberry St., Baltimore. Music instruction began in Oct. 1868. Vt.-born Southard had studied music at Lowell Mason’s (1792-1872) Boston Academy and at Trinity College, Conn. Southard worked as a composer and organist in Boston, Mass.; Richmond, Va.; and Hartford, Conn., before his PIB appointment. Ref.: Keefer, pp. 14-165f. Schaaf-a, pp. 24, 39.

PIB, Music. 5-Lucien H. Southard Cont’d. He started the Peabody Academy concerts and the Peabody Chorus singers. His short four-year tenure was attributed to alleged criticism by music groups who disliked his northern background and criticized his inability to win community support. His importance in the PIB Academy of Music’s first years was overshadowed by the long tenure and accomplishments of his Copenhagen-born successor, Asger Hamerik (1843-1923). PIB records list Hamerik as the Conservatory of Music’s first director. Ref.: Ibid.

PIB Academy of Music Directors

PIB, Music. 6-Asger Hamerik, First Music Director. Asger Hamerik’s appointment came after PIB trustee Charles J. M. Eaton (1808-93) asked the help of the U.S. Consul in Vienna, Austria, Dietrich Fehrman. Consul Fehrman’s advertisement in a European music journal brought letters of interest from Hamerik and others. Hamerik came from a musical family on his mother’s side and had studied and performed under various music masters in London and Berlin (1862-64), Paris (1864, where he was French composer Hector Berlioz’s [1803-69] only pupil), Stockholm, Milan, and Vienna. Despite unease about Hamerik’s limited English and shyness, he was appointed the PIB Academy of Music’s first director during July 11, 1871 to 1898 (27 years). Ref.: “Hamerikana…,” p. 5. Keefer, pp. 170f.

PIB, Music. 7-Asger Hamerik Cont’d. Hamerik won Baltimore citizens’ respect and support by his musical professionalism, persistence, zeal, and by playing U.S. composers’ works on concert programs. He overcame parents’ reluctance for their children to study music as a profession. He raised the admission requirements, reorganized the curriculum, specified graduation requirements, purchased instrumental equipment, strengthened the music library, and added European-trained faculty. He revived the Peabody Chorus and established a student orchestra. Those Baltimoreans keenly aware of their second class status to NYC’s musical culture valued Hamerik for the musical prestige he evoked. Ref.: Ibid.

PIB, Music. 8-Asger Hamerik Cont’d. Hamerik organized a PIB Conservatory of Music Alumni Association, which sponsored a piano scholarship. He enhanced the PIB Conservatory’s prestige by attracting such eminent world musicians to visit and perform as Russian-born composer Anton Rubinstein (1829-94); German-born pianist, conductor, and educator Hans Guido Freiherr von Bülow (1830-94) during Dec.-Jan. 1875-1876. Hamerik brought to the PIB British popular composer Arthur Seymour Sullivan (1842-1900) of Gilbert and Sullivan fame in late Dec. 1879; and Russian composer Pyotr Illich Tchaikovsky (1840-93) in spring 1891. Hamerik’s former teacher, Hans von Bülow, wrote in a London paper that “Baltimore was the only place in America where I had proper support.” Ref.: Ibid.

PIB, Music. 9-Poet Sidney Lanier as flutist. Hamerik hired poet-musician Sidney Lanier (1842-81) as the Peabody Symphony Orchestra’s first flutist in 1873. Lanier was then a 31-year-old law clerk who had left Macon, Ga., to seek a music career in NYC He stopped in Baltimore to visit his flutist friend Henry Clay Wysham, through whom he met Asger Hamerik. Impressed when Lanier played his own flute compositions, Hamerik hired Lanier as first flutist. Better remembered as a southern poet than a musician, Lanier lived in Baltimore near the PIB for eight years, assiduously used the PIB Library, lectured on music and English literature at the PIB and the Johns Hopkins Univ. (1879), and died in 1881 at age 39 of tuberculosis contracted when he was a Civil War prisoner. Ref.: (below).

