“How Research on George Peabody (1795-1869) Changed Our Lives,” by Franklin Parker and Betty J. Parker (corrected July 14, 2010), bfparker@frontiernet.net

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“How Research on George Peabody (1795-1869) Changed Our Lives,” by Franklin Parker and Betty J. Parker (corrected July  14, 2010), bfparker@frontiernet.net
We met at Berea College near Lexington, KY, Sept. 1946, were married June 12, 1950.  Frank attended the University of Illinois Graduate School, Urbana, 1949-50, for the M.S. degree.  We both first taught at Ferrum College near Roanoke, VA , 1950-52.
We did additional graduate study at George Peabody College for Teachers, adjoining the Vanderbilt University campus in Nashville, TN, summers 1951, 1952.  Part time jobs and study in Nashville during 1952-56, four years, enabled us to graduate in Aug. 1956: Betty, M.A. degree in English; Frank, doctoral degree, Social Foundations of Education.
Frank’s dissertation topic, which took us to London, England, for three months, Sept. to Dec. 1954, and influenced our lives, came from Peabody College Graduate Dean Felix C. Robb (1914-97).

Dean Robb told Frank that during his own doctoral study at Harvard Graduate School of Education, Harvard’s History Prof. Arthur Schlesinger Sr. (1888-1965), knowing Robb was a Peabody College administrator, told him: Robb, your college founder, George Peabody, was the largely forgotten founder of modern educational philanthropy.

His Peabody Education Fund, just after the Civil War, set the pattern for all later large educational funds and foundations.  A well done doctoral dissertation based on his original papers and related papers needs to be written.
Perhaps regretting that he had written on another topic (school administration), Robb urged us to look into George Peabody’s influence.

We did, were inspired by what we found, spent many months reading George Peabody documents in libraries in Nashville, Washington, DC, Baltimore, New York City, Boston and Salem, Mass.; plus three months in London, England, libraries.
Because the George Peabody research took us to London, changed our lives, led us to 27 trips abroad, we must tell why he was important, why research on him was so beneficial for us.
Born poor 19 miles north of Boston and little schooled, George Peabody at age 17 migrated South, succeeded as a dry-goods importing merchant at Peabody, Riggs & Co., 1814-40s, based in Baltimore, Md., with New York and Philadelphia warehouses.
On Peabody’s fifth European buying trip, 1837, all via London, Maryland officials commissioned him to sell abroad that state’s $8 million bonds to finance its Baltimore and Ohio canal and later the Baltimore and Ohio railroad.

The U.S. was then a borrowing nation needing foreign capital for internal improvements.  In the financial panic of 1837, against all odds, Peabody sold Maryland’s bonds abroad, found himself in transition from merchant to U.S. state bond broker-banker.  He remained in London the rest of his life.
His George Peabody & Co., banking firm, London, 1838-64, 26 years, specialized in selling U.S. state bonds to finance canals, railroads, telegraph, the Atlantic Cable, etc., thus helping modernize and industrialize the U.S.

Note that J.P. Morgan’s (1837-1913) father (J.S. Morgan, 1813-90) was George Peabody’s partner, making George Peabody a root of the JP Morgan banking empire.
Peabody supported his widowed mother, was the family breadwinner, paid for the education of his siblings, and later his nieces and nephews.  Unmarried, he used half his fortune, large for that time, to found educational institutions while he lived and left half to relatives at his death.
His philanthropic motive is best expressed by his motto in his 1852 letter founding his first hometown library: “Education: a debt due from present to future generations.”
Peabody founded seven U.S. Peabody libraries, with lecture halls and lecture funds, the adult education centers of the time; well before Andrew Carnegie’s later more numerous Carnegie libraries.

The Peabody Institute of Baltimore comprised a reference library, art gallery, lecture hall and fund, and the Peabody Conservatory of Music–all now part of Johns Hopkins University.
Peabody’s example influenced Baltimoreans Enoch Pratt (1808-96) to found the Enoch Pratt Free Public Library and Johns Hopkins (1795-1873) to found Johns Hopkins University and Medical School.
Three Peabody museums advanced anthropology at Harvard, paleontology at Yale, and maritime history and Essex County history, including George Peabody’s letters and papers, at Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA.

