Adolf Hitler (1889-1945): “Today Germany, Tomorrow the World.”

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Adolf Hitler (1889-1945): “Today Germany, Tomorrow the World.” Based on 1-Andrew Nagorski, Hitlerland: American Eyewitnesses to the Nazi Rise to Power, 2012. 2-William L. Shirer, Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany, 1960, & Related Sources. Dialogue Given at Uplands, Adshead, Pleasant Hill, TN, June 16, 2014, by Franklin and Betty Parker, bfparker@frontiernet.net

Frank: We chose this Hitler topic when a friend, Alex Karter, refugee from Hitler’s Germany, read and praised Nagorski’s Hitlerland: American Eyewitnesses to the Nazi Rise to Power.

Betty: Andrew Nagorski was former Newsweek bureau chief in Berlin and Bonn. His Hitlerland tells what key Americans in Germany between WW 1 and 2—journalists, U.S. Embassy staffs, important U.S. visitors—what they knew, saw, learned, about Hitler’s Nazism; their warnings/failed warnings; what they got right/wrong.

Frank: Hitlerland to journalists meant how Hitler’s militarizing of Germany affected the U.S., Europe, and the world. ¶Nagorski begins with Chicago Tribune’s woman reporter Sigrid Schultz’s interview in 1919 of German naval officer Eric Raeder, who told her: “You Americans need not feel proud of yourselves. Within 25 years…your country and [mine] will be at war again. And this time we’ll win, because we will be better prepared…”

Betty: Eric Raeder’s bitterness and outrage—felt by most Germans–determined us first logically to explain defeated Germans’ terrible sufferings under the punishing 1919 Versailles Treaty, sufferings that gave rise to Hitler.

Frank: We trace Hitler’s rise to power; tell why Germans backed him, why he wasn’t stopped earlier, we explore his obsession to rule the world. We end with Nagorski’s Americans-in-Germany views on Hitler. Historical background is from prize winner William L. Shirer’s Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany.

Betty: World War I cost Germany millions of lives, loss of its colonies, plus vast destruction, upheaval, and misery. World War I winners France, Poland, USSR took Germany’s most productive lands.

Frank: Poverty-stricken, half-starved, with 40% jobless, Germans endured high inflation, lost their life savings, could only pay high reparations through long term low interest U.S.A. loans.

Betty: Germans hated the Allied-imposed supposedly democratic Weimar Republic in power (1919-33), 14 years.4 It was left-leaning, weak, faction-ridden, with leftists fighting rightists in the streets. Germans were humiliated, seeking salvation.

Frank: Hitler’s Nazi party arose from these horrible German sufferings and thrived during the 1930s worldwide depression. Hitler, dictator after 1933, did end Versailles demands and Weimar, created job security, build autobahns and Volkswagens, re-awaken past German glories, militarized Nazi Germany, tied together every group, every aspect of German life toward one goal: world dominion. We pursue the roots of his drive for power.

Betty: Anything in Hitler’s family background to explain his later cruelty? His father Alois, born illegitimately, was given his mother’s maiden name, Schicklegruber: When Alois Schicklegruber was age 5 (1842), his mother married Johann Georg Hiedler. When Alois Schicklegruber, age 30, was a respected Austrian Civil Service Customs Inspector, a proud Hiedler uncle helped Alois change his last name legally, recorded as H-i-t-l-e-r.

Frank: Alois Hitler 13 years later fathered Adolf Hitler. Why significant? “Heil Schicklegruber” would have been laughed at. Later, to neglect the required “Heil Hitler” with upraised arm salute was to court arrest, a beating, or worse.

Betty: Alois Hitler’s illegitimacy was little known. Few knew the rumor that his unmarried mother worked for a rich Jewish family whose 19-year-old son might have made her pregnant.

Frank: Researchers never identified Hitler’s paternal grandfather. Yet Hitler deliberately made the area where family records might exist into a military target practice area and wiped it out. Why? Hitler once said privately, “No one must know my past.” Was hiding family shame part of Hitler’s cruelty? Maybe.

Betty: Hitler adored his loving mother Klara Hitler, hated his stern father who beat Adolf for wanting to be an artist rather than follow in his father’s footsteps as civil servant. Did Adolf later reflect his father’s cold nature? Was Adolf’s early rebellion part of his iron will as dictator? Was Adolf’s cruelty a strike back at a cruel father? Maybe.

Frank: Adolf Hitler’s mother was his father’s third wife; the first two wives died. Adolf’s siblings and step siblings died young. Did Adolf, a sickly lone male survivor, later believe himself spared to Nazify and Aryanize Germany and the world? Maybe.

Betty: Adolf’s elementary school grades: good; high school marks: poor, partly from clashes with his father; partly, he said, from bad teachers, except history teacher Leopold Poetsch, who inspired Adolf with German heroes, glories, with Germans as a master race when race-polluting Jews, Slavs, other inferiors were eliminated.

Frank: High school dropout at 16 and unskilled, Adolf loafed on a civil servant orphan’s pension in Linz, Austria; read library books, watched and worshiped Richard Wagner’s Germanic opera heroes. His only friend, August Kubezek, music student, said Adolf was high strung, opinionated, angry if corrected, sometimes violent.1

Betty: They roomed together in Vienna, Austria, 4 years, Adolf aged 19-24. Adolf, twice rejected by the Vienna Academy of Art, then rejected by the School of Architecture for not having a school-leaving certificate, was angry, vengeful. He read Darwinian survival of the fittest books; read eugenic tracts on eliminating the mentally handicapped and physically deformed.

Frank: Dependent on flop houses and soup kitchens, Hitler painted scenes of well-known Vienna buildings on postcards sold in a few Jewish shops or hawked by Jewish flophouse acquaintances. His scapegoating of “Jewish-communist-betrayers-of-Germany,” came later, when, as Nazi Party head, stressing Jew hatred won him public notice, Nazi party members, and financial contributions. Did Hitler sense that defeated Germans with no way to hit back at their Allied enemies, got some satisfaction from hitting back at substitute ancient scapegoat, Jews?12 Did he use historic Jew hatred because it bonded German masses to him? Did hatred of Jews, gypsies, Slavs, political enemies become an ingrained obsession? Maybe.13

Betty: Leaving Austria for Munich, Germany, to avoid Austrian compulsory military service, Hitler loafed in Munich 2 years, ages 24-25. Austrian authorities found him, gave him a physical exam, rejected him as too thin, too weak.

Frank: It was WW 1 that galvanized Hitler. With Army medical requirements lowered, he enlisted in a Bavarian branch of the German Army, served 4 years as a message runner behind trench lines, was twice wounded and twice awarded an iron cross.14 Did anger over WW 1 defeated, persecuted Germans instill in Hitler his later drive to rebuild Germany into a Deutschland uber allus? Maybe. Did W.W. I kill-or-be-killed trench warfare harden Hitler later to kill, without remorse? Maybe.15

Betty: Germany’s November 11, 1918, surrender ending WWI shocked and angered Hitler. No Allied troops had occupied German soil; the German General Staff never surrendered. Hitler believed the “Stab in the Back” falsehood: that the 1918 Armistice was signed by left-wing German politicians paid to do so by Jewish-Russian Marxists. Hitler later called them “the November Criminals.”

Frank: For food, lodging, income Hitler remained in the army 1919-1920, in a propaganda unit, lecturing mustering-out soldiers to be pro-German, anti-communist.16 His superior officer, impressed by Hitler’s speeches, sent Hitler to see if a new small Munich German Workers’ Party was pro-German or communist. 17

Betty: Attending this party’s Sept. 12, 1919, meeting, Hitler spoke out against a remark that Bavaria should secede from Germany. His impromptu rebuttal impressed party co-founder Anton Drexler, who said: “He [Hitler] has the gift of gab; we need him.” Drexler gave Hitler a pamphlet listing German Workers Party aims: pro-German nationalism, pro-military, anti-Communist, anti-Semitic, anti-Weimar government.18

Frank: Wandering young Hitler, dreamer, loafer, rejected artist-architect, now a budding politician, had—as he inwardly always knew–hidden talents that emerged amazingly: organizer, propagandist, mesmerizing speaker. He instinctively sensed and spoke to audiences’ wants, needs, fears, hopes. Even hostile audiences warmed to him, praised him to friends. He voiced their hopes, shared their prejudices, promised them a good, proud life. He pushed out weaker party leaders, became the party’s leader, listed 25 party aims, broadened the party’s appeal by renaming it National Socialist Workers Party, popularized it as the Nazi Party, chose its arresting red and black flag and striking swastika.

Betty: To oust communists and other hecklers, to intimidate and remove enemies, Hitler organized brown-shirted Storm Trooper thugs. Then, 1923 events led Hitler to attempt a Bavarian government takeover which failed, Nov. 8-9, 1923. What were these events?

Frank: Event 1-The German mark’s sharp decline halted reparation payments. France seized Germany’s rich industrial Ruhr Valley. Its German workers rebelled. Riots erupted against France and the Weimar government.

Betty: Event 2-Hitler’s role model, Benito Mussolini, had marched on Rome to become Italy’s dictator. Could Hitler do the same?23

Frank: Event 3-Hitler’s Storm Trooper rowdies wanted more power, pay, action. Event 4-Hitler’s hidden ace was popular WW I hero General Eric von Ludendorff, Nazi Party member, to co-lead the attempted Putsch.

Betty: Hitler secretly bribed 3 wavering Bavarian high officials to back his Nazi Party’s seizure of Bavaria as a first step toward ending Weimar.

Frank: Nov. 8, 1923: the 3 Bavarian officials held a large beer hall political rally. Hitler barged in with armed Storm Troopers, fired his pistol for attention, declared a Bavarian revolution.

Betty: Herding the 3 Bavarian leaders into an anteroom, Hitler demanded their support. They hesitated. Hitler dashed back to the large audience, lied triumphantly: Bavarian officials support the Putsch! The waiting audience cheered.

Frank: News of the attempted coup quickly reached Weimar officials, who firmly ordered: stop the traitors; arrest them, jail them, try them, convict them.

Betty: Nov. 9, 1923: armed Bavarian military and police clashed with Hitler’s Nazi marchers. Shots fired, 16 Nazis, 3 military/police killed. Hitler, dragged to the ground, escaped to the home of his Nazi friend Ernst Hanfstaengl.19

Frank: Police arrived. Hitler put his gun to his head. Ernst Hanfstaengl’s wife, Helen, pushed the gun aside, said: the Nazi Party needs you, saved Hitler to fulfill his destiny.20

Betty: Tried for treason, Hitler’s brilliant defense went something like this and spread his fame:

Frank: When a thief takes your money and you take it back, is that owner guilty? No. Never. Our Nazi Party and every German must take back what the criminals robbed us of: our land, resources, government, past glory. Tear up the criminal Versailles Treaty. End unworkable Weimar. Restore German honor, glory. Improve Germany today, for tomorrow we lead the world.

Betty: The judge, sympathetic, had to pronounce Hitler guilty; sentence, 5 year; early release recommended. Nine months in jail was Hitler’s re-think, rebuild time. He told aides: We will hold our noses, compete legally to win Reichstag seats, gain power, and destroy Weimar.

Frank: Ten years later, 1933, Hitler, whose 1923 beer hall Putsch failed, was Chancellor, Fuehrer, dictator.

Betty: In jail Hitler dictated Mein Kampf (My Battle), a mix of sanitized autobiography plus a blueprint for a rebuilt Nazi Party aimed to win political power legally to end Weimar.

Frank: Now, we quicken our pace to dates, key events, from 1925 to Sept. 1, 1939, 14 years, the start of WW 2 in Europe.

Betty: The years 1925-29 were better economic times. In good times Nazi Party membership dwindled. May 20, 1928. Nazis won only 12 legislative seats in the then 491-seat Reichstag.

Frank: Oct. 29, 1929, U.S.A., financial Wall Street crash. 1930s Great Depression worldwide with Germany hardest hit. Joblessness and despair returned. A Germany in misery again was Hitler’s golden opportunity, for the Nazi Party thrived on troubled times.

Betty: Sept. 14, 1930. National election. Nazis won 107 seats in a 577-seat legislature, making Nazis the second largest party.

Frank: Spring 1932: Weimar President Paul von Hindenberg, WW I commander-hero, age 85, near-senile, was up for re-election. Austrian-born Hitler wants to run against Pres. Hindenberg but he cannot. Hitler is not a German citizen. Then, by trickery, an official of Brunswick State, Germany, a Nazi party member, suddenly appoints Hitler envoy to Berlin, making Hitler automatically a German citizen. Hindenberg wins, but runner up Hitler, is now a major political figure.21

Betty: July 31, 1932. National election. Nazis win 230 seats in 608-seat legislature and are now Germany’s largest party.

Frank: Jan. 4, 1933, the secret meeting that made Hitler Chancellor. The then Chancellor Franz von Papen, weak, unable to govern, made this secret proposal to Pres. Hindenberg: you appoint Hitler Chancellor, and appoint me (Papen) Vice Chancellor. Hitler to name only 3 of the 11 member Chancellor’s Advisory committee; I, Papen will name my 8 majority members. Why? Hitler’s Nazi Party, largest in the legislature, was popular, Papen, not popular. He wanted to convince Pres. Hindenberg that he (Papen) could control Hitler. Senile President Hindenberg reluctantly agreed. Papen’s mistake made Hitler Chancellor of Germany. Hitler already knew how he would achieve absolute power.22

Betty: Jan. 30, 1933. FDR elected; his inauguration still weeks away. Hitler, now chancellor, pushed Papen aside, ousted him, later jailed him. Suddenly, as if by magic, Hitler, intent on dismantling the Weimar Republic, is aided by the Reichstag fire, equivalent to the burning of our U.S. Capitol Building. Accident? Or did Hitler make it happen?

Frank: Feb. 27, 1933, is the date of the Reichstag Fire, blamed on a half-witted 24-old-Dutch communist arsonist, hastily tried and hanged. Hitler immediately thundered publicly his big lie that Communists deliberately set the Reichstag Fire to start a Communist takeover of Germany. Hitler’s intent with the big lie was to win public approval to remove all communists. Also, eliminating communists with impunity masked Hitler’s eliminating hundreds of his other enemies. Suspicion persists that Nazis set the fire, scapegoated the half-wit Dutchman, to eliminate enemies and strengthen Hitler’s control.

Betty: March 23, 1933. Less than two months as Chancellor, Hitler won Reichstag approval for an “Enabling Act” that gave Hitler sole power to make all laws, a ruthless move for absolute rule.

Frank: July 14, 1933: Hitler removes problems. Stressing the Reichstag Fire as prelude to a planned Communist takeover, Hitler induced Pres. Hindenberg to suspend civil liberties. This allowed Chancellor Hitler to suppress all parties except the Nazi Party, outlaw trade unions, tie workers to their jobs, farmers to the land. Hitler’s last hardest problem was Nazi Storm Trooper head Capt. Ernst Röhm who demanded that his Storm Troopers replace the Prussian Army. Prussian Generals thundered: Never; sharply ordered Hitler: remove Röhm and his lieutenants or the Prussian Army will crush and replace you with a Kaiser descendant. Hitler had to act.

Betty: June 30, 1934, was the “Night of the Long Knives.” During a Storm Trooper night rally, Hitler’s armed personal guards swooped down, murdered Röhm, his lieutenants, and over a thousand others who had opposed, angered, or threatened Hitler.

Frank: July 13, 1934, Two weeks later, after massive propaganda about putting down the “Röhm Attempted Revolution,” Hitler justified the Röhm bloodbath to a Reichstag audience as follows: “In this [crisis] hour I was responsible for the fate of the German People. I became the Supreme Judge…” Reichstag audience cheered and applauded.

Betty: Aug. 2, 1934, Hindenberg Died. Learning that Hindenberg was dying, Hitler ordered his cabinet to combine the office Presidency with his Chancellorship. He compelled all military to swear: “unconditional obedience to Hitler unto death.”

Frank: Nov. 5, 1937. Lebensraum, Living Space. Now absolute dictator, Hitler secretly told his generals and admirals: prepare for war, which might come anytime as he (Hitler), through peaceful ways (mostly threats and tricks), sought Lebensraum, living space, by absorbing neighboring Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland.

Betty: March 14, 1938, meeting with Austrian Chancellor Kurt von Schuschnigg, Hitler raved and ranted that Germans in Austria were mistreated, abused (a deliberate lie). Hitler demanded that unless Schuschnigg signed a declaration of Austria-German union (Anschluss), German troops would march into Austria.

Frank: Taken aback, Schuschnigg insisted on a plebiscite (Austrians to vote yes or no). Hitler cunningly forestalled a most likely “no” plebiscite vote. He had his Nazi agents line up crowds of cheering Austrians welcoming equally cheering friendly entering German troops. With no way to resist, Schuschnigg signed the Declaration of Union. Hitler absorbed Austria. No shot fired.

Betty: March 15, 1939, a year after Austria. Czechoslovakia had 3.5 million Germans living in its Sudetenland area. Again, Hitler, ranting and raving his lie about abused Germans, demanded that Sudetenland be ceded to Germany or the German army would enter and take it. Britain’s Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, seeking peace at any price, convinced Czech leaders to cede Sudetenland to Germany.

Frank: Soon after March 15, 1939, wanting all of Czechoslovakia, Hitler met with old ailing Czech President Emile Hácha, raved and ranted his propaganda lie of Germans persecuted in Czechoslovakia. Hitler’s bluff worked. The Czech President signed all of Czechoslovakia to Hitler’s Germany. No shot fired.

Betty: Aug. 23, 1939. Poland and the Hitler-Stalin Pact. Britain’s PM Neville Chamberlain, finally realizing war was inevitable, said: if Germany invades Poland, Britain and France will fight Germany. Threatened, Hitler entered a secret pact with Stalin, whose communism Hitler hated: Germans attack Poland from the west; Russians from the east; Russia’s reward: northern areas of Poland.

Frank: Aug. 31, 1939. Hitler needed to justify invading Poland. He faked this incident: Nazis dressed in Polish uniforms attacked German frontier stations bordering Poland and left scattered bullet-ridden German uniformed bodies (the dead bodies came secretly from a German concentration camp). Realistic Nazi propaganda film of the faked Polish massacre of Germans convinced many that it really happened.

Betty: Sept. 1, 1939. Hitler’s army invaded Poland, attacked and killed Polish military. Britain and France declared war against Germany. WWII, which we do not cover, began.

Frank: Now we turn to Nagorski’s Hitlerland to view Hitler’s Nazis through the eyes of key U.S. journalists, U.S. Embassy staff, and U.S. visitors to Germany; their experiences and insights.

Betty: Some 50 U.S. news reporters between WW 1 and 2 covered Germany, stationed mostly in Berlin, which was then surprisingly the artistic-cultural-cabaret-song-and-dance center of Europe. Berlin, more than Paris, was the swinging-rocking-sin-city. Recall the 1972 musical with Liza Minnelli and Joel Grey, Cabaret.

Frank: Besides being Europe’s cultural hub Germany was Europe’s least expensive center, drew many tourists. The small overworked U.S. Embassy staff in Berlin, especially the Harvard-Yale Ivy League State Department professionals, kept publicly quiet about Nazi atrocities. Not so U.S. journalists who aggressively with searching eyes and keen minds sent back to the U.S.A. searing reports on Hitler-Nazi misdeeds.

Betty: Newspapers were numerous, avidly read, the main source of the ordinary person’s view of the world. Still remembered U.S. journalists who covered the rise of Hitler include: H.V. Kaltenborn, William L. Shirer, Dorothy Thompson, Howard K. Smith. Less remembered top journalists were Chicago Tribune pioneer woman reporter Sigrid Schultz and Chicago Daily News reporter Edgar Mowrer. But first, the views of some prominent U.S. visitors to Germany.

Frank: In July 1933, then well known YMCA International Secretary Sherwood Eddy, on his l2th visit to Germany. Sherwood Eddy said publicly to a German audience: “In your country, injustice is committed every day, every hour,” a bold thing for an American to say to Germans.

Betty: Visiting novelist Sinclair Lewis, then married to newswoman Dorothy Thompson, visited Germany summer 1934. He felt compelled to write his novel, It Can’t Happen Here, set in the U.S.A. Its Hitler-like dictator, claiming to solve all problems, abolished the U.S Congress and established a fascist U.S.A. Lewis’s popular novel warned Americans to beware of home-grown Hitler-like fascist politicians.

Frank: African American sociologist and NAACP leader W.E.B. Dubois, had a six-month fellowship in Germany during the 1936 Berlin Olympics. Nazis had efficiently removed all anti-Jewish propaganda signs temporarily. It was “Be Nice to Foreign Visitors During the Olympics” time. Black W.E.B. Dubois was treated with courtesy. Yet he observed and wrote that Nazi Germans’ ugly campaigns of hatred against non-Nordic races and Jews “surpasses in vindictive cruelty and public insult anything I have ever seen.”

Betty: H.V. Kaltenborn, American-born radio newsman of German heritage, at first thought warnings about Hitler overblown. Then in 1933 when Kaltenborn’s own son Rolfe was beaten by a storm trooper for failing to salute Nazi banners carried in a parade, Kaltenborn quickly saw his mistake.

Frank: Novelist Thomas Wolfe visited Germany in the mid-1920s, again in 1935 where he was lauded for his Look Homeward Angel, and also attended the 1936 Olympics. His loud cheering for African American runner Jesse Owen irritated Hitler who, sitting nearby, scowled at Wolfe’s cheers.

Betty: Thomas Wolfe admired the German people and culture but he abhorred the Nazis. Wolfe described a German train ride as follows in You Can’t Go Home Again, which the Nazis banned.

Frank: Wolfe was with talkative German passengers enjoying themselves, when Nazi officials burst in and roughly hauled out one of the travelers as an escaping Jew. In the shocked silence that followed, a German woman said to the others: “Those Jews. They make all the trouble. Germany has to protect herself.”

Betty: Dorothy Thompson, first in Berlin in the mid 1920s, again in 1931, met Hitler, misjudged him as insignificant, not to be taken seriously. Returning to Germany in 1934 with Hitler by then a menacing dictator, she reported devastating truths about his ruthless regime, was expelled and, back in the U.S.A., her expulsion made her an instant celebrity.

Frank: Howard K. Smith was in Berlin in 1936 as a United Press junior reporter, later as TV commentator. Seeing how easily American visitors overlooked Hitler’s threat, he was alarmed that the world had no idea of the danger Hitler posed.

Betty: Howard K. Smith identified 4 stages in U.S. visitors’ reactions to Nazi Germany: Stage 1-Admiration for spic-and-span, attractive Germany. Stage 2-Awareness of uniforms, guns, rearmament, parading soldiers. Stage 3-Awareness of swift preparation for war, of quick cold-blooded killing of regime critics. Stage 4: Alarm that Hitler’s gathering military strength could annihilate unprepared countries including the U.S.A. Most U.S. visitors on quick visits were stuck in stage 1-Admiration, and never saw ultimate dangers Hitler posed.

Frank: Now, a few experiences of journalist Sigrid Schultz, Chicago Tribune’s newswoman, who in 1919 interviewed naval officer Eric Raeder. Chicago-born of Norwegian parents, well schooled in France and Germany, multilingual, Schultz in 1932 in a group of U.S. journalists met Hitler. Fascinated, she saw him as a consummate actor. He locked eyes with each journalist in turn, shook hands, was amiable even with journalists known to be hostile.

Betty: Schultz was among hastily assembled foreign reporters when Nazi Air Force Marshall Hermann Goering justified the June 30, 1934 “Night of the Long Knives” massacre. In his justification Goering said: we had to prevent a planned rebellion against Hitler. Looking directly, piercingly, at Schultz, who he knew to be a Nazi critic, he named a prominent German politician shot trying to escape. Schultz had the chilling sensation that Goering was telling her that the Nazis could do anything they wanted with impunity.

Frank: Schultz noted that the Nazis soon stopped expelling hostile reporters who back home only drew sympathetic attention. Instead, the Gestapo tried planting damaging evidence on critical journalists to arrest, try, and jail them. In April 1935 an envelope marked “Important Information” delivered to Schultz contained an airplane design. Seeing the agents outside who delivered the envelope, she loudly told them that she burned the envelope. Entering a cab in their presence she shouted to the cabbie for all to hear: “Take me to the U.S. Embassy.” Schultz believed Goering tried several times to set her up as a spy to dispose of her.

Betty: When Poland was invaded, Sept. 1, 1939, Schultz’s maid appeared red-eyed, teary. Asked why, she said her husband had seen pictures of uniformed Germans maimed and killed by Polish troops at a German military outpost near Poland. When Schultz told the maid that the incident was faked to justify Hitler’s march into Poland, the maid, affronted, later reported to the Gestapo all of Schultz’s phone call, messages, and mail received.

Frank: Schultz described this above incident to show how gullible and unquestioning most Germans were to follow their leader Hitler. He had given Germans jobs, social security, restored their pride. Joseph Goebbels’ Nazi propaganda was masterful. Most Germans closed their eyes and minds to alleged Nazi atrocities, saying if Hitler only knew of abuses, he would have stopped them.

Betty: Schultz, at a reception of Nazi officials after Hitler invaded Poland, asked about reports of mass murders of Poles. A Nazi official answered her: I don’t see why you get excited over the deaths of Poles. They are Slavs and only white on an inferior level. They outnumber us Germans, have a much higher birth rate, so killing them is justified. He concluded with: only those Slavs and Jews who work with us as slave underlings will survive.

Frank: U.S. Embassy junior Military Attaché Army officer Lt. Truman Smith first interviewed Hitler Nov. 20, 1922. To Smith Hitler openly admitted his intent to become dictator and rid Germany of Jews. Lt. Smith from the first believed Hitler was dangerous but did not then imagine Hitler becoming Germany’s dictator or European conqueror or WW 2 initiator.

Betty: On Truman Smith’s second 4-year tour in Berlin, 1935-39, as U.S. Senior Military Attaché, he was much more concerned about dictator Hitler’s military build-up. Smith arranged famed aviator Charles Lindbergh’s several visits to Germany, believing correctly that Nazis would be proud, especially Air Marshall Goering, to show Lindbergh their air force Luftwaffe advances. Lindbergh gathered information about Germany’s massive military buildup invaluable to U. S. Intelligence.

Frank: Chicago Daily News reporter Edgar Ansel Mowrer, learning secretly from a Jewish doctor about Jews in concentration camps, warned his readers about Hitler, told Jewish friends, “Get out of Germany while you can.”

Betty: When new President FDR in 1933 appointed University of Chicago historian William E. Dodd Ambassador to Germany, FDR told Dodd: “I want a liberal in Germany as an example.” Dodd, disliked by State Department insiders, early saw and told FDR that Hitler was a danger who must be stopped.

Frank: Author Nagorski concluded his Hitlerland by saying that the most insightful Americans in Germany helped the U.S. begin to recognize Hitler as an ominous threat, begin to abandon U.S.A.’s strong USA isolationism, begin FDR’s rearming U.S.A. to stop Hitler. Changing U.S. public opinion was their most important contribution. ¶Time, Betty, to wind down with last thoughts. Your last thoughts, Betty?

Betty: I feel more strongly than ever the need for vigilance against fascism and racism. Hitler was an evil genius, wrote William L. Shirer, impossible to understand, except in the context of a defeated, desperate Germany which his megalomania led astray. Your last thoughts, Frank.

Frank: Democracy with all its faults is slow but safer and better than dictatorship. Our demagogues, would-be-Hitlers: Huey P. Long, Joseph McCarthy, Father Coughlin of Detroit, others, spouted, we listened, then repudiated them. It’s better to jaw jaw than war war, said Winston Churchill. About our own considerable U.S. problems: Let debate flourish; let thoughts contend. Between political parties let’s return to civil compromise. If you want peace, work for justice.

Betty: Anything we missed for lack of time?

Frank: Yes, Hitler’s henchmen, worse than Hitler; they did his dirty work with vengeance: Hermann Gõring, Heinrich Himmler, Joseph Goebbels, Martin Bormann, Reinhard Hedrick, others.
Betty: Why are we glad we chose this topic?

Frank: Hitler, starting WW 2, changed history in so many ways. His evil hastened the founding of the United Nations. He and WW. 2 changed all our lives, got me into the armed forces, to Berea College, KY, where we met and married, to Nashville’s Vanderbilt University, to 40+ years teaching, to Uplands.
Betty We could not have done it without this Uplands audience and Third Monday Book Review Co-Chairs Mary and Don Smith. Thank you all so much for being here. End.

Footnotes:

1-See Sigrid Schulz and Eric Raeder in google.com and in Nagorski index.

2-William L. Shirer’s condensations in his: The Rise and Fall of Adolph Hitler, NY: Scholastic, 1961; and his: “Hitler on the March: The Years of Triumph,” Reader’s Digest Book Section-II (April, 1962), pp. 248-299.

3-WW1 (1918) defeated Germany’s sufferings: http://tinyurl.com/og7yrbc

4-Weimar, a university city, less politically volatile than Berlin.

5-Hitler’s background…recorded as H-i-t-l-e-r. http://www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/riseofhitler/born.htm Or: http://tinyurl.com/dn7qar

6-Why significant? “Heil Schicklgruber” would have: Ibid.

7-Hitler’s illegitimacy… impregnated her. http://www.google.com/search?client=safari&rls=en&q=google.com&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8#q=leopold+frankenberger+hitler&rls=en

8-Family cover-up shame: http://tinyurl.com/dn7qar
…FOR unknown paternal (Alois’s) father: http://tinyurl.com/odmtcrt

9-Leopold Poetsch (1853-1942): http://www.google.com/webhp?source=ig&hl=en&rlz=1G1GGLQ_ENUS352&btnG=Google+Search#hl=en&q=leopold+poetsch-hitler. Or: http://tinyurl.com/mdbxk5l

10-Wagner’s (1813-1883)

11-August Kubezek: high strung, opinionated, angry when corrected, sometimes violent. http://www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/riseofhitler/art.htm (or: http://tinyurl.com/pltbmd3). http://www.toolan.com/hitler/fuhrer.html
Or: http://tinyurl.com/qewc4fl

12-Hitler’s anti-Semitism: German author Göetz Aly, Why the Germans? Why the Jews? Envy, Race Hatred, and the Prehistory of the Holocaust, Metropolitan Books, 2014.

13-German author Göetz, Ibid.

14-Hitler’s 1918 German-Jewish commanding officer Hugo Gutman, 1880-1961, see: http://tinyurl.com/qjsmyl7, never promoted Hitler above lance corporal despite his two iron crosses. Some questionable sources allege that superior officers denied Hitler’s promotion because of his devious sex reports: http://www.google.com/search?client=safari&rls=en&q=google.com&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8#q=Hitler’s+sex+orientation&rls=en

15-Frank: Recovering from a gas attack: http://tinyurl.com/nk6ygce

16-Betty: Unskilled in a jobless time, Hitler remained in the army 1919-20: http://www.google.com/search?client=safari&rls=en&q=google.com&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8#q=german+freikorps&rls=en

17.His Bavarian military Captain Karl Mayr (1883-1945), http://www.google.com/search?client=safari&rls=en&q=google.com&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8#q=Karl+Mayr&rls=en
Or: http://preview.tinyurl.com/o2vsnnp)

18-Impressed by Hitler’s persuasive speeches, was pro-communist: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_Workers%27_Party)

19-Nazi friend Ernest Hanfstaengl’s (1887-1975) house: http://www.google.com/search?client=safari&rls=en&q=google.com&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8#q=Hitler%2C+Ernest+Hanfstaengl&rls=en

20-Helen Hanfstaengle pushed the gun aside: http://www.theglobalist.com/the-woman-who-prevented-hitlers-suicide/ Or: http://tinyurl.com/m8ffe6z
http://www.google.com/search?client=safari&rls=en&q=google.com&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8#q=Hitler’s+Beer+Hall+Putsch&rls=en
Or: http://tinyurl.com/pjk8jbs

21-Hitler got German citizenship by trickery and subterfuge: http://www.google.com/search?client=safari&rls=en&q=google.com&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8#q=how+did+hitler+become+a+german+citizen&rls=en

22-Hitler became Germany’s Chancellor by trickery and backroom bargaining: http://www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/riseofhitler/named.htm
and: http://www.google.com/search?client=safari&rls=en&q=google.com&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8#q=how+hitler+became+chancellor+essay&rls=en

23-Event 1: Hitler’s model Benito Mussolini, Oct. 29, 1922: http://www.google.com/search?client=safari&rls=en&q=google.com&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8#q=mussolini+facts&rls=en

For Americans-in-Germany, see their Last, First names in Nagorski, Hitlerland index.