PIB, Music. 10-Poet Sidney Lanier as flutist Cont’d. Ref.: McGinty, pp. 25-31. “Lanier, Sidney,” Appletons’, Vol. III, p. 613. Weimer Jones. “The Last Days of Sidney Lanier,” Sun (Baltimore), Feb. 4, 1968. Kelly, pp. 35-38. William Stump, “Man in the Street: Sidney Lanier,” Sun (Baltimore), Nov. 20, 1949. John C. French, “Sidney Lanier’s Life in Baltimore: ‘The Beautiful City’ Has Yet to Discover Him Fully,” Sun (Baltimore), Sept. 6, 1931. White, E.L., pp. 329-331. “Sidney Lanier Commemoration,” pp. 480-505. See: persons named.

PIB, Music. 11-PIB Building Enlarged. In 1874, during Hamerik’s tenure, the PIB building was enlarged to include the site occupied by the Academy of Music; a third floor was added, and the name was changed from the PIB Academy of Music to the PIB Conservatory of Music. Also, during Hamerik’s tenure, B&O RR Pres. Robert Garrett (1847-96) commissioned sculptor William Wetmore Story (1819-95) to duplicate his bronze seated GP statue in Threadneedle Street, near London’s Royal Exchange, to be placed in front of the PIB building on April 7, 1890. Ref.: (GP’s seated London statue in Baltimore): Williams, H.A., pp. 27, 30, 32-33, 52-53, 56, 65.

PIB, Music. 12-Asger Hamerik Retired. To avoid interruptions, Hamerik worked in a difficult-to-reach windowless and gas-lit room atop a winding metal stairway. A bachelor when he came to Baltimore, he married one of his students from Tenn. They had four children. In 1890 Hamerik received a knighthood from the king of Denmark. Having often said that an American should direct the PIB Conservatory of Music, Hamerik retired after 27 years. With Hamerik’s leaving, the PIB Conservatory of Music had completed 30 years of service to Baltimore (1868-98). Ref.: (below).

PIB, Music. 13-Asger Hamerik Retired Cont’d. Ref.: Dobbin, pp. 2-4. “Asger Hamerik-a, April 8, 1843-July 13, 1923,” pp. 4-5. Guiliano. [Asger Hamerik-b], Peabody Bulletin (Baltimore), May 1933. “Hamerik, Professor Asger,” Biographical Cyclopedia, pp. 84-86. “Hamerikana…,” p. 5. Otto T. Simon [Letter], “Thinks Asger Hamerik should be Honored by Some Memorial at the Peabody and That His Music Should be Frequently Heard There,” Sun (Baltimore), April 15, 1922. Starr, pp. 6-7. Howard R. Thatcher, “A Teacher Glances Back–Notes on Music in Baltimore,” Evening Sun (Baltimore), July 12, 1950. Randolph, pp. 5-6.

PIB Conservatory of Music Preparatory School

PIB, Music. 14-May Garrettson Evans: Prep School. Second music director Harold Randolph (described below) was trained in music at the PIB, was a faculty member, knew the value of May Garrettson Evans’ Preparatory School, and in his first year as director persuaded the trustees to make it part of the PIB Conservatory of Music (1898). Born in Baltimore May Garrettson Evans (1866-1947) spent her childhood in Georgetown, D.C. She returned to Baltimore at age 13 to attend the Misses Hall’s School. While she attended the PIB Conservatory of Music, her brother, a Sun reporter, occasionally asked her to review musical programs. Ref.: Schaaf-c, pp. 38-43. Luckett, p. 106.

PIB, Music. 15-May Garrettson Evans: Prep School Cont’d. This experience led May Garrettson Evans to become the Sun‘s first woman reporter (1886-93), covering dramatic, musical, and general events. She saw the value of having a preparatory music school for talented children as a feeder to the PIB Conservatory of Music and also as a general music school for adult education. She suggested such a school to then director Asger Hamerik. Hamerik recommended her idea to the trustees but they took no action. In Oct. 1894 at age 28, helped by her sister Marian, she started a preparatory school, taught mainly by PIB Conservatory of Music students and staff. Ref.: Ibid.