He endowed professorships at Phillips Academy, Andover, MA, and Washington and Lee University, Lexington, VA.  He gave publication funds to both the Maryland and Massachusetts Historical Societies; aided Civil War widows and orphans (through the U.S. Sanitary Commission); and supported a Vatican charitable hospital (in Rome, Italy).
His multi-million dollar 1862 Peabody Homes for London’s working poor amazed the British, inspired imitators in the U.S. and elsewhere, brought him many honors.

The Peabody Homes today, housing over 50,000 low income Londoners, offer highly praised job counseling and other social services, making George Peabody better known in England than he is in the U.S.
His previously mentioned Peabody Education Fund (1867-1914, 47 years) advanced public elementary and secondary schools, plus teacher education in 12 depressed southern states.  Pres. Andrew Johnson (1708-75) and the U.S. Congress acknowledged the Peabody Education Fund as a national gift.

Harvard historian Schlesinger was right: all later larger major U.S. funds and foundations are based on the Peabody Education Fund model.  That Fund’s legatee in Nashville, George Peabody College for Teachers (1914-79, 65 years), shared courses and credits with adjoining Vanderbilt University.  They merged in 1979 as Peabody College of Vanderbilt University.
In London we read George Peabody-related papers at his banking firm, in the British Library, University of London Library, and at Windsor Castle.  Queen Victoria wanted to knight him.  He graciously declined.

He died in London, Nov. 4, 1869, evoking public and news media praise for his philanthropy on both sides of the Atlantic.  His remains lay in state for 30 days at Westminster Abbey.

His will requiring burial near his birthplace prompted Queen Victoria to order his remains returned to the U.S. on Britain’s newest war ship.  President U.S. Grant (1822-85) ordered a U.S. war ship as escort vessel.  His trans-Atlantic funeral made international news.
Memory of George Peabody inevitably faded in time, overshadowed by vastly wealthier industrialists (Carnegie, Rockefeller, Ford, others) and their much larger funds and foundations.

We returned to Nashville in December 1954 and found new part-time jobs.  On February 18, 1955, George Peabody’s 160th birthday, Frank was invited to give the Peabody College Founders Day Address, published as George Peabody (1795-1869), Founder of Modern Philanthropy (Nashville: George Peabody College for Teachers, 1955).

Frank wrote and Betty edited the George Peabody dissertation, which was defended, accepted, and later published by Vanderbilt University Press as George Peabody, a Biography, 1971.   In 1995 on the 200th anniversary of George Peabody’s birth, Frank’s updated version was republished with 12 illustration.
The George Peabody research experience bonded us wonderfully.  The London research and brief trips to Scotland, Paris, Lucerne, and Rome helped us see ourselves, the U.S., and the world differently.  The British people and Europeans in 1954, still scarred by WWII bombings and privation but on the mend, seemed to us more mature, substantive, more serious than hustling, bustling, competitive, “keep-up-with-the-Joneses” Americans.
Compared to the U.S., we thought British and European family life, schools at all levels, and media were more substantive, more culturally informed, better character building.  We felt that our advertising-dominated American culture, in over-promising everything, cheapened our values, often misled us with inconsequential fads and fancies.
Berea College, Peabody College, and our research experiences, especially in London, besides bonding us, led Frank to emphasize more and more international education during his 40 years of teaching at the universities of Texas (Austin), Oklahoma (Norman), W. Va. (Morgantown), Northern Arizona (Flagstaff), Western Carolina (Cullowhee, NC).

We felt that teachers with intercultural-international understanding could help new student generations build a more peaceful world.  As longtime editor of the Comparative and International Education Society Newsletter Frank learned of and publicized low-cost travel and international study opportunities for students and teachers.
A competitive Kappa Delta Pi  (education honor society) Fellowship in International Education took us to Africa for eight months during 1957-58.

The British south central African colonies of Northern Rhodesia (later Zambia), Southern Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe), and Nyasaland (later Malawi) had formed a multiracial federation.
Our research plan was to record how this multiracial experiment was working out educationally for the white, black, Asian, mixed-blooded racial groups, especially the segregated African majority.

Carnegie Corporation officials, long involved in African education, helped us become attached as unpaid researchers to the University College of Rhodesia and Nyasaland in Salisbury, now the University of Zimbabwe in Harare. We visited mission schools, government schools, and studied documents in the Government Archives.
We explained our research purpose and limited funds in a letter to the editor of the Salisbury (now Harare) newspaper.  In response, five white families going on long vacations asked us at low rent to be live-in caretakers of their homes.  We thus compared ruling white minority luxury living with majority African subsistence living.