General Sources:
Adolph Hitler references are enormous. Besides the Nagorski and Shirer books reviewed the authors used Google.com and other search engines under these typed headings:
–Adolph Hitler
–Germany Under Adolph Hitler
–Nazi Germany
–Adolph Hitler’s Henchmen
–Adolph Hitler’s Psychological Profile
–Adolph Hitler’s Best Authors

Authors’ Other Writings
Published Works by Franklin and Betty J. Parker, E-mail: bfparker@frontiernet.net
Franklin Parker,1921-, Betty J. Parker, 1929-, 41 Library of Congress Publications listed in: http://catalog.loc.gov/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?DB=local&Search_Arg=Parker%2C+Franklin%2C+1921-&Search_Code=GKEY%5E*&CNT=100&hist=1&type=quick
Or: http://tinyurl.com/mtba25h

For our Library of Congress and WorldCat publications, many on George Peabody: copy Franklin Parker, 1921, and Betty J. Parker, 1929-) on your browser and click on:
http://bit.ly/mfEmU2 Or: http://tinyurl.com/pepg4ft
Or: http://tinyurl.com/qxmydzw

To read many pages (not all) of Franklin Parker, George Peabody, A Biography, Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt Univ. Press, 1995, copy/paste on your browser/click on: http://tinyurl.com/nyxqe4w

Seven books listed in Amazon.com: http://www.amazon.com/Franklin-Parker/e/B001KMQUD8

Access our’ many articles through google.com or any other search engine by typing as subject any of the following: Franklin Parker, or Betty J. Parker, or Franklin and Betty J. Parker, or Betty and Franklin Parker, or bfparker, or bfparker@frontiernet.net or bandfparker@frontiernet.net

Franklin Parker, 1921-Publications in U.S. Govt. ERIC File, 5 pp, full text available: http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Parker%2C+Franklin&ft=on
Or: http://tinyurl.com/oxmo2os

For 37+ of our articles in blog form, copy and paste on your browser and click on:
http://bfparker.hubpages.com/hubs/hot

For F.P.’s articles on: 1-George Peabody College of Vanderbilt Univ., 2-Peabody Education Fund in TN., & 3-May Cravath Wharton: click on:
http://tennesseeencyclopedia.net/author.php?rec=190
Or: http://tinyurl.com/kwrxeo3

For a funny skit on our 61st wedding anniversary, access:
http://www.blogger.com/blogger.g?blogID=8967946846408369801#editor/target=post;postID=4052694467764754564
Or: http://preview.tinyurl.com/lmtl7q2

Vanderbilt University’s Wise Library, Nashville, has these 9 Franklin Parker, 1921-, publications (with Lib. of Congress call numbers): (copy on your browser and click on): http://tinyurl.com/leroakx

1. George Peabody, a biography Rev. ed. HV28 .P4 P29 1995, 1995

2. George Peabody, a biography [electronic resource] Rev. ed. 1995.
3. Education in the People’s Republic of China, Past and Present: An Annotated Bibliography, 1986.

4. U.S. higher education: a guide to information sources, 1980. 5. British schools and ours, 1979. 379.156 P224b, 1975

6. The Battle of the Books : Kanawha County. Parker, Franklin, 1921-. Z5811 .P25 v.18,pt.1, 1971

7. American dissertations on foreign education; a bibliography with abstracts (20 volume series).
370.8 In8, no.2, 1960

8. African development and education in Southern Rhodesia. 370 P32 no.70 v.2, 1956

9. George Peabody, founder of modern philanthropy.

Berea College’s Hutchins Library, Ky (the Parkers’ undergraduate college, FP, B.A., 1949; BJP, B.A., 1950), lists 17 of their publication titles: Copy and click on:
http://banc.berea.edu:7008/vwebv/searchResults?searchId=10387&recPointer=10&recCount=10
Or: http://tinyurl.com/nzhksll

For Picture/article F. Parker playing Xmas Jingle Bells: copy, paste on your browser:
http://www.crossvillechronicle.com/features/x1956151520/Making-music-in-Pleasant-Hill/print

Lists 66 of Franklin Parker’s publications in the U.S. Government ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) system, with access to Abstract of each Publication plus full access to each Publication. Paste on your browser and click on:
http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Parker%2C+Franklin&ft=on
Or: http://tinyurl.com/ma7znaq

THE END. Corrections, comments to bfparker@frontiernet.net
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James A. Michener, Writer: Life and Writings. [Nov. 6th, 2012|10:30 am]
[ Tags | famous writer, tales of the south pacific ]

“James Albert Michener (1907-97): Educator, Textbook Editor, Journalist, Novelist, and Educational Philanthropist. An Imaginary Conversation.”

By Franklin Parker and Betty Parker, bfparker@frontiernet.net

Note: The following imagined conversation with the late James Albert Michener was originally given in dialogue form by the authors at Uplands Retirement Community, June 17, 2002. 63 Heritage Lane, Crossville, Tenn. 38571-8270, e-mail bfparker@frontiernet.net

This paper explores the circumstances that made Michener a world renowned writer and best selling novelist. Was his success due to talent, luck, or sheer pluck?

QUESTIONER: Mr. Michener, you grew up an orphan in Doylestown, Pa., north of Philadelphia, and were raised by a foster mother. True?

MICHENER: What I knew growing up was that my widowed mother, Mrs. Mabel Michener, took in orphans. My father Edwin Michener died before I was born. We were Quakers. My older brother was Robert. We were a poor but happy family.

QUESTIONER: You were 19, a freshman at Swarthmore College, when you were first told you were an illegitimate child. Who told you?

MICHENER: An uncle, Edwin Michener’s brother, told me that Edwin Michener died five years before I was born.

QUESTIONER: What did Mabel Michener say?
MICHENER: That she took me in when I was a few weeks old without a name or birth certificate. She raised me as her son. Others later told me different versions of my birth. I never investigated them. Mabel

Michener was the only mother I knew and loved.

QUESTIONER: She received little charitable help for her foster home; took in washing; sewed for people; cleaned houses for a realtor in order to live rent-free. What about when she was sick and couldn’t feed you?

MICHENER: She left us temporarily with her sister whose husband worked at the Doylestown poorhouse, a dismal place.

QUESTIONER: Any bad memories of the poorhouse?

MICHENER: One old man committed suicide. I vowed to do anything to keep from ending up in such an ash heap.

QUESTIONER: At night Mabel Michener read aloud Charles Dickens’ Oliver Twist; Mark Twain’s Huckleberry Finn; The Iliad, and other poems. Her brother, your uncle, brought home an old Victrola and classical records.

MICHENER: She never earned enough to buy herself new clothes. But she shared with us great books, beautiful music, and love.

QUESTIONER: You early wandered far from home. Was it because you were curious about people and places?

MICHENER: I hitched barge rides on the Delaware River. I hitchhiked out of state with a friend or alone. I sent postcards home saying that I was o.k. I had hitchhiked to 45 states by age 18.

QUESTIONER: Here’s an anonymous letter you received when a newspaper article appeared about you and your first book: “Dear Mr. ‘Michener’???? You don’t know who I am but I sure know who you are. You aren’t a Michener and never were. You’re a fraud to go around using that good name…. [Y]ou ought to be ashamed of yourself…. I’ll be watching you, [signed] A real Michener.”

MICHENER: I never bothered to find out who sent that letter and later hate mail.

QUESTIONER: Your male guidance included the two men who told you that the local poolroom was no place for you. And George C. Murray, a roofer, who started a boys’ club where you played basketball. And high school coach Allen Gardy encouraged your basketball skill.

MICHENER: These men kept me and other boys out of trouble. Sports, school, and after school jobs kept me busy.

QUESTIONER: Margaret Mead the anthropologist also grew up in Doylestown?

MICHENER: She and I had the first library cards at the new public library. Since we’d read all the children’s books the librarian let us take out adult books.

QUESTIONER: Your classmate Lester Trauch described you thus: “[Jim Michener] was the poorest boy in school, but the brightest boy. He wore sneakers so worn his toes stuck out. He was not one of the gang, liked to be by himself, was obsessed with basketball, and never wasted a minute. He walked to school reading his lessons; read in the halls between classes. When the history teacher asked a question, Michener was the only one [who knew] the answer. He had done all this extra research. The teacher was fascinated, but we [kids] just laughed.”

MICHENER: Mabel Michener kept me and my second hand clothes clean. Ridicule sometimes hurt but I put it behind me. Basketball and my sports articles helped. Our high school yearbook, The Torch, listed me as “the most talkative…most prompt…most original student.”

QUESTIONER: Besides many after school jobs you were also a plumber’s apprentice. Your uncle said: “Jim, you are going to be something better than a plumber.” How did you get to Swarthmore College?

MICHENER: My Latin teacher recommended me, and maybe helped me win a four year scholarship, 1925-29. I focused on study, books, and reading. For me, seeking independence, Swarthmore was ideal.

QUESTIONER: What pleased you most at Swarthmore?

MICHENER: Its Honors Program. I pursued my own last two-year self-directed program. I read English and American literary classics and wrote weekly papers.

QUESTIONER: You worked in the Swarthmore Chautauqua traveling adult program which offered lectures, operas, and plays?

MICHENER: Yes, the summer of 1928. I did various jobs and acted in plays. I worked nights at Swarthmore’s Strath Haven Inn as watchman and switchboard operator. I worked summers at a Philadelphia amusement park, observed people, and saw carnival chicanery of all kinds.

QUESTIONER: You graduated from Swarthmore in June 1929, just before the Great Depression?

MICHENER: I taught English at a Quaker prep school, the Hill School, Pottstown, Pa. I taught there two years, 1929-31, read a lot and dreamed of being a writer.

QUESTIONER: Why did you leave the Hill School?

MICHENER: Swarthmore awarded me its Lippincott Fellowship for study abroad.

QUESTIONER: You crossed the Atlantic and enrolled at St. Andrews University, Scotland.

MICHENER: I saw much poverty and many people on the dole in London, Glasgow, and Dundee. I traveled alone or with student groups in Europe.

QUESTIONER: You toured Italy to study art, learned about Mussolini’s fascist regime, and toured Spain, France, Belgium, and other European countries.

MICHENER: I observed early fascism, nazism, communism, and heard third world students complain about their colonial masters. I wasn’t surprised when colonialism collapsed after World War II.

QUESTIONER: You went to a remote Scottish island, Barra, in the Hebrides to collect old Celtic folk songs and legends. You traveled in Spain with bullfighters who performed in various towns.

MICHENER: A St. Andrews classmate told me that Dutch freighters sometimes hired students in exchange for a berth. I worked on a cargo ship in the Mediterranean and earned British merchant marine status.

QUESTIONER: The two years abroad heightened your wanderlust. What did you find on your return to the U.S., in the summer of 1933?

MICHENER: I saw apple sellers and soup lines in New York City (NYC). At 26, I taught English at the George School, a Quaker secondary school, Newtown, Pa, not far from Doylestown.

QUESTIONER: You married Patti Koon while at the George School?

MICHENER: I met her while taking summer courses at the University of Virginia. We married July 27, 1935. We went together to the George School.

QUESTIONER: Why did you and Patti Koon leave the George School, June 1936, for the Colorado State College of Education at Greeley?

MICHENER: To teach social studies in the College High School and to study for a master’s degree, which I received in June 1937. Colorado State was a progressive education college. It emphasized democratic values and the school’s responsibility to help improve society. I also taught four college courses.

QUESTIONER: One Greeley colleague wrote: “[Michener] was one of the most dynamic educators I have known…. He stimulated youth to comprehend interrelationship[s] among all fields of knowledge.”

MICHENER: The social studies looked at societal problems from historical, geographical, anthropological, and other viewpoints. I used this all-around approach in my 1959 novel Hawaii. At Greeley I learned of the opening of the American West, which I told in my 1974 novel, Centennial.

QUESTIONER: During the 1936-41 Greeley years you wrote 15 journal articles, edited one social studies book, co-authored another, and wrote an essay, “The Beginning Teacher,” for a third book. Pretty good for a young educator. Did you write any fiction?

MICHENER: One short story, “Who is Virgil T. Fry?,” in Clearing House, October 1941, a journal for high school teachers. It was about a teacher shunned by colleagues, fired by the school board, but beloved by students because he inspired them to learn.

QUESTIONER: Why did you leave Greeley? First for Harvard and then for Macmillan Publishing Co.?

MICHENER: I took a leave of absence to lecture on the social studies at Harvard Graduate School of Education and to pursue a Ph.D. degree in Education, which I did not complete. I returned to Greeley in 1941. Macmillan’s high school textbook editor, visiting Greeley, wanted me to work for him. Editing and publishing, I thought, would get me closer to writing.

QUESTIONER: You were at Macmillan while Europe was plunged into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked. Patti Koon Michener joined the WACs. You entered the U.S. Navy.

MICHENER: I enlisted as an ordinary seaman in October 1942. In early 1943, at age 36, I was commissioned a lieutenant in the U.S. Navy, received training at Dartmouth College, had assignments in the U.S., but kept asking to go to a combat zone.

QUESTIONER: Your small military group was transported to the South Pacific on a merchant marine ship. You never saw the captain, who was rumored to be drunk and in hiding. The unionized merchant marines ran the ship, ate the best food, and used most of the water. What happened?

MICHENER: One of our no-nonsense army captains at gun point forced our access to edible food and sufficient water. Before landing we ransacked the missing captain’s quarters. My irascible bunkmate said: Michener, you talk about wanting to travel. I am typing out orders authorizing your official travel anywhere in the South Pacific, signed and stamped with an official seal.

QUESTIONER: Did the forged papers work?

MICHENER: Until I got other bona fide U.S. Navy orders.

QUESTIONER: One of your Navy assignment was to thank with gifts the native men who rescued downed American pilots. Getting to the appropriate island, you explained to a group of Melanesian people that you were looking for these native men. They laughed and pushed forward an older girl who had seen the downed plane, dragged the Americans out, and had hidden and fed them. Describe your mission to Bora Bora?

MICHENER: Military personnel are routinely returned to the U.S. after stipulated months in combat areas. On Bora Bora some enlisted men refused to go home. Others threatened mutiny if they were forced to leave. I had to investigate this unusual situation.

QUESTIONER: You described Bora Bora as the most beautiful island in the world and as close to paradise as men in this world ever get, that it was inhabited by beautiful Polynesian girls, that there was a party every night. There was dancing till dawn. There was good island food and a regular supply ship from the States once a month.

MICHENER: The base was efficiently run during the day. At night a skeleton crew took over. Men left the base by truck or jeep, dropping off one by one at the palm huts of their lovely Polynesian lady friends. Relationships had formed, children were born, all hush hush. I had to report on this sensitive situation.

QUESTIONER: You traveled by Navy planes or ships to 49 South Pacific islands, covered about 150,000 miles, landed on hastily built air strips a few days after heavy fighting subsided. What made you finally draft your first book of fiction, Tales of the South Pacific?

MICHENER: Returning in the dark from a routine mission my pilot kept missing the poorly lit New Caledonia air strip. We braced for a crash landing, just made it, and were badly shaken. If I had died, I would have left nothing behind. I was approaching 40, mind you. That near crash prompted me to draft South Pacific stories running through my mind.

QUESTIONER: Your first draft was written on the island of Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides, south of Guadalcanal, in a Quonset hut, by pecking at a typewriter with your two index fingers. What was the story line?

MICHENER: Tales of the South Pacific consisted of 18 loosely connected stories about the comedy, boredom, shenanigans of Navy life on a Pacific island between military battles. The stories showed the interplay of Navy men, Navy nurses, and conniving natives; the funny aspects of military planes, jeeps, bulldozers, canned goods imposed on simple people living on beautiful islands.

QUESTIONER: You sent your draft to Macmillan, whose chief awaited your return. You delayed your return for a last tour of duty as Naval historian in the South Pacific. Did Macmillan accept your manuscript?
MICHENER: Yes, I was discharged from the U.S. Navy with the rank of Lieutenant Commander and returned to work at Macmillan in December 1945.

QUESTIONER: What happened to your wife, Patti Koon Michener?

MICHENER: We did not live together after the war. She returned to her South Carolina hometown. I lived in a Greenwich Village apartment, in Manhattan, near Macmillan, where I edited textbooks and in spare time revised my Tales of the South Pacific.

QUESTIONER: Tales… was to be published in 1946 but was delayed until February 1947, three years after you started it. Why the delay?

MICHENER: So that two of the 18 connected short stories could be published in the Saturday Evening Post, December 1946; January 1947. Had publication not been delayed to 1947, Tales… would never have won the Pulitzer Prize.

QUESTIONER: Tales… was little reviewed except by New York Times book reviewer Orville Prescott, who praised it. He wrote: “This long book of 18…linked short stories is, I am convinced, a substantial achievement which will make Mr. Michener famous…. ” Did Mabel Michener know of your success?

MICHENER: Sadly, when I came home from the war she was senile, did not know me, did not know I wrote a book. She died in March 1946.

QUESTIONER: You worked at Macmillan and in your spare time wrote your second book, an autobiographical novel, The Fires of Spring. Why were you slow to leave Macmillan for full time writing?

MICHENER: A survey showed the odds against freelance writing: one in 400 novels is published; one of every 2,000+ magazine articles submitted is accepted and paid for; the average full time novelist earned $1,800 a year. And so many people are trying to write the great American novel.

QUESTIONER: Then, on May 3, 1948, the Pulitzer Prize miracle happened.

MICHENER: I was at Macmillan editing a geography textbook with my senior colleague. The phone rang. He answered, listened, hung up, and said, “That was the Associated Press. Tales of the South Pacific just won the Pulitzer Prize for fiction.”

QUESTIONER: You had no idea Tales… was being considered, thought the phone call was a mistake. Why do you think it won?

MICHENER: I later heard that the Pulitzer selection chairman, New York Times correspondent Arthur Krock, received a phone call from Alice Roosevelt Longworth. She was Theodore Roosevelt’s daughter, wife of the Speaker of the House of Representatives, and the matron of Washington, D.C. society. She asked Arthur Krock which 1947 novel was being considered. When told, she said: it does not compare to Michener’s Tales of the South Pacific. Krock immediately put copies of Tales into the hands of his committee members.

QUESTIONER: Arthur Krock later wrote: “I gave my reasons [for nominating Tales] and the Board accepted them…. That prize initiated the public and critical awareness of Michener that assured his subsequent literary prominence and success.”

MICHENER I met Alice Roosevelt Longworth at a swank dinner. She said: You certainly did well with that prize we gave you. You didn’t let us down. It was daring of Krock to give you that award. Awards should be given to people at the start of their careers, not at the end. How can we be sure who will be a producer and who not? Thank you for making our gamble succeed.

QUESTIONER: In 1946 Tales… would have lost to Robert Penn Warren’s All the King’s Men. In 1948 it would have lost to James Gould Cozzens’ Guard of Honor. It could only win in 1947 and then only because Alice Roosevelt Longworth intervened. •How was Tales… chosen as the source for the Broadway musical, South Pacific?

MICHENER: MGM studio heads saw no story line in Tales…. The reader who had recommended it to MGM told stage designer Jo Mielziner that Tales… had stage possibilities. Jo Mielziner got composer Richard Rodgers and lyricist Oscar Hammerstein II to read the book. They liked it and turned for help to stage director Joshua Logan and producer Leland Hayward, who got Enzio Pinza and Mary Martin in the cast.

QUESTIONER: South Pacific was a spirited musical and a compelling drama of U.S. sailors and Seabees awaiting a major battle against the Japanese on a South Sea island. There was the love affair of French planter Enzio Pinza with Navy nurse Mary Martin, and a Navy lieutenant with a Tonkenese girl. The action was rowdy, romantic, and tragic.

MICHENER: The music was uplifting; the songs magnificent: Imagine Enzio Pinza’s, “Some Enchanted Evening.” And Mary Martin’s, “I’m Going to Wash that Man Right Out of My Hair.” And “Bali Ha’i. Come back, Come back, to Bali Ha’i,” that haunting melody that evoked the sun-setting beauty of the Pacific Islands. South Pacific had everything, even, “You’ve Got To Be Carefully Taught,” pleading with adults not to pass their prejudices on to their children.

QUESTIONER: Rodgers and Hammerstein urged you to invest in the show as an angel. You had little money, had married again, and were building a home. So they lent you money to buy 6% interest in the show. South Pacific ran 1,925 performances, almost five years, and earned you about $10,000 annually. Now what about your second wife, Vange Nord?

MICHENER: We met at a NYC party. She worked in NYC as a researcher and wanted to write. We married September 2, 1948. I worked at Macmillan three days a week and wrote the rest of the time. Vange Nord supervised the building of our new home in Pipersville, Pa., near Doylestown.

QUESTIONER: Any other reason South Pacific was so successful?

MICHENER: Americans like war-inspired dramas: There was Floradora after the Spanish American War; What Price Glory?, All Quiet on the Western Front after World War I; Mister Roberts, South Pacific after World War II.

QUESTIONER: Your literary agent Helen Strauss wrote this about you: “…[Michener] is a man of many moods and a loner, and his interests are varied. One might be put off by his reticence, but his modesty and humility are genuine.”

MICHENER: Helen Strauss, great literary agent, got Holiday magazine editors to finance my 8-month 1949 return to the South Pacific for an article series on Fiji, Australia, and New Zealand. Random House published it as Return to Paradise, made into two motion pictures, one with Gary Cooper, the other with Paul Newman. She got me another late summer 1950 trip to write about Asia for Life magazine.

QUESTIONER: Your Voice of Asia, published in late 1951, was selected by the Literary Guild in 1952 and translated into 53 languages. Why this public interest in Asia?

MICHENER: The U.S. and USSR competed to win Asian loyalties. I wanted to write fiction but Strauss got me Cold War reportorial assignments. I went to Asia again the second half of 1952.

QUESTIONER: Strauss also put you in touch with Reader’s Digest founder DeWitt Wallace?

MICHENER: I lunched with the DeWitt Wallaces summer 1952. We talked about the Korean War. I analyzed it for them. We hit it off.

QUESTIONER: The Reader’s Digest, one of the world’s most popular magazines, had 12 million circulation in the U.S. plus 37 foreign language editions. Its formula was: faith in God, family unity, patriotism, and the work ethic. Your biographer Hayes wrote: “If ever a magazine was designed for a writer, the Reader’s Digest was designed for James A. Michener: teacher, patriot, student of the world, and optimist. The combination of magazine and writer was a perfect fit; one that has been rarely repeated in the history of publishing.”

MICHENER: DeWitt Wallace wanted me to write exclusively for the Reader’s Digest. Helen Strauss said that a freelance writer had to be completely free.
QUESTIONER: DeWitt Wallace then made you one of the most generous offers in publishing history. What was that offer?

MICHENER: He said: You can go anywhere in the world you want to go. You can write anything you want to write. We’ll pay all your expenses, no matter where you go or what you do. You let us have first shot at what you’ve written. If we cannot use it, you can sell it elsewhere and you won’t owe us a penny.

QUESTIONER: Besides factual writing about the Korean War for Reader’s Digest you wrote a novel, The Bridges of Toko’ri, based on a real incident. It was published in Life magazine, then as a Random House book, and filmed with William Holden. What was the story line?

MICHENER: A World War II U.S. Navy Reserve pilot, happy with his family and civilian job, is brought back to fly a jet fighter in Korea. His mission: to bomb four vital Communist bridges in a narrow ravine at Toko-ri. He knows he is a sitting duck for enemy guns but executes the mission to defend American freedom.

QUESTIONER: You narrated “Appointment in Asia,” a weekly half hour TV program for the State Department, were advisor to the Asia Foundation, and were asked to write about Asian problems for various agencies. Did Vange Nord Michener travel with you?

MICHENER: Less and less and then not at all. She wanted a writing career and a husband to help her. I was an absent husband constantly writing his next book. She asked for a divorce, which came in January 1955.

QUESTIONER: Your 1955 novel Sayonara was timely, about interracial marriage, GIs and Japanese girls, written just before you married your Japanese-American third wife. How did you meet Mari Yoriko Sabusawa?

MICHENER: At a Chicago luncheon, 1954. For Life magazine I interviewed a GI and his Tokyo-born war bride living in Chicago. At the luncheon Mari defended American-Japanese marriages, saying that most do succeed.

QUESTIONER: Mari was born in Colorado, 1920, of Japanese immigrants. The family moved to California. After Pearl Harbor, the family was interned. A relocation plan for Japanese American students placed Mari in Antioch College, Ohio, where she received her degree. She then translated Japanese propaganda into English for a U. S. intelligence service.

MICHENER: She was editor of the American Library Association’s Bulletin in Chicago when we met in 1954. We were married October 23, 1955 and had 39 glorious years together.

QUESTIONER: Your biographer Hayes thus described her: Mari regarded marriage as her career. She cared about his peace of mind. To see Jim Michener you first had to penetrate her protective wall…. She was his housekeeper, cook, secretary, travel agent, librarian, valet, hostess, chauffeur, and accountant. She freed him to work uninterrupted. He cherished her. ¶Mr. Michener, how were you and Mari involved in the October 1956 Hungarian revolt against the USSR? Why did you write The Bridge at Andau, 1957?

MICHENER: I was in Europe in 1956 with Mari. The Reader’s Digest editor cabled me to cover the Hungarian revolt. I saw it as a harbinger of things to come. Soviet economics did not work. The USSR controlled Eastern Europe by force. On October 23, 1956, young Budapest dissidents, armed with sticks, stones, and Molotov cocktails, challenged Soviet tanks. Soviet reinforcements crushed the revolt, killed 80,000 Hungarians, forced 20,000 to flee, most of them over a bridge at Andau on the Austrian border. Mari, in Vienna, 50 miles away, made our home a way station for escaping Hungarians. I interviewed hundreds of them and helped some find residence in the U.S. and elsewhere.

QUESTIONER: Your biographer Hayes wrote this of your Hungarian experience: …”Michener patrolled the border alongside ministers, rabbis, fellow journalists, and the interpreters who helped him interview refugees as they crossed the rickety wooden footpath…near Andau. Hundreds…who crossed the bridge received a card bearing Michener’s address…and the promise of a hot meal…in exchange for their stories…. Many…wept for…their parents, children, countrymen…[left behind]…. Michener…had never witnessed an event more brutal….”

MICHENER: World editions of Reader’s Digest, March 1957, published a condensed version of The Bridge at Andau. Random House gave its profits to Hungarian relief. My royalties went to the Academy of Arts in Honolulu.

QUESTIONER: How did you feel about The Bridge at Andau?

MICHENER: It was a satisfying blow against Communism. I then determined to write epic novels, the first about Hawaii. In 1958 Mari and I moved to Waikiki.

QUESTIONER: The initial outline of your novel Hawaii shows its large scope, 1050 A.D. to 1954. You described minutely each incoming group: Polynesians, Japanese, and Filipinos through family stories, by generations, each a short novel in itself. Through successive characters you show the full range of Hawaiian history. ¶Mr. Michener, why was your novel about Hawaii timely?

MICHENER: Hawaii, like America, was a melting pot settled by immigrants. It was a bridge to Asia. It was ripe for statehood. It had little crime and good schools. It paid more in federal taxes than ten states. Hawaii was published just before statehood, rode a crest of publicity, and was number three best seller of 1959 novels.

QUESTIONER: A Saturday Review writer recorded this: “Hawaii is…a masterful job of research, an absorbing performance of story telling, and a monumental account of the islands from geologic birth to sociological emergence as the newest, and perhaps the most interesting of the United States.” Your biographer Hayes quoted you as saying: “With Hawaii I finally found great faith in myself as a writer….” Mr. Michener, why did you enter politics in the 1960s?

MICHENER: I was chairman of the Bucks County, Pa., committee to elect John F. Kennedy in 1960. My mistake was to run in 1962 as a Democrat candidate for Congress. Wise Mari kept saying, “Don’t do it, don’t do it.” I lost and went back to writing books.

QUESTIONER: What inspired your novel, The Source, published in 1965?

MICHENER: I was in the Mediterranean in April 1963 when I ran into the future mayor of Jerusalem. He asked me to write a book about Israel similar to my book on Hawaii.

QUESTIONER: You said it should be written by a Jew but you then and there outlined such a novel for him. He couldn’t find a Jewish writer and urged you to do it. You said you’d do it if you received bibliographic help.

MICHENER: Mari and I moved to Israel in May 1963, read hundreds of book, and pondered how to capture the Holy Land’s long, tempestuous history. I did it through one archaeological dig, or Tell, at Makor, which means “source,” sifting 15 layers of civilization through fictional families, showing the socio-economic-religious interaction of Jews, Christians, and Arabs, through peace and war from Biblical times to modern Israel.

QUESTIONER: Mr. Michener, our time is almost gone. We’ve traced you to age 60. You lived 30 more years, wrote more books, had quadruple bypass heart surgery, a hip replacement, and 4 years of dialysis, as listed in the Chronology below. ¶Mr. Michener, you gave millions of readers pleasure, information, and hope. Your tax advisor estimated that the U. S. spent $11,000 to educate you. You repaid society with over $68 million in income taxes. You and Mari (she died in 1994) donated over $100 million to educational institutions. Not bad for an orphan. Sleep well in your Austin, Texas grave. Sleep well.

Selected Works about James Albert Michener:

Becker, George J. James A. Michener. New York: Frederick Ungar, 1983.
Groseclose, Karen, and David A. Groseclose. James A. Michener: A Bibliography. Austin, Texas: State House Press, 1996.

Hayes, John P. James A. Michener. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1984.
Michener, James A. The World is My Home: A Memoir. New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1992.
Severson, Marilyn S. James A Michener. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1996.
Internet

A computer internet search under James Albert Michener (1907-79) using any major search engine (http://www.google.com or others) will uncover a wealth of pertinent material.

James Albert Michener (1907-97) Chronology of Career, Published Books, Honors:

1907, allegedly born February 3, 1907, an orphan, raised in foster home run by Mabel (Haddon) Michener (d. 1946), Doylestown, Pa. (Bucks County).

1921-25, Doylestown High School, Associate Editor of Torch, 2 years; Ed. In chief, 1 year. Basketball. Class President.

1925-29, Swarthmore College, 4-year scholarship, Contributions to “Portfolio.” Graduated with B.A., English & History, With Highest Honors. 1928, summer, traveled with Swarthmore Chautauqua group.
1929-31, teacher, The Hill School, Pottstown, Pa. (Quaker prep school).

1931-33, awarded Swarthmore’s Joshua Lippincott Fellowship for study/travel abroad. Studied at St. Andrews University, Scotland. Traveled widely in Europe.

1935, Married Patti Koon (divorced 1948).

1933-36, teacher, The George School, Newtown, Pa. (Quaker prep school).

1936-39, Associate Professor, Colorado State College of Education, Greeley. M.A. in 1937. 1938-40, Co-founded Angells Club, a discussion group with Colorado State College of Education, Greeley faculty, and community members.

1939-40, Visiting lecturer, Graduate School of Education, Harvard University.

1939, Edited The Future of the Social Studies (National Council for the Social Studies).