PIB, Music. 16-May Garrettson Evans: Prep School Cont’d. The preparatory music school flourished, was first called the Peabody Graduates’ Preparatory and High School of Music, and in 1898, urged by second music director Harold Randolph, it became the PIB Conservatory’s Preparatory Dept. (called familiarly “the Prep”). Evans was superintendent of the Preparatory Dept. for over 30 years. She saw its enrollment grow from some 300 to over 3,200, with branches around Baltimore. Besides being a music school for talented children, the Preparatory Dept. served public schools and adults interested in music, dance, and dramatic speech. It was also a laboratory school for PIB Conservatory students pursuing the teacher’s certificate. Ref.: Ibid.

PIB, Music. 17-Leakin Hall. Before Evans retired, a gift from Baltimore lawyer and philanthropist James Wilson Leakin (1857-1922) enabled the Preparatory Dept. in 1927 to move into its own modern music building, Leakin Hall. Ref.: Evening Sun (Baltimore), Nov. 29, 1934. “Peabody Preparatory School Founder to be Honored Sunday,” Sun (Baltimore), May 21, 1947. [Evans, May Garrettson], Evening Sun (Baltimore), Nov. 29, 1934. Ross, pp. 493-497.

PIB Conservatory of Music Directors Cont’d.

PIB, Music. 18-Harold Randolph, Second Music Director. Harold Randolph (1861-1927) was trained in music at the PIB and was a faculty member when he was appointed second PIB Conservatory of Music director during 1898-1927 (29 years). Besides inducing the trustees to absorb the Prep School (see above), he introduced programs to prepare public school music teachers and supervisors. He used Baltimore city schools for student teaching. He broadened the educational program, introduced private lessons in place of class lessons, and further Americanized European elements of the Conservatory education program. He introduced a Research Dept., the first in a private music school. In 1912 he helped introduce music courses in the Johns Hopkins Univ.’s first summer session. Randolph and his music faculty helped form the Baltimore Symphony Orchestra. See: Randolph, Harold. PIB. 17-GP’s Influence Through the PIB.

PIB, Music. 19-Harold Randolph, Second Music Director Cont’d. Randolph began a concert bureau during 1910-14, enabling PIB Conservatory faculty artists to perform in nearby communities. Randolph invited to perform in the Conservatory’s Friday Afternoon Recitals such famed musicians as Fritz Kreisler (1875-1962), Pablo Casals (1876-1973), and Wanda Louise Landowska (1879-1959). In 1914 he started the Conservatory’s first Placement Bureau, placing its graduates in school and college music positions. A joint PIB-Johns Hopkins Univ. Bachelor of Music program was begun in 1916. Enrollment rose from 296 students in 1898 to 765 when Randolph died on July 6, 1927. Ref.: Ibid. See: persons named.

PIB, Music. 20-Otto Randolph Ortmann, Third Director. Third Conservatory of Music director was Otto Randolph Ortmann (1889-1979) during 1928-41 (13 years). Like preceding director Harold Randolph, Ortmann was a PIB Conservatory graduate and a faculty member from 1917. Ortmann was from a Baltimore musical family of German background, had studied at both the Johns Hopkins Univ. and the PIB Conservatory of Music. In 1913 he had earned the Conservatory’s Teacher’s Certificate in Piano and in 1917 the Peabody Artist Diploma (Composition). Ref.: Galkin, pp. 170-172.

PIB, Music. 21-O.R. Ortmann, Third Director Cont’d. While still a PIB Conservatory student, Ortmann taught piano and harmony in the Peabody Prep (1911), was appointed Conservatory acting director for a few months and then Conservatory director in 1928 at age 39, continuing Harold Randolph’s programs. The 1930s economic depression, which necessitated fundraising, took time from Ortmann’s administration, teaching, and music research. Fundraising during 1936-40, including gifts from the Carnegie Corporation, brought in over $120,000. Ref.: Ibid.