Frank’s small book about our 1957-58 experience, African Development and Education in Southern Rhodesia, Ohio State University Press, 1960, led to Frank’s being asked to contribute articles about Africa to encyclopedia yearbooks: Americana, World Book, Collier’s, others, for a dozen years.
In 1961-62 as a Fulbright Research Scholar we were attached to the Rhodes Livingstone Institute, Lusaka, Northern Rhodesia (now part of the University of Zambia).  We wrote many articles about Northern Rhodesia government and mission schools.
Frank’s three pamphlets (with Betty’s collaboration) in Phi Delta Kappa’s (international education honor society publication series. were:
1–The Battle of the Books: Kanawha County,  1975, based on a much publicized school textbook censorship case in Charlestown, W. Va.
2–What Can We Learn from the Schools of China? 1976, was based on Frank’s China school visits in March 1974.  We both later visited China’s schools in July 1978 and again during Dec., 1986-Jan., 1987
3–British Schools and Ours, 1979, based on school visits in and around London plus short courses we took at Cambridge University and the University of London.
We end this section with appreciation for our 27 trips abroad listed below, 1954 to 1987, 33 years, and 40 rich rewarding teaching years.

We are grateful for 16 retirement years with interesting Uplands Retirement Village friends who share our hope for peace and justice for all people everywhere.  END.


1-(1954: Sept.-Dec.): England and Scotland manuscript research for dissertation and book, George Peabody: A Biography. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1971, revised with 12 illustrations, 1995.
2-1957-58: International Fellow at University College, Salisbury, Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), Central Africa; visited Zambia, Malawi, Republic of South Africa.
3-1961-62: Senior Fulbright Research Scholar at Rhodes-Livingstone Institute of University of Zambia; visited Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), Republic of South Africa, and England.

4-Aug. 1966: Studied adult education in Finland & West Germany; visited Belgium, The Netherlands, & England.

5-Aug. 1967: Studied adult education in Belgium and West Germany; visited Luxembourg and England.

6-May-June 1969: Lectured at Twente Technological Institute, The Netherlands; attended International Comparative Education Society meeting in Prague, Czechoslovakia; visited Belgium and England.
7-July-Aug. 1969: Taught at University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

8-July-Aug. 1970: Taught at University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

9-July 1971: Taught at University of Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada.
10-Nov. 1971: Participants in Phi Delta Kappa Eastern European Comparative Education Seminar held in Hungary, Romania, USSR, and Poland.
11-March 1972: Gave conference keynote address on “Educational Strategies for Accelerating Development in Southern Africa,” at University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa; visited Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), Lesotho, and Swaziland.
12-July 1972: Taught at University of Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada.

13-Nov. 1972: Co-directed with Dr. Gerald H. Read: Phi Delta Kappa Seminar in East Africa: Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania.
14-July 1973: Taught at University of Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada.
15-Dec. 1973: Research on comparative education at the University of London, England.
16-March 1974: Participant in Phi Delta Kappa’s first seminar in People’s Republic of China.
17-July-Aug. 1974: Taught at the University of Newfoundland, Canada.
18-Dec. 1974: Research on comparative education in the University of London, England, libraries.
19-July 1975: Participant, “British Schools and Society” course, Caius College, Cambridge University, England.
20-July 1976: Participants, “Education in England” course, Institute of Education, University of London, England.
21-May-June 1977: Lectured at the University of Madrid Institute of Education and the University of Oviedo Institute of Education, Spain. Studied schools in Surrey County, England.
22-July 1978: Participants in Adult Education Seminar in the People’s Republic of China.
23-Aug. 1978: Lectured at the United Nations University, Tokyo, Japan.
24-July 6-Aug. 8, 1980: Participants, Fourth Middle East Studies Seminar, sponsored by Israeli Teachers Association, American Federation of Teachers, and National Committee for Middle East Studies, Israel; also visited England.
25-March 3-10, 1984: London, England.
26-March 4-11, 1985: London, England.

27-Dec. 19, 1986-Jan. 4,1987: Participants in Phi Delta Kappa Education Seminar in Peking, Shanghai, Guilin, Canton; Hong Kong; Tokyo, Japan.  END.