1940, co-authored “The Unit” in the Social Studies: Proposals for an Experimental Social Studies Curriculum (Harvard University Press). Introductory essay, “The Beginning Teacher,” 10th Yearbook of the NCSS (Harvard University Press). 15 journal articles published, 1936-41.1940-41, 1946-49, Social Studies editor, Macmillan Publishing Co.

1942-46, U.S. Navy; sent to South Pacific, spring 1944. 1944-46, Naval historian, South Pacific; discharged with rank of Lieutenant Commander, U.S. Navy.

1947, Tales of the South Pacific, fiction, 18 connected short stories. Pulitzer Prize.

1948, divorced by Patti Koon, married Vange Nord.

1949, The Fires of Spring, autobiographical novel (New York: Random House). South Pacific, Broadway stage musical.

1951, Return to Paradise, non fiction, on Asian countries. The Voice of Asia.

1952-70, Roving editor, Readers Digest.

1953, President of the Asia Institute; The Bridges at Toko-Ri, novel about Korea War.

1954, Sayonara, novel about U.S. military-Japanese marriage. The Floating World.

1955, Divorced by Vange Nord, married Mari Yoriko Sabusawa (1920-94).

1956, Aided Hungarian refugees.

1957, Appointed to Federal Advisory Arts Commission. The Bridge at Andau, non fiction, about 1956 Hungarian revolt against USSR rule. Rascals in Paradise. Selected Writings of James A. Michener.
1958, Overseas Press Club Award for Readers Digest article on Andau (The Bridge at Andau). The Hokusai Sketchbooks.

1959, gave collection of Japanese prints to Honolulu Academy of Arts. Hawaii. Japanese Prints: From the Early Masters to the Modern.

1960, Chairman, Bucks County Citizens for Kennedy. 1961, Report of the County Chairman (Bucks County chairman to elect J.F. Kennedy). Appointed by Pres. Kennedy to manage U.S. Food for Peace. Program failed
.
1962, Modern Japanese Prints. Ran and lost as Democratic candidate for Congress from 8th District, Pa.

1963, Caravans, novel. Helped establish Bucks County Arts Festival. Joined Americans for Permanent Peace in the Middle East. Received Einstein Award, Einstein Medical College.

1964, severe heart attack.

1965, The Source, novel about the Holy Land.

1967-68, President, Pennsylvania electoral College.

1968, Iberia, story about Spain. Gave collection of contemporary American art to the University of Texas, Austin.

1969, Presidential Lottery. The Reckless Gamble in Our Electoral System. The Quality of Life, essays.

1970, Facing East; the Quality of Life. Gave $100,000 to Swarthmore College programs for African American studies and race relations. American-Hungarian Studies Award from George Washington University.
1970-74, Member, U.S. Advisory Commission on Information. Gave $100,000 to Kent State University for arts program.

1971, Kent State: What Happened and Why, factual account. The Drifters, novel.

1972, Accompanied Pres. Richard Nixon to China.

1973, A Michener Miscellany, 1950-1970. Editor, Firstfruits.

1974, Centennial, novel on Colorado and the U.S. West. About Centennial.

1975, Represented Pres. Gerald Ford at Okinawa World Exposition. Appointed to the Bicentennial Advisory Committee and to Citizens Advisory [U.S.] Stamp Committee.

1976, Sports in America.

1977, Medal of Freedom Award presented by Pres. Gerald Ford (highest award granted U.S. citizen). TV series programs, “The World of James A. Michener.”

1978, Chesapeake, novel on colonial settlement of Maryland. Recipient of Pennsylvania Society Gold Medal.

1979, The Watermen. Member of NASA Advisory Council.

1980, The Covenant, novel on South Africa. The Quality of Life. Received the Franklin Award and the Spanish Institute Gold Medal. Gave $500,000 for the University of Iowa Writers Workshop.

1982, Space, novel, story of the U.S. space program.

1983, Collector, Forgers—and a Writer. Poland, novel. Testimony. Member of board for Radio Free Europe. Honored by the White House Arts Program for his financial assistance to artists.

1984, gave $2 million to Swarthmore College.

1985, Dedication of James A. Michener Arts Center, Bucks County, Pa. Received Exemplar Award from Central Bucks Chamber of Commerce. Texas, novel (commissioned to celebrate the state’s 75th birthday), covers 450 years of the region’s history.

1987, Legacy, novel on the U.S. Constitution on its bicentennial.

1988, Alaska, novel.

1989, Journey, novel, an excised chapter from Alaska published separately, describing the 2,043-mile trek of 4 explorers across the Canadian Yukon. Caribbean, novel.
1990, The Eagle and the Raven. Pilgrimage.

1991, James A. Michener on the Social Studies; The Novel, a novel. Gave $1 million to the University of Texas Graduate Writing program at the University of Houston. Gave $5 million to Swarthmore College. Named to the Smithsonian National Postal Museum Advisory Committee.

1992, The World is My Home, autobiography. James A. Michener’s Writer’s Handbook on the South Pacific, as told by James A. Michener [adaptation of the musical South Pacific], novel. Mexico, novel. My Lost Mexico, nonfiction. Gave $600,000 to the University of Northern Colorado Library. James A. Michener’s Writer’s Handbook: Explorations in Writing and Publishing, nonfiction.

1993, Creatures of the Kingdom, novel. Literary Reflections: Michener on Michener, Hemingway, Capote, and Others, (criticism) 1993.

1994, Wife Mari Michener died. Recessional, novel about aging. William Penn. Pledged $5 million each to art museums in Doylestown, Pa. and Texas.

1995, Miracle in Seville. Ventures in Editing.

1996, The Genius Belt: The Story of the Arts in Bucks County, nonfiction. This Noble Land: My Vision for America, nonfiction. Named Outstanding Philanthropist by the National Society of Fund Raising Executives.

1997, October 16, Michener died; buried in Austin, Texas.
(Michener received more than 30 honorary doctorates in Humane Letters, Law, Theology, and Science).

END OF MANUSCRIPT. Corrections, questions to bfparker@frontiernet.net
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May Cravath Wharton, M.D. (1873-1959), Founder of Uplands Retirement Village, Pleasant Hill, Tenn. [Aug. 16th, 2012|01:01 pm]
[ Tags | retirement village, small rural tennessee hospital ]

May Cravath Wharton, M.D. (1873-1959), Founder of Uplands Retirement Village, Pleasant Hill, Tennessee, USA
By Franklin Parker & Betty J. Parker, bfparker@frontiernet.net

Source: This article first appeared as: Franklin & Betty J. Parker, “Wharton, May Cravath (1873-1959), Tennessee Encyclopedia & Culture. Ed. By Carroll Van West, et. al. Nashville: Tennessee Historical Society, 1998, pp. 1050-1051.

She was Dr. May to friends, doctor woman of the Cumberlands to others. Babies she delivered were called Dr. May babies. By foot, horseback, tin lizzie, on poor roads, in all weather, she made calls to remote cabins on the Cumberland Plateau, middle Tennessee. Her dream of a hospital in Pleasant Hill became Cumberland Medical Center, Crossville. The May Cravath Wharton Nursing Home and Uplands Retirement Community, both in Pleasant Hill, are her dreams come true.

She was born on a Minnesota farm, a sickly child. Family friend and physician Aunt Addie’s nursing and gift of Home Doctor Book may have inspired May to become a doctor.

She finished high school at Carleton Academy (1889-90), Rochester, Minn., attended Carleton College (1890-93), and the University of North Dakota (1894-95, B.A.), studied in Europe (1897), taught at the University of North Dakota (1898-99), and earned a University of Michigan medical degree (1905).

She applied to the mission board, which then wanted only married missionaries. Disappointed, she practiced medicine in Atlanta, Georgia. There she met and married Edwin R. Wharton (1867-1920). They accepted a call to a Cleveland, Ohio, settlement house, he as director, she as physician (1907-09). Hard work took its toll. She needed rest. They bought a New Hampshire farm. He served small churches. She practiced medicine (1909-17).

In 1917 he became principal of Pleasant Hill Academy, 11 miles west of Crossville, Cumberland County. Its uniqueness went back to 1883 when resident Mrs. Amos Wightman asked the American Missionary Association (AMA, Boston) to send a trained teacher. Mary Santly, who taught a three-month school (spring 1884), said a minister was needed. The AMA sent Maine-born Benjamin F. Dodge (1818-97). He largely built Pleasant Hill Academy (1884-1947), by necessity a boarding school for widely spread community children. He also built and was pastor of First Congregational Church (since 1885).

Tall and shy, May Cravath Wharton taught health courses and was physician to students, faculty, and scattered communities. She worked tirelessly through the 1918 influenza epidemic. She won respect and distinction as the Doctor Woman of the Cumberlands.

In November 1920 Edwin R. Wharton died suddenly. Dr. May faced a dilemma. Five neighbors came with a letter from 50 families. “The people here want you to stay. We will pay you monthly and help build the hospital. We cannot do without you.”

Dr. May stayed. She was helped in her dream to build a hospital by Massachusetts-born Pleasant Hill Academy art teacher Elizabeth Fletcher (1870-1951), who raised funds, and English-born, Canadian-trained Registered Nurse Alice Adshead (1888-1979). A two-bed Sanatorium Annex (July 2, 1922) was followed by a general hospital (1935) and Van Dyck Annex (1938). Federal, state, and local aid came with the 1947 U.S. Hill-Burton Act that required such aided hospitals to be sited in county seats. Cumberland Medical Center opened in Crossville, 1950. The May Cravath Wharton Nursing Home opened June 21, 1957, Pleasant Hill.

She realized another dream: Uplands Retirement Community. On an early fund-raising trip, visiting her cousin Paul Cravath, a New York City attorney, she was inspired by a poem on his office wall:

“From the lowlands and the mire,

From the mists of earth’s desire,

From the vain pursuit of pelf,

From the attitude of self,

Come up higher,

Come up higher.”

“Uplands,” she wrote in her autobiography, “That was our name–Uplands!”

Honors came late: Carleton College Alumni Award for “outstanding service…in medicine and…medical care,” June 1953;

Tennessee Tuberculosis Association Kranz Memorial Award for “outstanding service in…tuberculosis control,” 1954;

Tennessee Medical Association’s “Outstanding General Practitioner of the Year,” 1956;

University of Chattanooga honorary Doctor of Laws degree for “many services to the citizens of Tennessee,” 1957;
and a Tennessee Bicentennial named marker on the state capitol walkway, 1995.

She ended her autobiography with: “As the shadows of evening fell,…in my dreams I saw the…Uplands of tomorrow.”

She built better than she knew.

May Cravath Wharton, Doctor Woman of the Cumberlands (Pleasant Hill, Tenn. 38578: PO Box 168, 1972 revision, 214 pp., $6.20. Price may have changed).

(About the authors: 24 of the book titles of Franklin & Betty J. Parker are listed in:

http://www.library.vanderbilt.edu/peabody/about/alum6.html#P

For writings by the Parkers in blogs, enter bfparker in technorati.com or in google.com or in any other search engine.)

Franklin Parker’s, George Peabody, A Biography. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, Feb. 1995, 278 pp., revised, 12 photos, is out of print, but can be read freely as an E-book by accessing:
http://books.google.com/ and typing in Source:
George Peabody, a Biography, by Franklin Parker.
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“Max Rafferty (1917-82), Conservative Educator and California State School Superintendent During…. [Aug. 16th, 2012|12:50 pm]
[ Tags | california public schools, conservative educator, critic of progressive education ]

“Max Rafferty (1917-82), Conservative Educator and California State School Superintendent During 1962-70,” by Franklin and Betty J. Parker, 63 Heritage Loop, Crossville, Tn 38571-8270, E-mail: bfparker@frontiernet.net

Rafferty, Maxwell Lewis, Jr. (born May 17, 1917; died June 13, 1982), educator, was born in New Orleans, Louisiana, the son of Maxwell Lewis Rafferty, an Irish Roman Catholic store owner and auto plant worker, and DeEtta Cox. In 1921 the family moved to Sioux City, Iowa, and then, in 1931, to Los Angeles, California. Young Max skipped several grades and graduated at age sixteen from Beverly Hills High School, California, where he was remembered for being studious, quick witted, and much younger than his classmates.

Entering the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), he majored in history, managed the football and rugby teams, was president of Sigma Pi fraternity, joined the UCLA Americans (an anti-communist athletic group opposed to leftist students), and received a B.A. in 1938. He then enrolled in the UCLA School of Education to become a teacher and later claimed to have reluctantly studied John Dewey’s educational philosophy in order to become certified. He taught English and history and coached football at Trona High School, in Trona, California, from 1940 to 1948, having been classified physically unfit for the World War II draft because of flat feet. He married a schoolmate in 1940, was divorced in 1943, and married Frances Louella Longman in 1944. They had three children. He earned an M.A. degree from UCLA in 1949 and an Ed.D. degree from the University of Southern California in 1955.

Asked later why he chose to be a teacher and school administrator for twenty-one years in isolated southern California desert towns, Rafferty replied that “they paid better salaries, and advancement was more rapid.” From Trona, California, where he had risen to be vice principal, he became principal of the high school in Big Bear, California, a resort town in the San Bernardino Mountains, from 1948 to 1951. He was then school superintend at Saticoy, (1951-1955), Needles (1955-1961), and La Canada, a prosperous northeast Los Angeles suburb (1961-1962), all in California.

Max Rafferty’s speeches to education groups and civic clubs as well as his articles (particularly in Phi Delta Kappan, the journal of the education honor society) and books written during these years expressed his contempt for progressive education and school approaches that stressed “life adjustment.”

He described leftist students of the 1950s and 1960s as “booted, side-burned, ducktailed, unwashed, leather-jacketed slobs.” His impassioned speeches and writings soon won him admiration from the John Birch Society and other right-wing groups, many of which had growing memberships in California during these years.

His 1961 “Passing of the Patriot” speech to the La Canada school board excoriated educators for having been “so busy educating for ‘life adjustment’ that we forgot that the first duty of a nation’s schools is to preserve that nation.” That speech marked a turning point in his career. Wide press coverage made Rafferty a hero of not only political right wingers but also of those who yearned more generally for a return to simple and manly virtues.

In 1962, backed by a coalition of conservative forces, Rafferty won election as state superintendent of public instruction; he was reelected in 1966. He feuded with the liberal state board of education, especially over books that he wanted removed from school libraries and as textbooks in school subjects.

But his conservative philosophy of education had little real impact because of the checks and balances and local control built into the California school system. His critics claimed that California’s schools were never as progressive as Rafferty claimed.

Encouraged by conservative Republicans, he ran for the U.S. Senate in 1968, won the nomination over liberal-Republican California Senator Thomas H. Kuchell, but lost to Democrat Alan M. Cranston in the general election. He also lost his third reelection bid in 1970 as California’s superintendent of public instruction to Wilson Riles, a black educator whom he had appointed his deputy. Having been rejected in California, he left in 1971 to become dean of education at Troy State University, in Troy, Alabama. He died following an automobile accident.

Rafferty presaged the New Right’s ascendancy to political power through the Republican presidencies of Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, and particularly Ronald Reagan. Many observers believed that Rafferty preached a conservative gospel as a means of self-promotion, rather than out of personal conviction. Despite his talent for invective, opponents as well as allies found him likable and articulate.

References

Rafferty’s best-known books are Suffer, Little Children (1962); What They Are Doing To Your Children (1964); Max Rafferty on Education (1968); and Classroom Countdown: Education at the Crossroads (1970).

For biographies, see Paul F. Cummins, Max Rafferty: A Study in Simplicity (1968), and Franklin Parker, “School Critic Max Rafferty (1917-1982) and the New Right,” Review Journal of Philosophy & Social Science, 10, 2 (1985): 129-40.

Obituaries are in the New York Times, June 15, 1982; San Diego Union (Calif.), June 14, 1982; Oakland Tribune (Calif.), June 14 1982; Los Angeles Times (Calif.), June 14 1982; San Francisco Examiner (Calif.), June 15, 1982; and Birmingham News (Ala.) , June 16, 1982. End of Manuscript.

Send E-mail comments and corrections to bfparker@frontiernet.net

Addendum: 24 of Franklin and Betty J. Parker’s book titles are listed in: http://www.library.vanderbilt.edu/peabody/about/alum6.html#P

For their writings in blog form, enter bfparker in google.com or in any other search engine.)

Franklin Parker’s, George Peabody, A Biography. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, Feb. 1995, 278 pp., revised, 12 photos, is out of print, but can be read freely as an E-book by accessing:
http://books.google.com/ and typing in Source:
George Peabody, a Biography, by Franklin Parker.
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“How Research on George Peabody (1795-1869) Changed Our Lives.” [Aug. 13th, 2012|11:28 pm]
[ Tags | history of philanthropy, peabody model homes in england, research in peabody libraries usa ]

“How Research on George Peabody (1795-1869) Changed Our Lives,” by Franklin Parker and Betty J. Parker, bfparker@frontiernet.net

We met at Berea College near Lexington, KY, Sept. 1946, were married June 12, 1950. Frank attended the University of Illinois Graduate School, Urbana, 1949-50, for the M.S. degree. We both first taught at Ferrum College near Roanoke, VA , 1950-52.

We did additional graduate study at George Peabody College for Teachers, adjoining the Vanderbilt University campus in Nashville, TN, summers 1951, 1952. Part time jobs and study in Nashville during 1952-56, four years, enabled us to graduate in Aug. 1956: Betty, M.A. degree in English; Frank, doctoral degree, Social Foundations of Education.

Frank’s dissertation topic, which took us to London, England, for three months, Sept. to Dec. 1954, and influenced our lives, came from Peabody College Graduate Dean Felix C. Robb (1914-97). Dean Robb told Frank that during his own doctoral study at Harvard Graduate School of Education, Harvard’s History Prof. Arthur Schlesinger Sr. (1888-1965), knowing Robb was a Peabody College administrator, told him: Robb, your college founder, George Peabody, was the largely forgotten founder of modern educational philanthropy. His Peabody Education Fund, just after the Civil War, set the pattern for all later large educational funds and foundations. A well done doctoral dissertation based on his original papers and related papers needs to be written.

Perhaps regretting that he had written on another topic (school administration), Robb urged us to look into George Peabody’s influence. We did, were inspired by what we found, spent many months reading George Peabody documents in libraries in Nashville, Washington, DC, Baltimore, New York City, Boston and Salem, Mass.; plus three months in London, England, libraries.

Because the George Peabody research took us to London, changed our lives, led us to 27 trips abroad, we must tell why he was important, why research on him was so beneficial for us.

Born poor 19 miles north of Boston and little schooled, George Peabody at age 17 migrated South, succeeded as a dry-goods importing merchant at Peabody, Riggs & Co., 1814-40s, based in Baltimore, Md., with New York and Philadelphia warehouses.

On Peabody’s fifth European buying trip, 1837, all via London, Maryland officials commissioned him to sell abroad that state’s $8 million bonds to finance its Baltimore and Ohio canal and later the Baltimore and Ohio railroad. The U.S. was then a borrowing nation needing foreign capital for internal improvements. In the financial panic of 1837, against all odds, Peabody sold Maryland’s bonds abroad, found himself in transition from merchant to U.S. state bond broker-banker. He remained in London the rest of his life.

His George Peabody & Co., banking firm, London, 1838-64, 26 years, specialized in selling U.S. state bonds to finance canals, railroads, telegraph, the Atlantic Cable, etc., thus helping modernize and industrialize the U.S. Note that J.P. Morgan’s (1837-1913) father (J.S. Morgan, 1813-90) was George Peabody’s partner, making George Peabody a root of the JP Morgan banking empire.

Peabody supported his widowed mother, was the family breadwinner, paid for the education of his siblings, and later his nieces and nephews. Unmarried, he used half his fortune, large for that time, to found educational institutions while he lived and left half to relatives at his death.

His philanthropic motive is best expressed by his motto in his 1852 letter founding his first hometown library: “Education: a debt due from present to future generations.”

Peabody founded seven U.S. Peabody libraries, with lecture halls and lecture funds, the adult education centers of the time; well before Andrew Carnegie’s later more numerous Carnegie libraries. The Peabody Institute of Baltimore comprised a reference library, art gallery, lecture hall and fund, and the Peabody Conservatory of Music–all now part of Johns Hopkins University,

His example influenced Baltimoreans Enoch Pratt (1808-96) to found the Enoch Pratt Free Public Library and Johns Hopkins (1795-1873) to found Johns Hopkins University and Medical School.

Three Peabody museums advanced anthropology at Harvard, paleontology at Yale, and maritime history and Essex County history, including George Peabody’s letters and papers, at Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA. He endowed professorships at Phillips Academy, Andover, MA, and Washington and Lee University, Lexington, VA. He gave publication funds to both the Maryland and Massachusetts Historical Societies; aided Civil War widows and orphans (through the U.S. Sanitary Commission); and supported a Vatican charitable hospital (in Rome, Italy).

His multi-million dollar 1862 Peabody Homes for London’s working poor amazed the British, inspired imitators in the U.S. and elsewhere, brought him many honors. The Peabody Homes today, housing over 50,000 low income Londoners, offer highly praised job counseling and other social services, making George Peabody better known in England than he is in the U.S.

His previously mentioned Peabody Education Fund (1867-1914, 47 years) advanced public elementary and secondary schools, plus teacher education in 12 depressed southern states. Pres. Andrew Johnson (1708-75) and the U.S. Congress acknowledged the Peabody Education Fund as a national gift. Harvard historian Schlesinger was right: all later larger major U.S. funds and foundations are based on the Peabody Education Fund model. That Fund’s legatee in Nashville, George Peabody College for Teachers (1914-79, 65 years), shared courses and credits with adjoining Vanderbilt University. They merged in 1979 as Peabody College of Vanderbilt University.

In London we read George Peabody-related papers at his banking firm, in the British Library, University of London Library, and at Windsor Castle. Queen Victoria wanted to knight him. He graciously declined. He died in London, Nov. 4, 1869, evoking public and news media praise for his philanthropy on both sides of the Atlantic. His remains lay in state for 30 days at Westminster Abbey. His will requiring burial near his birthplace prompted Queen Victoria to order his remains returned to the U.S. on Britain’s newest war ship. President U.S. Grant (1822-85) ordered a U.S. war ship as escort vessel. His trans-Atlantic funeral made international news.

Memory of George Peabody inevitably faded in time, overshadowed by vastly wealthier industrialists (Carnegie, Rockefeller, Ford, others) and their much larger funds and foundations.

We returned to Nashville in December 1954 and found new part-time jobs. On February 18, 1955, George Peabody’s 160th birthday, Frank was invited to give the Peabody College Founders Day Address, published as George Peabody (1795-1869), Founder of Modern Philanthropy (Nashville: George Peabody College for Teachers, 1955).

Frank wrote and Betty edited the George Peabody dissertation, which was defended, accepted, and later published by Vanderbilt University Press as George Peabody, a Biography, 1971. In 1995 on the 200th anniversary of George Peabody’s birth, Frank’s updated version was republished with 12 illustration.

The George Peabody research experience bonded us wonderfully. The London research and brief trips to Scotland, Paris, Lucerne, and Rome helped us see ourselves, the U.S., and the world differently. The British people and Europeans in 1954, still scarred by WWII bombings and privation but on the mend, seemed to us more mature, substantive, more serious than hustling, bustling, competitive, keep-up-with-the-Joneses Americans.

Compared to the U.S., we thought British and European family life, schools at all levels, and media were more substantive, more culturally informed, better character building. We felt that our advertising-dominated American culture, in over-promising everything, cheapened our values, often misled us with inconsequential fads and fancies.

Berea College, Peabody College, and our research experiences, especially in London, besides bonding us, led Frank to emphasize more and more international education during his 40 years of teaching at the universities of Texas (Austin), Oklahoma (Norman), W. Va. (Morgantown), Northern Arizona (Flagstaff), Western Carolina (Cullowhee, NC).

We felt that teachers with intercultural-international understanding could help new student generations build a more peaceful world. As longtime editor of the Comparative and International Education Society Newsletter Frank learned of and publicized low-cost travel and international study opportunities for students and teachers.

A competitive Kappa Delta Pi (education honor society) Fellowship in International Education took us to Africa for eight months during 1957-58. The British south central African colonies of Northern Rhodesia (later Zambia), Southern Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe), and Nyasaland (later Malawi) had formed a multiracial federation.

Our research plan was to record how this multiracial experiment was working out educationally for the white, black, Asian, mixed-blooded racial groups, especially the segregated African majority. Carnegie Corporation officials, long involved in African education, helped us become attached as unpaid researchers to the University College of Rhodesia and Nyasaland in Salisbury, now the University of Zimbabwe in Harare. We visited mission schools, government schools, and studied documents in the Government Archives.

We explained our research purpose and limited funds in a letter to the editor of the Salisbury (now Harare) newspaper. In response, five white families going on long vacations asked us at low rent to be live-in caretakers of their homes. We thus compared ruling white minority luxury living with majority African subsistence living.

Frank’s small book about our 1957-58 experience, African Development and Education in Southern Rhodesia, Ohio State University Press, 1960, led to Frank’s being asked to contribute articles about Africa to encyclopedia yearbooks: Americana, World Book, Collier’s, others, for over a decade.

In 1961-62 as a Fulbright Research Scholar we were attached to the Rhodes Livingstone Institute, Lusaka, Northern Rhodesia (now part of the University of Zambia). We wrote many articles about Northern Rhodesia government and mission schools.

Frank’s three pamphlets (with Betty’s collaboration) in Phi Delta Kappa’s (international education honor society publication series. were:

1–The Battle of the Books: Kanawha County, 1975, based on a much publicized school textbook censorship case in Charlestown, W. Va.

2–What Can We Learn from the Schools of China? 1976, was based on Frank’s China school visits in March 1974. We both later visited China’s schools in July 1978 and again during Dec., 1986-Jan., 1987).

3–British Schools and Ours, 1979, based on school visits in and around London plus short courses we took at Cambridge University and the University of London.

We end with appreciation for our 27 trips abroad listed below, 1954 to 1987, 33 years, and 40 rich rewarding teaching years. We are grateful for 16 retirement years with interesting Uplands Retirement Village friends who share our hope for peace and justice for all people everywhere. END.

OUR INTERNATIONAL TRAVEL:

1-1954: Sept.-Dec.): England and Scotland manuscript research for dissertation and book, George Peabody: A Biography. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1971, revised 1995 with 12 illustrations.

2-1957-58: International Fellow at University College, Salisbury, Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), Central Africa; visited Zambia, Malawi, Republic of South Africa.

3-1961-62: Senior Fulbright Research Scholar at Rhodes-Livingstone Institute of University of Zambia; visited Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), Republic of South Africa, and England.

4-Aug. 1966: Studied adult education in Finland & West Germany; visited Belgium, The Netherlands, & England.

5-Aug. 1967: Studied adult education in Belgium and West Germany; visited Luxembourg and England.

6-May-June 1969: Lectured at Twente Technological Institute, The Netherlands; attended International Comparative Education Society meeting in Prague, Czechoslovakia; visited Belgium and England.

7-July-Aug. 1969: Taught at University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

8-July-Aug. 1970: Taught at University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

9-July 1971: Taught at University of Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada.

10-Nov. 1971: Participants in Phi Delta Kappa Eastern European Comparative Education Seminar held in Hungary, Romania, USSR, and Poland.

11-March 1972: Gave conference keynote address on “Educational Strategies for Accelerating Development in Southern Africa,” at University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa; visited Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), Lesotho, and Swaziland.

12-July 1972: Taught at University of Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada.

13-Nov. 1972: Co-directed with Dr. Gerald H. Read: Phi Delta Kappa Seminar in East Africa: Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania.

14-July 1973: Taught at University of Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada.

15-Dec. 1973: Research on comparative education at the University of London, England.

16-March 1974: Participant in Phi Delta Kappa’s first seminar in People’s Republic of China.

17-July-Aug. 1974: Taught at the University of Newfoundland, Canada.

18-Dec. 1974: Research on comparative education in the University of London, England, libraries.

19-July 1975: Participant, “British Schools and Society” course, Caius College, Cambridge University, England.

20-July 1976: Participants, “Education in England” course, Institute of Education, University of London, England,

21-May-June 1977: Lectured at the University of Madrid Institute of Education and the University of Oviedo Institute of Education, Spain. Studied schools in Surrey County, England.

22-July 1978: Participants in Adult Education Seminar in the People’s Republic of China.

23-Aug. 1978: Lectured at the United Nations University, Tokyo, Japan.

24-July 6-Aug. 8, 1980: Participants, Fourth Middle East Studies Seminar, sponsored by Israeli Teachers Association, American Federation of Teachers, and National Committee for Middle East Studies, Israel; also visited England.

25-March 3-10, 1984: London, England.

26-March 4-11, 1985: London, England.

27-Dec. 19, 1986-Jan. 4,1987: Participants in Phi Delta Kappa Education Seminar in Peking, Shanghai, Guilin, Canton; Hong Kong; Tokyo, Japan. END.

Franklin Parker, 1921-, & Betty J. Parker, 1929-, WRITINGS ON GEORGE PEABODY (1795-1869): Merchant, Banker, Educational Philanthropist. July 14, 2010.

Dissertation:

Parker, Franklin. “George Peabody, Founder of Modern Philanthropy,” Ed. D. Dissertation, George Peabody College for Teachers [of Vanderbilt University Library after July 1, 1979], Nashville, TN 37203-5721 , 1956, 3 volumes, 1219 pp.

Book

George Peabody, A Biography. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1971, 233 pp. Reprinted in CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education, IX, 3 (November, 1985), Fiche 7 D10, entire issue.

George Peabody, A Biography. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, February 1995 revised edition with 12 illustrations added, 278 pp.

Journal, Printed, Entire Issue:

“Legacy of George Peabody: Special Bicentenary Issue” [reprint of 21 articles], Peabody Journal of Education, LXX, No. l (Fall 1994), 210 pp.

Journal, Fiche, Entire Issue

(With Betty J. Parker). “George Peabody (1795-1869) A-Z: People, Places, Events, and Institutions Connected with the Massachusetts-born Merchant, London Banker, and Educational Philanthropist.” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), XXIV, No. 3 (Oct. 1999), Fiche.

Encyclopedia Articlesa;

Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture. Carroll Van West, et al., Eds. Nashville: University of Tennessee Press, 1998:

1-“George Peabody College of Vanderbilt University, pp, 359-360. URL: http://tennesseeencyclopedia.net/imagegallery.php?EntryID=G012

2-“Peabody Education Fund in Tennessee,” pp. 725-726. URL: http://tennesseeencyclopedia.net/imagegallery.php?EntryID=P013

“George Peabody (1795-1869).” Encyclopedia of Philanthropists in the United States. Westport, Conn.; Greenwood Press and Onyx Press, 2002.

(With Betty J. Parker). “George Peabody (1795-1869),” Philanthropy in America: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia, ed. by Dwight Burlingame. ABC Clio, 2004, 370-371.

Chapters in Book:

“George Peabody (1795-1869), Founder of Modern Educational Philanthropy: His Contributions to Higher Education,” Academic Profiles in Higher Education. Edited by James J. Van Patten. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1992, pp. 71-99.

George Peabody (1795-1869), Merchant, Banker, Creator of the Peabody Education Fund, and a Founder of Modern Philanthropy,” Notable American Philanthropists, Robert Thornton Grimm, Jr., ed. Westport, Conn.; Greenwood Press and Onyx Press, 2002, pp. 242-246.

(With Betty J. Parker). “George Peabody (1795-1869),” Philanthropy in America: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia, ed. By Dwight Burlingame (ABC Clio, 2004), pp. 370-371. URL: http://tennesseeencyclopedia.net/http://tennesseeencyclopedia.net/imagegallery.php?EntryID=G012

Articles in Journals:

[Note 1: Items 18,19, and others in Fiche form in CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education) are published by Carfax Publishing, Taylor & Francis Ltd, P. O. Box 25, Abingdon, Oxfordshire 0X14 30E, United Kingdom].