PIB, Music. 22-O.R. Ortmann, Third Director Cont’d. Fundraising cut into Ortmann’s considerable research on such scientific aspects of music as acoustical phenomena, physics of sound waves, and the psychological effects of music on the learning process. His landmark books included The Physical Basis of Piano Touch and Tone (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1925) and The Physiological Mechanics of Piano Technique (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1929; paperback reprint, 1962). At the request of the American Association of Learned Societies, he formed a Committee of Musicology, forerunner of the American Musicology Society, concerned with scientific research in music. Ref.: “Otto Ortmann-e,” Peabody Bulletin (Baltimore), Fall 1941, pp. 3ff.

PIB, Music. 23-O.R. Ortmann, Third Director Cont’d. Ortmann organized the Conservatory’s “Friday Afternoon Concert Series,” strengthened the Conservatory’s Research Dept. (the first U.S. music conservatory to have such a department); and broadened the curriculum. He furthered academic ties with the Johns Hopkins Univ. and Goucher College. Their students were able to study music at the PIB Conservatory and earn a Bachelor of Music degree from 1926, and a Master of Music degree from 1935. Ref.: Ibid.

PIB, Music. 24-O.R. Ortmann, Third Director Cont’d. Ortmann invited such distinguished musical artists to appear in PIB recitals as Russian-born pianist Vladimir Horowitz (1904-89), Russian cellist Gregor Piatigorsky (1903-76), Hungarian-born pianist Rudolf Serkin (1903-91), Spanish guitarist Andres Segovia (1894-1987), and Polish-born pianist Arthur Rubinstein (1887-1982). The 1930s depression led the trustees to consider dividing the Conservatory directorship into administration and academic areas. When this plan did not materialize, an advisory committee recommended appointment of a new director. Ref.: [Otto Rudolph Ortmann], Sun (Baltimore), May 17, 1936. “Otto Ortmann,” Peabody Bulletin (Baltimore), Fall 1941, pp. 3-4. “Otto Ortmann-c,” Peabody Bulletin (Baltimore), May 1936, p. 16. P. J. B., [Otto Ortmann], Sun (Baltimore), Nov. 11, 1934.

PIB, Music. 25-O.R. Ortmann, Third Director Cont’d. Despite 1930s depression difficulties, the assessment was that Ortmann had served the PIB Conservatory of Music well. After resigning from the PIB Conservatory on Sept. l, 1941, Ortmann joined the Goucher College music department in 1942 and was its chairman during 1943-56. Ref.:: “Three Goucher Faculty Members Retiring,” Evening Sun (Baltimore), June 22, 1956. “A Decade of Conservatory Activity,” Peabody Bulletin (Baltimore), Dec. 1938, pp. 33-34.

PIB, Music. 26-Reginald Stewart, Fourth Director. Fourth Conservatory of Music director was Reginald Stewart (1900-84) during 1941-58 (17 years). He was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, son of a distinguished organist who taught him piano, organ, and composition. Young Stewart also studied in France and Canada. He founded and conducted the Toronto Philharmonic Orchestra, formed the Bach Society in Toronto, inaugurated the popular Promenade Symphony Concerts in Canada, and for 10 years was a piano teacher and a conductor at the Toronto Conservatory of Music. Stewart attracted the PIB Conservatory of Music trustees’ attention while successfully conducting the NYC Orchestra during Carnegie Hall’s 1940-41 season. While Conservatory director, Stewart also conducted the Baltimore Symphony Orchestra during 1942-52. Ref.: (below).

PIB, Music. 27-Reginald Stewart, Fourth Director Cont’d. Ref.: “Director Change [Otto Ortmann, Reginald Stewart],” Evening Sun (Baltimore), Aug. 5, 1941. “Mr. Ortmann and His Successor,” Gardens, Houses and People (Baltimore), Vol. 16, No. 8 (August 1941). “Reginald Stewart Named Head of Peabody,” Evening Sun (Baltimore), Aug. 5, 1941. [Stewart, Reginald-a, about], pp. 1-3. “Progress at the Peabody,” Sun (Baltimore), Jan. 19, 1942.