Franklin Parker, 1921-, & Betty J. Parker, 1929-, WRITINGS ON GEORGE PEABODY (1795-1869): Merchant, Banker, Educational Philanthropist.  July 14, 2010.


Parker, Franklin.  “George Peabody, Founder of Modern Philanthropy,” Ed. D. Dissertation, George Peabody College for Teachers [of Vanderbilt University Library after July 1, 1979], Nashville, TN 37203-5721 , 1956, 3 volumes, 1219 pp.


George Peabody,  A Biography. Nashville:  Vanderbilt University Press, 1971, 233 pp.  Reprinted in CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education, IX, 3 (November, 1985), Fiche 7 D10, entire issue.

George Peabody,  A Biography.  Nashville:  Vanderbilt University Press, February 1995 revised edition with 12 illustrations added, 278 pp.

Journal, Printed, Entire Issue

“Legacy of George Peabody: Special Bicentenary Issue” [reprint of 21 articles], Peabody Journal of Education, LXX, No. l (Fall 1994), 210 pp, sold by Peabody Journal of Education, Peabody College of Vanderbilt University Nashville, TN 37203.

Journal, Fiche, Entire Issue

(With Betty J. Parker). “George Peabody (1795-1869) A-Z: People, Places, Events, and Institutions Connected with the Massachusetts-born Merchant, London Banker, and Educational Philanthropist.” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education) , XXIV, No. 3 (Oct. 1999), Fiche.

Encyclopedia Articles

Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture. Carroll Van West, et al., Eds.  Nashville: University of Tennessee Press, 1998.

. 1-“George Peabody College of Vanderbilt University, pp, 359-360.  URL: http://tennesseeencyclopedia.net/imagegallery.php?EntryID=G012

2-“Peabody Education Fund in Tennessee,” pp. 725-726.  URL: http://tennesseeencyclopedia.net/imagegallery.php?EntryID=P013

“George Peabody (1795-1869).” Encyclopedia of Philanthropists in the United States.  Westport, Conn.;  Greenwood Press and Onyx Press, 2002.

(With Betty J. Parker).  “George Peabody (1795-1869),” Philanthropy in America: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia, ed. by Dwight Burlingame.  ABC Clio, 2004, 370-371.

Chapters in Book

“George Peabody (1795-1869), Founder of Modern Educational Philanthropy: His Contributions to Higher Education,”  Academic Profiles in Higher Education. Edited by James J. Van Patten. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1992, pp. 71-99.

“George Peabody (1795-1869), Merchant, Banker, Creator of the Peabody Education Fund, and a Founder of Modern Philanthropy,” Notable American Philanthropists, Robert Thornton Grimm, Jr., ed. Westport, Conn.; Greenwood Press and Onyx Press, 2002, pp. 242-246.

(With Betty J. Parker). “George Peabody (1795-1869),” Philanthropy in America: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia, ed. By Dwight Burlingame (ABC Clio, 2004), pp. 370-371. URL: http://tennesseeencyclopedia.net/http://tennesseeencyclopedia.net/imagegallery.php?EntryID=G012

Articles in Journals

[Note 1: Items 18,19, and others in Fiche form in CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education) are published by Carfax Publishing, Taylor & Francis Ltd, P. O. Box 25, Abingdon, Oxfordshire 0X14 30E, United Kingdom].

[Note 2:  See End of Manuscript for URL access to Parkers’ George Peabody (1795-1869) U. S. Government ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) entries].

1.  “Nashville’s Yankee Friend,” Nashville Tennessean Magazine (May 15, 1955), pp. 2, 6-7.

2.  “Founder Paid Debt to Education,” Peabody Post, VIII, No. 8 (February 10, 1955), p. 1.

3. “The Girl George Peabody Almost Married,” Peabody Reflector, XXVII, No. 8 (October, 1955), pp. 215, 224-225.

4. “George Peabody and the Spirit of America,” Peabody Reflector, XXIX, No. 2 (February, 1956), pp. 26-27.

5.  “On the Trail of George Peabody,” Berea Alumnus, XXVI, No. 8 (May, 1956), p. 4.

6. (With Walter Merrill), “William Lloyd Garrison and George Peabody,” Essex Institute Historical Collections, XCV, No. 1 (January, 1959), pp. 1-20.

7. “George Peabody and Maryland,” Peabody of Journal of Education, XXXVII, No. 3 (November, 1959), pp. 150-157.