[Note 2: See End of Manuscript for URL access to Parkers’ George Peabody (1795-1869) U. S. Government ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) entries].

1. “Nashville’s Yankee Friend,” Nashville Tennessean Magazine (May 15, 1955), pp. 2, 6-7.

2. “Founder Paid Debt to Education,” Peabody Post, VIII, No. 8 (February 10, 1955), p. 1.

3. “The Girl George Peabody Almost Married,” Peabody Reflector, XXVII, No. 8 (October, 1955), pp. 215, 224-225.

4. “George Peabody and the Spirit of America,” Peabody Reflector, XXIX, No. 2 (February, 1956), pp. 26-27.

5. “On the Trail of George Peabody,” Berea Alumnus, XXVI, No. 8 (May, 1956), p. 4.

6. (With Walter Merrill), “William Lloyd Garrison and George Peabody,” Essex Institute Historical Collections, XCV, No. 1 (January, 1959), pp. 1-20.

7. “George Peabody and Maryland,” Peabody of Journal of Education, XXXVII, No. 3 (November, 1959), pp. 150-157.

8. “Robert E. Lee, George Peabody, and Sectional Reunion,” Peabody Journal of Education, XXXVII, No. 4 (January, 1960), pp. 195-202.

9. “Influences on the Founder of the Johns Hopkins University and the Johns Hopkins Medical School,” Bulletin of the History of Medicine, XXXIV, No. 2 (March-April, 1960), pp. 148-153.

10. “George Peabody and the Search for Sir John Franklin, 1852-1854,” American Neptune, XX, No. 2 (April, 1960), pp. 104-111.

11. “An Approach to Peabody’s Gifts and Legacies,” Essex Institute Historical Collections, XCVI, No. 4 (October, 1960), pp. 291-296.

12. “George Peabody’s Influence on Southern Educational Philanthropy,” Tennessee Historical Quarterly, XX, No. 2 (March, 1961), pp. 146, 151-152.

13. “Maryland’s Yankee Friend–George Peabody, Esq.,” Maryland Teacher, XX, No. 5 (January, 1963), pp. 6-7, 24; reprinted in Peabody Notes (Spring, 1963), pp. 4-7, 10.

14. “The Girl George Peabody Almost Married, Peabody Notes, XVII, No. 3 (Spring, 1954), pp. 10-14.

15. “George Peabody, 1795-1869, Founder of Modern Philanthropy,” Peabody Reflector, XXXVIII, No. 1 (January-February, 1965), pp. 9-16.

16. “The Funeral of George Peabody,” Essex Institute Historical Collection, XCIX, No. 2 (April, 1963), pp. 67-87; reprinted: Peabody Journal of Education, XLIV, No. 1 (July, 1966), pp. 21-36.

17. “George Peabody and the Peabody Museum of Salem,” Curator, X, No. 2 (June, 1967), pp. 137-153.

18. To Live Fulfilled: George Peabody, 1795-1869, Founder of George Peabody College for Teachers,” Peabody Reflector, XLIII, No. 2 (Spring, 1970), pp. 50-53.

19. “On the Trail of George Peabody,” Peabody Reflector, XLIV, No. 4 (Fall, 1971), pp.
100-103.

20. “The Creation of the Peabody Education Fund,” School & Society, XCIX, No. 2337 (December, 1971), pp. 497-500.

21. “George Peabody, 1795-1869: His Influence on Educational Philanthropy,” Peabody Journal of Education, XLIX, No. 2 (January, 1972), pp. 138-145.

22. “Pantheon of Philanthropy: George Peabody,” National Society of Fund Raisers Journal, I, No. 1 (December, 1976), pp. 16-20.

23. “In Praise of George Peabody, 1795-1869,” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), XV, No. 2 (June 1991), Fiche 5 AO2.

24. “George Peabody (1795-1869), Founder of Modern Educational Philanthropy: His Contributions to Higher Education,” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), XVI, No. 1 (March 1992), Fiche 11 D06.

25. “Education Philanthropist George Peabody (1795-1869), Founder of George Peabody College for Teachers, Nashville, and the Peabody Library and Conservatory of Music, Baltimore (Brief History).” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), XVIII, No. 1 (March 1994), Fiche. Abstract in Resources in Education.

26. (With Betty J. Parker), “George Peabody’s (1795-1869) Educational Legacy,” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), XVIII, No. 1 (March 1994), Fiche 1 C05. Abstract in Resources in Education, XXIX, No. 9 (September 1994), p. 147 (ERIC ED 369 720).

27. “Educational Philanthropist George Peabody (1795-1869): Photos and Related Illustrations in Printed Sources and Depositories,” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), XVIII, No. 2 (June 1994), Fiche 1 D1Z; abstract in Resources in Education, XXX, No. 6 (June 1995), p. 149 (ERIC ED 397 179).

28. “The Legacy of George Peabody: Special Bicentenary Issue” [reprints 22 article on George Peabody], Peabody Journal of Education, LXX, No. 1 (Fall 1994), 210 pp.

29. “Educational Philanthropist George Peabody and Peabody College of Vanderbilt University: Dialogue with Bibliography,” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), XVIII, No. 3 (December 1994), Fiche 2 E06.

30. (With Betty Parker). “A Forgotten Hero’s Birthday [George Peabody]: Lion and the Lamb,” Crossville (Tenn.) Chronicle, February 22, 1995, p. 4A.

31. (With Betty Parker). “America’s Forgotten Educational Philanthropist: A Bicentennial View,” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), XIX, No. 1 (March 1995), Fiche 7 A11. Abstract in Resources in Education, XXXI, No. 12 (Dec. 1996), p. 161 (ERIC ED398 126).

32. (With Betty Parker). “Educational Philanthropist George Peabody (1795-1869) and the Peabody Institute Library, Danvers, Massachusetts: Dialogue and Chronology,” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), XIX, No. 1 (March 1995), Fiche 7 B01.

33. (With Betty Parker). “George Peabody (1795-1869); Merchant, Banker, Philanthropist,” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), XX, No. 1 (March 1996), Fiche 9 B01. Abstract in Resources in Education, XXXI, No. 3 (Mar. 1996), p. 169 (ERIC ED 388 571).

34. (With Betty Parker). “On the Trail of Educational Philanthropist George Peabody (1795-1869): A Dialogue.” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), XX, No. 3 (October 1996), Fiche 13 B07.

35. (With Betty Parker).”Peabody Education Fund in Tennessee (1867-1914),” Tennessee Encyclopedia of History & Culture (Nashville: Tennessee Historical Society, 1998), pp. 725-726.

36. (With Betty Parker).”George Peabody College of Vanderbilt University,” Tennessee
Encyclopedia of History & Culture (Nashville: Tennessee Historical Society, 1998), pp. 359-360.

37. (With Betty J. Parker). “Educational Philanthropist George Peabody (1795-1869) and First U.S. Paleontology Prof. Othniel Charles Marsh (1831-1899) at Yale University.” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), XXII, No. 1 (March 1998), Fiche 7 A04. Also abstract in Resources in Education, XXXIV, No. 1 (Jan. 1999), p. ? (ERIC ED 422 243).

38. (With Betty J. Parker). “Educational Philanthropist George Peabody (1795-1869) and U. S.-British Relations, 1850s-1860s.” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), XXIII, No. 1 (March 1999), Fiche 1 A05. Also abstract in Resources in Education, XXXV, No. 5 (May 2000), p. 122 (ERIC ED 436 444).

39. (With Betty J. Parker). “George Peabody A-Z,” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), Vol. 24, No. 3 (Oct. 1999), Fiche 11 C10.

40. (With Betty J. Parker). “General Robert E. Lee (1807-70) and Philanthropist George Peabody (1795-1869) at White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia, July 23-Aug. 30, 1869.” Abstract in Resources in Education, XXXVI, No. 2 (Feb. 2001), p. 184 (ERIC ED 444 917).

41. (With Betty J. Parker). “The Forgotten George Peabody (1795-1869), A Handbook A-Z of the Massachusetts-Born Merchant, London-based Banker, & Philanthropist: His Life, Influence, and Related People, Places, Events, & Institutions,” 1243 pp. Abstract in Resources in Education, Vol. XXXVI, No. 3 (March 2001), pp. 122 (ERIC ED 445 998).

42. (With Betty J. Parker). “Peabody College of Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee: Past and Future; From Frontier Academy (1785) to Frontiers of Teaching and Learning,” Review Journal of History and Philosophy of Education (published in India by Anu Books), Vol. XXVIII (February 2003), pp. 109-144.

43. “Robert E. Lee, George Peabody, and Sectional Reunion,” Peabody Journal of Education, Vol. 78, No. 1 (Fall 2003), pp. 91-97 [reprinted from Peabody Journal of Education, Vol. 37, No. 4 (Jan. 1960), pp. 195-202, and Peabody Journal of Education, Vol. 70, No. 1 (Fall 1994), pp. 69-76].

44. “George Peabody, 1795-1869: His Influence on Educational Philanthropy,” Peabody Journal of Education, Vol. 78, No. 2 (Summer 2003), pp. 111-118 [reprinted from Peabody Journal of Education, Vol. 49. No. 2 (Jan. 1972), pp. 138-124; Peabody Journal of Education, Vol. 70, No 1 (Fall 1994), pp. 157-165; and Tennessee Historical Quarterly, Vol. 20, No. 2 (March 1961), pp. 65-74].

ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center:

Thirty six (36) of the Parkers’ articles on George Peabody in the U.S. Government’s ERIC system can be accessed and read in abstract and in full at the following URL source:

http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/simpleSearch.jsp?newSearch=true&searchtype=advanced&pageSize=50&ERICExtSearch_Facet_0=facet_au&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=Franklin+Parker%2C+1921&ERICExtSearch_Operator_1=and&eric_displayStartCount=1&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_1=kw&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=kw&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_1=George+Peabody&eric_sortField=&ERICExtSearch_SearchCount=1&ERICExtSearch_FacetValue_0=%22Parker%2C+Franklin%22

About the authors:

For authors’publications listed in the Library of Congress, copy and click on:
http://bit.ly/mfEmU2
or:
http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=Franklin+Parker,+1921&qt=search_items&search=Search

Access Parkers’ many articles through google.com, or bing.com, or any other search engine by typing as subject: FranklinParker, or Betty J. Parker, or Franklin and Betty J. Parker, or Betty andFranklin Parker, or bfparker, or bfparker@frontiernet.net,or bandfparker@frontiernet.net

To access 30+ of authors’ articles in blog form, copy and paste on your browser and click on:
http://bfparker.hubpages.com/hubs/hot
The 30+ articles titles will appear. Click on the one you want to open andread. If this does not work let us know: bfparker@frontiernet.net

24 of authors’ book titles are listed in:
http://www.library.vanderbilt.edu/peabody/about/alum6.html#P

For a funny skit on authors’ 61st wedding anniversary, access:
http://bfparker.blog.co.uk/2011/06/09/franklin-and-betty-j-parker-funny-skit-on-their-birthdays-and-61st-wedding-anniversary-june-4-2011-uplands-retirement-village-pleasant-hill-tn-bf-11292194/


End of Manuscript. Please e-mail corrections and questions to: bfparker@frontiernet.net
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Parker, Franklin, 1921-, His Publications Listed in: West Virginia University Libraries 1960-1969. [Aug. 13th, 2012|07:36 pm]
Parker, Franklin, 1921-, His Publications Listed in: West Virginia University Libraries 1960-1969, by Franklin Parker, bfparker@frontiernet.net

Source: http://www.archive.org/stream/publicationsoffa02west/publicationsoffa02west_djvu.txt

Africa. Austin, Texas: Public Schools Department of Social Studies, 1962, 43pp.

Philanthropic Foundations: A Research Report and Partially Annotated Biblio- graphy. Fort Worth, Texas: Sid W. Richardson Foundation, 1964, 175pp.

Latin American Education Research: An Annotated Bibliography of 269 United States Doctoral Dissertations. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Institute of Latin American Studies, 1964, 63pp.

African Education: A Bibliography of 121 U.S.A. Doctoral Dissertations. Washington, D.C.: World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession, 1964, 48pp.

The Peace Corps Bibliography, March, 1961-March, 1965. Washington, D.C.: Peace Corps Division of Public Information, 1965, 39pp.

The Junior and Community College: A Bibliography of Doctoral Dissertations, 1918-1963. Washington, D.C.: American Association of Junior Colleges, 1965,47pp.

CHAPTERS IN BOOKS

“Chicago in the 1890′s.” In John Dewey: Master Educator 2nd ed. New York: Society for the Advancement of Education, 1961; paperback reprint, New York: Atherton Press, 1966, 25-30.

“Government Entry into Multitribal Education in Northern Rhodesia.” In The Multitribal Society. Lusaka, Northern Rhodesia: Rhodes-Livingstone Institute for Social Research, 1962, 83-96.

“Sport, Play, and Physical Education in Cultural Perspective.” In National College Physical Education Association for Men, 67th Proceedings, Annual Meeting, January 8-11, 1964, Dallas, Texas. Washington, D.C.: American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, 1964, 78-81.

“Government Policy and International Education: A Selected and Partially Annotated Bibiography.” In Government Policy and International Education. New York: John Wiley, 1965, 295-373.

“Africa South of the Sahara.” In Nations Around the Globe. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1966; school edition: Nations of Other Lands, 1966; separate
pamphlet, 1965, 1-60.

“Early Church-State Relations in African Education in Rhodesia and Zambia.” In Church and State in Education. The World Yearbook of Education, 1966. New York: Harcourt Brace & World, 1966; London: Evans Brothers, 1966,
200-216.

“Zambia: Education and National Development.” Strategies for Curriculum Change: Cases from Thirteen Nations. Scranton, Pa.: International Textbook Co., 1968,228-250.

ENCYCLOPEDIA YEARBOOK ARTICLES

The Americana Annual. New York: Americana Corporation. “Botswana” (1968), 117. “Lesotho” ( 1 968), 408-409. “Malagasy Republic” (1963), 406; (1964), 401; (1965), 436; (1966), 426-427; (1967), 423; (1968), 419-420. “Malawi” (1965), 436-437; (1966), 425-426; (1967), 424; (1968), 420. “Rhodesia” (1965), 615-616; (1966), 586-588; (1967), 589-591; (1968), 578-579. “Rhodesia and Nyasaland” (1961), 644-646; (1962), 649-651; (1963),
576-578; (1964), 572-574. “Zambia” (1965), 576;(1966), 754-755; (1967), 754-755; (1968), 755.

Collier’s Encyclopedia Yearbook. New York: Crowell-Collier Publishing Corpor-
ation. “Belgium” (1965), 133-134. “Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland” (1961), 520-521 ; (1962), 531-532; (1963), 532-533; (1964), 535-537. “Malagasy Republic” (1963), 366; (1967), 308; (1968), 344. “Malawi” (1965), 337-338; (1966), 314-315; (1967), 308-309; (1968), 344. “Nigeria” (1964), 451-52; (1965), 396-397; (1966), 368-369; (1967),
358-359; (1968), 392-394. “Uganda” (1968), 572. “Zambia” (1965), 615; (1966), 614-615; (1967), 609-610; (1968), 625.

The Compton Yearbook. Chicago: F. E. Compton & Company. “Belgium” (1965), 124; (1966), 142. “Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland” (1961), 124; (1962), 173; (1963),
175; (1964), 243. “Malagasy Republic” (1963), 166; (1964), 186; (1965), 287; (1966), 318. “Malawi” (1965), 288; (1966), 318. “Nigeria” (1964), 211; (1965), 321; (1966), 346. “Nyasaland” (1964), 215. “Rhodesia” (1965), 375; (1966), 387. “Zambia” (1965), 124; (1966), 142.

Reader’s Digest Almanac and Yearbook 1968. Pleasantville, N.Y.: Reader’s Digest Association. “Rhodesia” (1968), 200-202.

EDITOR

Proceedings of the Southwestern Philosophy of Education Society, Thirteenth Annual Meeting, 13(1962), 119pp. (Joint editor) “The Philosophical and Social Framework of Education.” Review of Educational Research 34 (1964), 113pp.

“Research Studies.” History of Education Quarterly 7 (1967), 234-254, 369-389; 8 (1968), 358-347.

Comparative Education Society Newsletter 1, 2 (1965), 5, 7; 3, 4, 5, 6 (1966), 10, 8, 21, 20; 7, 8 (1967), 6, 27; 9 (1968), 6.

FEATURE ARTICLES IN JOURNALS

“Centennial Year in the History of Education.” School and Society 92 (1964), 31-32; 93 (1965), 85-86; 94 (1966), 67-68; 95 (1967), 56-57; 96 (1968), 78-79.

“Recent Events in World Education.” Comparative Education Review 7 (1963-64), 89-90, 197-201, 327-330; 8 (1964-65), 112-118, 229-237, 347-358; 9 (1965-66), 102-109, 219-229, 366-379; 10 (1966-67), 95-105, 514-524; 11 (1967), 98-103.

“Recent and Noteworthy Publications.” Comparative Education Review 1 1 (1967), 263-266; 12 (1968), 109-1 12, 212-217, 379-383.

“Recent and Noteworthy Publications.” Comparative and International Education Society Newsletter 12 (1968), 5-7.

“American Doctoral Dissertations Pertaining to the History of the Community Junior College.” Paedagogica Historica 1 (1961), 393.

“American Doctoral Dissertations Pertaining to the History of the Junior High School.” Paedagogica Historica 1 (1961), 394.

“American Doctoral Dissertations Pertaining to the History of Negro Education.” Paedagogica Historica 1 (1961), 392-394.

(joint author) “History of Education, Philosophy of Education and Comparative Education; Annotated Bibliography of Doctoral Dissertations at the University of Texas, 1923-1958.” (First Part) Scientia Paedagogica; Review of the International Secretariat for the University Study of Education (Belgium) 6 (1 960), 79-1 03 ; (Second Part) 7 ( 1 96 1 ), 1 9-38.

“A Prophecy for Modern Education.” The Texas Outlook 65 (1961), 22-23.

“African Education in Southern Rhodesia.” Foreign Education Digest 25 (1961), 13-19.

“Continuity Between High School and College.” Educational Leadership 18 (1961),346-350.

“George Peabody’s Influence on Southern Educational Philanthropy.” Tennessee Historical Quarterly 20 (1961), 65-74.

“A Golden Age in American Education: Chicago in the 1890′s.” School and Society 89 (1961), 146, 151-152.

“Francis W. Parker and Public Education in Chicago; the Stormy Career of a Great Educational Reformer.” Chicago Schools Journal 42 (1961), 305-312.

“Education in the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland.” The Journal of Negro Education 30 (1961), 286-293.

“Negro Education in the U.S.A.; A Partial Bibliography of Doctoral Dissertations.” The Negro History Bulletin 24 (1961), 190-192.

“Saturday’s Child (Kwame Nkrumah).” The Negro History Bulletin 24 (1961), 171-172.

(Joint author) “Doctoral Dissertations in Jewish Education and Related Areas.” Jewish Education 31 (1961), 60-62.

“Abraham Flexner (1886-1959) and Medical Education.” Journal of Medical Education 36 (1961), 709-714.

“Jane Addams-Lady Who Cared.” Tradition 4 (1961), 43, 17.

“School Desegregation: A Partial List of 94 Doctoral Dissertations.” The Journal of Human Relations 10 (1961), 118-124.

“African Education in Southern Rhodesia.” Journal of Education (Halifax, Nova Scotia) 11 (1961), 25^0.

“Negro Education in the U.S.A.; Additional Doctoral Dissertations.” The Negro History Bulletin 25 (1961), 23-24.

“Selected Journals from Other Lands.” Phi Delta Kappan 43 (1961), 101. “Congo Plight Discussed by Fulbrighter in Africa.” The Daily Texan 61 (1961), 2.

“Fulbrighter in Rhodesia Discusses Congo Crisis.” The Daily Texan 61 (1961), 2.

“The Community Junior College— Enfant Terrible of American Higher Education: A Bibliography of 225 Doctoral Research Dissertations.” Junior College
Journal 32 (1961), 193-294.

“Jewish Education: A Partial List of American Doctoral Dissertations.” The Jewish Journal of Sociology 3 (1961), 192-194.

“The Republic of the Congo.” The Negro History Bulletin 25 (1961), 50, 60-61.

“Teacher Education: A Bibliography of 705 Doctoral Dissertations.” Teacher Education 24(1961), 1-39.

“UNESCO at 15: Young Adam in Troubled Eden.” School and Society 89 (1960,431-433.

“Francis Wayland Parker, 1837-1902.” Paedagogica Historica 1 (1961), 120-133.

“American Doctoral Dissertations Pertaining to the History of Catholic Education.” Paedagogica Historica 2 (1962), 168-171.

“American Doctoral Dissertations Pertaining to the History of Jewish Education.” Paedagogica Historica 2 (1962), 171-172.

“American Social Worker, Jane Addams.” The Ceylon Journal of Social Work 6 (1962), 41-43.

“Doctoral Dissertations Pertaining to the History of Adult Education.” Paedagogica Historica 2 (1962), 393-394.

“British East Africa.” The Negro History Bulletin 25 (1962), 74, 78-82, 95.

“The Case of Harold Rugg.” The Midwest Quarterly 3 (1961), 21-34; same with bibliography, Paedagogica Historica 2 (1962), 95-122; condensed in Education Digest 27 (1962), 32-35.

“Dissertations on Catholic Education.” Catholic School Journal 62 (1962), 29-32.

“Fifty Years of the Junior High School; Preface to a Bibliography of 131 Doctoral Dissertations.” Chapter 27 in The Bulletin of the National Association of Secondary School Principals 46 (1962), 435-445; preface only, Texas Journal of Secondary Education 15 (1962), 13-15.

“Southern Africa-Tip of Troubled Continent.” The Daily Texan 61 (March 28, 1962), 2.

“World’s Racial Testing Ground Found in Republic of South Africa.” The Daily Texan 61 (1962), 2.

“Territories Near South Africa Grateful to British Protection.” The Daily Texan 61 (1962), 2.

“Canadian Education: A Bibliography of Doctoral Dissertations.” Education Office Gazette (Halifax, Nova Scotia) 1 1 (1962), 23-29.

“The Addis Ababa Conference on African Education.” Oversea Education 35 (1962), 76-78.

“African Community Development and Education in Southern Rhodesia, 1920-1935.” International Review of Missions 51 (1962), 335-347.

(joint author) “Edith Hamilton at 94; A Partial Bibliography.” Bulletin of Bibliography 23 (1962), 183-184.

“Rhodesia and Nyasaland Federation in Strife.” The Daily Texan 62 (1962), 2.

“Rhodesia and Nyasaland— Independence Imminent.” The Daily Texan 62 (1962), 2.

“Rhodesia and Nyasaland -Political Dragons Snort.” The Daily Texan 62 (1962), 2.

“Southern Africa: Tip of a Troubled Continent.” The Negro History Bulletin 26
(1962), 87-90.

“Biographies of Educators: A Partial Bibliography of 153 Doctoral Dissertations.” Peabody Journal of Education 40 (1962), 142-149; Paedagogica
Historica 2 (1962), 389-393.

“Abraham Flexner, 1866-1959.” History of Education Quarterly 2 (1962), 199-209.

“Doctoral Dissertations Pertaining to the History of Canadian Education.” Paedagogica Historica 3 (1963), 204-206.

“Doctoral Dissertations Pertaining to the History of Teacher Education.” Paedagogica Historica 3 (1963), 203-204.

“Maryland’s Yankee Friend— George Peabody, Esq.” The Maryland Teacher 20 (1963), 6-7, 24; reprinted in The Peabody Notes (1963), 4-7 , 10.

“Francis Keppel of Harvard: Pied Piper of American Education.” School and Society 91 (1963), 126-130.

“Dissertation Subjects Reveal Variety of Audio- Visual Methods Researched” (A Bibliography of 209 Doctoral Dissertations on Audio- Visual Education). Part 1. Film World and A-V News 19 (1963), 1 14; “A-V Dissertations Complied.” Part 2. 19 (1963), 157-158; “A-V Dissertations Compiled.” Part 3. 19(1963).
199.

“The Funeral of George Peabody.” Essex Institute Historical Collection 99 (1963), 67 -87; reprinted in Peabody Journal of Education 44 (1966), 21-39.

“Public School Desegregation; A Partial Bibliography of 113 Doctoral Dissertations.” Negro History Bulletin 26 (1963), 225-228.

“Walter Prescott Webb, 1888-1963, Western Historian.” Journal of the West 2 (1963), 362-364; Congressional Record 110 (1964), 1154-1155.

“British Central Africa.” The Chicago Jewish Forum 21 (1963), 318-322.

“African Education and Manpower Needs in Northern Rhodesia.” Journal of Human Relations 1 1 (1963), 679-687.

“Founding the Department of African Education in Northern Rhodesia.” Negro History Bulletin 27 (1963), 29-34.

“Australian Education; A Bibliography of American Doctoral Dissertations and Master’s Theses.” Supplement to Australian Council for Educational Research Library Bulletin No. 71 (1963), 1-3.

“Fisk University (Nashville, Tennessee) Master’s Theses Concerning the History of Education, Mainly of the Negro in the South.” Paedagogica Historica 3 (1963), 480-481.

“U. S. Doctoral Dissertations Dealing with Latin American Education.” Phi Delta Kappan 45 (1964), 227-229.

“U.S.A. Doctoral Dissertations Pertaining to the History of African Education.” Paedagogica Historica 4 (1964), 232-233.

“History of Latin American Education; Annotated Bibliography of 108 United States Doctoral Dissertations.” Paedagogica Historica 4 (1964), 503-523.

“UNESCO in Perspective.” International Review of Education 10 (1964), 326-331.

(Joint author) “Additional Dissertations on Catholic Education.” Catholic School Journal 64 (1964), 112, 130, 138, 146.

“Artist As Prometheus.” Panorama (Supplement to The Daily Texan) 2 (1964), 7.

“The Girl George Peabody Almost Married.” The Peabody Notes 17 (1964), 10-14; reprinted from The Peabody Reflector 27 (1955), 215, 224-225.

“The Inception of the Department of African Education in Northern Rhodesia.” Paedagogica Historica 4 (1964), 149-162.

“Private Foundations Have Aided Public Education.” Teachers College Journal 31 (1964), 13-14; reprinted in Journal of Thought 1 (1966), 30-32.

“Sport, Play and Physical Education in Cultural Perspective.” Journal of Health, Physical Education, Recreation 36 (1965), 29-30; Spanish language in Revista Chilene de Educacion Fisica (Chile) 31 (1964), 33-38.

“Puerto Rican Education Research; Annotated Bibliography of 66 United StatesDoctoral Dissertations.” Paedagogica (Universidad de Puerto Rico) 12 (1964), 97-116.

“George Peabody, 1795-1869, Founder of Modern Philanthropy.” The Peabody Reflector 38 (1965), 9-16.

“Philip Vickers Fithian: Northern Tutor on a Southern Plantation.” Journal of the West 4 (1965), 56-62.

“William Heard Kilpatrick, 1871-1965.” Texas Journal of Secondary Education (1965), 30-32; with Bibliographical Note: reprinted in School and Society 93 (1965), 368-371.

History of Sports and Physical Education; A Partial Bibliography of U.S.A. Doctoral Dissertations and Master’s Theses.” Paedagogica Historica 5 (1965), 503-510.

“The White House Conference on Education and the Emergence of the New Guard.” School and Society 93 (1965), 425-428.

“W. H. Kilpatrick, Progressive Educator (1871-1965): Evaluation and Bibliography.” Malaysian Journal of Education 2 (1965), 147-180 (contains Chinese abstract); reprinted as “Dialogue on the Death of William Heard Kilpatrick, 1871-1965.” Pedagogica (Universidad de Puerto Rico) 13 (1965), 79-109.

“Rhodesia in Crisis.” Negro History Bulletin 29 (1965), 53-54, 64; Proceedings of the 16th Annual Meeting of the Southwest Philosophy of Education Society, Norman, Oklahoma, Nov. 11-13, 1965 16 (1965), 1-7.

“Robert Clifton Weaver, Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.” Negro History Bulletin 29 (1966), 75-76.

“Interstate Compact on Education: The New Conant-Sanford Nationwide Educational Policy-Recommending Body.” Journal of Thought 1 (1966), 45-48.

“Mental Health and Education: A Bibliography of 177 Doctoral Dissertations and 11 Master’s Theses.” Journal of Human Relations 14 (1966), 306-322.

“Interstate Compact and Its Effect on Federal-State Relations.” Changing Education 1 (1966), 24-33.

“The American High School: A Bibliography of 422 Doctoral Dissertations.” Illinois State University Journal 24 (1966), 9-31.

“Federal Aid and the General Welfare.” Educational Leadership 24 (1966), 33-37; condensed in Education Digest 32 (1967), 5-7.

“UNESCO at 20; Swords and Plowshares.” School and Society 94 (1966), 411-414.

“History of Educational Foundations; Partially Annotated Bibliography of 36 Doctoral Dissertations.” Paedagogica Historica 6 (1966), 241-244.

“The Fourth R: A Protestant’s View.” Perspectives; A Journal of Opinion (First
Presbyterian Church, Norman, Oklahoma), 1 (1966), 6-8.

“African Education in Zambia: A Partial Bibliography of Magazine Articles.” Symposium (Johannesburg, South Africa) (1966), 99-103; reprinted in
African Studies Bulletin 10 (1967), 6-15.

“A Brief Survey of Secondary Education in Africa.” The High School Journal 50
(1967), 211-218.
“The 4th R.” Journal of Thought 2 (1967), 42-44.

“Human Relations and the School.” Texas Journal of Secondary Education 20 (1967), 15-20.

“Conant’s New Study of the American High School-A Preliminary Report.” Texas Journal of Secondary Education 20 ( 1 967), 31-32.

“Current Forces Shaping U. S. Education: The ‘New Guard’ Emerges.” Changing Education 1 (1967), 6-18.

“What’s Right with American Educaton.” Illinois Schools Journal 47 (1967), 26-32.

“The Rise of the Academic Right in American Education.” Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Meeting of the Southwestern Philosophy of Education Society 17(1967), 101-112.

“Teachers in the Slums.” IUD Agenda 3 (1967), 13-16.

“George Peabody and the Peabody Museum of Salem.” Curator 10 (1967), 137-153.

“Federal Influences on the Future of American Education.” School and Society 95 (1967), 383-387.

“International and National Aspects of Sports and Physical Education.” The Australian Journal of Physical Education 41 (1967), 5-23.

“History of Education Dissertations Accepted at the University of Oklahoma; Briefly Annotated Bibliography.” Paedagogica Historica 7 (1967), 30-35.

“Canadian Education: A Bibliography of Doctoral Dissertations.” McGill Journal of Education 2 (1967), Part I, 175-182; 3 (1968), Part II, 63-70.

“Teaching International Understanding in High School: A Bibliographical Essay.” Phi Delta Kappan 49 (1967), 211-215.

“Man and Play.” Extramuros (Extension Division, University of Puerto Rico) 1 (1967), 95-100.

“Why Teachers Strike?” Journal of Thought 3 (1968), 4-6.

For Whom the School Bell Tolls.” Peabody Journal of Education 45 (1968), 194-195.

“Salvaging School Failures: The Job Corps Acts.” Phi Delta Kappan 49 (1968), 362-369.

“Dr. Frederick Eby, 1874-1968.” Newsletter of the Southwestern Philosophy of Education Society 5 (1968), 1.

“Dr. Frederick Eby, 1874-1968: Famed Texas Educator.” Congressional Record (1968), E3644-E3646.

“Dr. Frederick Eby, 1874-1968: Father of the Texas Junior College Movement.” Journal of Thought 3 (1968), 200-203.