PIB, Music. 28-Reginald Stewart, Fourth Director Cont’d. Building on Ortmann’s curriculum, Stewart saw the PIB Conservatory of Music accredited by the National Association of Schools of Music in 1950 and gain membership in the Middle States Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools in 1955. To serve outlying areas and also to alleviate parking and transportation difficulties, Stewart started PIB Conservatory of Music branches in Glen Burnie, Dundalk, and Towson, Md. He initiated joint degree programs with Loyola College, Towson State Univ., and McCoy College (a Johns Hopkins Univ. division offering part-time and continuing education programs). Because of diminishing audiences and growing deficits, Stewart replaced the traditional Friday Afternoon Recitals with Candlelight Concerts, performed by Stewart’s newly formed Little Orchestra, made up of PIB Conservatory faculty and Baltimore Symphony Orchestra musicians. Ref.: (below).

PIB, Music. 29-Reginald Stewart, Fourth Director Cont’d. Ref.: “Stewart Defends Symphony Setup, Says He is Underpaid,” Sun (Baltimore), Nov. 24, 1951. “Reginald Stewart’s Final Performance as Conductor,” Sun (Baltimore), April 1, 1952. “Seventy of Symphony Urge Longer Season to Keep Stewart Here,” Sun (Baltimore), Jan. 31, 1952. “Conductor Makes Farewell Speech,” Sun (Baltimore), March 13, 1952. “Stewart and the Peabody,” Gardens, Houses and People (Baltimore), April 1952. “Reginald Stewart’s Final Performance as Conductor,” Sun (Baltimore), April 1, 1952. “Stewart and the Peabody,” Gardens, Houses and People (Baltimore), April 1952.

PIB, Music. 30-Reginald Stewart Cont’d. Stewart established good relations with the Baltimore Symphony Orchestra by appointing Orchestra musicians to the PIB Conservatory faculty. Through these good relations and by employing European musicians during and after World War II, Stewart assembled the PIB Conservatory’s largest and most illustrious faculty. After his resignation in late 1957, the trustees, reevaluating the Conservatory’s role, followed outside consultant Harrison Keller’s (b.1888) advice to keep admission standards high. Ref.: (below).

PIB, Music. 31-Reginald Stewart Cont’d. Ref.: “Stewart’s Move to Quit Accepted,” Sun (Baltimore), Feb. 2, 1952. “The Human Complexities of a Conductor’s Job,” Sun (Baltimore), Feb. 4, 1952. Peabody Conservatory of Music (Baltimore: Peabody Institute [1957]). “Stewart to Leave Peabody Conservatory Post in 1958,” Sun (Baltimore), Nov. 19, 1957. “Little Orchestra Concerts to Continue Under Stewart,” Sun (Baltimore), Feb. 7, 1958. (Reginald Stewart): “Bon Voyage–Dr. Reginald Stewart,” Evening Sun (Baltimore), June 24, 1958.

PIB, Music. 32-Peter Mennin, Fifth Director. Fifth Conservatory of Music director was Peter Mennin (1923-83) during 1958-62 (4 years). Born in Erie, Pa., Mennin began music study at age seven, produced his first symphony at age 19, attended Oberlin Conservatory, Ohio, received his bachelor’s and master’s degrees from the Eastman School of Music, and the Ph.D. degree from the Univ. of Rochester. He served in the U.S. Air Force in World War II and, at the young age of 24, left the faculty of the Juilliard School of Music to direct the PIB Conservatory of Music one year after the PIB’s centennial (1857-1957). Ref.: (Peter Mennin): Spatz, pp. 60-61. George Kent Bellows, “Music Master: Whirlwind Tempo for Peabody Chief,” Evening Sun (Baltimore), Aug. 12, 1958.