8. “Robert E. Lee, George Peabody, and Sectional Reunion,” Peabody Journal of Education, XXXVII, No. 4 (January, 1960), pp. 195-202.

9. “Influences on the Founder of the Johns Hopkins University and the Johns Hopkins Medical School,” Bulletin of the History of Medicine, XXXIV, No. 2 (March-April, 1960), pp. 148-153.

10. “George Peabody and the Search for Sir John Franklin, 1852-1854,” American Neptune, XX, No. 2 (April, 1960), pp. 104-111.

11. “An Approach to Peabody’s Gifts and Legacies,” Essex Institute Historical Collections, XCVI, No. 4 (October, 1960), pp. 291-296.

12. “George Peabody’s Influence on Southern Educational Philanthropy,” Tennessee Historical Quarterly, XX, No. 2 (March, 1961), pp. 146, 151-152.

13. “Maryland’s Yankee Friend–George Peabody, Esq.,” Maryland Teacher, XX, No. 5 (January, 1963), pp. 6-7, 24; reprinted in Peabody Notes (Spring, 1963), pp. 4-7, 10.

14. “The Girl George Peabody Almost Married, Peabody Notes, XVII, No. 3 (Spring, 1954), pp. 10-14.

15.  “George Peabody, 1795-1869, Founder of Modern Philanthropy,” Peabody Reflector, XXXVIII, No. 1 (January-February, 1965), pp. 9-16.

16. “The Funeral of George Peabody,” Essex Institute Historical Collection, XCIX, No. 2 (April, 1963), pp. 67-87; reprinted: Peabody Journal of Education, XLIV, No. 1 (July, 1966), pp. 21-36.

17.  “George Peabody and the Peabody Museum of Salem,” Curator, X, No. 2 (June, 1967), pp. 137-153.

18.  To Live Fulfilled: George Peabody, 1795-1869, Founder of George Peabody College for Teachers,” Peabody Reflector, XLIII, No. 2 (Spring, 1970), pp. 50-53.

19. “On the Trail of George Peabody,” Peabody Reflector, XLIV, No. 4 (Fall, 1971), pp. 100-103.

20. “The Creation of the Peabody Education Fund,” School & Society, XCIX, No. 2337 (December, 1971), pp. 497-500.

21.  “George Peabody, 1795-1869: His Influence on Educational Philanthropy,”  Peabody Journal of Education, XLIX, No. 2 (January, 1972), pp. 138-145.

22. “Pantheon of Philanthropy: George Peabody,” National Society of Fund Raisers Journal, I, No. 1 (December, 1976), pp. 16-20.

23. “In Praise of George Peabody, 1795-1869,” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), XV, No. 2 (June 1991), Fiche 5 AO2.

24. “George Peabody (1795-1869), Founder of Modern Educational Philanthropy: His Contributions to Higher Education,” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), XVI, No. 1 (March 1992), Fiche 11 D06.

25. “Education Philanthropist George Peabody (1795-1869), Founder of George Peabody College for Teachers, Nashville, and the Peabody Library and Conservatory of Music, Baltimore (Brief History).”  CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), XVIII, No. 1 (March 1994), Fiche. Abstract in Resources in Education.

26. (With Betty J. Parker), “George Peabody’s (1795-1869) Educational Legacy,” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), XVIII, No. 1 (March 1994), Fiche 1 C05. Abstract in Resources in Education, XXIX, No. 9 (September 1994), p. 147 (ERIC ED 369 720).

27. “Educational Philanthropist George Peabody (1795-1869): Photos and Related Illustrations in Printed Sources and Depositories,” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), XVIII, No. 2 (June 1994), Fiche 1 D1Z; abstract in Resources in Education, XXX, No. 6 (June 1995), p. 149 (ERIC ED 397 179).

28. “The Legacy of George Peabody: Special Bicentenary Issue” [reprints 22 article on George Peabody], Peabody Journal of Education, LXX, No. 1 (Fall 1994), 210 pp.

29. “Educational Philanthropist George Peabody and Peabody College of Vanderbilt University: Dialogue with Bibliography,” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), XVIII, No. 3 (December 1994), Fiche 2 E06.

30. (With Betty Parker). “A Forgotten Hero’s Birthday [George Peabody]: Lion and the Lamb,” Crossville (Tenn.) Chronicle, February 22, 1995, p. 4A.