“Human Relations and the School.” Journal of Human Relations 16 (1968), 24-31.

“The Importance of Education in International Affairs.” Journal of Thought 3 (1968), 116-123.

BOOK REVIEWS

Arthur D. Morse, Schools of Tomorrow -Today. In Texas Journal of Secondary Education 14(1961), 29-3 1.

Elizabeth Paschal, Encouraging the Excellent. In Texas Journal of Secondary Education 14(1961), 29.

Elizabeth Paschal, Programs for the Gifted: A Case Book in Secondary Education. In Texas Journal of Secondary Education 14 (1961), 31-32.

Brian Simon, Studies in the History of Education: 1780-1870. In Harvard Educational Review 31 (1961), 222-225.

Oliver C. Carmichael, Universities: Commonwealth and American: A Comparative Study. In Harvard Educational Review 31 (1961), 335-336.

Lawrence A. Cremin, The Transformation of the School: Progressivism in American Education, 1876-1957. In Paedagogica Historica 1 (1961), 388-389; in Phi Delta Kappan 43 (1961), 39-40.

Anthony Kerr, Schools of Europe. In Phi Delta Kappan 43 ( 1 96 1 ), 99-1 00.

Benjamin Sacks, The Religious Issue in the State Schools of England and Wales, 1902-1914; A Nation’s Quest for Human Dignity. In New Mexico Quarterly 32 (1962), 90-92.
Report of the Commonwealth Conference on the Teaching of English as a Second Language. In Oversea Education 33 (1962), 198-199.

Final Report of the Conference of African States on the Development of Education in Africa, Addis Ababa, 15-25 May 1961. In Africa Report 6 (1962), 20.

Colin Morris, The Hour After Midnight: A Missionary’s Experiences of the

Racial and Political Struggle in Northern Rhodesia. In The Chicago Jewish Forum 20 (1962), 339-340.

Frederick C. Gruber, Education and the State. In Texas Journal of Secondary Education 15 (1962), 28.

Seymour Eskow, Barron’s Guide to the Two-Year Colleges. In Texas Journal of Secondary Education 15 ( 1 962), 31.

Tom C. Venable, Patterns in Secondary School Curriculum. In Texas Journal of Secondary Education 15 (1962), 32.

Aderogba Ajao, On the Tiger’s Back. In Austin American-Statesman Book

Section (August 26, 1962), 23; in The Chicago Jewish Forum 21 (1963), 338-340.

David Lytton, The Paradise People. In Austin American-Statesman Book Section
(September 23, 1962), 23.

Harry Bloom, Whittaker’s Wife. In Austin American-Statesman Book Section
(October 14, 1962), 22.

Rhona Churchill, White Man’s God. In Austin American-Statesman Book Section (November 4, 1962), 23; in Chicago Jewish Forum 23 (1965), 235.

Alexander M. Carr-Saunders, New Universities Overseas. In Journal of Higher Education 33 ( 1 962), 510-511.

Joyce Cary, The Case for African Freedom. In Austin American-Statesman Book Section (December 30, 1962), 22; in The Chicago Jewish Forum 21 (1963), 246.

Malcolm S. Knowles, The Adult Education Movement in the United States. In Austin American-Statesman Book Section (January 6, 1963), 22; In The Chicago Jewish Forum 22 (1963), 62.

Ruth Sloan Associates (comp.) and Helen Kitchen (eds.), The Educated African: A Country -By -Country Survey of Educational Development in Africa. In New Mexico Quarterly 32 (1962-1963), 249-250.

Gail M. Inlow, Maturity in High School Teaching. In Texas Journal of Secondary Education 16 (1963), 32.

Loren Eiseley, The Mind as Nature. In Austin American-Statesman Book Section (March 17, 1963), 23; in Texas Journal of Secondary Education 16 (1963),

31.

Conor Cruise O’Brien, To Katanga and Back: A UN Case History. In Austin American-Statesman Book Section (April 7, 1963), 23; in The Chicago Jewish Forum 23 (1964-1965), 170-171.

Tom Hopkinson, In the Fiery Continent. In Austin American-Statesman Book Section (May 19, 1963), 22.

Paul Woodring and John Scanlon, eds., American Education Today. In Austin American-Statesman Book Section (July 21, 1963), 23; in Texas Journal of Secondary Education 16 (1963), 31; in The Chicago Jewish Forum 23 (1965), 313-314.

Harold Rugg, Imagination. In Austin American-Statesman Book Section (August 4, 1963), 2 1 ; in Saturday Review 46 (1963), 49.

Daniel Gilles, The Anthill. In Austin American-Statesman Book Section (August 11, 1963), 23.

Alexander Frazier, ed., New Insights and the Curriculum. In Texas Journal of Secondary Education 16 (1963), 32.

James High, Teaching Secondary School Social Studies. In Texas Journal of Secondary Education 16 (1963), 31.

J. Cecil Parker, T. Bentley Edwards, and William H. Stegeman, Curriculum in America. In Texas Journal of Secondary Education 16 (1963), 31-32.

James Gillett, Six Years With the Texas Rangers. In Austin American-Statesman Book Section (September 22, 1963), 21; in Journal of the West 2 (1963), 479-480.

Ben Lucien Burman, The Generals Wear Cork Hats. In Austin American- Statesman Book Section (October 13, 1963), 23.
Marion Friedmann, ed., I Will Still Be Moved: Reports from South Africa. In The New York Times Book Review (October 13, 1963), 18.

Alex La Guma, James Mathews, Alf Wannenburg, Richard Rive, Quartet: New Voices from South Africa. In The New York Times Book Review (October 13, 1963), 18,20.

Noni Jabavu, The Ochre People: Scenes from a South African Life. In The New York Times Book Review (October 13, 1963), 20.

Jordan K. Ngubana, An African Explains Apartheid. In The New York Times Book Review (October 13, 1963), 20; in The Chicago Jewish Forum 22 (1964), 247.

Josiah Mwangi Kariuki, ‘Mau Mau’ Detainee: The Account by a Kenya African of His Experiences in Detention Camps, 1953-1960. In The New York Times Book Review (October 13, 1963), 20.

Kermit Roosevelt, A Sentimental Safari. In Austin American-Statesman Book Section (December 15, 1963), 21.

Tom Mboya, Freedom and After. In Austin American-Statesman Book Section (January 12, 1964), 23.

John Bagot Glubb, The Great Arab Conquests. In Austin American-Statesman Book Section (February 2, 1964), 23.

Hodding Carter, Doomed Road of Empire; the Spanish Trail of Conquest. In Austin American-Statesman Book Section (March 22, 1964), 23; in Journal of the West 3 ( 1 964), 260-26 1 ; in Quartet 1 ( 1 964), 22.

B. Frank Brown, The Ungraded High School. In Texas Journal of Secondary Education 17 (1964), 31-32.

Barbara Hall, ed., Tell Me, Josephine. In Austin American-Statesman Book Section (May 3, 1964), 22.

Gerald McKnight, Verdict on Schweitzer: The Man Behind the Legend of Lambarene. In Austin American-Statesman Book Section (August 16, 1964), 9 ; in Quartet 2 {965), 27-28.

Wilson M. Hudson, Andy Adams, His Life and Writings. In Journal of the West 2 (1964), 421-422.

Walter Baron von Richthofen, Cattle-Raising on the Plains of North America. In Journal of the West 2 (1964), 423-424.

W. M. Pearce, The Matador Land and Cattle Company. In Journal of the West 3 (1964), 552.

Ramon F. Adams, Burrs Under the Saddle: A Second Look at Books and Histories of the West. In Journal of the West 3 (1964), 557-558; in The Chronicles of Oklahoma 42 (1964), 361-362.

Stewart Fraser, Jullien’s Plan for Comparative Education, 1816-1817. In Peabody Journal of Education 42 (1965), 313-315.

David G. Scanlon, ed., Traditions of African Education. In History of Education Quarterly 5 (1965), 74-75; in Symposium (Johannesburg, South Africa) (1965), 135.

Willard Abraham, A Time for Teaching. In The Clearing House 39 (1965), 655-656.

T. V. Sathyamurthy, The Politics of International Cooperation: Contrasting Conceptions of UNESCO. In International Review of Education 11 (1965), 235-236; in Chicago Jewish Forum 24 (1965), 31-32.

James G. Umstattd, College Teaching: Background, Theory, Practice. In Texas Journal of Secondary Education 18(1 965), 30-31 .

Had R. Douglass, Trends and Issues in Secondary Education. In Texas Journal of Secondary Education 18 (1965), 31-32.

Ramon F. Adams, From the Pecos to the Powder: A Cowboy’s Autobiography, by Bob Kennon, As Told to Ramon F. Adams. In Journal of the West 4 (1965), 481.

Andreas M. Kazamias and Byron G. Massialas, A Comparative Study. In Phi Delta Kappan 47 (1965), 53; in Comparative Education Review 9 (1965), 380.

Wayne Gard, Texas Rawhide. In Journal of the West 4 (1965), 598.

Adolphe E. Meyer, An Educational History of the Western World. In Phi Delta Kappan 42 (1965), 106-107; in International Review of Education 12 (1966), 237-238.

L. H. Gann and Michael Gelfand, Huggins of Rhodesia. In Africa Report 10 (1965), 67; in American Historical Review 71 (1966), 637-638.

Stewart Fraser, ed., Chinese Communist Education; Records of the First Decade. In Peabody Journal of Education 43 (1965), 181-185; in International Review of Education 7 (1966), 226-227.

National Association of Secondary School Principals, The Senior High School Principal- ship. In Texas Journal of Secondary Education 19 (1966), 29-30.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, The Columbia-Viking Desk Encyclopedia. In Texas Journal of Secondary Education 19 (1966), 30-31.

Frederick W. Nolan, ed., The Life and Death of John Henry Tunstall. In Journal of the West 5 (1966), 143-144.

Harry Kursh. The United States Office of Education: A Century of Service. In Journal of Negro Education 35 (1966), 74-75.

L. Gary Cowan, James O’Connell, and David G. Scanlon, eds. Education and Nation-Building in Africa. In African Forum 1 (1966), 125-127; in Malaysian Journal of Education 3 (1966), 91-92.

James Bryant Conant, Shaping Education Policy. In Texas Journal of Secondary
Education 19 (1966), 35.

Edward A. Krug, The Shaping of the American High School. In Texas Journal of Secondary Education 19 (1966), 34.

M. M. Chambers, Freedom and Repression in Higher Education. In Phi Delta Kappan 47 (1966), 357-376.

Terry Sanford, But What About the People? In Phi Delta Kappan 47 (1966), 527-528; in International Review of Education 13(1967), 152-153.

Jerome S. Bruner, The Process of Education. In Texas Journal of Secondary Education 20 ( 1 966), 30-31.

Jerome S. Bruner, Toward a Theory of Education. In Texas Journal of Secondary Education 20 (1966), 30-32; in Malaysian Journal of Education 3 (1966), 229-231.

Robert J. Havighurst and J. Roberto Moreira, Society and Education in Brazil.
In Malaysian Journal of Education 3 (1966), 92-94.

UNESCO, World Survey of Education IV. Higher Education. In International Review of Education 12 (1966), 358-359.

Academic Senate of the University of California at Berkeley, Education at Berkeley: Report of the Select Committee on Education. In Comparative Education Review 10(1966-1967), 165-166.

John Walton, Toward Better Teaching in the Secondary Schools. In Texas Journal of Secondary Education 20 (1967), 28-29.

Lawrence E. Metcalf, John J. DeBoer, and Walter V. Kaulfers, eds., Secondary Education: A Textbook of Readings. In Texas Journal of Secondary Education 20 (1967), 29-30.

J. F. Ade Ajayi, Christian Missions in Nigeria, 1841-1891: The Making of a New Elite. In Books Abroad 60 (1967), 113-114.

Stewart Fraser, ed., Governmental Policy and International Education. In The Educational Forum 31 (1967), 367-368.

Education and World Affairs, The University Looks Abroad: Approaches to World Affairs at Six American Universities. In The Educational Forum 31 (1967), 368-369.

Martena Sassnet and Inez Sepmeyer, Educational Systems of Africa: Interpretations for Use in the Evaluation of Academic Credentials. In Africa Report 12 (1967), 52-53; in Books Abroad 41 (1967), 369; in Comparative Education 40 (1967), 392-393; in International Review of Education 14 (1968), 366-367.

Francis Keppel, The Necessary Revolution in American Education. In Chicago Jewish Forum 25 (1967), 316-317 ; in Journal of Thought 2 (1967), 75-77.

Donald G. Burns, African Education: An Introductory Survey of Education in Commonwealth Countries. In African Forum 3 (1967), 90-93.

Herbert C. Rudman, The School and State in the USSR. In Educational Leadership 25 (1968), 593-595.

Richard E. Gross, ed., British Secondary Education. In Educational Leadership 25
(1968), 593,595.

G. S. Osborne, Scottish and English Schools: A Comparative Survey of the Past Fifty Years. In Educational Leadership 25 (1968), 593-595.

Donald K. Adams, ed., Introduction to Education: A Comparative Analysis. In Educational Leadership 25 (1968), 593-595.

Erwin A. Salk, ed., A Layman’s Guide to Negro History. In Journal of Thought 3 (1968), 130.

Helaine S. Dawson, Educating Youth from Poverty Areas, In Journal of Thought, 3 (1968), 131.

Stanlake Samkange, On Trial for My Country. In Africa Report 13 (1968), 53-54; in Books Abroad 40 (1968), 328-329.

Robert Dentler, Bernard Mackler, and Mary Ellen Warshauer, eds., The Urban R’s: Race Relations as the Problem in Urban Education. In Journal of Thought 3 (1968), 227. END

Errors and comments to bfparker@frontiernet.net

For authors’publications listed in the Library of Congress, copy and click on:

http://bit.ly/mfEmU2

Or: http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=Franklin+Parker,+1921&qt=search_items&search=Search

Access Parkers’ many articles through google.com, or bing.com, or any other search engine by typing as subject: FranklinParker, or Betty J. Parker, or Franklin and Betty J. Parker, or Betty andFranklin Parker, or bfparker, or bfparker@frontiernet.net,or bandfparker@frontiernet.net

To access 30+ of authors’ articles in blog form, copy and paste on your browser and click on:

http://bfparker.hubpages.com/hubs/hot

The 30+ articles titles will appear. Click on the one you want to open andread. If this does not work let us know: bfparker@frontiernet.net

24 of authors’ book titles are listed in:

http://www.library.vanderbilt.edu/peabody/about/alum6.html#P

For a funny skit on authors’ 61st wedding anniversary, access:

http://bfparker.blog.co.uk/2011/06/09/franklin-and-betty-j-parker-funny-skit-on-their-birthdays-and-61st-wedding-anniversary-june-4-2011-uplands-retirement-village-pleasant-hill-tn-bf-11292194/


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[Aug. 13th, 2012|12:22 pm]
Parker, Franklin & Betty J.: Interview Information) Provided for Jean Clark, Writer of “Pleasant Hill (Tennessee) Ramblings,” published in Crossville (Tennessee) Chronicle, On February 23, 2012. By Franklin & Betty J. Parker, bfparker@frontiernet.net

“Looking back over our life journey here are places where we have spent Christmases past:

During 1946–49 at Berea College near Lexington, KY, where we met.

During 1950-51 at Ferrum College near Roanoke, VA, where we both first held teaching jobs.

During 1952-56 at Peabody College of Vanderbilt University, Nashville, where we were graduate students holding part time jobs.

In 1957 in Southern Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe), Africa, on a Kappa Delta Pi International Fellowship research.

During 1958-64 at University of Texas, Austin, Associate Professor, with leave of absence 1961 in Northern Rhodesia (Zambia, Africa) as Fulbright Scholar researcher; spent Christmas at Victoria Falls.

During 1964-7 at University of Oklahoma, Norman, Professor.

During 1968-86 at West VA University, Morgantown, Professor, 18 years, retired.

During “Post retirement Visiting Professorships in 1986-88 at Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, and 1989-93 Western Carolina University (part of University of N.C. system).

Since May 1994 at Uplands Retirement Village, Pleasant Hill, TN, 18 years1994-2012+). We gave each year in dialogue form book reviews, all published as blogs, one of the last on Franklin D. Roosevelt, Sept 20, 2010. Our next book review on Eleanor Roosevelt, was given on Monday, February 20, 2012, at Adshead Hall, Pleasant Hillßß, TN.

“Our latest delight: Thanks to percussionist Jane Heald who needed help, Frank is beating drums in Uplands Ensemble (orchestra), ready to jingle the sleigh bells for “Frosty the Snow Man“ and “Jingle Bells.”

“To access our articles copy on your computer browser and click on: http://bfparker.hubpages.com/hubs/hot And on google.com or bing.com or any other search engine type in and click on: Franklin Parker, or Franklin and Betty J. Parker or bfparker@frontiernet.net

Jean Clark: Some other questions:
How many dialogues have you given for the Book Review group? Jan said you gave your first for them in 1995. Is this true? I believe you moved here in 1994.

F&B: Yes, we did a review of Franklin Parker’s George Peabody, A BIOGRAPHY, Vanderbilt University Press, revised edition appeared in 1995, and have published many articles on George Peabody (1795-1869) for over 50 years.

Jean: What other topics have you covered for the Book Review group besides Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt?

F&B: Other topics: Thomas (Tip) O’Neill, Man of the House; Myles Horton; Abraham Flexner, Karen Armstrong; Arthur Miller’s autobiography, TIMEBENDS, bought at Wharton book sale;

Stephen Hawking, A HISTORY OF TIME; The Kennedys; Albert Einstein (based on biography by Walter Isaacson).

Jean: Have you ever presented similar talks or dialogues other places?

Yes, annually 1960s-80s at the Southwest Philosophy of Education Society, including a dialogue on “Eric Hoffer, the longshoreman philosopher” and many other dialogues.

Jean: Why did you select the Roosevelts these last two times?

F&B: We chose FDR because of comparisons in the press after the 2008 economic collapse between Obama’s policies and those of Roosevelt during the Great Depression. After doing FDR, we decided to do Eleanor Roosevelt because we did not speak adequately in the FDR review of her accomplishments and influence on FDR.

Jean: Other activities since you have been in Pleasant Hill? – “Casey at the Bat”, the ensemble, swimming, leading Fletcher House Flex and Stretch, sorting the church newsletters, probably others that I haven’t thought about.

F&B: We have written jointly a number of By-Lines biographies of new residents of Fletcher and of the Heritage neighborhood.

Betty served on Wharton Association board in the years when the board had a position for the Library. With others she produced a new shelving arrangement and a new card catalog for the Wharton Library. As long as the Wharton Library existed, she shelved books and reported on circulation.

Our other activities have been mainly for our Heritage neighborhood: Representative (Betty), Alternate Representative (both), delivery person of whatever needed delivering, telephone tree, designer/printer/distributor of notices about neighborhood events.

Jean: Publications by you, unless they are listed in the Biography.

F&B: For all our publications and ’Everything else about the Parkers” see our Complete Curriculum Vitae by accessing the following URL:

https://bfparker.wordpress.com/2012/06/15/franklin-parker-1921-curriculum-vitae-life-work-graduate-of-university-positions-held-subjects-franklin-parker-1921-curriculum-vitae-life-work-graduate-of-university-positions-held-s/

Jean: This article will be about you two, but is there anything you might want me to say about the Book Review group, which meets on the third Monday at 10 am in Adshead Hall.

F&B: Ruth Mackenzie founded the Book Review Group about 1980, encouraged by Alice Riesz and Eleanor Bogle. Meetings were in homes. After Ruth moved to Fletcher, Alice Beeman became the convener. When Adshead was opened, the group began meeting in a circle of chairs arranged in the corner of Adshead near the TV. As the group grew larger, some decided to create a second group for those who wished to discuss a single book that all read before gathering. The fourth Monday was set for those meetings. Some attend both the Book Review Group and the Book Discussion Group. Jan Landis has been the convener since the death of Alice Beeman, assisted by the Parkers, who do the publicity.

Jean: Would appreciate any personal information that you wish to share.

F&B: Retiring to Tennessee in 1994 was a decision we made hastily because we wanted to move with Betty’s parents to a place where they could get care.

After almost 18 years here, we realize that settling here brought us back to the area where we met and received our higher education, a wonderful homecoming. We are four-driving hours from Berea College, Berea, KY, where we met in 1946 (married 1950) and a two-hour drive from Peabody College of Vanderbilt University, where we attended graduate school. Those colleges made possible all the opportunities we have enjoyed throughout our lives together.

P.S. from Betty’s short bio prepared for Berea College Directory:
” I taught high school history and English; earned an M.A.; worked in student services, U of Texas; in Peace Education for the American Friends Service Committee, serving on its Southwest Regional board; and held the International Relations portfolio in local chapters of the League of Women Voters. After 1968 I was a self-employed editor and collaborated with Frank on books, articles, book reviews, and newsletters. We studied school systems in England, southern Africa, and China, with shorter visits to a dozen other countries.” END

Franklin Parker’s brief Biographical Sketch follows. It appeared in: Berea College Alumni Today (Lexington, Ky: (Berea College Alumni Office: customerservice.connect.com, 2011), Class Year 1949, page A54):

Luckily Berea student Ted Smith (1951 graduate), fellow swimmer at Asheville, NC, YMCA, told me how good Berea College was and is. I entered Sept. 1946 after Air Force service (1942-46) and sat alphabetically near same last named Betty June Parker in a few classes (under Professors George Noss, Julia Allen, others). We had adjoining mail boxes, birthdays a day apart, attended Danforth Chapel prayers, and visited each other’s families. How love grew into marriage, June 12, 1950, still puzzles us over 60 years later.

The Alumni Office helped find our first teaching jobs at Ferrum College near Roanoke, VA. Graduate study at Peabody College. of Vanderbilt University, Nashville, summers 1951, ‘52, thru Aug. 1956, while working part-time, led to Betty’s MA in English and my Ed.D. degree in Social Foundations of Education.

Research 1954-56 on George Peabody [GP, 1795-1869] in libraries in Boston, NYC, Washington DC, Baltimore, and in London, England led to our publishing George Peabody, a Biography, Vanderbilt University Press, 1971, rev. 1995, which wonderfully bonded us and opened new vistas and travel abroad.

About Geo. Peabody: Massachusetts-born GP, poor & little-schooled, traveled abroad for his Baltimore-based dry goods importing firm, was appointed agent to sell abroad Maryland bonds to finance the Baltimore and Ohio Canal and B&O Railroad. In transition from merchant to U.S. state securities broker-banker, he founded in London the banking firm of George Peabody & Co., 1838-64, took as partner Boston merchant Junius Spencer Morgan, whose son JP Morgan began as GP&Co’s NYC’s agent. GP’s firm was thus the root of the JP Morgan banking empire.

GP’s philanthropies include Peabody College of Vanderbilt University, legatee of his $2 million Peabody Education Fund for schools in the South (1867-1914); 3 Peabody Museums at Harvard (anthropology), Yale (paleontology), and in Salem, Mass. (maritime history and Essex County History); Baltimore’s Peabody Library and Peabody Conservatory of Music (now part of Johns Hopkins U); and in England low-cost Peabody Homes where 50,000 low income Londoners still live.

We wrote books, articles, lectured at the University of Texas, Austin, 1957-64; University of Oklahoma., Norman, 1964-68; West Virginia University, Morgantown, 1968-86; and post-retirement at Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, 1986-89; and Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, NC 1989-94.

We’ve been happily busy since 1994 at Uplands Retirement Village, Pleasant Hill, TN, and grateful for Berea College where it all began.

Some of our publications are listed in: http://www.amazon.com/Franklin-Parker/e/B001KMQUD8.

For our publications listed in the Library of Congress, copy and click on:
http://bit.ly/mfEmU2
Or: http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=Franklin+Parker,+1921&qt=search_items&search=Search

Access our many articles through google.com, or bing.com, or any other search engine by typing as subject: Franklin Parker, or Betty J. Parker, or Franklin and Betty J. Parker, or Betty and Franklin Parker, or bfparker, or bfparker@frontiernet.net, or bandfparker@frontiernet.net

To access 30+ of our articles in blog form, copy and paste on your browser and click on:
http://bfparker.hubpages.com/hubs/hot
The 30+ articles titles will appear. Click on the one you want to open and read. If this does not work let us know: bfparker@frontiernet.net

24 of authors’ book titles are listed in:
http://www.library.vanderbilt.edu/peabody/about/alum6.html#P

For a funny skit on authors’ 61st wedding anniversary, access:
http://bfparker.blog.co.uk/2011/06/09/franklin-and-betty-j-parker-funny-skit-on-their-birthdays-and-61st-wedding-anniversary-june-4-2011-uplands-retirement-village-pleasant-hill-tn-bf-11292194/

End of Interview Article. Contact: bfparker@frontiernet.net
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“Eleanor and Franklin Roosevelt: Failed Marriage Turned Successful Political Partnership.” [Aug. 13th, 2012|11:21 am]
[ Tags | democratic party, eleanor roosevelt, fdr, louis howe, uncle theodore roosevelt, white house ]

“Eleanor and Franklin Roosevelt: Failed Marriage Turned Successful Political Partnership.” A Dialogue by Franklin and Betty Parker, Given to Book Review Group, Pleasant Hill, TN, bfparker@frontiernet.net (Includes some draft notes from written text).

Frank: Thank you for being here. Suppose Eleanor Roosevelt (1884-1962, hereafter Eleanor) had not married her 5th cousin once removed, Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882-1945, hereafter FDR), 1 might she have become lost to history, a little known troubled rich society lady? Without her might FDR have become a hardly known Wall Street lawyer and Hyde Park, NY, landed squire?

Betty: But by marrying each other they changed history. The once shy, ugly ducking and later political activist Eleanor helped FDR become a NY State senator, NY State governor, and U.S. President elected an unprecedented 4 times. After his death, on her own, she become the United Nations leading lady, the widely acclaimed First Lady of the World.

Frank: In 1918, 13 years into their 40-year marriage with 5 children, she was deeply hurt by his marital betrayal. Shaped as they were by their Roosevelt family connections, their 5 children, his vaulting political ambitions, her liberal reform activism–they remained together as political partners, each with their own friends and interests.

Betty: She aided his drive for political leadership, nursed him through crippling polio, aided his political rise by going where he could not go; telling him things he needed to know.

Frank: She helped him ease the 1930s Great Depression, win WW II, create the post-WW II United Nations and the GI Bill. After his death, she chaired the UN’s Universal Declaration of Human Rights commission to advance human improvement and race relations.

Betty: She was his eyes, ears, moral prompter in a strange, odd, mutually accommodating, often irritating, politically successful marriage. He could not have done all he did without her goading social conscience. She could not have become “First Lady of the World” without his vote-winning political skills. They needed each other as much as they needed their separate friends and lifestyles.

Frank: Each grew enormously in political acumen as they met daunting challenges of the Great Depression—to which they gave hope, help, jobs for the jobless–and WW II—in which they helped stop Hitler from world conquest and helped create the United Nations (UN). After his death she helped steer the UN toward world peace, justice, democracy. Through the G.I. Bill of 1944 they helped elevate 7 million veterans and their families into middle class responsible democratic respectability.

Betty: Together, with much help and despite much criticism, they led the change toward an arguably better and safer post-WW II world.

Frank: After a short background Overview, Betty, wearing Eleanor’s hat, tells her story from her viewpoint, shedding light on their careers, problems, mistakes, successes. We end with her death, contributions, your questions and comments.

Betty: Overview: Eleanor was born Oct. 11, 1884, 127 years ago, into the rich high society Oyster Bay, Long Island, NY, progressive Republican, Roosevelt family branch. Roosevelt, originally Rosenfelt, “field of Roses” is old line Dutch. Eleanor was of the 7th generation of Roosevelts in America, an elite family, with inherited wealth.

Frank: In that Victorian age high society debutantes attracted husbands of their class by their feminine beauty, breeding, age 18 coming out parties, and chaperoned party-dances. Eleanor’s mother, Anna Hall Roosevelt (1863-92), pictured in the press as the most celebrated beauty of her time, attracted and married Elliott Roosevelt (1860-94), younger brother of Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919), later the 26th U.S. President (1901-09).

Betty: Eleanor, despite her troubled girlhood, was Uncle Teddy’s favorite niece. He sometimes told his own same age bold, brash daughter, Alice Lee Roosevelt (1884-1980): why aren’t you better behaved, like your cousin Eleanor? [ftnt about Alice was 8 months older than ER, mrg,etc. source]

Frank: Eleanor’s father, Teddy Roosevelt’s younger brother Elliott Roosevelt, began well enough but sadly turned out to be the family’s black sheep.

Betty: Eleanor’s mother, disappointed in first-born Eleanor’s plain looks, buck teeth, receding chin, hesitant, nervous, frightened manner—unkindly told family and friends in little Eleanor’s presence: She is so shy, so solemn, so old fashioned; we call her “Granny.” She will have to make up in good manners what she lacks in looks.

Betty: Feeling unloved by her cold mother little Eleanor adored her handsome, dashing but often absent father, Elliott Roosevelt, who hugged and kissed her and called her his little Nell. But family elders despaired over Elliott’s excesses as a flighty playboy and dissolute womanizer, steeped in alcohol and drugs. They forced his rehabilitation, apart from his wife, daughter Eleanor, her two younger brothers, and an illigetimate son Elliott sired with a family servant. (2ftnt: named Elliot Roosevelt ?? (), Eleanor’s half brother)

Frank: Insecure in a broken home, Eleanor was 8 when her mother died age 29 of diphtheria, 9 when her father died at age 34 of alcoholism. Orphaned before she was 10, Eleanor was raised and privately tutored under her rigid New York City maternal Grandmother Mary Livingston Ludlow Hall (1843-1919).

Betty: Grandmother Hall also had two unmarried irrational often drunken sons living with her, one of whom crazily took rifle shots out his bedroom window. Teenage Eleanor’s room was locked for her protection.

Frank: Eleanor was rescued by Teddy Roosevelt’s older sister, Aunt Anna Roosevelt (1855-1931), called “Aunty Bye” who had 30 years earlier (1870) studied in a finishing school near Paris, France, under a remarkable socially-concerned French headmistress, Mlle. Marie Souvestre (1830-1905). Aunty Bye insisted that Eleanor attend Mlle. Souvestre French speaking finishing school then near London, England. There for 3 years, ages 15-18 (1899-1902) Eleanor became, for the first time, self confident, socially concerned, politically liberal. (ftnt: 3Source: Peter Collier, with DavidHorowitz, The Roosevelts: An Americn Saga. NY: Simon &Schuster, p. 35)

Betty: Ordered to return home for her age 18 coming out “debutante” party, influenced by Mlle. Souvestre’s democratic social service ideals, Eleanor taught poor ghetto immigrant slum children at NYC’s East Side Rivington Street Settlement House. The once ugly duckling, at 20 a willowy swan-like, tall, 5’ 11” beauty, was surprised, pleased, thrilled to be wooed by and married to her 5th cousin once removed, good looking, 6’1”, buoyant, politically aspiring FDR whom she knew from Roosevelt family gatherings.

¬Frank: Tutored at home to age 15, FDR had attended exclusive Groton preparatory school (MA) , then Harvard College, then chose NYC’s Columbia Law School to be near Eleanor during courtship. Eleanor confided her fear to a cousin: I don’t know how I will ever keep him; he is so popular, so flirtatious.

Betty: FDR’s elderly father was James Roosevelt (1828-1900) who, after his first wife died, married younger (by 26 years) Sara, maiden name Delano, Roosevelt (1854-1941), mother of FDR, their only child. Overdose of chloroform almost killed mother and newborn son. Advised not to chance another pregnancy, Sara overprotected FDR all her life. She often told him he was more a Delano than a Roosevelt (ftnt), that the Delanos, originally de le Noye, Flemish, surpassed the Roosevelts in lineage, wealth, and ability.