PIB, Music. 33-Peter Mennin, Fifth Director Cont’d. Mennin’s many honors made him, after Asger Hamerik, the PIB Conservatory of Music director with the greatest international reputation. Mennin believed in high standards for performing artists. He established the PIB Conservatory of Music Doctor of Musical Arts degree in 1963. To provide students with professional experience in a Conservatory of Music setting, he founded the Peabody Art Theater, providing young opera singers with studies that included actual performances, management experience, and labor union relations experience. He also created the Conservatory’s American Conductors’ Project, an annual alumni homecoming, and the conferral of honorary degrees, which helped attract the musical world’s attention to the PIB Conservatory of Music. Ref.: [Mennin, Peter, about]. [Peter Mennin], Evening Sun (Baltimore), April 8, 1958. “New Peabody Dean Named” [David S. Cooper], Sun (Baltimore), Feb. 18, 1959. Kathryn Geraghty, “Variations on a Theme in Blue, Green,” Sun (Baltimore), Dec. 31, 1961.

PIB, Music. 34-Peter Mennin, Fifth Director Cont’d. Mennin also appointed high profile artist-teachers to the faculty. They in turn attracted talented students. He hired Charles Stanton Kent (1914-69) as PIB Conservatory of Music dean. When Mennin resigned, Oct. 31, 1962, to become president of the Juilliard School of Music, C.S. Kent succeeded him as PIB Conservatory of Music’s sixth director. With Mennin’s resignation, a PIB trustees’ committee met to ponder recurring PIB deficits. Ref.: “Mennin Leaving as Peabody Head,” Sun (Baltimore), June 11, 1962.

PIB, Music. 35-Charles Stanton Kent, Sixth Director. Sixth Conservatory of Music director, as mentioned, was Charles Stanton Kent during 1963-67 (4 years). He faced rising costs and competition from lower cost state-subsidized public college and univ. music schools. Kent earned the bachelor’s degree in music theory from the Univ. of Louisville (where his father was president); the Master of Music degree from the Eastman School of Music; and the Ph.D. degree from the Univ. of Rochester. He also studied at Dartmouth College and the Juilliard School of Music. He received the Bronze Star for World War II service in England. He taught at Oberlin Conservatory, Western Reserve Univ., the New England Conservatory of Music, was dean of the Univ. of Miss.’s Music School, and taught music theory at Indiana Univ.’s Music Dept. Ref.: (below).

PIB, Music. 36-C.S. Kent, Sixth Director Cont’d. Ref.: (Charles Stanton Kent): “Succeeds Cooper: Peabody Conservatory Names Kent as Dean,” Baltimore News-Post, May 19, 1961. “Peabody Names New Director,” Sun (Baltimore), April 21, 1963. Peter Young, “New Peabody Director: Symphony Could Draw Teachers, He Believes,” Evening Sun (Baltimore), May 9, 1963.

PIB, Music. 37-C.S. Kent, Sixth Director Cont’d. Widely known and respected as a music educator and scholar, Kent continued Mennin’s goal for the Conservatory: to train musical performers and prepare music teachers who would be musical leaders. Higher education in the 1960s expanded considerably. Kent tried to increase the PIB Conservatory of Music’s outreach by concert tours, cooperative programs with other institutions, the use of radio and television music programs, larger summer schools in Baltimore and in Conservatory branches as far apart as Northampton, Mass., and Towson, Md. Ref.: (below).

PIB, Music. 38-C.S. Kent, Sixth Director Cont’d. To meet undergraduate and graduate enrollment growth, an associate director was added in 1966. As expenses mounted, Kent began a Peabody Development Fund campaign which raised $850,000 by 1965. But Kent’s failing health required him to take a leave of absence in Dec. 1967. He resigned in May 1968. Ref.: Stephen A. Bennett, “Kent in Doubt, Peabody Scans Field for Director,” Sun (Baltimore), Feb. 7, 1968. “Illness Obliges Charles Kent to Leave Peabody,” Sun (Baltimore), May 1, 1968. [Charles Stanton Kent obituary], Evening Sun (Baltimore), June 2, 1969.

PIB, Music. 39-Raymond Edwin Robinson, Actg. Director. Associate Dir. Raymond Edwin Robinson (1932-) succeeded Charles S. Kent as acting Conservatory director during 1967-68. Robinson attended San Jose State College for the Bachelor of Arts degree and Indiana Univ. for the Master of Music degree. After military service, he was music conductor and arranger for west coast educational television productions. His June 1969 Indiana Univ. doctoral dissertation was “A History of the Peabody Conservatory of Music.” After his year as PIB Conservatory acting director, Robinson became president of the Westminster Choir College and then distinguished prof. at Palm Beach Atlantic Univ., Fla. Ref.: (below).