31. (With Betty Parker). “America’s Forgotten Educational Philanthropist: A Bicentennial View,” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), XIX, No. 1 (March 1995), Fiche 7 A11.  Abstract in Resources in Education, XXXI, No. 12 (Dec. 1996), p. 161 (ERIC ED398 126).

32. (With Betty Parker). “Educational Philanthropist George Peabody (1795-1869) and the Peabody Institute Library, Danvers, Massachusetts: Dialogue and Chronology,” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), XIX, No. 1 (March 1995), Fiche 7 B01.

33. (With Betty Parker). “George Peabody (1795-1869); Merchant, Banker, Philanthropist,” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), XX, No. 1 (March 1996), Fiche 9 B01. Abstract in Resources in Education, XXXI, No. 3 (Mar. 1996), p. 169 (ERIC ED 388 571).

34. (With Betty Parker). “On the Trail of Educational Philanthropist George Peabody (1795-1869): A Dialogue.” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), XX, No. 3 (October 1996), Fiche 13 B07.

35. (With Betty Parker).”Peabody Education Fund in Tennessee (1867-1914),” Tennessee Encyclopedia of History & Culture (Nashville: Tennessee Historical Society, 1998), pp. 725-726.

36.    (With Betty Parker).”George Peabody College of Vanderbilt University,” Tennessee Encyclopedia of History & Culture (Nashville: Tennessee Historical Society, 1998), pp. 359-360.

37. (With Betty J. Parker). “Educational Philanthropist George Peabody (1795-1869) and First U.S. Paleontology Prof. Othniel Charles Marsh (1831-1899) at Yale University.” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), XXII, No. 1 (March 1998), Fiche 7 A04. Also abstract in Resources in Education, XXXIV, No. 1 (Jan. 1999), p. ? (ERIC ED 422 243).

38. (With Betty J. Parker). “Educational Philanthropist George Peabody (1795-1869) and U. S.-British Relations, 1850s-1860s.” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), XXIII, No. 1 (March 1999), Fiche 1 A05. Also abstract in Resources in Education, XXXV, No. 5 (May 2000), p. 122 (ERIC ED 436 444).

39. (With Betty J. Parker). “George Peabody A-Z,” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), Vol. 24, No. 3 (Oct. 1999), Fiche 11 C10.

40. (With Betty J. Parker). “General Robert E. Lee (1807-70) and Philanthropist George Peabody (1795-1869) at White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia, July 23-Aug. 30, 1869.” Abstract in Resources in Education, XXXVI, No. 2 (Feb. 2001), p. 184 (ERIC ED 444 917).

41. (With Betty J. Parker).  “The Forgotten George Peabody (1795-1869), A Handbook A-Z of the Massachusetts-Born Merchant, London-Based Banker, & Philanthropist: His Life, Influence, and Related People, Places, Events, & Institutions,” 1243 pp. Abstract in Resources  in Education, Vol. XXXVI, No. 3 (March 2001), pp. 122 (ERIC ED 445 998).

42. (With Betty J. Parker). “Peabody College of Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee: Past and Future; From Frontier Academy (1785) to Frontiers of Teaching and Learning,” Review Journal of History and Philosophy of Education (published in India by Anu Books), Vol. XXVIII (February 2003), pp. 109-144.

43. “Robert E. Lee, George Peabody, and Sectional Reunion,” Peabody Journal of Education, Vol. 78, No. 1 (Fall 2003), pp. 91-97 [reprinted from Peabody Journal of Education, Vol. 37, No. 4 (Jan. 1960), pp. 195-202, and Peabody Journal of Education, Vol. 70, No. 1 (Fall 1994), pp. 69-76].

44. “George Peabody, 1795-1869: His Influence on Educational Philanthropy,” Peabody Journal of Education, Vol. 78, No. 2 (Summer 2003), pp. 111-118 [reprinted from Peabody Journal of Education, Vol. 49. No. 2 (Jan. 1972), pp. 138-124; Peabody Journal of Education, Vol. 70, No 1 (Fall 1994), pp. 157-165; and Tennessee Historical Quarterly, Vol. 20, No. 2 (March 1961), pp. 65-74].

ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center)

Thirty six (36) of the Parkers’ articles on George Peabody in the U.S. Government’s ERIC system can be accessed and read in abstract and in full at the following URL source:


End of Manuscript.  Please e-mail corrections and questions to:  bfparker@frontiernet.net

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