Frank: FDR grew up a happy privileged boy among the rich high society Hyde Park, New York, Hudson River, Democratic Roosevelts. Isolated with few playmates, his aging father taught him to hunt, fish, swim, manage sailboats and motor launches in tricky icy cold Bay of Fundy waters around their Canadian Campobello Island summer home. FDR absorbed his father’s noblesse oblige toward the less fortunate, which Groton’s headmaster Rev. Endicott Peabody (1857-1944) reinforced, and which Eleanor later helped steer toward socio-economic uplift of needy people everywhere.

Betty: Young FDR’s hero was his 24 years older Oyster Bay, NY, Uncle Teddy Roosevelt (hereafterTR) whose career FDR yearned to emulate: Groton, Harvard, a law degree, New York State legislator; NY State Governor; U.S. Assistant Navy Secretary; Spanish American war hero, U.S. Vice President, and U.S. President on Pres. McKinley’s assassination. FDR’s later hero model was U.S. Pres. Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924) whose failed League of Nations FDR sought to improve upon through the UN.

Frank: Republican Teddy Roosevelt was a progressive trust buster and “Fair Dealer” who, with six children (4 sons, two daughters) dominated early 20th century U.S. politics. Democrat FDR (his grandfather and father were Democrats) became a fast rising, competitive politician who, with helpful Eleanor and 5 children (1 daughter, 4 sons) would dominate US politics for several generations as the “beat-the-Great Depression New Dealer” (1929-41) and the “win-WWII U.S. President” (1941-45).

Betty: Young FDR early learned to get around MaMa Sara’s smothering presence by ruses, dissembling, keeping a diary in code. Outwardly smiling, charming, self assured, winsome, likeable; he was also privately secretive, devious and cleverly conniving–characteristics which strangely aided his political rise and his 12 year+ hold on presidential power. [ftnt. Protectg with secrecy his aggFa’s heart attacks further reinforced FDR’s secrecy)

Frank: Eleanor’s search to find herself as a person, mother, political aspirant’s wife, was stymied for years by domineering mother-in-law Sara Roosevelt who held the purse strings. After 13 years of marriage, after bearing FDR 5 children, plus a baby boy who died; after overcoming early shyness, after aiding FDR’s early political career, Eleanor —as mentioned– was deeply hurt by discovering in 1918 FDR’s extramarital affair with her social secretary, Lucy Mercer (later Rutherford, 1891-1948).

Betty: Eleanor confronted FDR; offered divorce. FDR’s mother Sara vowed to disinherit him if he shamed the family with divorce. FDR’s political adviser Louis (called Louie) McHenry Howe (1871 -1936) told FDR that divorce would end his political career. (ftnt: 4Adultery was then New York State’s only grounds for divorce)

Frank: FDR, then sick during the 1918 influenza epidemic, considered their children, his expensive lifestyle paid for by MaMa, his drive for high public office, his consequent need for Eleanor’s help and status as popular President Teddy Roosevelt’s niece.

Betty: Eschewing divorce, FDR apologized for hurting Eleanor, promised never again to see Lucy Mercer; a promise not kept, as FDR met Lucy secretly, even after Lucy married, up to the day FDR died.

Frank: Eleanor, though hurt–valuing their linked Roosevelt connections, social status, 13 married years–decided to remain married, with separate bedrooms, to protect their children, to make a place for herself by aiding his political career. This strange partnership was severely tested and ultimately strengthened by FDR’s polio contracted Aug. 1921, at age 39, a turning point in their lives.

Betty: Eleanor and Louie Howe nursed FDR’s pain-racked body and inert legs, a demeaning job with catheters and other simple equipment of the time. They resisted MaMa Sara’s intent to make FDR an invalid Hyde Park squire, as his aged father had been;

Frank: They kept private FDR’s unsuccessful seven-year rehabilitation struggle, his painful crawl using hands, elbows, shoulders, torso to drag limp legs from room to room, up and down stairs, indoors and outdoors Strenuous exercise built his powerful shoulders and torso. His strong arms and upper body propelled him easily in swim therapy in Warm Springs, GA.’s buoyant mineral springs.

Betty: They kept FDR’s infirmity hidden from the public while Louie Howe busily kept FDR’s name and political opinions alive and current in newspaper and journal articles.

Frank: Wheel chair bound, he could, by wearing heel-to-hip steel braces over limp legs, using a crutch or cane, gripping someone’s arm, by swinging his hips, shuffle forward awkwardly. His outward show of good humored laughter made crippling polio work for him.

Betty: By gripping a secured lectern, head thrown back, smiling winsomely, he became a master of radio, film appearances, and public speaking. He stirred audiences with powerful speeches and later said guardedly, laughingly, to White House visiting actor Orson Wells (1915-85) that he and Wells were the greatest actors in the world.

Frank: In the roaring 1920s, with women newly given the right to vote, encouraged by Louie Howe, Eleanor exploded into political activity. She cultivated idb activist socio-political savvy Democratic Party women intimates, she became an ever-better speaker and leader among NY State and national Democratic Party women.

Betty: Before polio, raising their children, Eleanor knew that FDR yearned to leave his uninspiring Wall Street Law partnership for politics. In 1910 she encouraged him to run for election as NY State Senator from Hyde Park’s Duchess County, overwhelmingly Republican, which had not elected a Democrat in over 50 years.

Frank: FDR vigorously campaigned in every town square in his district standing on the back seat of a rented red Maxwell convertible open roadster, drawing considerable attention in that horse and buggy era. He spoke about local needs to small scale farmers, apple growers, and factory workers. Against all odds, at age 28, he barely won by a slim 25,000 votes over his opponent his first political office as NY State Senator.

Betty: Newcomer NY State Senator FDR early drew state-wide attention to himself by heading a group of dissidents state senators opposed to powerful NY City’s Tammany Hall’s choice for NY’s state Democratic nominee for the U.S. Senate. State legislatures then (1910), not voters of each state, chose their state nominees for the U.S. Senate.

Frank: The David vs. Goliath battle, newcomer NY Senator FDR vs. Tammany Hall, made headline news. FDR made some New York City and State pro-Tammany Hall enemies but gained more admiring national attention when Tammany Hall bosses capitulated by substituting a more acceptable candidate to the dissident state senators.

Betty: Of FDR’s many NY State political contact two who importantly furthered his career included Louie Howe, previously mentioned, politically clever Albany, NY newsman.

Frank: Howe touched FDR’s inner core when he told FDR that, if correctly managed by him (Howe), he could become a Democratic NY Governor and from there a likely winning Democratic U.S. President. They melded, schemed, worked together closely for some 20 years (1911-33), with Howe the person most responsible for getting FDR into the White House.

Betty: The second important NY State contact was Frances Perkins (1882-1965), way ahead of FDR’s thinking in 1910-13 on labor reform, shorter hours, better pay, factory safety. She was FDR’s Labor Secretary throughout his presidency and the inspirer of the Social Security Act of 1935.

Frank: Eleanor and Howe helped FDR politically during his two NY Senate terms (1910-13), with Howe helping a then sick FDR win a much larger majority second term reelection vote.

Betty: FDR’s active support of Woodrow Wilson’s election as 28th U.S. President (1913-21) led to his appointment as Assistant U.S. Navy Secretary (1913-20, 7 years).

Frank: Eleanor and Howe actively campaigned for FDR’s 1920 unsuccessful run as Democratic Vice President, knowing that it was a post-WW I Republican “Return to Normalcy” winning election year. The lost 1920 Vice President campaign train ride across the U.S. gave FDR national exposure. Louie Howe also bonded with Eleanor. They discussed FDR’s speeches. Howe got her involved, told how she could help FDR politically.

Betty: During FDR’s 7-year polio rehabilitation (1921-28), Louie Howe and Eleanor, by boosting FDR’s public political image, helped elect him NY State Governor, 2 terms (1929-32). During the early Great Depression his NY State jobs program for the jobless led to his big Democratic presidential win over Republican Herbert Hoover.

Frank: FDR’s repackaged NY State experimental job creation successes led to his innovative presidential New Deal programs, 1933-36, 1936-40. His artful craftiness in military preparedness against an overwhelming isolation-minded public and congress, led to his third and fourth election wins, 1940-44, 1944-45 (an unprecedented 12 years, 3 months, 27 days).

Betty: The FDR-Eleanor political partnership through the 20th century’s two worst catastrophes, the Great Depression and WW. II took its toll on their 5 children’s troubled lives. Feeling neglected, knowing their parents had separate live-styles and intimates, unsure of true friends from those seeking presidential favors–they had a total of 19 marriages, 15 divorces, 29 children; jealousies, and financial difficulties,. Ftnt: http://en.allexperts.com/q/U-S-History-672/Roosevelts.htm

Frank: Winston Churchill no less publicly credited FDR as history’s greatest leader for stopping Hitler’s drive for world conquest. Most historians have voted FDR the 20th century best U.S. president and second best of all U.S. presidents after Lincoln, a pinnacle FDR might likely NOT have achieved without Eleanor.

Betty: After FDR’s death at age 63 (April 12, 1945), Eleanor, 61, believing her public life over, hesitantly accepted Pres. Harry S Truman’s appointment as U.S. delegate to the United Nations (UN). There, and in other ways in the 17 years left her, despite domestic and other critics and U.S.-USSR Cold War clashes, she pushed through the UN Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, advanced race relations, women’s rights, and helped spread democracy at home and abroad.

Frank: End of Overview. Betty, wear your Eleanor hat, tell us of key turning points: your early troubled life; why you chose FDR; why he chose you; how you encouraged him to enter politics; how you dealt with his marital betrayal; why and how you aided him politically; his and your weaknesses and strengths; why you persisted doing good after his death.

Betty as ER: (Wearing ER’s hat, said): There is so much to cover in a short time. My mother, a celebrated beauty in that high society Victorian age, may be forgiven for publicly expressing disappointment at my plain looks. She had migraine headaches and I pleased her only when she let me rub her throbbing head. My darling father hugged me, called me his Little Nell after the heroine in Charles Dickens’ The Old Curiosity Shop which he read to me . I did not understand the bad things they said he did. I later understood more: that as boys PaPa early outshone older asmatic brother [my Uncle] Teddy whose later political skills outshone Papa; and that, besides sibling rivaly, PaPa’s drinking; and Papa’s emotional swings probably came from some undiagnosed, untreated bi-polarism, leading to drugs. What I remember is that he hugged me, loved me, and I needed that.

Frank: He took you and some family dogs on a walk in fashionable NYC, stopped at his Knickerboker Club for one quick drink, asked you to wait outside, told you he’d be right out?

Betty: I waited for hours. The doorman sent me and the dogs home in a taxi. I later learned he was taken inebriated to a hospital. I learned early to detest alcohol which killed my father and later my only surviving brother named Hall Roosevelt.

Frank: Nurses and servants raised you; tutors taught you. As a little girl you moved frequently.

Betty: A French nurse early taught me to speak French better than I spoke English. My parents moved seasonally from NYC house to Tivoli house on the Hudson to vacation places and abroad; sometimes with me, more often leaving me with aunts and uncles. I felt lonely, afraid, troubled. When very little I often asked: where are MaMa and PaPa now? Where’s baby’s home now?

Frank: Orphaned before age 10, raised by your maternal grandmother in New York City, you became self confident under Mlle. Souvestre at her finishing school near London, England? FP Ended here

Betty: MaMa, before she died, arranged that I be raised by her mother, my elderly maternal GrandMaMa. A hired male tutor conducted a small school for me, some cousins and other girls. GrandMaMa had two older somewhat wild, unpredictable bachelor sons, my uncles, living with her in both the NYC and Tivoli houses. When I was 15, to remove me from my wild uncles shooting rifles out of the upstairs windows, GrandMaMa followed Aunt Bye’s (fullname, dates, Uncle Teddy Roosevelt’s older sister) advice that I be sent to a finishing school abroad, near London, run by Mlle. Marie Souvestre. Aunt Bye when a girl had studied under her in Switzerland.

Fr ank: Why was the London finishing school a turning point for you? What did you learn from Mlle Souvestre? Why did you keep her photo on your dressing table the rest of your life?

Eleanor: I was born in a fashionable servant-filled 5th Ave., New York City brownstone house. MaMa and PaPa, rarely home, wintered at Tivoli-on-Hudson, summered on Long Island (NY) or Bar Harbor (ME) or went abroad, leaving me with aunts and uncles. Uncle Theodore, my Godfather and PaPa’s older brother, always said I was his favorite niece. They tell me I sometimes asked: Where is PaPa now? Where is baby’s home now? I felt lonely, abandoned, sensed my lovely mother’s disappointment in my plain looks, was shamed when she publicly called me “Grannie,” yet stroked her forehead to ease her migraine headaches. My darling PaPa read to me, wrote to me when he was away, called me his little Nell after troubled little Nell in Charles Dickens, The Old Curiosity Shop.

Questioner: Tell about you and your father walking hand in hand and his stopping at the Knickerboker Club.

¶Eleanor: He asked me to wait while he went in for a few minutes for a drink. After six hours PaPa was taken to the hospital sick. I did not understand, could not believe, horrid things whispered about PaPa’s drinking and doing other bad things. (ftnt CPpg 5)

Questioner: Was it all bad, your childhood? Any good times? With whom?

Eleanor: My father, so often away, was the center of my world. I liked my small brothers, little Ellie (Elliott Roosevelt, Jr., 1889-93) born when I was 5 and G. Hall Roosevelt (1891-1941) born when I was 6. Although MaMa adored my littler brothers she made an effort to read to me after they were in bed. Yet she often told relatives and friends that I, being so grave, was a problem. ¶I liked visiting PaPa’s older brother, Uncle Theodore, my godfather. I was often with his daughter Alice Roosevelt Longworth (1884-1980), my own age. She was everything I was not–bold, brave, brash, shockingly worldly, while I was timid, shy, afraid of everything and everybody.

Questioner: Who taught you? What did you learn? Why were you sent to finishing school abroad near London? How did finishing school abroad change you?

Frank: What were your relations with John F. Kennedy () during his run for the U.S. preidency? Why did he want your endorsement? Etc.

Betty: (about father Joe Kennedy, md money hollywood, wall st stock exch, selling short, etc.)

Long concerned with the few qualified women chosen for high government jobs, in 1961, early in JFK’s presidency, knowing he was filling govt positions quickly, I went to him, handed him a 3 page list of qualified women for high govt posts. He took the list gladly but this got me into trouble. He asked me to head a new presidental commission to write a report on the status of women in the U.S. I was 77 then, very ill, but finished the report which, published after my death in 1962, galvanized the entry of more qualified women in high government positions.

Frank: When and why did FDR first think of becoming US president? Q: When did the presidential bug hit FDR? When and how did he get into politics? By what stages did he hope to reach the U.S. presidency?

ER: The presidential bug hit him early, was often, in the back of his mind increasingly at Groton, Harvard, Columbia Law School, and as a Wall Street law clerk. His father James Roosevelt had financially supported Democrat Grover Cleveland’s (1837-1908, U.S. President, 1885-89, 1893–97) presidential campaign, was offered an ambassadorship, and took 5 year old FDR with him to the White House to graciously decline in person. Pres. Grover Clevelend patted little FDR ’s head and said: My strange wish for you is that you never become President of the United States. It’s a thankless, worrisome job. Ref.Collier&Horowitz, p. 101.¶ FDR knew every aspect of uncle Theodore Roosevelt’s career climb to the White House which he meant to emulate: from

at 15 at Groton attended uncle Theodore Roosevelt’s inaugural as New York State Governor, 1898; knew

Frank: Hickok, Lorena: Tell about Associated Press reporter Lorena A. Hickok (), assigned to cover you as potential First Lady during FDR’s first run for the Nov. 1932 Presidential campaign. You and she, seeing and receiving something from each other you each needed, became confidantes, intimate life long friends. She first suggested you to hold innovative First Lady press conferences, rubbed your nose in the worst of Depression depravity, got you involved in New Deal homesteads, over 100 in the USA, deeply involved in the first one in Arthurdale, northern West Viginia, for jobless, homeless, starving coal miner families.

Frank: How did you and FDR each grew stronger from tragedy: you from a troubled childhood and the hurt of a broken marriage; FDR from crippling polio? What hopes and fears lay behind your political partnership? How and why did it grow to become a remarkable synergism, when together you could do more than each could do on your own? Why did you need his vote-getting ability, his political power, to achieve what you both cared about: New Deal programs for the jobless and homeless, improved race relations, women’s rights, defeat of the Axis powers, creation of the United Nations, the uplift of have-nots everywhere?
……. Why was your girlhood so troubled? Who helped you overcome your handicap? How and why? Why did you marry FDR? How did he enter politics?

[Some snippets of Q & A follow, some time by date or topic, which have to be fleshed out and carefully blended in]:

ER’s Writings Q: Eleanor, you’re writings have been large, significant, yet never fully publicly known and appreciated. Tell us about your published speeches, # of your My Day column in some # US and foreign newspapers , 4 autobiographical books .

Q; Describe your relations with John F. Kennedy (JFK, 1917-63). Why did he want your endorsement for his 1960 election?

BasER: Most political insiders saw J.F.K.’s father, Joseph P. Kennedy (1888-1969), as a crooked Wall Street manipulator, Prohibition bootleger, and Hollywood RKO B-Picture studio magnet who bought the crucial votes that elected JFK U.S. President in 1960. JP Kennedy backed and helped finance FDR’s 1932 Presidential election win, wanting to be U.S. Treasury Secretary. FDR denied him that post but let him head the new Securities and Exchange Commission, then Maritime Affairs, then appointed him the first Irish-American to be US ambassador to England. He turned out to be a Hitler appeaser and an FDR critic.

Questioner: You backed Illinois Governor Adlai Stevenson for Democ Presidential Candidate.

BasER: Yes, but rather than have Republican Richard Nixon I backed JFK who won over Nixon. Knowing JFK was filling government posts, knowing that women were being overlooked, I went to JFK in 1961, handed him a 3 page list of women qualified for top government posts. That got me into something I was not looking for. He asked me to head a new commission to look into the status of women in the U.S. Source: PRESIDENT BARACK OBAMA DELIVERS WEEKLY RADIO ADDRESS.(Broadcast transcript).
Financial Markets Regulation Wire (March 12, 2011)

Q; You were then 77, very ill, and died in 1962, before your Roosevelt Commission report was published. You know that report helped spur the entry of many qualified women to high government posts. Source:

ELEANOR: I married FDR because he wanted me; I wanted him. I sensed what was under his playboy exterior: knew his social concerns, his political ambition, sensed that our intermeshed family connection would see us through. I knew he would lift me from a troubled nobody to a fulfilled somebody and do it through public service.

QUESTIONER: His smothering domineering mother Sara didn’t deter you?

ELEANOR: All Roosevelt achievers dominated in one way or another. I long knew and understood Cousin and later MaMa Sara. Both she and baby FDR nearly died at childbirth. She in great pain, was over-chloroformed. The attending physician who blew life into blue-faced unbreathing baby FDR told young Sara, then 28, and husband James, then 56, not to chance another pregnancy. Yes, she adored, mothered, smothered FDR growing up, told every body he was more Delano than Roosevelt, the image of her daring adventurous China sea-faring tea-and-opium-rich merchant father.

I knew why he needed adoring women about him, why his mother smothered him. which came from his mother’s absolute love. I will comment on my key transforming moments. My 78-year lifetime spanned the Victorian age to modern times. My mother’s concern about my plain looks is explained in its Victorian context: rich high society girls were expected to be proper in looks, manners, dress; to attend parties; have their own “coming out” party (age 17, 18), to mix wth and attract equally rich high society males as beaus and possible husbands.

2-How did it come about that you were sent to finishng school at Allensdale near London, ages 15-18, 3 years? Why was it totally French speaking? How did that benefit you and why? How were you influenced by Mlle. Marie Souvestre?

3-Describe why you joined the Junior League Back home to NYC from Allensdale near London, what it was, and why it led you to teach immigrants at the Rivington Street Settlement House

Eleanor’s Her early years included the Spanish-American War (1889-1900) and the Panama Canal (1904-14), which helped make the U.S. and its Navy a world power, all dominated by her uncle, U.S. President (during 1901-09) Theodore (“Teddy”) Roosevelt (1858-1919). ER’s father Elliott Roosevelt (1860-94) was Teddy Roosevelt’s younger brother who died age 34 of drugs and alcohol.

Betty: Overview. Not only were ER and FDR (he was 2 years older than ER) inter-related, 5th cousins but ER’s father, Elliott Roosevelt, was also FDR’s godfather.

Frank: Overview. ER and FDR knew each other as children at Roosevelt family gatherings but were not romantically involved until 1904. FDR was an only, happy, carefree well-adjusted child of a young mother Sara Delano Roosevelt (1854-1941) 28 at FDR’s birth, and an aging father James Roosevelt (1828-1900, 54?? at FDR’s birth. FDR’s father’s son James Roosevelt Roosevelt (dates) by his deceased first wife was FDR’s ?? year older half brother.

Betty: Overview ER, first born with two younger brothers, had an unfortunate tangled, troubled, broken family life. Orphaned at age 10 (1894), she overcame her shy, lonely, hesitant, frightened girlhood; married (in 1905) flirtatious FDR, bore him a daughter and four sons, was deeply hurt when she discovered in August 1918 his extramarital love affair with her secretary, Lucy Mercer (); cut off conjugal relations, yet remained married to him, nursed him through his polio (1921);

Frank: Overview. After FDR’s death, April 18, 1945, believing her public life was over, she hesitantly accepted Pres. Harry S Truman’s appointment to the United Nations where, despite opposition amid the US-USSR Cold War, she gave the world the UN Declaration of Human Rights.

Betty: We know a lot about FDR, much less about ER. Their relationship was sometimes rocky. Each sometimes hurt and angered the other, yet they formed the most successful political partnership of all time.

about private girls finishing school abroad in London with Mdm Souvestre.

Questioner: Why was your 3 years with Mdm S a changing point in your life?

ER:

Questioner: Why did FDR court you? Your reaction? Why did you accept? Tell of his flirtatiousness on your honeymoon voyage abroad, your early married years, birth of your children your awkward relations with FDR’s domineering Mother, Sara Roosevelt.

Questioner: What kind of a Wall Street law partner was FDR; how, why, where, when he entered politics; his years as New York State Senator; what you did; what contacts like Louis Howe did he and you make that were important and why?

_______________________________________________________
During his rise as a wheel-chair bound politician, requiring re-election by a varied constituency, she learned to be his eyes and ears, his investigative reporter, his liberal conscience; advising, urging, provoking, irritating, pushing, prodding him into doing what she though he should do.

They needed each other, complemented each other, could not have achieved what they did without annoying, bittersweet give and take. Each grew as challenges mounted; each changed enormously; making together a rich amalgam. FDR’s mammoth burdens cut short his life at 63. Eleanor, thinking it was all over, lived on to serve the U.N., and to give the world its Universal Declaration Human Rights, dying at 78 (date).

Our different approach today to the Eleanor story is ask her penetrating questions to which her honest documented answers get at the heart of how this most unusual great political partnership dealt with the two defining 20th century crises: the 1930s Great Depression and WW II and its current influence .

1-Though they complemented each other, FDR could not have done what he did without her. Both changed; both grew, He became more politically oriented, more politically adept; more compartmentalized in his public and private life; more driven in four unprecedented U.S. presidential elections to help solve the two most crucial 20th century U.S.-world problems: the 1929-41 Great Economic Depression and the 1941-45 WW II.

2-Less known is the fact that ER had to change even more than he did. Consider their differences: childhood, premarital, marital, and later differences. FDR grew up an only rich child, happy, carefree, with supporting, encouraging parents at their Hyde Park, NY, Hudson River, estate; had a generally good experiences without excessive strain or worry at exclusive Groton Preparatory school (yrs), Harvard College, Columbia Law School (yrs), and as Wall Street Law firm internee (yr), and partner (yr) until he plunged into politics, winning against odds two terms as New York State Senator (yrs)
Prologue: The ER-FDR story is most interesting and most strange: Two cousins, 5 times removed, with the same last Roosevelt name, from rich, monied, upper class families; cultured, well educated for their time—meet after knowing of each other as children, fall in love, marry, have 6 children (their born died after a few months)

1924 US pres campaign and Teapot Dome

Quest: Eleanor, what part did you play in t he 1924 Presidential campaign? I read that you drove a car with a paper mache big Teapot Dome on top belching steam to shame the Republican candidates, including your cousin, Teddy Roosevelt’s son NAME () and that it made the Oyster Bay, Long Island, NY, Roosevelts terribly mad at you.

Eleanor: Source: http://www.americanheritage.com/people/articles/web/20080103-teapot-dome-scandal.shtml
The Republican Teapot Dome scandal of Republican Pres. Warren G. Harding’s () 1921-23 was the biggest scandal in U.S. history (Quest: up until Republican Richard M. Nixon’s () 1974 Watergate scandal, 12 years after your death)
Background: Rich oil reserve lands at Teapot Dome near Casper, Wyoming and in Calif were held by the U.S. Government for US Navy use in case of war. Private oil interests, wanting that oil rich land, colluded illegally and for big pay-offs to Interior Secretary Albert B. Fall () and others for Sinclair Oil get that land dirt cheap. A US senate investigating committee made the Republican corrution the biggest scandal of the time. It was Louis Howe who got me to driving that Teapot Dome toped car, a humorous reminder to many boters how corrupt the Republicans had been. Yes, it did put me in bad repute with my Oyster bay , NY Roosevelt relatives, for a time. But that’s politics. Differences of opinion. Win some, lose some, and later always try to mend fences. FDR was a master at that kind of power politics. And I follow my consience in doing the best I could to uplift the needy.

Great Depression 1929-41 articles, photos: http://history1900s.about.com/od/photographs/tp/greatdepressionpictures.htm?nl=1

Outline Q and A as of March 1, 2011.
–WHY did FDR attend Col Law Schl rathr t han Harvard Law School which his father and Cousin Ted R both attended? Ans: He was in love with ER living in NYC and wanted to be near her

HOW well did FDR do as first year law clerk and later Wall Street Law Firm partner? Ans: Not stimulating enough. He yearned for the rough and tumble, the win or lose, of Politics. Ted R was his hero and model to emulate.

HOW did he get into politics, NY Assembly? NYSenate race, 1910.

HOW did he get appointed Asst Secy of US Navy1913-20, ANS: By working hard to get Woodrow Wilson elect ed 1913-14 election? Posts offered and turned down. SC Editor liked him, asked him

WHY did he resign Asst Secy US Nav 1920 to run as Dem VP on bound to lose Cox-FDR Dem 1920 US Pres election? Why wasn’t he hurt by Sex scandal New Port, VA. naval station? What good came from that campaign—for FDR: did it hurt or help him (experience, national public exposure—for ER, closer contact with LouisHowe.

HOW, when (aug 1921), where did he get polio? Diagnosis? Treatment. Your role. Louis Howe’s role? Treatment, exercise, crawling, stairs, in house, outside. Secty Margaret LeHand, trips to Fla. on Houseboat. Found out about Warm Springs, GA, bought hotel, Geo Peabody part owner, what FDR learned about South living at Warm Springs, GA.

Question: How early did FDR harbor US Presidential ambitions? Very long . At age 5…
Quest: What were your relations with Jn F Kennedy? Both FDR and I knew that his fat her, who finaancially aided FDR’s 1932

Quest: Looking back what contributions are you most proud of? BasER Answer: First for my self-confidence gained in the finishing school near London under Mlle. Souvestre whose picture I kept on my dresser until I died. In the 1920s I liked my involvement in the socio-economic-political activism learned from leading women activists (names?)), plus divided time between NYC”s Todhunter school teaching and Albany, NY, family- tending and helping FDR as Governor. During the 1930’s Depression years I am glad I urged FDR to appoint Franxes Perkins Labor Secxretary; and urged him to enact the National Youth Administration whose part-time jobs enabled poor youths 18 to 24 to remain inß high school and college. After FDR died I was proudest of chairing the UN? Charter of Human Rights.

Source: Schiff, Karenna Gore, “Frances Perkins,” Nine Women Who Changed America. NY: Hyperion, 2005, pp. 131-189.
FPQuestion: In FDR’s first public office, his 1910-13 two-term NY Senate, office, he latched on to Albany, NY, newsman Louie Howe, thereafter his political guru who got FDR into the White House, and Francis Perkins, later his Labor Secretary and first woman ever to be a U.S. Presidential cabinet member. Describe your connections with Perkins and later with Louie Howe

1924 Pres. election, Al Smith, then NYSt ate gov, FDR asked to give Nominating Speech. Happy Warrior.

1920s Eleanor, on Howe’s advice and help, became a leader among NY State Democratic women

NOV 1932 Election. Ques: So many questions about the Nov. 1932 election, the whirlwind first hundred days of the first term, 1933-36; I’ll rattle off the questions quickly so we can try to cover each however briefly: Why and how did FDR win so big? Your feelings about moving into the White House? The hectic first hundred days barrage of anti-Depression make jobs New Deal agencies? FDR’s first term Inaugural Address given about the same time as Adolph Hitler’s given dictatorial power as German Chancelor the coincidental creation of mainly anti-Jewish killing concentration camps. What did you, FDR, and other Amerians know about and do about the start of the Halocaust? You ‘ll have to hit the high points.
….(answer in turn, holocaust last). Eleanor: Source: Cook, Vol. 2, pp.304f: About Hitler as German chancellor, Dictator, concentration camps, ethnic cleansing of Jews: On Dec. 16, 1933, I received a haunting letter from a Kgerman woman refugee in London saying in gist: I bet you as highly placed mother and good human being to tell Americans about Hittler concentration camps for killing Jews. We few who escxapted in time are citizen-less refugees prohibited or unable to get jobs to feed ourselves and families

I shared this and similar information wih FDR and with our intimate Jewish friends. FDR said: Keep me informed but let Dept of State and other experts handle foreign affairs. We’re newcomers at this presidential game, not yet strong enough to meet and win head on over the considerable U.S. anti semitism in the state Department and among a good many Americans. I need German-American good will and votes. We don’t want to rile up the Hitlerites here, in Germany, and elsewhere. Besides, you know that our intimate Jewish friends—Elinor Morganthau (wife of FDR’s Treasury Dept. Secretary) and advisor Barnard Baruch, fear that making a big noise now about German atrocoties against the Jews, may well incxrease U.S. anti-semitism. Let’s keep quiet now and when we are able hit Hiterism anti semitism hard and do what we can to find a home for German Jewish refugees.

Thus I initially kept quiet about foreign affairs, especially anti-Jewish German atrocities, knowing also that Americans were initially more afraid of Russian communist infiltration in the US than they feared dictatorial atrocities in Germany and in Europe. In fact some Americans though Italian fascism and German Naziism a good counter-measure to the spread of International Russian Communism. The 1930s were full of jobless perils and growing dictatorships abroad. (source: Cook, Vol. 2, pp.304f☺

OUTLINE BELOW_

The Eleanor & Franklin D. Roosevelt Political Partnership: Strange, Unusual, Most Successful of all Time. Outline: Questions asked with Eleanor’s answers based on best sources.

1. Eleanor was well-born into the rich distinguished Roosevelt family. U.S. Pres. Teddy Roosevelt was her uncle, her father’s older brother. Yet her early childhood was difficult. She was timid, fearful, shy, afraid, convinced by her buck teeth and receding chin that she was the ugly child of a beautiful but less than caring mother.

2. Eleanor’s 3 years at the French-speaking Allenswood finishing school for girls under Mlle. Marie Souvestre at Wimbledon, near London, England, (yr-yr), ages 15-17, was an early turning point when she gained some self-confidence, self-worth..
3. Back home (NYC) for her coming out party, she ran into FDR on a train (he’d been tutored at home; then attended exclusive Groton Prep School, Harvard, and Columbia Law School. He developed an interest in you, you in him. when, where, result? Why did you keep your engagement secret? What was your mother-in-law’s reaction to your engagement, marriage, her long dominance over you?