PIB, Music. 40-R.E. Robinson, Actg. Director Cont’d. Ref.: (Raymond Edwin Robinson): “Peabody Conservatory Lists R. E. Robinson as New Dean,” Sun (Baltimore) July 2, 1963. Robinson, Raymond Edwin, Who’s Who in Entertainment (Baltimore), 1963, p. 534. Ray E. Robinson, “A History of the Peabody Conservatory of Music” (Doctor of Music Education, Indiana Univ., 1969).

PIB, Music. 41-Richard Franko Goldman, Seventh Director. Seventh Conservatory of Music director was Richard Franko Goldman (1910-80) during 1968-77 (9 years). He was the son of the founder of the [Edwin Franko] Goldman Concert Band in NYC, a graduate of Columbia Univ. (1930), where he formed a lifelong friendship with fellow student Jacques Barzun (b.1907). Goldman studied music privately, was associate conductor of the Goldman Band under his father (1937-56), and became Goldman Band conductor at his father’s death (1956). He taught at the Juilliard School of Music (1947-60); was a visiting music professor at Princeton Univ., Columbia Univ., and New York Univ.; and a music writer and scholar of note. Ref.: “New Peabody Head Named,” Sun (Baltimore), Aug. 25, 1968.

PIB, Music. 42-R.F. Goldman, Seventh Director Cont’d. Two PIB Conservatory of Music trustees interviewed him in NYC in the spring of 1968. He visited Baltimore in May 1968, was offered the post, and accepted on condition that he be both Conservatory director and PIB president. His concern was to clarify administrative authority. Ref.: John Pappenheimer, “Goldman Wants Things to Happen,” Evening Sun (Baltimore), Aug. 27, 1968.

PIB, Music. 43-R.F. Goldman, Seventh Director Cont’d. After a year as Conservatory director, Goldman became the PIB President in the fall of 1969. The trustees hoped that Goldman’s national reputation would maintain the PIB Conservatory’s standard of excellence and attract major faculty, who would in turn attract promising students. Most important, it was hoped that Goldman would raise the funds needed to perpetuate the prestigious but financially troubled century-old PIB. Ref.: Earl Arnett, “Richard Franko Goldman Found a Good School That Needed a Little Shaking Up,” Sun (Baltimore), April 20, 1973, p. B1.

PIB, Music. 44-R.F. Goldman, Seventh Director Cont’d. During Goldman’s first year a dormitory-cafeteria-parking garage complex opened, designed by architect Edward Durrell Stone (1902-78). Goldman revived the Peabody Scholarly Lecture series, with Jacques Barzun as the first speaker; rekindled interest in the long neglected Peabody Gallery of Art collection (he made the first full catalogue of the PIB’s art holdings); strengthened the Conservatory’s liberal arts program; and began survey courses in the fine arts. Ref.: Ibid.

BIP Financial Difficulties, 1974

PIB, Music. 45-R.F. Goldman Cont’d. Although Goldman helped raise $170,000 from the Rockefeller Foundation, his annual report of June 1, 1974, stated, “I am discouraged by the long range prospects.” His April 20, 1975, letter to Jacques Barzun confided his intent to retire: “The Peabody is facing real trouble financially, and I can’t carry the thing myself.” In a Jan. 1976 press conference, Goldman drew public attention to the PIB’s financial plight. Since 1971, he said, the PIB’s $6 million endowment had shrunk to $3 million. The only course left, he said, was to sell the art collection then valued at about $1 million (some art pieces had been sold in the 1960s). Ref.: Noel K. Lester, “Richard Franko Goldman: His Life and Works” (Doctor of Musical Arts, PIB Conservatory of Music of The Johns Hopkins University, 1984).