4. Tell of FDR as a Wall Street law firm clerk, later junior partner; his yearning to get into politics, to follow Teddy Roosevelt’s career pattern from New York State Legislature to Assistant U.S. Navy Secretary, to Vice President, then President?

5. How did you raise your children while encouraging FDR’s political ambitions? Describe his first campaign for and close win as New York State Senator? How were you personally affected, and your children affected, by the move to Albany, N.Y.? why, how, and result when FDR challenged NYC’s powerful Tammany Hall.

6. Describe FDR’s important Albany, NY. contacts and their later influence: Al Smith, NY State Governor; Francis Perkins, later FDR’s Labor Secretary; especially journalist Louis McHenry Howe, FDR’s political advisor, guru, who helped immeasurably in putting FDR into the White House.

7. Tell how FDR’s strong backing of Woodrow Wilson’s presidential win, Nov. 1912, led to FDR’s appointment as Assistant U.S. Navy Secretary (1913-20) under Secretary Josephus Daniels; FDR’s actions preparing for, during, and after WW I, including the Navy sex scandal at Newport, RI, and Eleanor’s discovery of FDR-Lucy Mercer love-letters (1918) and the consequences.

8. How was Eleanor changed by Louie Howe during FDR’s failed 1920 Democratic Vice President campaign? Describe FDR’s polio attack Aug. 1921, difficulty in getting proper diagnosis and treatment, how and why Eleanor and Howe nursed him, Howe’s coverup of crippled FDR’s 7-year rehabilitation efforts, how Eleanor (aided by Howe) rose quickly to 1920s Democratic Party political leadership as women won the vote; how ever more important FDR’s secretary Margaret (Missy) LeHand became, watching over him on houseboat trips in Florida warm waters and at swim therapy at Warm Springs, GA, mineral springs. Tell of Eleanor’s ????

9. How did New York Governor Al Smith’s political needs in 1924 and again in 1928, lead to FDR’s slim win as NY State Governor, 2 terms, 1929-31, 1931-33? Describe FDR’s advisory brain trust professors from Columbia University who helped him find jobs for New York jobless early in the Great Depression years, 1929-31. Why did FDR Democratic win an overwhelming victory over Republican Herbert Hoover? What were FDR-Hoover relations before, during, and after FDR’s win? Why did protesting WW I Veteran Bonus marchers in Washington, DC, say: Hoover sent the Army to route us out; FDR sent a sympathetic Eleanor who cheered us on? Who were the activist women leaders with whom Eleanor become intimate, learn from, and who encouraged her whirlwind writing, lecturing, and private NYC Todhunter girls school teaching?

10. Describe FDR’s major (15) New Deal programs introduced during his first 100 days.

11. Highlight 1-Eleanor’s and 2-FDR’s major activities during FDR’s first (1933-37), second (1937-41), third (1941-45), and fourth (1945) terms. Describe the transition from the “Beat the Great Depression” period (1933-38) to his “Prepare for WW II” despite dominant popular and congressional Isolationism (1938-41). Describe Eleanor’s WW II activities, particularly her Pacific area trip (dates). Describe tired-sick-FDR’s 1944 campaign and key FDR- Churchill-Stalin meetings, particularly at Yalta (date)

12. Tell of FDR’s return from Yalta, message to Congress, plans for a United Nations that would succeed where Wilson’s League of Nations failed. FDR’s death at Warm Springs, GA, Eleanor’s trip there and return with his remains for burial.

13. Eleanor’s years alone, UN activities, Declaration of Human Rights, friendship with physician David Gurewich and wife. Relations with Truman, Eisenhower, John F. Kennedy, Gov of Illinois. Last illness, death, influence.?

14. For References: For alphabetical list by title of 16 books written by ER, access: http://www.nps.gov/archive/elro/who-is-er/q-and-a/er_books.htm

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________

End of Paper read [with some private reminder notes included] About the Authors added below:

For authors’publications listed in the Library of Congress, copy and click on:

http://bit.ly/mfEmU2

Or: http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=Franklin+Parker,+1921&qt=search_items&search=Search

To access Parkers’ many articles through google.com, or bing.com, or any other search engine by typing as subject: FranklinParker, or Betty J. Parker, or Franklin and Betty J. Parker, or Betty andFranklin Parker, or bfparker, or bfparker@frontiernet.net,or bandfparker@frontiernet.net

To access 30+ of authors’ articles in blog form, copy and paste on your browser and click on:
http://bfparker.hubpages.com/hubs/hot

The 30+ articles titles will appear. Click on the one you want to open andread. If this does not work let us know: bfparker@frontiernet.net

24 of authors’ book titles are listed in:
http://www.library.vanderbilt.edu/peabody/about/alum6.html#P

For a funny skit on authors’ 61st wedding anniversary, access:

http://bfparker.blog.co.uk/2011/06/09/franklin-and-betty-j-parker-funny-skit-on-their-birthdays-and-61st-wedding-anniversary-june-4-2011-uplands-retirement-village-pleasant-hill-tn-bf-11292194/


End of Manuscript. bfparker@frontiernet.net
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How Research on George Peabody (1795-1869) Changed Our Lives, by Franklin Parker and Betty J. Parker [Apr. 10th, 2012|06:10 am]
[ Tags | founder of modern philanthropy, model of modern great funds and foundati ]

We met at Berea College near Lexington, KY, Sept. 1946, were married June 12, 1950. Frank attended the University of Illinois Graduate School, Urbana, 1949-50, for the M.S. degree. We both first taught at Ferrum College near Roanoke, VA , 1950-52.

We did additional graduate study at George Peabody College for Teachers, adjoining the Vanderbilt University campus in Nashville, TN, summers 1951, 1952. Part time jobs and study in Nashville during 1952-56, four years, enabled us to graduate in Aug. 1956: Betty, M.A. degree in English; Frank, doctoral degree, Social Foundations of Education.

Frank’s dissertation topic, which took us to London, England, for three months, Sept. to Dec. 1954, and influenced our lives, came from Peabody College Graduate Dean Felix C. Robb (1914-97). Dean Robb told Frank that during his own doctoral study at Harvard Graduate School of Education, Harvard’s History Prof. Arthur Schlesinger Sr. (1888-1965), knowing Robb was a Peabody College administrator, told him: Robb, your college founder, George Peabody, was the largely forgotten founder of modern educational philanthropy. His Peabody Education Fund, just after the Civil War, set the pattern for all later large educational funds and foundations. A well done doctoral dissertation based on his original papers and related papers needs to be written.

Perhaps regretting that he had written on another topic (school administration), Robb urged us to look into George Peabody’s influence. We did, were inspired by what we found, spent many months reading George Peabody documents in libraries in Nashville, Washington, DC, Baltimore, New York City, Boston and Salem, Mass.; plus three months in London, England, libraries.

Because the George Peabody research took us to London, changed our lives, led us to 27 trips abroad, we must tell why he was important, why research on him was so beneficial for us.

Born poor 19 miles north of Boston and little schooled, George Peabody at age 17 migrated South, succeeded as a dry-goods importing merchant at Peabody, Riggs & Co., 1814-40s, based in Baltimore, Md., with New York and Philadelphia warehouses.

On Peabody’s fifth European buying trip, 1837, all via London, Maryland officials commissioned him to sell abroad that state’s $8 million bonds to finance its Baltimore and Ohio canal and later the Baltimore and Ohio railroad. The U.S. was then a borrowing nation needing foreign capital for internal improvements. In the financial panic of 1837, against all odds, Peabody sold Maryland’s bonds abroad, found himself in transition from merchant to U.S. state bond broker-banker. He remained in London the rest of his life.

His George Peabody & Co., banking firm, London, 1838-64, 26 years, specialized in selling U.S. state bonds to finance canals, railroads, telegraph, the Atlantic Cable, etc., thus helping modernize and industrialize the U.S. Note that J.P. Morgan’s (1837-1913) father (J.S. Morgan, 1813-90) was George Peabody’s partner, making George Peabody a root of the JP Morgan banking empire.

Peabody supported his widowed mother, was the family breadwinner, paid for the education of his siblings, and later his nieces and nephews. Unmarried, he used half his fortune, large for that time, to found educational institutions while he lived and left half to relatives at his death.

His philanthropic motive is best expressed by his motto in his 1852 letter founding his first hometown library: ìEducation: a debt due from present to future generations.î

Peabody founded seven U.S. Peabody libraries, with lecture halls and lecture funds, the adult education centers of the time; well before Andrew Carnegie’s later more numerous Carnegie libraries. The Peabody Institute of Baltimore comprised a reference library, art gallery, lecture hall and fund, and the Peabody Conservatory of Music–all now part of Johns Hopkins University,

His example influenced Baltimoreans Enoch Pratt (1808-96) to found the Enoch Pratt Free Public Library and Johns Hopkins (1795-1873) to found Johns Hopkins University and Medical School.

Three Peabody museums advanced anthropology at Harvard, paleontology at Yale, and maritime history and Essex County history, including George Peabody’s letters and papers, at Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA. He endowed professorships at Phillips Academy, Andover, MA, and Washington and Lee University, Lexington, VA. He gave publication funds to both the Maryland and Massachusetts Historical Societies; aided Civil War widows and orphans (through the U.S. Sanitary Commission); and supported a Vatican charitable hospital (in Rome, Italy).

His multi-million dollar 1862 Peabody Homes for London’s working poor amazed the British, inspired imitators in the U.S. and elsewhere, brought him many honors. The Peabody Homes today, housing over 50,000 low income Londoners, offer highly praised job counseling and other social services, making George Peabody better known in England than he is in the U.S.

His previously mentioned Peabody Education Fund (1867-1914, 47 years) advanced public elementary and secondary schools, plus teacher education in 12 depressed southern states. Pres. Andrew Johnson (1708-75) and the U.S. Congress acknowledged the Peabody Education Fund as a national gift. Harvard historian Schlesinger was right: all later larger major U.S. funds and foundations are based on the Peabody Education Fund model. That Fund’s legatee in Nashville, George Peabody College for Teachers (1914-79, 65 years), shared courses and credits with adjoining Vanderbilt University. They merged in 1979 as Peabody College of Vanderbilt University.

In London we read George Peabody-related papers at his banking firm, in the British Library, University of London Library, and at Windsor Castle. Queen Victoria wanted to knight him. He graciously declined. He died in London, Nov. 4, 1869, evoking public and news media praise for his philanthropy on both sides of the Atlantic. His remains lay in state for 30 days at Westminster Abbey. His will requiring burial near his birthplace prompted Queen Victoria to order his remains returned to the U.S. on Britain’s newest war ship. President U.S. Grant (1822-85) ordered a U.S. war ship as escort vessel. His trans-Atlantic funeral made international news.

Memory of George Peabody inevitably faded in time, overshadowed by vastly wealthier industrialists (Carnegie, Rockefeller, Ford, others) and their much larger funds and foundations.

We returned to Nashville in December 1954 and found new part-time jobs. On February 18, 1955, George Peabody’s 160th birthday, Frank was invited to give the Peabody College Founders Day Address, published as George Peabody (1795-1869), Founder of Modern Philanthropy (Nashville: George Peabody College for Teachers, 1955).

Frank wrote and Betty edited the George Peabody dissertation, which was defended, accepted, and later published by Vanderbilt University Press as George Peabody, a Biography, 1971. In 1995 on the 200th anniversary of George Peabody’s birth, Frank’s updated version was republished with 12 illustration.

The George Peabody research experience bonded us wonderfully. The London research and brief trips to Scotland, Paris, Lucerne, and Rome helped us see ourselves, the U.S., and the world differently. The British people and Europeans in 1954, still scarred by WWII bombings and privation but on the mend, seemed to us more mature, substantive, more serious than hustling, bustling, competitive, keep-up-with-the-Joneses Americans.

Compared to the U.S., we thought British and European family life, schools at all levels, and media were more substantive, more culturally informed, better character building. We felt that our advertising-dominated American culture, in over-promising everything, cheapened our values, often misled us with inconsequential fads and fancies.

Berea College, Peabody College, and our research experiences, especially in London, besides bonding us, led Frank to emphasize more and more international education during his 40 years of teaching at the universities of Texas (Austin), Oklahoma (Norman), W. Va. (Morgantown), Northern Arizona (Flagstaff), Western Carolina (Cullowhee, NC).

We felt that teachers with intercultural-international understanding could help new student generations build a more peaceful world. As longtime editor of the Comparative and International Education Society Newsletter Frank learned of and publicized low-cost travel and international study opportunities for students and teachers.

A competitive Kappa Delta Pi (education honor society) Fellowship in International Education took us to Africa for eight months during 1957-58. The British south central African colonies of Northern Rhodesia (later Zambia), Southern Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe), and Nyasaland (later Malawi) had formed a multiracial federation.

Our research plan was to record how this multiracial experiment was working out educationally for the white, black, Asian, mixed-blooded racial groups, especially the segregated African majority. Carnegie Corporation officials, long involved in African education, helped us become attached as unpaid researchers to the University College of Rhodesia and Nyasaland in Salisbury, now the University of Zimbabwe in Harare. We visited mission schools, government schools, and studied documents in the Government Archives.

We explained our research purpose and limited funds in a letter to the editor of the Salisbury (now Harare) newspaper. In response, five white families going on long vacations asked us at low rent to be live-in caretakers of their homes. We thus compared ruling white minority luxury living with majority African subsistence living.

Frank’s small book about our 1957-58 experience, African Development and Education in Southern Rhodesia, Ohio State University Press, 1960, led to Frank’s being asked to contribute articles about Africa to encyclopedia yearbooks: Americana, World Book, Collier’s, others, for over a decade.

In 1961-62 as a Fulbright Research Scholar we were attached to the Rhodes Livingstone Institute, Lusaka, Northern Rhodesia (now part of the University of Zambia). We wrote many articles about Northern Rhodesia government and mission schools.

Frank’s three pamphlets (with Betty’s collaboration) in Phi Delta Kappa’s (international education honor society publication series. were:

1–The Battle of the Books: Kanawha County, 1975, based on a much publicized school textbook censorship case in Charlestown, W. Va.

2–What Can We Learn from the Schools of China? 1976, was based on Frank’s China school visits in March 1974. We both later visited China’s schools in July 1978 and again during Dec., 1986-Jan., 1987).

3–British Schools and Ours, 1979, based on school visits in and around London plus short courses we took at Cambridge University and the University of London.

We end with appreciation for our 27 trips abroad listed below, 1954 to 1987, 33 years, and 40 rich rewarding teaching years. We are grateful for 18 retirement years with interesting Uplands Retirement Village friends who share our hope for peace and justice for all people everywhere. END.

OUR INTERNATIONAL TRAVEL:

1-1954: Sept.-Dec.): England and Scotland manuscript research for dissertation and book, George Peabody: A Biography. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1971, revised 1995 with 12 illustrations.

2-1957-58: International Fellow at University College, Salisbury, Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), Central Africa; visited Zambia, Malawi, Republic of South Africa.

3-1961-62: Senior Fulbright Research Scholar at Rhodes-Livingstone Institute of University of Zambia; visited Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), Republic of South Africa, and England.

4-Aug. 1966: Studied adult education in Finland & West Germany; visited Belgium, The Netherlands, & England.

5-Aug. 1967: Studied adult education in Belgium and West Germany; visited Luxembourg and England.

6-May-June 1969: Lectured at Twente Technological Institute, The Netherlands; attended International Comparative Education Society meeting in Prague, Czechoslovakia; visited Belgium and England.

7-July-Aug. 1969: Taught at University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

8-July-Aug. 1970: Taught at University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

9-July 1971: Taught at University of Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada.

10-Nov. 1971: Participants in Phi Delta Kappa Eastern European Comparative Education Seminar held in Hungary, Romania, USSR, and Poland.

11-March 1972: Gave conference keynote address on “Educational Strategies for Accelerating Development in Southern Africa,” at University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa; visited Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), Lesotho, and Swaziland.

12-July 1972: Taught at University of Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada.

13-Nov. 1972: Co-directed with Dr. Gerald H. Read: Phi Delta Kappa Seminar in East Africa: Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania.

14-July 1973: Taught at University of Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada.

15-Dec. 1973: Research on comparative education at the University of London, England.

16-March 1974: Participant in Phi Delta Kappa’s first seminar in People’s Republic of China.

17-July-Aug. 1974: Taught at the University of Newfoundland, Canada.

18-Dec. 1974: Research on comparative education in the University of London, England, libraries.

19-July 1975: Participant, “British Schools and Society” course, Caius College, Cambridge University, England.

20-July 1976: Participants, “Education in England” course, Institute of Education, University of London, England,

21-May-June 1977: Lectured at the University of Madrid Institute of Education and the University of Oviedo Institute of Education, Spain. Studied schools in Surrey County, England.

22-July 1978: Participants in Adult Education Seminar in the People’s Republic of China.

23-Aug. 1978: Lectured at the United Nations University, Tokyo, Japan.

24-July 6-Aug. 8, 1980: Participants, Fourth Middle East Studies Seminar, sponsored by Israeli Teachers Association, American Federation of Teachers, and National Committee for Middle East Studies, Israel; also visited England.

25-March 3-10, 1984: London, England.

26-March 4-11, 1985: London, England.

27-Dec. 19, 1986-Jan. 4,1987: Participants in Phi Delta Kappa Education Seminar in Peking, Shanghai, Guilin, Canton; Hong Kong; Tokyo, Japan. END.

Franklin Parker, 1921-, & Betty J. Parker, 1929-, WRITINGS ON GEORGE PEABODY (1795-1869): Merchant, Banker, Educational Philanthropist. July 14, 2010.

Dissertation

Parker, Franklin. “George Peabody, Founder of Modern Philanthropy,” Ed. D. Dissertation, George Peabody College for Teachers [of Vanderbilt University Library after July 1, 1979], Nashville, TN 37203-5721 , 1956, 3 volumes, 1219 pp.

Book

George Peabody, A Biography. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1971, 233 pp. Reprinted in CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education, IX, 3 (November, 1985), Fiche 7 D10, entire issue.

George Peabody, A Biography. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, February 1995 revised edition with 12 illustrations added, 278 pp.

Journal, Printed, Entire Issue

“Legacy of George Peabody: Special Bicentenary Issue” [reprint of 21 articles], Peabody Journal of Education, LXX, No. l (Fall 1994), 210 pp.

Journal, Fiche, Entire Issue

(With Betty J. Parker). “George Peabody (1795-1869) A-Z: People, Places, Events, and Institutions Connected with the Massachusetts-born Merchant, London Banker, and Educational Philanthropist.” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), XXIV, No. 3 (Oct. 1999), Fiche.

Encyclopedia Articles

Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture. Carroll Van West, et al., Eds. Nashville: University of Tennessee Press, 1998:

1-“George Peabody College of Vanderbilt University, pp, 359-360. URL:
HYPERLINK http://tennesseeencyclopedia.net/imagegallery.php?EntryID=G012
http://tennesseeencyclopedia.net/imagegallery.php?EntryID=G012

2-“Peabody Education Fund in Tennessee,” pp. 725-726. URL:
HYPERLINK http://tennesseeencyclopedia.net/imagegallery.php?EntryID=P013
http://tennesseeencyclopedia.net/imagegallery.php?EntryID=P013
“George Peabody (1795-1869).” Encyclopedia of Philanthropists in the United States. Westport, Conn.; Greenwood Press and Onyx Press, 2002.

(With Betty J. Parker). “George Peabody (1795-1869),” Philanthropy in America: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia, ed. by Dwight Burlingame. ABC Clio, 2004, 370-371.

Chapters in Book

“George Peabody (1795-1869), Founder of Modern Educational Philanthropy: His Contributions to Higher Education,” Academic Profiles in Higher Education. Edited by James J. Van Patten. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1992, pp. 71-99.

George Peabody (1795-1869), Merchant, Banker, Creator of the Peabody Education Fund, and a Founder of Modern Philanthropy,” Notable American Philanthropists, Robert Thornton Grimm, Jr., ed. Westport, Conn.; Greenwood Press and Onyx Press, 2002, pp. 242-246.

(With Betty J. Parker). “George Peabody (1795-1869),” Philanthropy in America: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia, ed. By Dwight Burlingame (ABC Clio, 2004), pp. 370-371. URL:
HYPERLINK http://tennesseeencyclopedia.net/http://tennesseeencyclopedia.net/imagegallery.php?EntryID=G012
http://tennesseeencyclopedia.net/http://tennesseeencyclopedia.net/imagegallery.php?EntryID=G012
Articles in Journals

[Note 1: Items 18,19, and others in Fiche form in CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education) are published by Carfax Publishing, Taylor & Francis Ltd, P. O. Box 25, Abingdon, Oxfordshire 0X14 30E, United Kingdom].

[Note 2: See End of Manuscript for URL access to Parkers’ George Peabody (1795-1869) U. S. Government ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) entries].

1. “Nashville’s Yankee Friend,” Nashville Tennessean Magazine (May 15, 1955), pp. 2, 6-7.

2. “Founder Paid Debt to Education,” Peabody Post, VIII, No. 8 (February 10, 1955), p. 1.

3. “The Girl George Peabody Almost Married,” Peabody Reflector, XXVII, No. 8 (October, 1955), pp. 215, 224-225.

4. “George Peabody and the Spirit of America,” Peabody Reflector, XXIX, No. 2 (February, 1956), pp. 26-27.

5. “On the Trail of George Peabody,” Berea Alumnus, XXVI, No. 8 (May, 1956), p. 4.

6. (With Walter Merrill), “William Lloyd Garrison and George Peabody,” Essex Institute Historical Collections, XCV, No. 1 (January, 1959), pp. 1-20.

7. “George Peabody and Maryland,” Peabody of Journal of Education, XXXVII, No. 3 (November, 1959), pp. 150-157.

8. “Robert E. Lee, George Peabody, and Sectional Reunion,” Peabody Journal of Education, XXXVII, No. 4 (January, 1960), pp. 195-202.

9. “Influences on the Founder of the Johns Hopkins University and the Johns Hopkins Medical School,” Bulletin of the History of Medicine, XXXIV, No. 2 (March-April, 1960), pp. 148-153.

10. “George Peabody and the Search for Sir John Franklin, 1852-1854,” American Neptune, XX, No. 2 (April, 1960), pp. 104-111.

11. “An Approach to Peabody’s Gifts and Legacies,” Essex Institute Historical Collections, XCVI, No. 4 (October, 1960), pp. 291-296.

12. “George Peabody’s Influence on Southern Educational Philanthropy,” Tennessee Historical Quarterly, XX, No. 2 (March, 1961), pp. 146, 151-152.

13. “Maryland’s Yankee Friend–George Peabody, Esq.,” Maryland Teacher, XX, No. 5 (January, 1963), pp. 6-7, 24; reprinted in Peabody Notes (Spring, 1963), pp. 4-7, 10.

14. “The Girl George Peabody Almost Married, Peabody Notes, XVII, No. 3 (Spring, 1954), pp. 10-14.

15. “George Peabody, 1795-1869, Founder of Modern Philanthropy,” Peabody Reflector, XXXVIII, No. 1 (January-February, 1965), pp. 9-16.

16. “The Funeral of George Peabody,” Essex Institute Historical Collection, XCIX, No. 2 (April, 1963), pp. 67-87; reprinted: Peabody Journal of Education, XLIV, No. 1 (July, 1966), pp. 21-36.

17. “George Peabody and the Peabody Museum of Salem,” Curator, X, No. 2 (June, 1967), pp. 137-153.

18. To Live Fulfilled: George Peabody, 1795-1869, Founder of George Peabody College for Teachers,” Peabody Reflector, XLIII, No. 2 (Spring, 1970), pp. 50-53.

19. “On the Trail of George Peabody,” Peabody Reflector, XLIV, No. 4 (Fall, 1971), pp. 100-103.

20. “The Creation of the Peabody Education Fund,” School & Society, XCIX, No. 2337 (December, 1971), pp. 497-500.

21. “George Peabody, 1795-1869: His Influence on Educational Philanthropy,” Peabody Journal of Education, XLIX, No. 2 (January, 1972), pp. 138-145.

22. “Pantheon of Philanthropy: George Peabody,” National Society of Fund Raisers Journal, I, No. 1 (December, 1976), pp. 16-20.

23. “In Praise of George Peabody, 1795-1869,” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), XV, No. 2 (June 1991), Fiche 5 AO2.

24. “George Peabody (1795-1869), Founder of Modern Educational Philanthropy: His Contributions to Higher Education,” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), XVI, No. 1 (March 1992), Fiche 11 D06.

25. “Education Philanthropist George Peabody (1795-1869), Founder of George Peabody College for Teachers, Nashville, and the Peabody Library and Conservatory of Music, Baltimore (Brief History).” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), XVIII, No. 1 (March 1994), Fiche. Abstract in Resources in Education.

26. (With Betty J. Parker), “George Peabody’s (1795-1869) Educational Legacy,” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), XVIII, No. 1 (March 1994), Fiche 1 C05. Abstract in Resources in Education, XXIX, No. 9 (September 1994), p. 147 (ERIC ED 369 720).

27. “Educational Philanthropist George Peabody (1795-1869): Photos and Related Illustrations in Printed Sources and Depositories,” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), XVIII, No. 2 (June 1994), Fiche 1 D1Z; abstract in Resources in Education, XXX, No. 6 (June 1995), p. 149 (ERIC ED 397 179).

28. “The Legacy of George Peabody: Special Bicentenary Issue” [reprints 22 article on George Peabody], Peabody Journal of Education, LXX, No. 1 (Fall 1994), 210 pp.

29. “Educational Philanthropist George Peabody and Peabody College of Vanderbilt University: Dialogue with Bibliography,” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), XVIII, No. 3 (December 1994), Fiche 2 E06.

30. (With Betty Parker). “A Forgotten Hero’s Birthday [George Peabody]: Lion and the Lamb,” Crossville (Tenn.) Chronicle, February 22, 1995, p. 4A.

31. (With Betty Parker). “America’s Forgotten Educational Philanthropist: A Bicentennial View,” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), XIX, No. 1 (March 1995), Fiche 7 A11. Abstract in Resources in Education, XXXI, No. 12 (Dec. 1996), p. 161 (ERIC ED398 126).

32. (With Betty Parker). “Educational Philanthropist George Peabody (1795-1869) and the Peabody Institute Library, Danvers, Massachusetts: Dialogue and Chronology,” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), XIX, No. 1 (March 1995), Fiche 7 B01.

33. (With Betty Parker). “George Peabody (1795-1869); Merchant, Banker, Philanthropist,” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), XX, No. 1 (March 1996), Fiche 9 B01. Abstract in Resources in Education, XXXI, No. 3 (Mar. 1996), p. 169 (ERIC ED 388 571).

34. (With Betty Parker). “On the Trail of Educational Philanthropist George Peabody (1795-1869): A Dialogue.” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), XX, No. 3 (October 1996), Fiche 13 B07.

35. (With Betty Parker).”Peabody Education Fund in Tennessee (1867-1914),” Tennessee Encyclopedia of History & Culture (Nashville: Tennessee Historical Society, 1998), pp. 725-726.

(With Betty Parker).”George Peabody College of Vanderbilt University,î Tennessee
Encyclopedia of History & Culture (Nashville: Tennessee Historical Society, 1998), pp. 359-360.

37. (With Betty J. Parker). “Educational Philanthropist George Peabody (1795-1869) and First U.S. Paleontology Prof. Othniel Charles Marsh (1831-1899) at Yale University.” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), XXII, No. 1 (March 1998), Fiche 7 A04. Also abstract in Resources in Education, XXXIV, No. 1 (Jan. 1999), p. ? (ERIC ED 422 243).

38. (With Betty J. Parker). “Educational Philanthropist George Peabody (1795-1869) and U. S.-British Relations, 1850s-1860s.” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), XXIII, No. 1 (March 1999), Fiche 1 A05. Also abstract in Resources in Education, XXXV, No. 5 (May 2000), p. 122 (ERIC ED 436 444).

39. (With Betty J. Parker). “George Peabody A-Z,” CORE (Collected Original Resources in Education), Vol. 24, No. 3 (Oct. 1999), Fiche 11 C10.

40. (With Betty J. Parker). “General Robert E. Lee (1807-70) and Philanthropist George Peabody (1795-1869) at White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia, July 23-Aug. 30, 1869.” Abstract in Resources in Education, XXXVI, No. 2 (Feb. 2001), p. 184 (ERIC ED 444 917).

41. (With Betty J. Parker). “The Forgotten George Peabody (1795-1869), A Handbook A-Z of the Massachusetts-Born Merchant, London-Based Banker, & Philanthropist: His Life, Influence, and Related People, Places, Events, & Institutions,” 1243 pp. Abstract in Resources in Education, Vol. XXXVI, No. 3 (March 2001), pp. 122 (ERIC ED 445 998).

42. (With Betty J. Parker). “Peabody College of Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee: Past and Future; From Frontier Academy (1785) to Frontiers of Teaching and Learning,” Review Journal of History and Philosophy of Education (published in India by Anu Books), Vol. XXVIII (February 2003), pp. 109-144.

43. “Robert E. Lee, George Peabody, and Sectional Reunion,” Peabody Journal of Education, Vol. 78, No. 1 (Fall 2003), pp. 91-97 [reprinted from Peabody Journal of Education, Vol. 37, No. 4 (Jan. 1960), pp. 195-202, and Peabody Journal of Education, Vol. 70, No. 1 (Fall 1994), pp. 69-76].

44. “George Peabody, 1795-1869: His Influence on Educational Philanthropy,” Peabody Journal of Education, Vol. 78, No. 2 (Summer 2003), pp. 111-118 [reprinted from Peabody Journal of Education, Vol. 49. No. 2 (Jan. 1972), pp. 138-124; Peabody Journal of Education, Vol. 70, No 1 (Fall 1994), pp. 157-165; and Tennessee Historical Quarterly, Vol. 20, No. 2 (March 1961), pp. 65-74].

ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center)

Thirty six (36) of the Parkers’ articles on George Peabody in the U.S. Government’s ERIC system can be accessed and read in abstract and in full at the following URL source:

HYPERLINK “http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/simpleSearch.jsp?newSearch=true&searchtype=advanced&pageSize=50&ERICExtSearch_Facet_0=facet_au&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=Franklin+Parker%2C+1921&ERICExtSearch_Operator_1=and&eric_displayStartCount=1&ERICExtSear”
http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/simpleSearch.jsp?newSearch=true&searchtype=advanced&pageSize=50&ERICExtSearch_Facet_0=facet_au&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=Franklin+Parker%2C+1921&ERICExtSearch_Operator_1=and&eric_displayStartCount=1&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_1=kw&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=kw&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_1=George+Peabody&eric_sortField=&ERICExtSearch_SearchCount=1&ERICExtSearch_FacetValue_0=%22Parker%2C+Franklin%22

End of Manuscript. Please e-mail corrections and questions to: bfparker@frontiernet.net
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“The Kennedys of Massachusetts: Founding Father Joseph Patrick Kennedy’s (1888-1969) Influence on U. [Apr. 10th, 2012|01:31 am]
[ Tags | 1930s depression, careers of the kennedys of massachusetts, jaqueline kennedy, politics, presidency of john f. kennedy, robert f. kennedy, ted kennedy, tip o’neill, ww ii ]

“The Kennedys of Massachusetts: Founding Father Joseph Patrick Kennedy’s (1888-1969) Influence on U.S. President John F. Kennedy (1917-63) and U.S. Senators Robert F. Kennedy (1925-68) and Edward M. Kennedy (1932-).”