PIB, Music. 46-R.F. Goldman Cont’d. The threatened art sale provoked public attention and concern. The Feb. 24, 1976, Evening Sun reported that committees from the PIB and the Johns Hopkins Univ. were considering affiliation. By June 1976 a working agreement was reached. The Sun for Dec. 21, 1976, headlined “Peabody to Join Hopkins.” The article continued, “The famous but deficit-ridden Peabody Institute will be taken under the wing of the Johns Hopkins Univ. next summer.” Goldman explained that the PIB had been operating at a deficit the last dozen years and that the operating budget in 1976 was $2,761,294, which included a deficit of $150,000. Ref.: Ibid.

PIB of Johns Hopkins Univ., 1982

PIB, Music. 47-PIB-Johns Hopkins Univ. Merger. The PIB Conservatory of Music had flourished for over a century on its own (1866-1982). But financial difficulties required affiliation for survival. The Conservatory of Music was somewhat more viable financially than the PIB Library. For survival, the PIB Library had to become part of the Enoch Pratt Free Library (July 2, 1966, to July 1, 1982, or 16 years), and then part of the Johns Hopkins Univ. Library system, since 1982. Those who knew the background thought this PIB-Johns Hopkins merger historically fitting, even saw in it a sense of poetic justice. During his 1866-67 U.S. visit GP had influenced Johns Hopkins (1895-73) to found the Johns Hopkins Univ., hospital, and medical school. Ref.: (GP’s influence on Johns Hopkins): Williams, H.A., pp. 27, 30, 32-33, 52-53, 56, 65. See: Hopkins, Johns.

PIB, Music. 48-PIB-Johns Hopkins Univ. Merger Cont’d. Johns Hopkins-PIB merger terms let the PIB retain its autonomy (under Johns Hopkins Univ. management) and share the university’s superior fundraising resources. The PIB Library continued its research and reference function in its own PIB building as part of the Enoch Pratt Free Library and under city funding during 1965-82. But budget cuts compelled the Enoch Pratt Free Library to release the PIB Library. On July 1, 1982, the still intact PIB Library became a special collection of the Johns Hopkins Univ.’s Milton S. Eisenhower Library. Goldman, who delayed retirement until merger was completed, died in Baltimore in 1980, praised for the trust he had generated. Ref.: Richard W. Case, “How the Hopkins and Peabody Got Together,” Sun (Baltimore), Jan. 3, 1977. “Peabody Students Getting in Tune…,” pp. 1-2.

PIB, Music. 49-Elliott Washington Galkin, Eighth Director. Eighth Conservatory of Music director was Elliott Washington Galkin (1921-90) during 1977-83 (7 years), when the PIB Conservatory of Music-Johns Hopkins Univ. merger took place (1982). Extensive building renovations were made from a $1 million gift from local magnate Sidney Myer Friedberg (1907-85) in memory of his wife, whom he met when both were studying piano at the PIB Conservatory of Music. The Sidney Friedberg Concert Hall was dedicated on Oct. 8, 1983, when Robert Pierce became the ninth PIB Conservatory director during 1983-95, or 12 years. See: also: George Peabody Medal for Outstanding Contributions to Music in America, initiated in 1980.

PIB, Music. 50-Robert Pierce, Ninth Director. Robert Pierce came to Baltimore, 1958. He was educated at the New England Conservatory of Music, and had experience at the Boston Symphony Orchestra. He came with a joint appointment as PIB Conservatory of Music professor and as Baltimore Symphony Orchestra member (french horn). Appointed acting dean and associate director, 1981, he was confirmed as ninth Conservatory director, 1983, when the Conservatory’s endowment had fallen to a worrisome $1.4 million, and was, in Pierce’s words, “about six months away from closing the doors for good.” Charged with reversing the downward trend and aided by Johns Hopkins Univ. superior fundraising, Robert Pierce, in his 12 years as director (1983-95), saw the endowment rise to over $40 million and enrollment soar. Robert Pierce attributed this upsurge to the superior quality of the faculty who built on the many strengths already in place. Ref.: “Pierce Made Peabody ‘Shine Again.”

End of 8 of 14 Parts. Continued on 9 of 14 Parts. Send correctiions, questions to: bfparker@frontiernet.net

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