Dialogue Given to Book Review Group, Uplands Retirement Village, Pleasant Hill, TN, June 15, 2009, by Franklin and Betty J. Parker, bfparker@frontiernet.net

Sept. 6, 1888, East Boston, Massachusetts. Newborn Joseph Patrick Kennedy (Joe Sr.) would father 9 Irish Catholic children (4 sons, 5 daughters), mold them into a powerful political family. Three sons became U.S. senators, the first of the three became U.S. president.

First an Overview. Joe Sr., aided by his wife Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy (1890-1995), firmly yet lovingly raised, cajoled, commanded their 9 children to be first, best (second best did not count) in school, sports, politics, public service.

Joe determined to get rich quickly to finance a political dynasty. Why? For prestige, power, influence. To speed his way and his 4 sons’ way to high office. For his daughters to marry advantageously. To enhance Kennedy fame and influence.

Joe Sr. skirted the law while appearing respectable. He kept family life separate from business and sexual escapades. His children reflected his aggressive ways, yet each child changed.

His first-born favorite, Joseph Patrick Kennedy, Jr. (Joe, Jr., 1915-44), was groomed to become the first Irish Catholic President (pretentious but true).

Second born John F. Kennedy, called Jack, 2 years younger, had every childhood disease. He nearly died of scarlet fever. His later illnesses and back trouble (one leg was half an inch shorter than the other) were misdiagnosed, mistreated until 1947, age 30, when he was correctly diagnosed with life-threatening Addison’s disease.

Jack’s ailments, hospitalizations, medicines, short life expectancy, and three Catholic last rites were kept quiet to protect his political future. His later healthy bronze appearance came from medicines, malaria, and the Florida sun.

Yet his bright boyish looks, smile, flippant good humor drew people to him. He had rare charisma. The Kennedy children seemed to say, we are special, smart, help each other, stick together; are first, best, and will be important in public life.

Joe Sr. evaded the World War I draft. Before World War II he was a Hitler appeaser. Yet each of the 4 sons served in the military. Joe Jr. enlisted before Pearl Harbor, became a Navy pilot, died a hero piloting a dynamite-laden plane which exploded Aug. 12, 1944, targeting a Nazi rocket launch site.

Leadership then fell to Jack, also a WW II decorated hero. His PT-109 (Patrol Boat) in the Solomon Islands was cut in half by a Japanese destroyer. Two crewmen died. Jack helped save the remaining 11.

At war’s end, Jack reluctantly entered politics, was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives (1947-53), the U.S. Senate (1953-60), and the U.S. presidency during 1,036 days of Cold War crises. Jack’s election victories, including his razor-thin 1960 presidential win over Richard Nixon, occurred largely through Joe Sr.’s money and connivance.

Cold War warrior Jack turned toward peaceful coexistence with the Soviets early in his short presidency, after the April 17, 1961, bungled anti-Castro Bay of Pigs invasion, planned by Pres. Eisenhower’s CIA, and during the Oct. 1962 near-nuclear war over the Cuban Missile crisis, both described later.

Bobby Kennedy too changed: from fierce U.S. Congressional investigator of mafia bosses, to hard-driving manager of Jack’s election campaigns, to–as U.S. Attorney General–Jack’s protector, adviser, and secret emissary to help defuse Cold War crises. Later, as Senator, then as presidential hopeful, Bobby inspired millions of have-nots with hope.

Last-born Ted (Edward M. Kennedy, 1932-) lost public respect at Chappaquiddick Island, Massachusetts, July 18, 1969. Leaving a night-time party with Mary Jo Kopechne, 28, Ted’s car skidded off a bridge, overturned in water. Mary Jo, trapped inside, died.

Ted escaped but lost his chance to be president. He has since been a hard working, long serving U.S. Senator, hailed by some as the last liberal lion.

End of Overview.

Now patriarch Joe Sr.: born and about to be named for his father, Patrick Joseph Kennedy, when his mother, Mary Augusta née Hickey Kennedy (1857-1923), said no, Patrick is too Irish; name him Joseph Patrick Kennedy. Save him from prejudice as seen on help-wanted signs: “N-I-N-A,” No Irish Need Apply.

Old Protestant Mayflower elites controlled Boston society and finance. Yet at Joe’s birth Boston’s Irish grew in political strength. Joe Sr.’s East Boston-born father, a stevedore, saloon owner, ward boss, and state legislator helped needy immigrants. In return they gave him their votes. A Democratic Party king-maker he was part owner of Boston’s first Irish-owned bank.

Little Joe made his own money selling newspapers, peanuts, candy on East Boston docks. On Jewish holy days he lit stoves for observing Jews. He attended the elite Boston Latin School (1901-08) and Harvard College, excelled socially and in baseball, dated beautiful Rose, daughter of popular politician John F. Fitzgerald (1863-1950), called Honey Fitz.

Joe cultivated classmates and roommates most likely to help him later in business. He eased his way academically by sending, through his father, cases of Haig & Haig and Scotch whiskey to his professors.
To Joe, winning, being first, was everything.

After graduation, as Assistant State Bank Examiner, Joe learned how to use inside information. He bought a failing investment bank, shifted its holdings to defaulted home mortgages, repainted vacated houses, sold them at high prices.

To prevent a hostile takeover of his father’s bank, Joe borrowed money from family, stopped the takeover, became the bank’s president, married Rose. The Boston Herald headlined: “Bank President at the Age of 25.” Joe learned how to influence the press, whom to befriend, what favors to call in, what threats to use. He told his children: things don’t just happen; you make them happen.

Joe’s gifts of liquor and money kept the Kennedy name prominent and clean. His gift list or pay-off list included New York Times journalist Arthur Krock (1886-1974); Time magazine writer Hugh Sidey (1927-2005); press lords William Randolph Hearst (1863-1951); Time, Life, Fortune’s Henry R. Luce (1898-1967).

Seeking exemption from WW I army draft and using political pull, Joe became assistant manager of Bethlehem Ship-Building dockyard in Quincy, Massachusetts. The shipyard built destroyers for the Allies, one of which was behind in payment. Joe refused delivery.

U.S. Navy Assistant Secretary Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR, 1882-1945) visited Quincy to break the impasse. FDR said: Now Joe we need those destroyers. I’m going to send tug boats to get them, escorted by U.S. marines. Joe had to comply.

After WW I, Joe joined Boston’s best investment company, Hayden, Stone; then opened his own office next to Hayden, Stone to better trade using its name. He manipulated the market with a pool of traders. They traded particular stocks back and forth among themselves, raising the stock’s price ever higher.

The trading public, seeing the stock’s unusual rise, bought wildly, bidding up its price. At an agreed upon high price, pool members sold out. The stock price fell, public investors lost, Joe and pool members were enriched. Joe told a friend: “…it’s so easy to make money in the market we’d better [cash in] before they pass a law against it.”

During Prohibition (1920-33) Joe bought liquor from overseas, had it shipped to off-shore islands, from which criminals transported it to speakeasies. Joe sold liquor long after Prohibition, stored it for later sales, used liquor as gifts and bribes.

Joe first bought 31 small New England movie houses. Attracted by movie money, glitz, and available showgirls, he opened a Hollywood office, bought a struggling studio, made it profitable producing low budget Tom Mix westerns and Rin-tin-tin-type dog pictures popular with small town moviegoers.

In Hollywood (1919-35) Joe made films, acquired more theaters, bought Pathé News, formed RKO, first studio to make all-talking movies. He had a Hollywood love affair with glamorous movie actress Gloria Swanson (1897-1983). She was 28, married to her third husband. Joe, 38, was smitten.

Rose tolerated Joe’s many dalliances. In 1920, a pregnant Rose left her 3 children with servants for a trial separation in her father’s house. Honey Fitz told her: Your children need you; your husband needs you…. If you need more help…get it. If you need a bigger house, ask for it. If you need more private time for yourself, take it…. ”

Rose returned to Joe and the children. After ninth-born Ted she insisted on separate bedrooms.

Rose would always be Mrs. Joseph P. Kennedy; enjoy the children’s achievement; keep them active, thriving, striving; enjoy the Kennedy fortune, travel in style, live in grandeur, find comfort in church ritual.

In 1927 Joe moved the family from Boston to the Bronx suburb of Riverdale near the Hudson River. He later bought homes in Hyannis Port, Cape Cod, (summers), in Palm Beach, FL (winters), and in MD near Washington, DC, to entertain politicians and media people.

Joe attributed his move to New York to Brahmin anti-Irish prejudice. When a Boston newspaper kept referring to him as “Irish Catholic,” he complained: What do you have to do to be called an American! I was born here. My father was born here. My daughters have no chance in Boston society.

A hidden reason for moving to New York was shame. To prevent takeover of his father’s bank, Joe, had borrowed money from relatives whom he never repaid.

Joe anticipated the 1929 Wall Street crash. He saved, actually increased, his fortune. He foresaw lengthy socio-economic upheavals of the Great Depression and said in 1930: “…in the next generation the people who run the government will be the biggest people in America.”

Joe raised big money for NY Governor FDR’s campaign as Democratic presidential candidate. At the Chicago June 1932 Democratic convention Joe saw that if FDR was not nominated on the first ballot, another compromise candidate would be chosen. He phoned newspaper owner William Randolph Hearst, in San Simeon, California: we’re deadlocked. Release the 86 votes you control to FDR.

Wanting but denied the Treasury Secretary post, Joe accepted the first chairmanship (1934-35) of newly created Securities and Exchange Commission to regulate Wall St. abuses. Advisors warned FDR: Joe is Wall St.’s worst crook. FDR laughed: I’m getting a crook to catch crooks. Critics later admitted that Joe did a good job correcting Wall St. abuses.

FDR next named Joe to head the U.S. Maritime Commission (1936-37). Thinking that war was likely, FDR wanted Joe in this post to strengthen U.S. private cargo-carrying capability. Joe succeeded.

Joe next wanted to be U.S. Ambassador to Britain, a prestige post for himself and family. He lobbied for it through FDR’s eldest son James (Jimmy) Roosevelt (1907-91) by aiding Jimmy’s Boston insurance business. Jimmy told FDR. Knowing Joe’s presidential ambitions, FDR thought: best keep Joe in London under State Department control.

Joe’s ambassadorship (1938-40) topped his political career. Britishers first admired Joe’s blunt talk and his large photogenic family. The Kennedys were presented to the King and Queen; spent a weekend at Windsor Castle. Invaluable to Joe Jr. and Jack was being sent as ambassadorial aides on fact-finding trips through Hitler’s Europe, Stalin’s USSR, Franco’s Spain.

Joe’s mistake was to go beyond the dominant isolationism of the time. He unwisely publicly backed appeasers Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain (1863-1937); Nazi Luftwaffe admirer Charles Lindbergh (1902-74) then living in England; U.S. born Lady Nancy Astor’s pro-Hitler, anti-Semitic following.

Fearing a Nazi invasion, Britishers disliked Joe’s public remarks that democracies could and should coexist with dictatorships. He was labeled dangerous, his phone was tapped when he told the press that democracy was finished in England and would soon be finished in the U.S. if they became involved in Europe’s wars.

Joe sent his family home for safety. He moved himself away from London bombing. FDR won reelection. Joe resigned. Out of public office, his chance at the U.S. presidency lost, Joe went home, dreading WW II’s effect on his children and fortune.

We now switch to a bare bones time line: 1940, June: Jack graduated from Harvard. At Joe Sr.’s urging and with New York Times journalist Arthur Krock’s editing, Jack rewrote his Harvard senior thesis, “Appeasement at Munich” (on why England was unprepared for WW II), had it published as Why England Slept, a bestseller.

1941: Joe Jr. enlisted in the Navy; became an experienced naval fighter pilot. Jack, despite health problems, with Joe, Sr.’s help, passed a helpful Boston physician’s physical exam for navy acceptance. Assigned to Naval Intelligence in Washington, D.C., Jack had a torrid love affair there with Danish-born Inga Arva (1913-73) falsely suspected of being a Nazi spy.

The FBI alerted Joe Sr., who ended the affair, and had Jack transferred. After more training, Lt. Jack, wanting war action, became a PT (Patrol Boat) skipper.

Still 1941: Mentally backward third born first daughter Rosemary Kennedy (1918-2005), then 23, became uncontrollable. Believing a frontal lobotomy might help Rosemary, Joe ordered it done without consulting Rose. The procedure failed. Rosemary’s condition worsened. Institutionalized, seldom mentioned, she was a hidden Kennedy tragedy.

1943: Recovering from his war injuries, Jack was awarded two medals for his PT 109 heroism. Still 1943, Oct. 5, Bobby, nearly 18, enlisted in the Naval Reserve.

1944: May 6. Second daughter “Kick” (nickname for Kathleen), a Red Cross worker in England, married a British lord, William Cavendish (1917-44). Four months later he died in battle. Another family tragedy.

Still 1944: A worse tragedy on Aug. 12, 1944. Joe Jr.’s plane, on a secret mission, exploded. He was awarded a posthumous Naval Cross. Joe Sr. induced the Navy to name a destroyer USS Joseph Patrick Kennedy, Jr., on which Bobby Kennedy in 1946 served as seaman.

1945: Jack, out of the Navy, as a Hearst journalist covered the birth of the United Nations in San Francisco and politics in Britain. Still 1945, Nov.: Joe Sr. consolidated much of his fortune to buy Chicago’s Merchandise Mart, the world’s largest privately owned rent-producing building.

1946: Jack, thin, gaunt from illness aggravated by war wounds, won his first elected office to the U.S. House of Representatives. He assembled a good staff, met his constituents’ needs, read, thought, prepared himself for his time of destiny.

1947: Fall: Jack, age 30, ill in London, was for the first time accurately diagnosed with Addison’s disease, a hormonal disorder that causes fatigue, weakens the immune system, usually leads to early death.

1948: Bobby Kennedy, Harvard College graduate, entered the University of Virginia law school. Still 1948, May 13: “Kick” (for Kathleen), widowed in 1944, was engaged to another British nobleman, Peter Fitzwilliam (1910-48). She was killed with him in a plane crash over southern France. Another Kennedy tragedy.

1950: Ted Kennedy, then 18, entered Harvard College. Next year, 1951, he was caught cheating (another student took his Spanish exam for him). He was expelled. Ted enlisted in the Army, served as an MP (Military Police) in Germany, returned to finish at Harvard, and entered the University of Virginia law school.

1952: Jack’s leap from the House to the Senate. Jack challenged incumbent Massachusetts Republican Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. (1902-85), well known Brahmin, WW II hero, favored to win on the coattails of the unbeatable Republican presidential contender General Dwight Eisenhower.

Still 1952: Undeterred, Jack targeted women voters. Jack’s sister Eunice held hundreds of campaign teas. Thousands of women of all ages flocked to Kennedy teas; were wooed by Jack’s movie star charisma. Lodge later blamed his defeat on those darned teas. More important than the teas was Joe’s large loan to Boston Post’s owner John Fox, a diehard Republican and Lodge supporter. The Boston Post’s switch from Lodge to Jack enabled Jack’s narrow win.

1953, January: Bobby Kennedy became a lawyer for a U.S. Senate subcommittee investigating communists in government, chaired by controversial Wisconsin Republican Joseph McCarthy (1908-57). McCarthy hired Bobby because Joe Sr. had contributed to McCarthy’s election.

After McCarthy’s wild unsubstantiated charges ruined patriotic Americans’ careers, the U.S. Senate voted to censure him. Senator Jack Kennedy, not wanting to censure a family friend, did not vote. He was then having life-threatening back surgery. Critics later faulted Jack for not voting by proxy.

Still 1953, September 12: Bachelor Jack, 36, married Jacqueline Bouvier (1929-94), called Jackie. She was well educated at Vassar College, had a junior year at French universities, earned a degree from George Washington University, D.C., where she worked as a photojournalist. She met Jack at a friend’s home. Jack, busy campaigning for his first 1952 U.S. Senate seat, knew that as a Senator and presidential hopeful he needed a wife.

Joe Sr. liked Jackie. She tolerated the noisy active Kennedys. But like Rose with Joe, Jackie knew of, was hurt by, but tolerated Jack’s womanizing. They had daughter Caroline (1957-), son John, Jr. (1960-99). She lost two other babies, one at birth, the second soon after birth.

She was a much loved First Lady, and after his assassination, created, with writer Theodore White (1915-86) the Kennedy “Camelot” myth.

1955: Recovering from his second back surgery, Jack reflected on the meaning of courage. He read intensely on past courageous U.S. Senators who from conscience and principle voted against majority opinion, knowing their vote might end their careers. Jack’s resulting 1956 book, Profiles in Courage, won the 1957 Pulitzer Prize for biography.

When critics charged that Jack’s speech writer Theodore Sorenson (1928-) was Jack’s ghost writer, Jack and Sorensen showed book drafts to prove that, despite research and editing helpers, Jack was the sole author.

1956, Aug. 16. Chicago’s televised Democratic presidential convention. Jack introduced, to wild acclaim, its nominee, Illinois Gov. Adlai Stevenson (1900-65). Stevenson threw the choice of a running mate to the convention. Jack, in the running, lost to Tennessee’s Estes Kefauver.

Jack’s father had told him: don’t run with Stevenson. Eisenhower will win reelection. The Democrat’s loss will be blamed on your Catholicism. Jack later said Dad was right, but by getting himself noticed in 1956 he positioned himself better for a 1960 presidential run.

1957: Bobby Kennedy became chief prosecuting lawyer for the U.S. Senate Rackets Committee investigating criminal use of labor union retirement funds. Bobby’s relentless pursuit of Jimmy Hoffa’s (1913-75) teamsters’ union and major criminals gave him national TV exposure. It also made many underworld figures hate the Kennedys.

1960, Jan. 2: Jack’s Race for the Presidency. Jack’s Catholicism was tested when in the Wisconsin primary he won few Protestant votes. He defused the anti Catholic bias in Protestant West Va. and in Houston, TX, where he told Protestant ministers: I am bound by the U.S. Constitution, not by the Catholic church. As Democratic presidential nominee., July 13, 1960, Jack began the race for the White House.

Still 1960, Sept. 26: CBS TV, Chicago. First of Jack’s 4 debates with Republican Richard Nixon (1913-94), Vice President for 8 years, more experienced, better known. But Nixon had a 5 o’clock shadow, perspired, seemed ill at ease. On TV Jack looked youthful, handsome, intelligent. Jack won by a razor thin 118,000 votes, becoming the 35th U.S. president, youngest (age 43) ever elected, first Roman Catholic.

Jack’s narrow win, say critics, came from Joe Sr.’s money, spread in W. Va. and Chicago by Mafia boss Sam Giancana (1908-75).

1961, Jan. 20, Washington, DC, Jack’s inauguration, a freezing sunny winter’s day, pomp and ceremony. Jack’s most soaring words: “Ask not what your country can do for you. Ask what you can do for your country.” And less remembered: “My fellow citizens of the world…ask not what America can do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man.”

Jack, in an open limousine, Jackie by his side, was driven past the reviewing stand. Jack stood, locked eyes with his father, tipped his top hat. Tears welled. A moment to remember.

Still 1961, March 1: Jack created the Peace Corps. On May 25 Jack set a national goal: to land a man on the moon and return him to earth before the end of the 1960s. 1961, April 17: Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba, planned under Eisenhower.

Jack, newly elected, inexperienced, believed CIA advisers: that Florida-based U.S. Army-trained anti-Castro Cubans would invade Cuba to install a friendly government atlow risk. Jack approved; was shocked when alerted Castro’s superior force killed 114 invaders, captured and jailed 1,189 others.

Fearing a possible nuclear exchange with Russia, Jack stopped a planned U.S. Air Force cover for the Bay of Pigs invaders. He was sorry he had not canceled the illegal invasion. This failed Cuban invasion plus other Kennedy provocations, some believe, triggered angers leading to Jack and Bobby’s assassinations.

Still 1961, June 3-4: Jack’s talks with Nikita Khrushchev (1894-1971) in Vienna went badly. Jack told an intimate: Khrushchev thought me young, inexperienced, naïve. He wiped the floor with me. 1961, August: Khrushchev built the Berlin wall dividing East Berlin from West Berlin. 1961, Dec 19: Joe Sr. suffered a stroke, was partially paralyzed, wheelchair bound, unable to speak except for a guttural drawn out “No.”

1962, Oct. 16-28: Jack was shown photos of Russian missile sites being built in Cuba. Why did Khrushchev do this? Fear of another U.S. invasion of Cuba; fear that the CIA would assassinate Castro; fear of U.S. missiles in Turkey aimed at Russia; fear of U.S. in West Berlin, an escape hatch for needed East German workers.

Still 1962. Assembling a top secret advisory Executive Committee, led by his brother Bobby, Jack kept to his schedule but frequently met with them.

Option 1, urged by military extremists: air strikes to bomb the sites. But air strikes invite retaliation, might provoke nuclear war.

Option 2, urged by moderates: blockade Cuba, stop and search approaching Russian ships. But blockade is an act of war; better call it “quarantine.”

Option 3, which Jack secretly used, covert diplomacy. Jack sent Bobby to negotiate with the Soviet ambassador and a Soviet secret agent close to Khrushchev: Russia to remove its Cuba missiles in exchange for Pres. Kennedy’s promise not to invade Cuba and later quietly to remove U.S. missiles from Turkey. Khrushchev removed the missiles, Moscow-Washington, DC hotline was installed. Jack, relieved, said: thank God for Bobby.

1963, Nov. 22: Dallas, Texas. Jack, accompanied by Jackie, went to Texas to heal a liberal-conservative split among Texas Democrats whose votes he needed for his second term election. Politicians visiting volatile Texas had recently been roughed up. “We’re headed for nut country,” Jack told Jackie.

Despite some heckling signs, Jack was well received in San Antonio, Houston, Fort Worth. In Dallas, driving in an open limousine through cheering crowds, Democratic Gov. John Connally’s (1917-93) wife Nellie, sitting in the front seat with her husband looked back, said to Jack: Mr. President, you can’t say that Dallas doesn’t love you.

The limo slowed down in Dealey Plaza past the Texas Book Depository. Crack. A bullet entered the back of Jack’s neck, exiting his Adam’s apple, into Connally. Jack, his hands to his throat, slumped. Two more shots, the last one took off part of his skull and brains. Dead at Parkland Hospital. A stunned nation. The world mourned.

1963-68: Numbed by Jack’s assassination, Bobby Kennedy wrestled with his faith, was heard to cry, Why, God? Why? He cared for widowed Jackie and her two children; oversaw Jack’s funeral; left the Lyndon Johnson (1908-73) administration; was elected U.S. Senator from NY in 1964; in early 1968 ran for the Democratic presidential nomination.

The evening after winning the California primary, he thanked followers in Los Angeles Ambassador Hotel, exited with a crowd through the hotel kitchen. Shots were fired. Bobby died.

The adoration thrust upon him, Bobby knew, was really for martyred Jack. Yet Bobby’s touch was magical too. His was an unfulfilled promise. Had he lived, won the presidency, there would have been no Nixon, no Watergate, a likely Vietnam resolution, a better U.S. and world.

1968-present: Lastly there’s Ted. Jack, before winning the U.S. presidency had the Massachusetts governor appoint Jack’s Harvard roommate to his (Jack’s) senate seat. Ted, in 1962, at age 30, minimum age for a senator, ran for and won Jack’s seat. In 1980 Ted halfheartedly sought the Democratic presidential nomination. He lost to Pres. Jimmy Carter. Abandoning presidential hopes, Ted, already a successful senator, focused on human rights and health legislation. His brain cancer evoked much sympathy and admiration. Even Republican John McCain called him “the last lion.”

Now, some brief conclusions. Joe Sr. looms large because he, with Rose’s help, directed the children’s lives, made it all possible. The sons always asked themselves: what would Dad want me to do? Betty, how would you characterize the Kennedy brothers?

Founding father Joe drove his sons toward high achievement. What Joe Jr. would have become and done we don’t know. Jack, who carried on Joe Jr.’s political drive, was the most visionary, achieved the most in his short time as president. Bobby, the most sensitive, absorbed the best from Jack.

Ted, the muddled youngster, grew the most, redeemed himself by long service to the mass of have-nots. Jack’s, Bobby’s, Ted’s virtues and contributions outshone their many faults and misdemeanors. They helped overcome the sins of the father. Frank, what did we learn in this study of the Kennedys of Massachusetts?

That good often comes from bad. That robber baron Joe Sr. was a taker, his sons became givers, healers. We learned about Wall Street shenanigans; about the 1930s Great Depression; how fascist dictators provoked WW II, that isolationism is self defeating in an interconnected world; about the Cold War, about nuclear threat; about Jack and Bobby (did they herald the explosive 1960s?); about Ted, a sinner becoming noble through his long crusade to uplift the have-nots.
It has been a good study to do—with you.

And I with you (shake hands). Thank you for being here. END.

Books Read for this Paper

Clymer, Adam. Edward M. Kennedy: a Biography. NY: William Morrow & Co., 1999.

Collier, Peter and David Horowitz, The Kennedys: An American Drama. NY: Summit Books, 1984. (Detailed, very good).

Dallek, Robert. An Unfinished Life: John F. Kennedy, 1917-1963. Waterville, ME: Thorndike Press, 2003. (Deservedly ranked high by critics)

Douglass, James W. JFK and the Unspeakable: Why he Died and Why It Matters. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2008. (Influenced by Thomas Merton, Catholic theologian author’s strong conspiracy scenario says JFK was killed by a powerful cabal of war profiteers because Cold War Warrior JFK changed to peacemaker as U.S. president and in a second term would have curtailed U.S. war profiteer influence).

Goodwin, Doris Kearns. The Fitzgeralds and the Kennedys. NY: Simon & Schuster, 1987. (Excellent, readable, original sources; author of much praised Team of Rivals, on Lincoln’s cabinet).

Goodwin, Richard N. Remembering America: A Voice From the Sixties. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1988. (JFK’s intimate, staff member, writer on Latin Americans; husband of historian Doris Kearns Goodwin).

Harrison, Barbara and Daniel Terris. A Twilight Struggle: The Life of John Fitzgerald Kennedy. NY: Lothrop, Lee &Shepard Books, 1992. (Authors were researchers on Home Box Office documentary, “JFK In His Own Words”).

Hersh, Seymour M. The Dark Side of Camelot. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1997. (Critical of the heroic caste placed on the Kennedys).

Johnson, Chalmers. Nemesis: The Last Days of the American Republic. NY: Henry Holt, 2006, p. 96. (Insights into U.S. imperial treatment of Castro’s Cuba, Eisenhower, JFK eras).

Kennedy, Joseph P., Sr. Hostage to Fortune: The Letters of Joseph P. Kennedy. Amadanda Smith, Ed. NY: Viking, 2001. (Shows patriarch’s warmer family side).

Kennedy, Robert F. Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis; With Introductions by Robert S. McNamara and Harold Macmillan. NY: Franklin Watts, 1969. (Day-by-day account by key player, with related documents).

Kessler, Ronald. Sins of the Father: Joseph P. Kennedy and the Dynasty He Founded. NY: Warner Books, 1996. (Most “tell all” critic of patriarch Joseph P. Kennedy by Boston Herald’s 20+-year police reporter, investigative reporter, and editorial writer; interviewed many Kennedy intimates).
Koskoff, David E. Joseph P. Kennedy: A Life and Times. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1974. (Good solid work).

Krock, Arthur. Memoirs: Sixty Years on the Firing Line. NY: Funk &Wagnalls, 1968. (Influential New York Times journalist and head of its Washington News Bureau, who was on Joe Sr.’s pay roll to make the Kennedys look good. Like Joe Sr’s other intimates he was dropped when he fell out of favor).

Leamers, Laurence. The Kennedy Men, 1901-1963, the Laws of the Father. NY: HarperCollins, 2001. (Good account of the male Kennedys).

Lifton, Robert Jay, and Richard Falk. Indefensible Weapons: The Political and Psychological Case Against Nuclearism. NY: Basic Books, 1982. (Chap. 17, pp. , 228f, brief insightful 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis account shows how close Khrushchev-JFK came to WW III, pressured less over defense of national territory, reacting more from home critics; Khrushchev by military-political critics for allowing U.S.-anti-Communist advances; JFK by Republicans in a Congressional election year for weak foreign policy and bungling efforts to eliminate Castro. Good on JFK’s secret back door diplomacy with Khrushchev and Khrushchev’s accepting the humility of removing the missiles).

Maier, Thomas. The Kennedys: America’s Emerald Kings. NY: Basic Books, 2003. (Considerable details on the Kennedys; best on Kennedys’ Irish origins and connections).

Manchester, William. Remembering Kennedy: One Brief Shining Moment. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1983. (Jackie frowned on parts of this book).

Perret, Geoffrey. Jack: A Life Like No Other. NY: Random House, 2001. (Useful).

Shaw, Mark. The John F. Kennedys.: A Family Album. NY: Farrar, Straus, 1964. (Photo rich).

Smith, Sally Bedell Smith. Grace and Power: The Private World of The Kennedy White House. NY: Random House, 2004. (Having both a rake-like father and husband, Jacqueline Kennedy—though hurt– loved, understood, forgave both; JFK steadily learned how wonderfully valuable Jackie was in his career).

Sommer, Shelley. John F. Kennedy: His Life and Legacy. NY: HarperCollins, 2005. (Introduction by JFK’s daughter Caroline Kennedy cites his early reading of great lives with leading him to leadership to improve people’s lives. Author worked 14 years with younger visitors at John F. Kennedy Library and Museum, Boston).

Taubman, William. Khrushchev: The Man and His Era. NY: W.W. Norton & Co, 2003 (See Index for Bay of Pigs; Berlin Crisis; Central Intelligence Agency; Cuba Missile Crisis; Kennedy, John F.; related topics).

Thomas, Evan. Robert Kennedy: His Life. NY: Simon & Schuster, 2000. (Excellent, balanced).

Thompson, Robert E. and Hortense Myers, Robert F. Kennedy: The Brother Within. NY: Macmillan Co., 1962. (Early account which did not have access to Bobby Kennedy’s papers).

Internet Sources for Kennedys of Massachusetts

1. Over 500,000 entries: http://www.google.com/search?client=safari&rls=en&q=Kennedy+family+of+Massachusetts&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8

2. John F. Kennedy (1917-63) Photos: Part One: The Early Years: Source: http://www.historyplace.com/kennedy/early.htm

3. Bay of Pigs, April 17, 1961: Sources: http://library.thinkquest.org/11046/days/bay_of_pigs.html
and: http://library.thinkquest.org/11046/days/references.html
and: http://www.ucs.mun.ca/~mhunter/ pigs.htm

4. Miller Center on JFK and related topics: http://millercenter.org/academic/americanpresident/kennedy/essays/biography/print

5. Articles on JFK by Robert Dallek, author of An Unfinished Life: John F. Kennedy, 1917-1963. Waterville, ME: Thorndike Press, 2003, especially good on JFK’s illnesses:
Source: http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/by/robert_dallek

6. Over 100 articles on the the Kennedy family: Source: http://search.americanheritage.com/search?q=Kennedy+family+of+Massachusetts&
ie=utf8&site=AH&output=xml_no_dtd&client=AH&lr=&proxystylesheet=AH&oe=utf8&g
etfields=author.title.pubdate.pubname.section.category&requiredfields=&searc
h=Search

7. Time Line of Kennedy family of Massachusetts: http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&client=safari&rls=en&q=Time+Line%2C+Kennedy+family+of+Massachusetts&btnG=Search&aq=f&oq=&aqi=

About the Authors: For authors’ bio-sketch and to access their many articles in blog form type in google.com (or other search engine) Franklin Parker or Franklin & Betty J. Parker or bfparker@frontiernet.net



As of June 25, 2009, we plan additional spin-off blogs on each prominent Kennedy family member, interesting details the 45 minute limited talk time for the above did not allow. Stay tuned. Look for more of our forthcoming Kennedy-related blogs.

End of Manuscript. Comments, corrections: bfparker@frontiernet.net
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